WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology benefit estimator

  1. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  2. Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST): User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib

    1994-01-01

    The Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST) system is a formal method to assess advanced technologies and quantify the benefit contributions for prioritization. T/BEST may be used to provide guidelines to identify and prioritize high payoff research areas, help manage research and limited resources, show the link between advanced concepts and the bottom line, i.e., accrued benefit and value, and to communicate credibly the benefits of research. The T/BEST software computer program is specifically designed to estimating benefits, and benefit sensitivities, of introducing new technologies into existing propulsion systems. Key engine cycle, structural, fluid, mission and cost analysis modules are used to provide a framework for interfacing with advanced technologies. An open-ended, modular approach is used to allow for modification and addition of both key and advanced technology modules. T/BEST has a hierarchical framework that yields varying levels of benefit estimation accuracy that are dependent on the degree of input detail available. This hierarchical feature permits rapid estimation of technology benefits even when the technology is at the conceptual stage. As knowledge of the technology details increases the accuracy of the benefit analysis increases. Included in T/BEST's framework are correlations developed from a statistical data base that is relied upon if there is insufficient information given in a particular area, e.g., fuel capacity or aircraft landing weight. Statistical predictions are not required if these data are specified in the mission requirements. The engine cycle, structural fluid, cost, noise, and emissions analyses interact with the default or user material and component libraries to yield estimates of specific global benefits: range, speed, thrust, capacity, component life, noise, emissions, specific fuel consumption, component and engine weights, pre-certification test, mission performance engine cost, direct operating cost, life cycle cost

  3. Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST): User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib

    1994-12-01

    The Technology Benefit Estimator (T/BEST) system is a formal method to assess advanced technologies and quantify the benefit contributions for prioritization. T/BEST may be used to provide guidelines to identify and prioritize high payoff research areas, help manage research and limited resources, show the link between advanced concepts and the bottom line, i.e., accrued benefit and value, and to communicate credibly the benefits of research. The T/BEST software computer program is specifically designed to estimating benefits, and benefit sensitivities, of introducing new technologies into existing propulsion systems. Key engine cycle, structural, fluid, mission and cost analysis modules are used to provide a framework for interfacing with advanced technologies. An open-ended, modular approach is used to allow for modification and addition of both key and advanced technology modules. T/BEST has a hierarchical framework that yields varying levels of benefit estimation accuracy that are dependent on the degree of input detail available. This hierarchical feature permits rapid estimation of technology benefits even when the technology is at the conceptual stage. As knowledge of the technology details increases the accuracy of the benefit analysis increases. Included in T/BEST's framework are correlations developed from a statistical data base that is relied upon if there is insufficient information given in a particular area, e.g., fuel capacity or aircraft landing weight. Statistical predictions are not required if these data are specified in the mission requirements. The engine cycle, structural fluid, cost, noise, and emissions analyses interact with the default or user material and component libraries to yield estimates of specific global benefits: range, speed, thrust, capacity, component life, noise, emissions, specific fuel consumption, component and engine weights, pre-certification test, mission performance engine cost, direct operating cost, life cycle cost

  4. Estimation of benefits from demonstrating advanced wet/dry cooling technology: a framework and partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, J.W.; Foley, T.J.

    1977-09-01

    An analysis was performed to estimate reductions in future electric power generation costs expected to occur through a proposed 6- to 10-MWe demonstration of an ammonia (NH/sub 3/) cooling concept. Theoretical and empirical research on technological substitution and diffusion were reviewed in developing the analytical framework and computer model used in this analysis. Stochastic learning and market penetration functions were used to derive benefit distributions for two primary scenarios. The distributions provide not only single best estimates of the benefits, but measures of the uncertainty surrounding the estimates as well. The benefits were estimated by subtracting the net present value of expected future cooling costs if no demonstration were to take place from the net present value of expected future cooling costs if the demonstration did take place. If the public demonstration does not occur, two scenarios were hypothesized: ammonia cooling will never be commercialized; and ammonia cooling will be commercialized at a later date than if the demonstration had occurred. The analysis suggests that the benefits from a public investment in demonstration would probably exceed the estimated $10 million project cost.

  5. Appendix F: FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  6. Appendix G: Building Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  7. Appendix B: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  8. Appendix H: Industrial Technologies Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  9. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  10. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  12. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  13. Benefits Realization from Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashurst, Dr Colin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the author's recent and ongoing research this book explores how to build the organizational capability to realise the strategic potential of information technology. It tackles the gap between theory and practice and how to gain wider adoption of successful socio-technical and benefits-driven approaches to investments in IT.

  14. NASA Technologies that Benefit Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Applications developed on Earth of technology needed for space flight have produced thousands of spinoffs that contribute to improving national security, the economy, productivity and lifestyle. Over the course of it s history, NASA has nurtured partnerships with the private sector to facilitate the transfer of NASA-developed technology. For every dollar spent on research and development in the space program, it receives back $7 back in the form of corporate and personal income taxes from increased jobs and economic growth. A new technology, known as Liquid-metal alloy, is the result of a project funded by NASA s Jet Propulsion Lab. The unique technology is a blend of titanium, zirconium, nickel, copper and beryllium that achieves a strength greater than titanium. NASA plans to use this metal in the construction of a drill that will help for the search of water beneath the surface of Mars. Many other applications include opportunities in aerospace, defense, military, automotive, medical instrumentation and sporting goods.Developed in the 1980 s, the original Sun Tigers Inc sunlight-filtering lens has withstood the test of time. This technology was first reported in 1987 by NASA s JPL. Two scientists from JPL were later tasked with studying the harmful effects of radiation produced during laser and welding work. They came up with a transparent welding curtain that absorbs, filters and scatters light to maximize protection of human eyes. The two scientists then began doing business as Eagle Eye Optics. Each pair of sunglasses comes complete with ultraviolet protection, dual layer scratch resistant coating, polarized filters for maximum protection against glare and high visual clarity. Sufficient evidence shows that damage to the eye, especially to the retina, starts much earlier than most people realize. Sun filtering sunglasses are important. Winglets seen at the tips of airplane wings are among aviations most visible fuel-saving, performance enhancing technology

  15. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.; Sivo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the implications and problems associated with the use of cost-benefit techniques is presented. Knowledge of these problems is useful in the structure of a decision making process. A methodology of cost-benefit analysis is presented for the evaluation of space technology. The use of the methodology is demonstrated with an evaluation of ion thrusters for north-south stationkeeping aboard geosynchronous communication satellites. A critique of the concept of consumers surplus for measuring benefits is also presented.

  17. 29 CFR 4022.62 - Estimated guaranteed benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated guaranteed benefit. 4022.62 Section 4022.62 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.62 Estimated guaranteed benefit. (a) General. The estimated guaranteed benefit payable with respect to each...

  18. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  19. Estimation of Social Benefits in Cost-benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Fodor

    2012-01-01

    While examining the cost-benefit analysis related to public policy decisions in the Hungarian and international literature, this paper is looking for the answer to the question of what the methodological principles are according to which the benefit impacts can be determined. The processed Hungarian and English-language studies indicate that the theoretical-methodological questions of the determination of benefit impacts are not clear cut. The author has constructed a model that contains the ...

  20. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated... administrator shall determine each participant's estimated title IV benefit. The estimated title IV...

  1. Appendix C: Biomass Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  2. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  3. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  4. Costs and benefits of health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekelle, Paul G; Morton, Sally C; Keeler, Emmett B

    2006-04-01

    An evidence report was prepared to assess the evidence base regarding benefits and costs of health information technology (HIT) systems, that is, the value of discrete HIT functions and systems in various healthcare settings, particularly those providing pediatric care. PubMed, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) were electronically searched for articles published since 1995. Several reports prepared by private industry were also reviewed. Of 855 studies screened, 256 were included in the final analyses. These included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, studies that tested a hypothesis, and predictive analyses. Each article was reviewed independently by two reviewers; disagreement was resolved by consensus. Of the 256 studies, 156 concerned decision support, 84 assessed the electronic medical record, and 30 were about computerized physician order entry (categories are not mutually exclusive). One hundred twenty four of the studies assessed the effect of the HIT system in the outpatient or ambulatory setting; 82 assessed its use in the hospital or inpatient setting. Ninety-seven studies used a randomized design. There were 11 other controlled clinical trials, 33 studies using a pre-post design, and 20 studies using a time series. Another 17 were case studies with a concurrent control. Of the 211 hypothesis-testing studies, 82 contained at least some cost data. We identified no study or collection of studies, outside of those from a handful of HIT leaders, that would allow a reader to make a determination about the generalizable knowledge of the study's reported benefit. Beside these studies from HIT leaders, no other research assessed HIT systems that had comprehensive functionality and included data on costs, relevant information on organizational context and process change, and data on implementation. A small body of literature supports a role for HIT in improving the quality of pediatric

  5. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  6. UK businesses benefit from CERN technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Hill, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    At CERN, there are many examples of technologies becoming commercially useful. CERN technologies are of value to industry because particle physics experiments demand ever-higher levels of technical performance (1/2 page)

  7. The United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology`s Technology Benefits Recording System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, K.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology`s (OIT`s) Technology Benefits Recording System (TBRS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The TBRS is used to organize and maintain records of the benefits accrued from the use of technologies developed with the assistance of OIT. OIT has had a sustained emphasis on technology deployment. While individual program managers have specific technology deployment goals for each of their ongoing programs, the Office has also established a separate Technology Deployment Division whose mission is to assist program managers and research and development partners commercialize technologies. As part of this effort, the Technology Deployment Division developed an energy-tracking task which has been performed by PNL since 1977. The goal of the energy-tracking task is to accurately assess the energy savings impact of OIT-developed technologies. In previous years, information on OIT-sponsored technologies existed in a variety of forms--first as a hardcopy, then electronically in several spreadsheet formats that existed in multiple software programs. The TBRS was created in 1993 for OIT and was based on information collected in all previous years from numerous industrial contacts, vendors, and plants that have installed OIT-sponsored technologies. The TBRS contains information on technologies commercialized between 1977 and the present, as well as information on emerging technologies in the late development/early commercialization stage of the technology life cycle. For each technology, details on the number of units sold and the energy saved are available on a year-by-year basis. Information regarding environmental benefits, productivity and competitiveness benefits, or impact that the technology may have had on employment is also available.

  8. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.

  9. Costs and Benefits of Advanced Aeronautical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Denny, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Programs available from COSMIC used to evaluate economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to civil aircraft of future. Programs are composed of three major models: Fleet Accounting Module, Airframe manufacturer Module, and Air Carrier Module.

  10. Remote Working Technologies, Benefits and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Gurjit

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: "More and more . . . work is becoming something you do, not a place you go to." - Woody Leonhard, The Underground Guide to Telecommuting (1995). Many organisations now have Remote Working initiatives, not just the large multi-nationals, but increasingly small and medium enterprises as well. There are many benefits of Remote Working which firms can exploit to increase performance such as cost savings, work-life balance, increased productivity, reduced absenteeism, loyalty, re...

  11. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  12. Quantitative Estimates of the Social Benefits of Learning, 1: Crime. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Leon

    The cost benefits of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom were estimated, based on quantitative evidence. Between 1975-1996, 43 police force areas in England and Wales were studied to determine the effect of wages on crime. It was found that a 10 percent rise in the average pay of those on low pay reduces the overall area property crime rate by…

  13. Analyzing paired diagnostic studies by estimating the expected benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

    2015-01-01

    When the efficacy of a new medical drug is compared against that of an established competitor in a randomized controlled trial, the difference in patient-relevant outcomes, such as mortality, is usually measured directly. In diagnostic research, however, the impact of diagnostic procedures is of ......, using data from a previously published study, we illustrate the possible insights to be gained from the application of formal inference techniques to determine the expected benefit....... as a means of obtaining formal approaches. Recently, the expected benefit has been proposed as a quantity that allows a simple formal approach, and we take up this suggestion in this paper. We regard the expected benefit as an estimation problem and consider two approaches to statistical inference. Moreover...

  14. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  15. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Approved for Distribution: Andrew Solow , Director Marine Policy Center Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems Report to...models that produce "nowcasts" or forecasts. See R. Adams, M. Brown, C. Colgan, N. Flemming, H. Kite-Powell, B. McCarl, J. Mjelde, A. Solow , T...like to acknowledge helpful discussions held with the following personnel: Ken Schaudt, Marathon; Norman Guinasso, Jr., Texas A&M University; Robert

  16. CNPC Benefited from Technological Innovation and Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bingyi

    2001-01-01

    @@ With practice for several decades,CNPC has developed a complete set of continental petroleum theories in line with China's geological characteristics as well as global marine hydrocarbon generation theoretical system.Those theories include classification of oil areas and basins, compound oil and gas accumulation theory, low mature oil theory and hydrocarbon generation of coal and coal stratum series, leading to recent discoveries of Kala-2 and Sulige giant gas fields in addition to large oil fields such as Daqing, Liaohe, Xinjiang and Huabei. In the field petrochemical industry, CNPC has catalytic hydrogeneration technique,ethylene cracking technique,propylene technique and some high value-added refining products.More than 100 items of technology from CNPC are patented each year.

  17. Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.; Schennach, Susanne M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates and estimates multistage production functions for children's cognitive and noncognitive skills. Skills are determined by parental environments and investments at different stages of childhood. We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. We establish nonparametric identfication of a general class of production technolog...

  18. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  19. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  20. On the Benefit of Using Mobile Technologies in Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Deibert, Sina; Rothlauf, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The rapid technical progress in the development of mobile devices and technologies offers new possibilities for improving and streamlining the performance of business processes. However, only few successful mobile applications exist in the business area. This paper discusses the benefits an enterprise can gain by using mobile technologies in business processes. It presents general indicators to measure the performance of business processes and shows how these indicators must be adapted to be ...

  1. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  2. How Does Educational Technology Benefit Humanity? Five Years of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a review of the 25 finalists (Laureates) in the Education category of the Technology Benefiting Humanity Awards, which started in 2001. Most of the applicants can be considered social entrepreneurs working to improve educational systems and the learning opportunities and experiences of their intended beneficiaries. While the…

  3. Mobile Technology: Students Perceived Benefits of Apps for Learning Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N.P.; Lambe, J.; Ciccone, J.; Swinnerton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Technology-enhanced learning is expanding rapidly because of research showing the benefits for learners in terms of engagement, convenience, attainment and enjoyment. Mobile learning approaches are also gaining in popularity, particularly during practical classes and clinical settings. However, there are few systematic studies evaluating the…

  4. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  5. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  6. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the impact of introduction of new technology framework in supply chain management in order to accomplish business process transformation, based on previous work directed on the effects of introduction and development of information and communication technology in optimization distribution processes. There have been revealed the main problems which represent the origins for different results obtained by companies in implementing same systems, starting from defining objectives, failures in leading people through change, software incompatibility problems. The paper presents a series of causes for failures in implementation and deployment of information technology in supply chain management, explaining why the anticipated performance improvements and financial benefits from technology investments are not reached.

  7. Computer technology in oil refining: cost or benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B. (KBC Process Technology (GB))

    1990-04-01

    There is undoubtedly a commitment in the oil refining industry to computerise wherever possible, and to develop advanced mathematical modelling techniques to improved profitability. However, many oil refiners are now asking themselves whether computer solutions are a cost, or are truly a benefit to their organisation. Problems have been caused by distributed computing running out of control in many organisations. This has been partly brought to reign recently, by advanced networking of PCs along with mainframe facilities, and development of management information systems with common data bases for all users to build their applications on. Implementation of information technology strategies helped many refiners to plan the way ahead for the future. The use of computers across the refining sector in the current marketplace is reviewed. The conclusion drawn is that although computer technology is a cost it can also be ranked as a significant benefit and success in the refining industry at present. (author).

  8. Advanced Formulation Technology and its benefits for Clomazone containing herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennens, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clomazone is an important compound for effective weed control in winter oilseed rape and spring crops as potatoes and vegetables. Both when applied solo and as a complementary partner to other active ingredients, clomazone offers good and reliable control on a range of key weed species and crop safety. Its unique mode of action brings valuable contribution to anti-resistance weed management strategies. Clomazone effects on susceptible weed species are the typical bleaching symptoms. FMC developed and patented a unique CS microencapsulation technology for clomazone formulations. This technology as used in Centium 36 CS maintains efficacy and crop safety and reduces the risk of potential damage to non-target plants. In addition FMC introduces two novel formulation platforms, Synchronized Technology (SYNCTEC and Dual Active Matrix Technology (DAMTEC. Synchronized Technology (SYNCTEC means co-microencapsulation of multiple active ingredients and synchronized delivery to the target after application, hence making the different herbicides available at their optimal timing. Dual Active Matrix Technology (DAMTEC combines a microencapsulated active ingredient with a second active ingredient in granular form. Both proprietary technologies are specifically designed for co-formulated products and preserve the unique properties of the different active ingredients and all benefits from the CS microencapsulation system including control of volatility and high efficacy performance.

  9. Geothermal wells: the cost benefit of fracture stimulation estimated by the GEOCOM code. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    GEOCOM, a computer code that provides life cycle cost/benefit analysis of completion technologies applied to geothermal wells, is used to study fracture stimulation techniques. it is estimated that stimulation must increase flow by roughly tons per $100,000 in order to be cost effective. Typically, hydraulic fracturing costs $100,000 to $500,000 per well, and the attempts at stimulation to date have generally not achieved the desired flow increases. The cost effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing is considered for several geothermal reservoirs.

  10. A method for the analysis of the benefits and costs for aeronautical research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Hoy, H. H.; Anderson, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple, consistent, and reasonable methodology for performing cost-benefit analyses which can be used to guide, justify, and explain investments in aeronautical research and technology is presented. The elements of this methodology (labeled ABC-ART for the Analysis of the Benefits and Costs of Aeronautical Research and Technology) include estimation of aircraft markets; manufacturer costs and return on investment versus aircraft price; airline costs and return on investment versus aircraft price and passenger yield; and potential system benefits--fuel savings, cost savings, and noise reduction. The application of this methodology is explained using the introduction of an advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft in the medium range market in 1978 as an example.

  11. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

  12. Appendix J: Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  13. Chapter 1: Estimating prospective benefits of EERE's portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  14. Appendix A: GPRA08 benefits estimates: NEMS and MARKAL Model Baseline Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  15. Developing models to estimate the benefits from flood warnings

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Dennis J.; Priest, Sally J.; Schildt, Anne; Handmer, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Flood forecasting and warning systems have a significant role to play within integrated flood risk management, either in combination with mobile structural flood defences or as part of an approach which combines a number of non-structural measures. In theory the benefits of flood warnings, in terms of community security, protection of life and flood damage reduction, should be large. The theoretical benefit potential is being driven upwards by important advances in the predictive sciences, an...

  16. Benefits to the United States of Increasing Global Uptake of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    A previous report describes an opportunity for the United States to take leadership in efforts to transform the global energy system toward clean energy technologies (CET). An accompanying analysis to that report provides estimates of the economic benefits to the United States of such a global transformation on the order of several hundred billion dollars per year by 2050. This report describes the methods and assumptions used in developing those benefit estimates. It begins with a summary of the results of the analysis based on an updated and refined model completed since the publication of the previous report. The framework described can be used to estimate the economic benefits to the U.S. of coordinated global action to increase the uptake of CETs worldwide. Together with a Monte Carlo simulation engine, the framework can be used to develop plausible ranges for benefits, taking into account the large uncertainty in the driving variables and economic parameters. The resulting estimates illustrate that larger global clean energy markets offer significant opportunities to the United States economy.

  17. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  18. Using Estimated On-Site Ambient Temperature Has Uncertain Benefit When Estimating Postmortem Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dourel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The forensic entomologist uses weather station data as part of the calculation when estimating the postmortem interval (PMI. To reduce the potential inaccuracies of this method caused by the distance between the crime scene and the meteorological station, temperature correlation data from the site of the corpse may be used. This experiment simulated the impact of retrospective weather data correction using linear regression between seven stations and sites in three climatic exposure groups during three different seasons as part of the accumulated degree days calculation for three necrophagous species (Diptera: Calliphoridae. No consistent benefit in the use of correlation or the original data from the meteorological stations was observed. In nine cases out of 12, the data from the weather station network limited the risk of a deviation from reality. The forensic entomologist should be cautious when using this correlation model.

  19. Technology and the issue of cost/benefit in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Cosimo; Mohn, Angelika; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease in childhood and adolescence. Type 1 diabetes accounts for over 90% of diabetes in children. During the past decades, epidemiological studies have clearly shown a worldwide increase in the incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in many countries. The worldwide incidence of diabetes and especially the diabetes-related complications highlight the relevant economic burden of this disease. In fact, its costs affect health services, national productivity as well as individuals and families. Hospital in-patient costs for the treatment of complications are the largest single contributor to direct healthcare costs. Anyway, many of these complications and, therefore, their costs, as well as most of the indirect costs, are partially or completely preventable. In fact, intensive therapy, directed at controlling blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, has been shown to be cost effective in that, although initial costs are high, longer term costs decrease as a result of delayed or prevented complications. From this point of view, technological advances have provided new therapeutic options to achieve metabolic control as close to normal as possible in children and adolescents with diabetes. In fact, the relevant technological devices that have been adopted till now, if adequately utilized, should allow patients to achieve intensive management with improved metabolic control, quality of life as well as reduced mortality and morbidity. However, new technologies are not a panacea, and the benefit they provide can be completely achieved only if adequately and especially individually determined. Furthermore, it is inevitable that new modalities of treatment for people with diabetes will be considered critically by healthcare planners and providers in the prevailing global environment of increasing costs of medical care and pressure for rational allocation of resources. Therefore, new technologically derived devices

  20. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  1. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swift, Gregory William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glover, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  2. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  3. Estimation of health benefits from a local living wage ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R; Katz, M

    2001-09-01

    This study estimated the magnitude of health improvements resulting from a proposed living wage ordinance in San Francisco. Published observational models of the relationship of income to health were applied to predict improvements in health outcomes associated with proposed wage increases in San Francisco. With adoption of a living wage of $11.00 per hour, we predict decreases in premature death from all causes for adults aged 24 to 44 years working full-time in families whose current annual income is $20,000 (for men, relative hazard [RH] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92, 0.97; for women, RH = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.98). Improvements in subjectively rated health and reductions in the number of days sick in bed, in limitations of work and activities of daily living, and in depressive symptoms were also predicted, as were increases in daily alcohol consumption. For the offspring of full-time workers currently earning $20,000, a living wage predicts an increase of 0.25 years (95% CI = 0.20, 0.30) of completed education, increased odds of completing high school (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.49), and a reduced risk of early childbirth (RH = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.86). A living wage in San Francisco is associated with substantial health improvement.

  4. 78 FR 38999 - Recreational Boating-Estimating Benefits of Reducing Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Boating--Estimating Benefits of Reducing Injuries AGENCY: Coast Guard... Boating Injuries: Alternative Sources of Information on Fatalities, Injuries, and ] Property Damages... Reducing Recreational Boating Injuries: Alternative Sources of Information on Fatalities, Injuries, and...

  5. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  6. Cost and Benefit of Control Strategies - Estimation of Benefit functions, enforcement-probability function and enforcement-cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

      Within the EU Sixth Framework Programme an ongoing research project, COBECOS, has developed a theory of enforcement and a software code for computer modeling of different fisheries with fisheries enforcement cases. The case of the Danish fishery for Nephrops faces problems with landings...... on fishery enforcement from the COBECOS project to a specific case. It is done by estimations of functional relationships' for describing 1) the fisheries benefit function 2) the shadow value of biomass 3) the connection between the probability of being detected and apprehended for different enforcement...

  7. Engaging with residents' perceived risks and benefits about technologies as a way of resolving remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that

  8. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  9. The Elusive Benefits of the Technological Support of Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagin, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the application of technological tools to knowledge management and the difficulties and developments in the technological support of knowledge management. Hopes to capture the tacit knowledge of experienced organizational members, make it more explicit in the form of simulation scenarios, and to turn it into tacit knowledge for trainees…

  10. Modelling Benefits-Oriented Costs for Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of technology enhanced learning (TEL) methods changes the deployment of the most important resource in the education system: teachers' and learners' time. New technology promises greater personalization and greater productivity, but without careful modeling of the effects on the use of staff time, TEL methods can easily increase…

  11. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  12. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  13. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  14. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  15. Intellectual Property Issues: Technology Licensing--Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Thomas; Schmied, Helwig

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of patent policies of universities in France, Great Britain, Germany, and the United States suggests that, although U.S. institutions' policies are far better developed, the European universities are capable of the same success, even within existing administrative frameworks. Economic, scientific, and national development benefits are…

  16. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Verkade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS. These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed events. This forecasting uncertainty decreases the potential reduction of flood risk, but is seldom accounted for in estimates of the benefits of FFWRSs. In the present paper, a method to estimate the benefits of (imperfect FFWRSs in reducing flood risk is presented. The method is based on a hydro-economic model of expected annual damage (EAD due to flooding, combined with the concept of Relative Economic Value (REV. The estimated benefits include not only the reduction of flood losses due to a warning response, but also consider the costs of the warning response itself, as well as the costs associated with forecasting uncertainty. The method allows for estimation of the benefits of FFWRSs that use either deterministic or probabilistic forecasts. Through application to a case study, it is shown that FFWRSs using a probabilistic forecast have the potential to realise higher benefits at all lead-times. However, it is also shown that provision of warning at increasing lead-time does not necessarily lead to an increasing reduction of flood risk, but rather that an optimal lead-time at which warnings are provided can be established as a function of forecast uncertainty and the cost-loss ratio of the user receiving and responding to the warning.

  17. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  18. Estimating the Energy Consumption of Emerging Random Access Memory Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a model for estimating the energy consumption of different types ofrandom access memory(RAM) technologies, likely to be commercially available by2017, has been developed. The goal for this model has been to evaluate whichof the memory technologies that will be the most energy efficient in 2017. Thiswas done by building the model on the required energies to read or write a bit forthe different technologies. The memory technologies that have been modelled are:Dynamic RAM (DRAM), S...

  19. Benefits and Financial Impacts of Adopting Technology in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenman, Katri; Isomursu, Minna; Federley, Maija; Seisto, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an analysis of the impacts of adopting information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a learning context. The analysis is based on a literature survey of articles reporting research cases studying the impact of adopting ICT based solutions in various learning contexts. The subject has been reviewed…

  20. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effec

  1. Estimating the benefits of public health policies that reduce harmful consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Elizabeth M; Nardinelli, Clark; Lavaty, Rosemarie A

    2015-05-01

    For products such as tobacco and junk food, where policy interventions are often designed to decrease consumption, affected consumers gain utility from improvements in lifetime health and longevity but also lose utility associated with the activity of consuming the product. In the case of anti-smoking policies, even though published estimates of gross health and longevity benefits are up to 900 times higher than the net consumer benefits suggested by a more direct willingness-to-pay estimation approach, there is little recognition in the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness literature that gross estimates will overstate intrapersonal welfare improvements when utility losses are not netted out. This paper presents a general framework for analyzing policies that are designed to reduce inefficiently high consumption and provides a rule of thumb for the relationship between net and gross consumer welfare effects: where there exists a plausible estimate of the tax that would allow consumers to fully internalize health costs, the ratio of the tax to the per-unit long-term cost can provide an upper bound on the ratio of net to gross benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. A partial budget model to estimate economic benefits of Lactational treatment of subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2005-01-01

    linical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of ant

  3. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  4. Adoption of waste minimization technology to benefit electroplaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, E.M.K.; Li, C.P.H.; Yu, C.M.K. [Hong Kong Productivity Council, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation and enhanced environmental awareness, electroplaters in Hong Kong are paying more heed to protect the environment. To comply with the array of environmental controls, electroplaters can no longer rely solely on the end-of-pipe approach as a means for abating their pollution problems under the particular local industrial environment. The preferred approach is to adopt waste minimization measures that yield both economic and environmental benefits. This paper gives an overview of electroplating activities in Hong Kong, highlights their characteristics, and describes the pollution problems associated with conventional electroplating operations. The constraints of using pollution control measures to achieve regulatory compliance are also discussed. Examples and case studies are given on some low-cost waste minimization techniques readily available to electroplaters, including dragout minimization and water conservation techniques. Recommendations are given as to how electroplaters can adopt and exercise waste minimization techniques in their operations. 1 tab.

  5. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The materials technologies studied included thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils, turbine disks, cases, turbine vanes and engine and nacelle composite materials. The cost/benefit of each technology was determined in terms of Relative Value defined as change in return on investment times probability of success divided by development cost. A recommended final ranking of technologies was based primarily on consideration of Relative Values with secondary consideration given to changes in other economic parameters. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits were thermal barrier coated temperature nacelle/engine system composites.

  6. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT) projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business ca...

  7. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  8. Collective benefits in traffic during mega events via the use of information technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Information technologies today can inform each of us about the best alternatives for shortest paths from origins to destinations, but they do not contain incentives or alternatives that manage the information efficiently to get collective benefits. To obtain such benefits, we need to have not only good estimates of how the traffic is formed but also to have target strategies to reduce enough vehicles from the best possible roads in a feasible way. The opportunity is that during large events the traffic inconveniences in large cities are unusually high, yet temporary, and the entire population may be more willing to adopt collective recommendations for social good. In this paper, we integrate for the first time big data resources to quantify the impact of events and propose target strategies for collective good at urban scale. In the context of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, we first predict the expected increase in traffic. To that end, we integrate data from: mobile phones, Airbnb, Waze, and transit in...

  9. Estimating the Benefits of Government-Sponsored Energy R&D: Synthesis of Conference Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    2003-11-14

    In 2001, a National Research Council (NRC) committee conducted a retrospective study of the benefits of some of the energy efficiency and fossil energy programs in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As part of its study, the NRC committee developed a methodological framework for estimating these benefits. Following the NRC report, a conference was organized by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to discuss ways of adapting and refining the NRC framework for possible use by DOE offices to help plan and manage their R&D. This report is a synthesis of the discussions at the conference.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  11. Technology Estimating: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Reeves, John D.; Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Greenberg, Marc; Comstock, Doug; Olds, John R.; Wallace, Jon; DePasquale, Dominic; Schaffer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA is investing in new technologies that include 14 primary technology roadmap areas, and aeronautics. Understanding the cost for research and development of these technologies and the time it takes to increase the maturity of the technology is important to the support of the ongoing and future NASA missions. Overall, technology estimating may help provide guidance to technology investment strategies to help improve evaluation of technology affordability, and aid in decision support. The research provides a summary of the framework development of a Technology Estimating process where four technology roadmap areas were selected to be studied. The framework includes definition of terms, discussion for narrowing the focus from 14 NASA Technology Roadmap areas to four, and further refinement to include technologies, TRL range of 2 to 6. Included in this paper is a discussion to address the evaluation of 20 unique technology parameters that were initially identified, evaluated and then subsequently reduced for use in characterizing these technologies. A discussion of data acquisition effort and criteria established for data quality are provided. The findings obtained during the research included gaps identified, and a description of a spreadsheet-based estimating tool initiated as a part of the Technology Estimating process.

  12. Benefits from the U.S. photovoltaic manufacturing technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Thomas, H.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    This paper examines the goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project and its achievements in recapturing the investment by the photovoltaic (PV) industry and the public in this research. The PVMaT project was initiated in 1990 with the goal of enhancing the world-wide competitiveness of the U.S. PV industry. Based on the authors analysis, PVMaT has contributed to PV module manufacturing process improvements, increased product value, and reductions in the price of today`s PV products. An evaluation of success in this project was conducted using data collected from 10 of the PVMaT industrial participants in late fiscal year (FY) 1995. These data indicate a reduction of 56% in the weighted average module manufacturing costs from 1992 to 1996. During this same period, U.S. module manufacturing capacity has increased by more than a factor of 6. Finally, the analysis indicates that both the public and the manufacturers will recapture the funds expended in R&D manufacturing improvements well before the year 2000.

  13. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  14. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  15. Sources of inter-firm heterogeneity in accessing knowledge-creation benefits within technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, A.; Knoben, J.

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent literature to highlight the distinction between knowledge-diffusion and knowledge-creation benefits of technology clustering and argue that firms located in technology clusters will have differential access to the latter. To explain the antecedents of such differential access, we

  16. Estimated clinical benefit of protecting neurogenesis in the developing brain during radiation therapy for pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, M.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin

    2012-01-01

    We sought to assess the feasibility and estimate the benefit of sparing the neurogenic niches when irradiating the brain of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) based on clinical outcome data. Pediatric MB survivors experience a high risk of neurocognitive adverse effects, often attributed......%-60%), and 33% (95% CI, 23%-44%) with opposing fields, IMAT, IMRT, and IMPT, respectively. Neurogenic niche sparing during cranial irradiation of pediatric patients with MB is feasible and is estimated to lower the risks of long-term neurocognitive sequelae. Greatest sparing is achieved with intensity...

  17. Economic rate of discount and estimating cost benefit of viral immunisation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R R

    1999-01-01

    Many individual and societal decisions over purchase (or investment) involve consideration of timing, in that either the price may be paid now and the benefit enjoyed some time in the future or the converse the benefit enjoyed now and the price paid later. Since most individuals generally prefer the present to the future, economic theory has conventionally discounted future costs or benefits to estimate 'net present values'. The rationale for this is principally based on future uncertainty. In recent years, economists have turned their attention to valuing health as an economic 'good'. Observations of individual behaviour would imply that individuals discount future health, as other potential benefits, mostly because there is some uncertainty about their futures. Although economic theory is strongly predicated on the 'sovereignty of the individual', it does not necessarily follow that society discounts the future as do individuals, since for society the future is not so uncertain. Society's endorsement of many public health and preventive medicine objectives, which seek health gains in the future (rather than the present), imply that society's rate of discount may be appreciably lower than that of individuals. In immunisation, arguably one of the most effective of preventive measures, there is the additional benefit to others attributable to herd immunity. This paper argues that the future health gains for society arising from immunisation should not be underestimated by application of inappropriate discounting.

  18. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children’s literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ = 0.20), based on data from 2,147 children in 43 studies. When investigating the different characteristics of technology-enhanced stories, multimedia featu...

  19. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  20. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  1. Beyond privacy: benefits and burdens of e-health technologies in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Julie M; Dean, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed methods study we identify and assess ethical and pragmatic issues and dilemmas surrounding e-health technologies in the context of primary care, including what is already in the literature. We describe how primary healthcare professionals can access reliable and accurate data, improve the quality of care for patients, and lower costs while following institutional guidelines to protect patients. Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies we identify several underlying ethical and pragmatic burdens and benefits of e-health technologies.The 41 study participants reported more burdens than benefits, and were generally ambivalent about their level of satisfaction with their institutions' e-health technologies, their general knowledge about the technologies, and whether e-health can improve team-based communication and collaboration. Participants provided recommendations to improve e-health technologies in primary care settings.

  2. Effect of discounting on estimation of benefits determined by hepatitis C treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Messori; Valeria Fadda; Dario Maratea; Sabrina Trippoli

    2012-01-01

    The combination of either boceprevir or telaprevir with ribavirin and interferon (triple therapy) has been shown to be more effective than ribavirin+interferon (dual therapy) for the treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C.Since the benefit of these treatments takes place after years,simulation models are needed to predict long-term outcomes.In simulation models,the choice of different values of yearly discount rates (e.g.,6%,3.5%,2%,1.5% or 0%) influences the results,but no studies have specifically addressed this issue.We examined this point by determining the long-term benefits under different conditions on the basis of standard modelling and using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to quantify the benefits.In our base case scenario,we compared the long-term benefit between patients given a treatment with a 40% sustained virologic response (SVR) (dual therapy) and patients given a treatment with a 70% SVR (triple therapy),and we then examined how these specific yearly discount rates influenced the incremental benefit.The gain between a 70% SVR and a 40% SVR decreased from 0.45 QALYs with a 0% discount rate to 0.22 QALYs with a 6%discount rate (ratio between the two values =2.04).Testing the other discounting assumptions confirmed that the discount rate has a marked impact on the magnitude of the model-estimated incremental benefit.In conclusion,the results of our analysis can be helpful to better interpret cost-effectiveness studies evaluating new treatment for hepatitis C.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis for the installation of cogeneration CSP technology in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the installation of an innovative cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water (DSW with concentrated solar power (CSP technology in Cyprus is economically feasible. The study takes into account the following generating technologies, (a CSP-DSW technology 4 MWe, (b CSP-DSW technology 10 MWe, (c CSP-DSW technology 25 MWe and (d CSP-DSW technology 50 MWe with or without CO2 trading for two different cases of electricity purchasing tariff. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as internal rate of return (IRR and payback period (PBP are calculated. The results indicate that the electricity unit cost or benefit for both cases of electricity purchasing tariff are decreased or increased with the increase of the capacity factor and the capacity size of the plant. Also, the additional benefit due to the CO2 ETS price of 10 €/tCO2 for all scenarios is 0.8 €c/kWh. Specifically, for the electricity purchasing tariff of 26 €c/kWh case, the investment in CSP-DSW technology for every capacity size is very attractive, since, the CSP-DSW scenarios have high after tax IRR and low PBP. Despite the lower electricity unit cost benefit in the case of electricity purchasing tariff of 12.83 €c/kWh compared to that of the 26 €c/kWh case, which in some cases there is cost and not benefit, for CSP-DSW plants of 25 MWe and 50 MWe, the investment in this technology is still attractive.

  4. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  5. Learning-by-Licensing: How Chinese Firms Benefit From Licensing-In Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, N.; Vanhaverbeke, W.

    2012-01-01

    performance lies in differences of absorptive capacity. In this study, we intend to relax this assumption and use data about 186 Chinese indigenous firms to investigate how differences in in-licensing portfolios lead to different effects on innovation performance. We find that firms benefit from prior in...... that predominantly license-in technologies from domestic sources; 3) the newness of firms' technology in-licensing yields a positive effect on subsequent innovation performance; and 4) a diverse portfolio of licensors from whom technologies are licensed-in has an inverted-U relationship with firms' subsequent...... technological diversity....

  6. Space Benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Some 585 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number; and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  7. Benefits briefing notebook: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy is presented. The contents of this notebook are divided into three sections: (1) benefit cases, (2) transfer overview, and (3) indexes. Transfer examples relevant to each subject area are presented. Pertinent transfer data are given. The Transfer Overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented.

  8. Economic and environmental benefits of technology fusion of solar photovoltaics with alternative technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Technology fusion refers to the blending of several previously separate fields of existing technology, creating novel markets and growth opportunities. In technology fusion, one plus one equals three. This is indeed the case when fusing solar PV with alternative technologies: besides greenhouse gas emission reductions, additional advantages such as the savings of scarce land area, grid independency, diminishment of the effect of power variability of intermittent clean energy sources, and incr...

  9. Documentation of the analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology models, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Braun, R. L.; Denny, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the benefits and costs of aeronautical research and technology (ABC-ART) models are documented. These models were developed by NASA for use in analyzing the economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to future civil aircraft. The methodology is composed of three major modules: fleet accounting module, airframe manufacturing module, and air carrier module. The fleet accounting module is used to estimate the number of new aircraft required as a function of time to meet demand. This estimation is based primarily upon the expected retirement age of existing aircraft and the expected change in revenue passenger miles demanded. Fuel consumption estimates are also generated by this module. The airframe manufacturer module is used to analyze the feasibility of the manufacturing the new aircraft demanded. The module includes logic for production scheduling and estimating manufacturing costs. For a series of aircraft selling prices, a cash flow analysis is performed and a rate of return on investment is calculated. The air carrier module provides a tool for analyzing the financial feasibility of an airline purchasing and operating the new aircraft. This module includes a methodology for computing the air carrier direct and indirect operating costs, performing a cash flow analysis, and estimating the internal rate of return on investment for a set of aircraft purchase prices.

  10. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both. Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls

  11. Preliminary Cost Estimates of Pollution Control Technologies for Geothermal Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, R.; Houser, G.; Richard, G.; Cotter, J.; Weller, P.; Pulaski, E.

    1979-10-01

    This is the first report from the EPA estimating the cost of technology for mitigating pollution that might arise from geothermal power systems. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken an initial step towards the establishment of regulatory standards for the geothermal industry by preparing a document entitled Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development. This report supports that document by providing pollution control cost information. The objective of this report is to provide preliminary cost estimates for air and water pollution treatment and disposal technologies applicable for geothermal energy conversion systems. Cost estimates include both annualized capital investment and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for various levels of environmental requirements. [DJE-2005

  12. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  13. Estimating cultural benefits from surface water status improvements in freshwater wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, Peter; Abrantes, Nelson; Ribeiro, Sofia; Almeida, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Freshwater wetlands provide crucial ecosystem services, though are subject to anthropogenic/natural stressors that provoke negative impacts on these ecosystems, services and values. The European Union Water Framework Directive aims to achieve good status of surface waters by 2015, through implementation of Catchment Management Plans. Implementation of Catchment Management Plans is costly, though associated benefits from improvements in surface water status are less well known. This paper establishes a functional relationship between surface water status and cultural ecosystem service values of freshwater systems. Hence, we develop a bio-economic valuation approach in which we relate ecological status and chemical status of surface waters (based on local physio-chemical and benthic macro-invertebrates survey data) to willingness-to-pay (using benefit-function transfer). Results for the Pateira de Fermentelos freshwater wetland (Portugal) show that the current status of surface waters is good from a chemical though only moderate from an ecological perspective. The current cultural ecosystem service value of the wetland is estimated at 1.54 m€/yr- increasing to 2.02 m€/yr in case good status of surface waters is obtained. Taking into account ecosystem services and values in decision making is essential to avoid costs from externalities and capture benefits from spill-overs--leading to more equitable, effective and efficient water resources management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss Estimations due to Earthquakes and Secondary Technological Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Expected loss and damage assessment due to natural and technological disasters are of primary importance for emergency management just after the disaster, as well as for development and implementation of preventive measures plans. The paper addresses the procedures and simulation models for loss estimations due to strong earthquakes and secondary technological accidents. The mathematical models for shaking intensity distribution, damage to buildings and structures, debris volume, number of fatalities and injuries due to earthquakes and technological accidents at fire and chemical hazardous facilities are considered, which are used in geographical information systems assigned for these purposes. The criteria of technological accidents occurrence are developed on the basis of engineering analysis of past events' consequences. The paper is providing the results of scenario earthquakes consequences estimation and individual seismic risk assessment taking into account the secondary technological hazards at regional and urban levels. The individual risk is understood as the probability of death (or injuries) due to possible hazardous event within one year in a given territory. It is determined through mathematical expectation of social losses taking into account the number of inhabitants in the considered settlement and probability of natural and/or technological disaster.

  15. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  16. Space Acquisitions: Space Based Infrared System Could Benefit from Technology Insertion Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Constellation with Defense Support Program (DSP) Augmentation (Nominal) 5 Figure 3: Key Space Based Infrared...5 GAO-15-366 Space Acquisitions Figure 2: Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Constellation with Defense Support Program (DSP) Augmentation...SPACE ACQUISITIONS Space Based Infrared System Could Benefit from Technology Insertion Planning Report to the

  17. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  18. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  19. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  20. Technology benefits and ground test facilities for high-speed civil transport development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Matthew M.; Shields, Elwood M.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced technology base necessary for successful twenty-first century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft will require extensive ground testing in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and other disciplines. This paper analyzes the benefits of advanced technology application to HSCT concepts, addresses the adequacy of existing groundbased test facilities, and explores the need for new facilities required to support HSCT development. A substantial amount of HSCT-related ground testing can be accomplished in existing facilities. The HSCT development effort could also benefit significantly from some new facilities initially conceived for testing in other aeronautical research areas. A new structures testing facility is identified as critically needed to insure timely technology maturation.

  1. Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Joel F.

    1998-01-01

    Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

  2. Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Joel F.

    1998-01-01

    Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

  3. Power Network Parameter Estimation Method Based on Data Mining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-ping; WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-fian

    2008-01-01

    The parameter values which actually change with the circumstances, weather and load level etc.produce great effect to the result of state estimation. A new parameter estimation method based on data mining technology was proposed. The clustering method was used to classify the historical data in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) database as several types. The data processing technology was impliedto treat the isolated point, missing data and yawp data in samples for classified groups. The measurement data which belong to each classification were introduced to the linear regression equation in order to gain the regression coefficient and actual parameters by the least square method. A practical system demonstrates the high correctness, reliability and strong practicability of the proposed method.

  4. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  5. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  6. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  7. Estimating the benefits of maintaining adequate lake levels to homeowners using the hedonic property method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Feldman, Marvin

    2003-09-01

    The hedonic property method was used to estimate residents' economic benefits from maintaining high and stable lake levels at Lake Almanor, California. Nearly a thousand property transactions over a 14-year period from 1987 to 2001 were analyzed. The linear hedonic property regression explained more than 60% of the variation in-house prices. Property prices were negatively and significantly related to the number of linear feet of exposed lake shoreline. Each additional one foot of exposed shoreline reduces the property price by 108-119. A view of the lake added nearly 31,000 to house prices, while lakefront properties sold for 209,000 more than non-lake front properties.

  8. The estimation of tax-benefit automatic stabilizers in Serbia: A combined micro-macro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large volatility of GDP due to the economic crisis, particularly in transition economies, has brought the issue of automatic stabilizers back into the focus of economic policy. The vast majority of empirical literature in this field relates to the estimation of the size of automatic stabilizers in developed countries, usually based on macroeconomic data. On the other hand empirical literature on this topic based on micro data, particularly for transition economies, is limited. This paper provides an evaluation of the size of automatic stabilizers in one transition economy (Serbia, by combining tax-benefit simulation modelling based on micro data and econometric methods based on macroeconomic data. The results show that, in the case of shock, around 17% of fall in market income would be absorbed by automatic stabilizers. Although the stabilizing effects of the tax-benefit system in Serbia are lower than in other European countries, the total size of automatic stabilizers is close to the average value in these countries, due to the higher elasticity of demand to income. The results also show that progressivity-enhancing income tax reform would only slightly increase automatic stabilizers, due to the large informal economy and the large share of agriculture in total households’ income.

  9. Estimated Pollution Reduction from Wind Farms in Oklahoma and Associated Economic and Human Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Greene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a recognition of the growing need for different forms of energy outside of fossil fuels. Since the latter half of the twentieth century individuals, corporations, and governments have become increasingly aware of the effects of the emissions of carbon and other harmful pollutants on the environment. With this greater concern has come increasing activity to combat these harmful emissions by using alternative fuel sources to power homes, businesses, and cities. As can be seen from recent trends in their installed capacity, it is clear that renewable energy resources will continue to be more commonly used in the future. As renewable energy increases, a decrease in a range of harmful pollutants from the energy sector will also occur. This paper provides a case study to estimate the potential environmental and health benefits of an increased shift from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for electrical production in Oklahoma. Results illustrate and quantify the specific reduction that wind energy can and will have on air quality, as well as provide a quantification of the associated potential health benefits.

  10. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  11. APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY TO POPULATION ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore a new avenue of urban small-regional population estimation by remote sensing technology, creatively and comprehensively for the first time using a residence count method, area (density) method and model method, incorporating the application experience of American scholars in the light of the state of our country. Firstly, the author proposes theoretical basis for population estimation by remote sensing, on the basis of analysing and evaluating the history and state quo of application of methods of population estimation by remote sens-ing. Secondly, two original types of mathematical models of population estimation are developed on the basis of remote sensing data, taking Tianjin City as an example. By both of the mathematical models the regional population may be estimated from remote sensing variable values with high accuracy. The number of the independent variables in the lat-ter model is somewhat smaller and the collection of remote sensing data is somewhat easier, but the deviation is a little larger. Finally, some viewpoints on the principled problems about the practical application of remote sensing to popu-lation estimation are put forward.

  12. R&D program benefits estimation: DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-04

    The overall mission of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance the security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. In support of this mission, OE conducts a portfolio of research and development (R&D) activities to advance technologies to enhance electric power delivery. Multiple benefits are anticipated to result from the deployment of these technologies, including higher quality and more reliable power, energy savings, and lower cost electricity. In addition, OE engages State and local government decision-makers and the private sector to address issues related to the reliability and security of the grid, including responding to national emergencies that affect energy delivery. The OE R&D activities are comprised of four R&D lines: High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), Visualization and Controls (V&C), Energy Storage and Power Electronics (ES&PE), and Distributed Systems Integration (DSI).

  13. Demonstrating the benefits of template-based design-technology co-optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars; Hibbeler, Jason; Hieter, Nathaniel; Pileggi, Larry; Jhaveri, Tejas; Moe, Matthew; Rovner, Vyacheslav

    2010-03-01

    The concept of template-based design-technology co-optimization as a means of curbing escalating design complexity and increasing technology qualification risk is described. Data is presented highlighting the design efficacy of this proposal in terms of power, performance, and area benefits, quantifying the specific contributions of complex logic gates in this design optimization. Experimental results from 32nm technology node bulk CMOS wafers are presented to quantify the variability and design-margin reductions as well as yield and manufacturability improvements achievable with the proposed template-based design-technology co-optimization technique. The paper closes with data showing the predictable composability of individual templates, demonstrating a fundamental requirement of this proposal.

  14. Estimation of Benefits, Burden, and Harms of Colorectal Cancer Screening Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Amy B.; Zauber, Ann G.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Naber, Steffie K.; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Pabiniak, Chester; Johanson, Colden; Fischer, Sara E.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is updating its 2008 colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations. OBJECTIVE To inform the USPSTF by modeling the benefits, burden, and harms of CRC screening strategies; estimating the optimal ages to begin and end screening; and identifying a set of model-recommendable strategies that provide similar life-years gained (LYG) and a comparable balance between LYG and screening burden. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Comparative modeling with 3 microsimulation models of a hypothetical cohort of previously unscreened US 40-year-olds with no prior CRC diagnosis. EXPOSURES Screening with sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), multitarget stool DNA testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy with or without stool testing, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), or colonoscopy starting at age 45, 50, or 55 years and ending at age 75, 80, or 85 years. Screening intervals varied by modality. Full adherence for all strategies was assumed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Life-years gained compared with no screening (benefit), lifetime number of colonoscopies required (burden), lifetime number of colonoscopy complications (harms), and ratios of incremental burden and benefit (efficiency ratios) per 1000 40-year-olds. RESULTS The screening strategies provided LYG in the range of 152 to 313 per 1000 40-year-olds. Lifetime colonoscopy burden per 1000 persons ranged from fewer than 900 (FIT every 3 years from ages 55–75 years) to more than 7500 (colonoscopy screening every 5 years from ages 45–85 years). Harm from screening was at most 23 complications per 1000 persons screened. Strategies with screening beginning at age 50 years generally provided more LYG as well as more additional LYG per additional colonoscopy than strategies with screening beginning at age 55 years. There were limited empirical data to support a start age of 45 years. For persons adequately screened up to age

  15. Costs and Benefits of Representational Change: Effects of Context on Age and Sex Differences in Symbolic Magnitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have reported high correlations in accuracy across estimation contexts, robust transfer of estimation training to novel numerical contexts, and adults drawing mistaken analogies between numerical and fractional values. We hypothesized that these disparate findings may reflect the benefits and costs of learning linear representations of…

  16. Risk and benefit perceptions of mobile phone and base station technology in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Khan, Moin; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-06-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and rapid introduction of mobile communication technologies. This study aims to identify factors that are influential in determining the tradeoffs that Bangladeshi citizens make between risks and benefits in terms of mobile phone technology acceptance and health concerns associated with the technology. Bangladesh was selected as representative of many developing countries inasmuch as terrestrial telephone infrastructure is insubstantial, and mobile phone use has expanded rapidly over the last decade, even among the poor. Issues of importance were identified in a small-scale qualitative study among Bangladeshi citizens (n = 13), followed by a survey within a sample of Bangladeshi citizens (n = 500). The results demonstrate that, in general, the perceived benefits of mobile phone technology outweigh the risks. The perceived benefits are primarily related to the social and personal advantages of mobile phone use, including the ability to receive emergency news about floods, cyclones, and other natural disasters. Base stations were seen as a symbol of societal advance. The results furthermore suggest that overall risk perceptions are relatively low, in particular health risks, and are primarily driven by perceptions that related to crime and social inconvenience. Perceived health risks are relatively small. These findings show that risk communication and management may be particularly effective when contextual factors of the society where the system is implemented are taken into consideration.

  17. A methodology for spacecraft technology insertion analysis balancing benefit, cost, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David Allen

    Emerging technologies are changing the way space missions are developed and implemented. Technology development programs are proceeding with the goal of enhancing spacecraft performance and reducing mass and cost. However, it is often the case that technology insertion assessment activities, in the interest of maximizing performance and/or mass reduction, do not consider synergistic system-level effects. Furthermore, even though technical risks are often identified as a large cost and schedule driver, many design processes ignore effects of cost and schedule uncertainty. This research is based on the hypothesis that technology selection is a problem of balancing interrelated (and potentially competing) objectives. Current spacecraft technology selection approaches are summarized, and a Methodology for Evaluating and Ranking Insertion of Technology (MERIT) that expands on these practices to attack otherwise unsolved problems is demonstrated. MERIT combines the modern techniques of technology maturity measures, parametric models, genetic algorithms, and risk assessment (cost and schedule) in a unique manner to resolve very difficult issues including: user-generated uncertainty, relationships between cost/schedule and complexity, and technology "portfolio" management. While the methodology is sufficiently generic that it may in theory be applied to a number of technology insertion problems, this research focuses on application to the specific case of small (goals, not-to-exceed costs, or hard schedule requirements. MERIT'S contributions to the engineering community are its: unique coupling of the aspects of performance, cost, and schedule; assessment of system level impacts of technology insertion; procedures for estimating uncertainties (risks) associated with advanced technology; and application of heuristics to facilitate informed system-level technology utilization decisions earlier in the conceptual design phase. MERIT extends the state of the art in technology

  18. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    the field surveys with experiments would also be advantageous as it is not always be possible to validate theories and models with actual earthquake data. In addition, colleagues in other disciplines will benefit from being introduced to the loss algorithms, methodologies and advances familiar to the engineering community, to help dissemination in earthquake mitigation and preparedness programs. It follows that new approaches to loss estimation must include a progressive assessment of what contributes to the final casualty value. In analyzing recent earthquakes, testing common hypotheses, talking to local and international researchers in the field, interviewing search and rescue and medical personnel, and comparing notes with colleagues who have visited other events, the author has developed a list of contributory factors to formulate fatality rates for use in earthquake loss estimation models. In this presentation, we will first look at the current state of data collection and assessment in casualty loss estimation. Then, the analyses of recent earthquake field data, which provide important insights to the contributory factors of fatalities in earthquakes, will be explored. The benefits of a multi-disciplinary approach in deriving fatality rates for masonry buildings will then be examined in detail.

  19. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors.

  20. Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: How Can it Benefit from Advancing Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant technological and technical advances in radiotherapy over the last 20 years. This paper presents the pertinent advances and examines their application in contemporary breast cancer (BC radiotherapy, particularly for reducing the long-term toxicity, using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, and management of breathing motion. These modern technologies and techniques enable precise delivery of a highly conformal radiation dose distribution to the target volume in real-time, to optimise tumour control, and minimise treatment toxicity. They have been used for the treatment of BC in selected centres around the world. Although there is insufficient high-level evidence to support their routine application in BC at present, implementation of these technologies has been shown to be feasible, and could result in clinically meaningful long-term benefits for selected patients with BC.

  1. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  2. Technology Estimating 2: A Process to Determine the Cost and Schedule of Space Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark; May, M. Scott; Greenberg, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    As a leader in space technology research and development, NASA is continuing in the development of the Technology Estimating process, initiated in 2012, for estimating the cost and schedule of low maturity technology research and development, where the Technology Readiness Level is less than TRL 6. NASA' s Technology Roadmap areas consist of 14 technology areas. The focus of this continuing Technology Estimating effort included four Technology Areas (TA): TA3 Space Power and Energy Storage, TA4 Robotics, TA8 Instruments, and TA12 Materials, to confine the research to the most abundant data pool. This research report continues the development of technology estimating efforts completed during 2013-2014, and addresses the refinement of parameters selected and recommended for use in the estimating process, where the parameters developed are applicable to Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) used in the parametric cost estimating analysis. This research addresses the architecture for administration of the Technology Cost and Scheduling Estimating tool, the parameters suggested for computer software adjunct to any technology area, and the identification of gaps in the Technology Estimating process.

  3. The business case: The missing link between information technology benefits and organisational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Business cases are an integral part of information technology (IT projects, providingthe linkage between the organisational strategies and the promised benefits. Most majorproject management standards and methodologies make reference to the business case andits intended usage.Problem investigated: The success of IT projects is measured based on the benefits they deliver; anecdotal evidence states that IT projects fail at an alarming rate. The benefits are promised in the business case and should be delivered. This study focuses on whether there is a gap between theory and practice with regard to the way that organisations use the business case to approve, manage and track the promised benefits throughout an IT project.Methodology: This article reports on exploratory research that was initiated to establish the current practice of business case application. Four research questions were developed based on an extensive literature review to support or debunk the anecdotal evidence. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather evidence from organisations based on these research questions.Findings: The results suggest that organisations make use of business cases for various reasons and mostly in line with theory. There are, however, aspects that need to be addressed, such as the linkage between the business case and the harvesting of promised benefits.Value of research: This article confirms the theoretical aspects of the business case but highlights some deviations from practice. Organisations need to be more vigilant in the management of the business case to ensure the tracking and realisation of promised benefits

  4. Estimate of potential benefit for Europe of fitting Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems for pedestrian protection to passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mervyn; Nathanson, Andrew; Wisch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate the benefit for Europe of fitting precrash braking systems to cars that detect pedestrians and autonomously brake the car to prevent or lower the speed of the impact with the pedestrian. The analysis was divided into 2 main parts: (1) Develop and apply methodology to estimate benefit for Great Britain and Germany; (2) scale Great Britain and German results to give an indicative estimate for Europe (EU27). The calculation methodology developed to estimate the benefit was based on 2 main steps: 1. Calculate the change in the impact speed distribution curve for pedestrian casualties hit by the fronts of cars assuming pedestrian autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system fitment. 2. From this, calculate the change in the number of fatally, seriously, and slightly injured casualties by using the relationship between risk of injury and the casualty impact speed distribution to sum the resulting risks for each individual casualty. The methodology was applied to Great Britain and German data for 3 types of pedestrian AEB systems representative of (1) currently available systems; (2) future systems with improved performance, which are expected to be available in the next 2-3 years; and (3) reference limit system, which has the best performance currently thought to be technically feasible. Nominal benefits estimated for Great Britain ranged from £119 million to £385 million annually and for Germany from €63 million to €216 million annually depending on the type of AEB system assumed fitted. Sensitivity calculations showed that the benefit estimated could vary from about half to twice the nominal estimate, depending on factors such as whether or not the system would function at night and the road friction assumed. Based on scaling of estimates made for Great Britain and Germany, the nominal benefit of implementing pedestrian AEB systems on all cars in Europe was estimated to range from about €1 billion per year for

  5. Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei, E-mail: leim@igsnrr.ac.cn; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-09-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of soil is a serious issue worldwide, particularly in China. Soil remediation is one of the most difficult management issues for municipal and state agencies because of its high cost. A two-year phytoremediation project for soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead was implemented to determine the essential parameters for soil remediation. Results showed highly efficient heavy metal removal. Costs and benefits of this project were calculated. The total cost of phytoremediation was US$75,375.2/hm{sup 2} or US$37.7/m{sup 3}, with initial capital and operational costs accounting for 46.02% and 53.98%, respectively. The costs of infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, and culverts) and fertilizer were the highest, mainly because of slow economic development and serious contamination. The cost of phytoremediation was lower than the reported values of other remediation technologies. Improving the mechanization level of phytoremediation and accurately predicting or preventing unforeseen situations were suggested for further cost reduction. Considering the loss caused by environmental pollution, the benefits of phytoremediation will offset the project costs in less than seven years. - Highlights: • A two-year phytoremediation project was introduced. • Costs and benefits of a phytoremediation project were calculated. • Costs of phytoremediation project can be offset by benefits in 7 years.

  6. An estimation method of the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project applicable to the changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengmei, L.; Guanghua, Q.; Zishen, C.

    2015-05-01

    The direct benefit of a waterlogging control project is reflected by the reduction or avoidance of waterlogging loss. Before and after the construction of a waterlogging control project, the disaster-inducing environment in the waterlogging-prone zone is generally different. In addition, the category, quantity and spatial distribution of the disaster-bearing bodies are also changed more or less. Therefore, under the changing environment, the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project should be the reduction of waterlogging losses compared to conditions with no control project. Moreover, the waterlogging losses with or without the project should be the mathematical expectations of the waterlogging losses when rainstorms of all frequencies meet various water levels in the drainage-accepting zone. So an estimation model of the direct benefit of waterlogging control is proposed. Firstly, on the basis of a Copula function, the joint distribution of the rainstorms and the water levels are established, so as to obtain their joint probability density function. Secondly, according to the two-dimensional joint probability density distribution, the dimensional domain of integration is determined, which is then divided into small domains so as to calculate the probability for each of the small domains and the difference between the average waterlogging loss with and without a waterlogging control project, called the regional benefit of waterlogging control project, under the condition that rainstorms in the waterlogging-prone zone meet the water level in the drainage-accepting zone. Finally, it calculates the weighted mean of the project benefit of all small domains, with probability as the weight, and gets the benefit of the waterlogging control project. Taking the estimation of benefit of a waterlogging control project in Yangshan County, Guangdong Province, as an example, the paper briefly explains the procedures in waterlogging control project benefit estimation. The

  7. DESIGN OF AQUIFER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: (2) Estimating site-specific performance and benefits of partial source removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lagrangian stochastic model is proposed as a tool that can be utilized in forecasting remedial performance and estimating the benefits (in terms of flux and mass reduction) derived from a source zone remedial effort. The stochastic functional relationships that describe the hyd...

  8. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  9. Technology Cost and Schedule Estimation (TCASE) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 project year, the focus of the TCASE project has shifted from collection of historical data from many sources to securing a data pipeline between TCASE and NASA's widely used TechPort system. TCASE v1.0 implements a data import solution that was achievable within the project scope, while still providing the basis for a long-term ability to keep TCASE in sync with TechPort. Conclusion: TCASE data quantity is adequate and the established data pipeline will enable future growth. Data quality is now highly dependent the quality of data in TechPort. Recommendation: Technology development organizations within NASA should continue to work closely with project/program data tracking and archiving efforts (e.g. TechPort) to ensure that the right data is being captured at the appropriate quality level. TCASE would greatly benefit, for example, if project cost/budget information was included in TechPort in the future.

  10. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  11. Developing models to estimate the benefits from flood warnings: executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Dennis J.; Priest, Sally J.; Tapsell, Sue M.; Handmer, John W.; Schildt, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Flood forecasting and warning systems have a significant role to play within integrated flood risk management, either in combination with mobile structural flood defences or as part of an approach which combines a number of non-structural measures. In theory the benefits of flood warnings, in terms of community security, protection of life and flood damage reduction, should be large. The theoretical benefit potential is being driven upwards by important advances in the predictive sciences, an...

  12. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  13. Lean VOC-Air Mixtures Catalytic Treatment: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Competing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baldissone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various processing routes are available for the treatment of lean VOC-air mixtures, and a cost-benefit analysis is the tool we propose to identify the most suitable technology. Two systems have been compared in this paper, namely a “traditional” plant, with a catalytic fixed-bed reactor with a heat exchanger for heat recovery purposes, and a “non-traditional” plant, with a catalytic reverse-flow reactor, where regenerative heat recovery may be achieved thanks to the periodical reversal of the flow direction. To be useful for decisions-making, the cost-benefit analysis must be coupled to the reliability, or availability, analysis of the plant. Integrated Dynamic Decision Analysis is used for this purpose as it allows obtaining the full set of possible sequences of events that could result in plant unavailability, and, for each of them, the probability of occurrence is calculated. Benefits are thus expressed in terms of out-of-services times, that have to be minimized, while the costs are expressed in terms of extra-cost for maintenance activities and recovery actions. These variable costs must be considered together with the capital (fixed cost required for building the plant. Results evidenced the pros and cons of the two plants. The “traditional” plant ensures a higher continuity of services, but also higher operational costs. The reverse-flow reactor-based plant exhibits lower operational costs, but a higher number of protection levels are needed to obtain a similar level of out-of-service. The quantification of risks and benefits allows the stakeholders to deal with a complete picture of the behavior of the plants, fostering a more effective decision-making process. With reference to the case under study and the relevant operational conditions, the regenerative system was demonstrated to be more suitable to treat lean mixtures: in terms of time losses following potential failures the two technologies are comparable (Fixed bed

  14. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ =…

  15. Do School-Level Factors Influence the Educational Benefits of Digital Technology? A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The supposed benefits of teachers' use of information and communications technology (digital technology) are well reported throughout the academic literature--most often involving issues of enhanced learning outcomes, increased pupil engagement and more efficient management and organisation of learning. This paper uses survey data from 683…

  16. Role of health technology assessment in shaping the benefits package in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Elly A; de Bont, Antoinette; van Halteren, Arnold R; Bijlmer, Rob J; Poley, Marten J

    2009-02-01

    In many countries of the Western world, the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in funding decisions of medical technologies is increasing. HTAs are expected to support decision-makers in delineating the collectively funded benefits package. To maximize their potential, it is essential that assessments are valid, reliable and timely, and that it is transparent how information provided in assessments is used in decision-making. Against this background, this article aims to review the current state of affairs regarding the use of HTA in the area of medical specialist care in The Netherlands and to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the HTA-based system for priority setting. The reason to do so was the introduction of a new hospital financing system in The Netherlands, which allowed for expansion of the HTA system that already existed for pharmaceuticals to medical specialist care. A comprehensive account of the HTA system for medical specialist care was created using the so-called Hutton framework, followed by an exploration of its strengths and weaknesses. An important lesson to be learned from the early Dutch experiences with HTA in the area of medical specialist care is that the nature and complexity of health technologies in this area create practical problems regarding the amount and quality of available data needed to make the HTA-based system work. This hampers an unambiguous interpretation of assessment data and thus calls for stronger requirements regarding transparency and stakeholder participation. Future work focusing on the role of HTA in funding decisions is needed to provide insights in best practices for HTA systems in circumstances where a delicate balance needs to be achieved between promoting innovation, supporting effective and timely decision-making and preventing the coverage of technologies that represent a waste of resources.

  17. The Challenges and Benefits of Using Computer Technology for Communication and Teaching in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, J. P.; Hinds, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s not only revolutionized the exchange of ideas and information within the scientific community, but also provided educators with a new array of teaching, informational, and promotional tools. Use of computer graphics and animation to explain concepts and processes can stimulate classroom participation and student interest in the geosciences, which has historically attracted students with strong spatial and visualization skills. In today's job market, graduates are expected to have knowledge of computers and the ability to use them for acquiring, processing, and visually analyzing data. Furthermore, in addition to promoting visibility and communication within the scientific community, computer graphics and the Internet can be informative and educational for the general public. Although computer skills are crucial for earth science students and educators, many pitfalls exist in implementing computer technology and web-based resources into research and classroom activities. Learning to use these new tools effectively requires a significant time commitment and careful attention to the source and reliability of the data presented. Furthermore, educators have a responsibility to ensure that students and the public understand the assumptions and limitations of the materials presented, rather than allowing them to be overwhelmed by "gee-whiz" aspects of the technology. We present three examples of computer technology in the earth sciences classroom: 1) a computer animation of water table response to well pumping, 2) a 3-D fly-through animation of a fault controlled valley, and 3) a virtual field trip for an introductory geology class. These examples demonstrate some of the challenges and benefits of these new tools, and encourage educators to expand the responsible use of computer technology for teaching and communicating scientific results to the general public.

  18. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  19. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Technological Adolescent Age Transition: A Boundary to Estimate the Last Factor of the Drake Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A.

    2004-06-01

    Based on the study of several long-term societal indicators we estimate the phase transition between the ``Technological Adolescent Age'' (TAA) and the ``Technological Mature Age'' (TMA). Assuming the ``Principle of Mediocrity'' and using the Drake Equation we estimate a lower threshold for the number of technological civilizations in the galaxy.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  2. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  3. The Benefits of Delayed Primary School Enrollment: Discontinuity Estimates Using Exact Birth Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Shapiro, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper estimates the effect of delayed school enrollment on student outcomes, using administrative data on Chilean students that include exact birth dates. Regression-discontinuity estimates, based on enrollment cutoffs, show that a one-year delay decreases the probability of repeating first grade by two percentage points, and increases fourth…

  4. Do Black Children Benefit More from Small Classes? Multivariate Instrumental Variable Estimators with Ignorable Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Does reduced class size cause higher academic achievement for both Black and other students in reading, mathematics, listening, and word recognition skills? Do Black students benefit more than other students from reduced class size? Does the magnitude of the minority advantages vary significantly across schools? This article addresses the causal…

  5. Estimating genetic benefits of polyandry from experimental studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Rachel A; Mautz, Brian S; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Jennions, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of polyandry for female fitness are controversial. Sexual conflict studies and a meta-analysis of mating rates in insects suggest that there is a longevity cost when females mate repeatedly. Even so, compensatory material benefits can elevate egg production and fertility, partly because polyandry ensures an adequate sperm supply. Polyandry can therefore confer direct benefits. The main controversy surrounds genetic benefits. The argument is analogous to that surrounding the evolution of conventional female mate choice, except that with polyandry it is post-copulatory mechanisms that might bias paternity towards males with higher breeding values for fitness. Recent meta-analyses of extra-pair copulations in birds have cast doubt on whether detectable genetic benefits exist. By contrast, another meta-analysis showed that polyandry elevates egg hatching success (possibly due to a fertilization bias towards sperm with paternal genes that elevate embryo survival) in insects. A detailed summary of whether polyandry elevates other components of offspring performance is lacking. Here we present a comprehensive meta-analysis of 232 effect sizes from 46 experimental studies. These experiments were specifically designed to try to quantify the potential genetic benefits of polyandry by controlling fully for the number of matings by females assigned to monandry and polyandry treatments. The bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals for egg hatching success (d = -0.01 to 0.61), clutch production (d = 0.07 to 0.45) and fertility (d = 0.04 to 0.40) all suggest that polyandry has a beneficial effect (although P values from parametric tests were marginally non-significant at P = 0.075, 0.052 and 0.058, respectively). Polyandry was not significantly beneficial for any single offspring performance trait (e.g. growth rate, survival, adult size), but the test power was low due to small sample sizes (suggesting that many more studies are still needed). We then calculated a

  6. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.

  7. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Lynsay R; Wagner, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008), only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss. Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  8. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay R. Whelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008, only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss.  Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  9. The use of Space Technology for the Benefit of Society in Context of Planning and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Kuldeep; Banu, Vijaya

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of the novel technology mostly leads to a number of advantages to the society. The space technology has shown such benefits in many fields including the areas of health and education, communication sectors, land and water resources management, weather forecasting and disaster management. It has vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries especially in India in a effective manner. Large population which is spread over vast and remote areas of the nation, reaching out to them is a difficult task. This manuscript aims to explain the benefits originated from the application of space technology. The satellite imagery and its derived products can better be utilized for local level planning and sustainable development of a region. A case-study using Bhuvan Panchayat Portal developed by National Remote Sensing Centre, ISRO under the project "Space Based Information Support for De-Centralised Planning" towards Digital Empowerment of Society for Panchayat level Planning and Governance has been carried out, which list out the benefits that have accrued from the use of space technology for planning and development at grass root level in India. It covers, in particular, the benefits expected to be derived from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) Images and derived products. Certain conclusions about the benefits from space based inputs have been drawn that may be generally applicable to all developing countries. This paper also investigates the various possibilities and potentials of Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications.

  10. Estimating the benefits of mammography screening: the impact of study design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammography screening is justifiable only if it leads to reduction in breast cancer mortality. However, evaluation of routine screening is not straightforward, as no unscreened control group is available. We report here on a cohort study of the effect of routine mammography on breast...... control group resulted in an estimated increase of 6% in breast cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: Estimated changes in breast cancer mortality following the introduction of routine mammography ranged from a 25% reduction (based on the best methodology) to a 6% increase with a less rigid study design....... The estimated effect of routine mammography on breast cancer mortality is thus highly dependent on study design....

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  12. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  13. MAGLEV: The double benefits of high-Tc superconductors and its development as an aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. R.; Giese, R. F.

    1988-04-01

    The potential for magnetically levitated (MAGLEV) vehicles is discussed as a means of both inter-city travel and a technology option to relieve the growing problem of air traffic congestion. A brief summary is presented of the two primary MAGLEV concepts: (1) the attractive-force, electromagnetic system (EMS) and (2) the repulsive-force, electrodynamic system (EDS), and continues with a discussion of the advantages, potential for reduced costs and higher reliability, that the newly-discovered, high-temperature superconductors offer for EDS MAGLEV vehicles. A summary of the current status of worldwide MAGLEV research is presented, followed by a discussion of the resurgence of US interest in MAGLEV. An analysis of air-traffic congestion suggests that MAGLEV can substitute for short-to-medium distance air travel. By promoting MAGLEV as an airline technology, airlines can retain their familiar hub-and-spoke systems with MAGLEVs an integral part of the spoke portion. A preliminary analysis suggests that MAGLEV capital costs are likely to be comparable to those of interstate highways, and use of MAGLEVs can delay the need for new airport construction. For each short-to-medium flight diverted to MAGLEV, an airline can substitute a longer flight. The short-haul flights use an inordinate amount of fuel, which is a major component of airline operating costs. MAGLEV energy consumption would be significantly less and would not have the emissions associated with petroleum fuel. Finally, passengers should benefit from MAGLEV technology: travel options will be extended, delays will be reduced, and costs for inter-city travel will be reduced.

  14. Why don't All Exporters Benefit from Free Trade Agreements?: Estimating Utilization Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Alfie; Wagner, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Free Trade Agreements (FTA) attract significant interest, but after these treaties are signed not all exporters use them. We provide a model of heterogeneous utilization, also developing a novel method to estimate treaty-utilization costs. We later apply the model to estimate the evolution utilization costs for the FTA between the US and a small open economy, Chile. Consistent with other studies, we find that utilization is indeed partial (on average 67% on the first year of the treaty, with ...

  15. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  16. New advancements in titanium technology and their cost and weight benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascani, L. A.; Pulley, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    A process that combines both the superplastic and diffusion bonding properties of metal into one concurrent operation is being developed. Estimates using this technology have indicated that this combined process will result in cost savings up to 70 percent when compared to conventional construction methods, while also saving weight. Many structural forms are possible including sandwich structures made by expanding face sheets and core against die forms. The classic difficulties normally associated with fabricating sandwich structures, such as parts fit-up, close tolerances, adhesive or braze alloy strength, do not exist with this technique. The total potential of Rockwell's patented new processes is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer and is expected to affect significantly future airplane concepts and criteria.

  17. A wedge-based approach to estimating health co-benefits of climate change mitigation activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbus, John M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chari, Ramya [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While it has been recognized that actions reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can have significant positive and negative impacts on human health through reductions in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, these impacts are rarely taken into account when analyzing specific policies. This study presents a new framework for estimating the change in health outcomes resulting from implementation of specific carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction activities, allowing comparison of different sectors and options for climate mitigation activities. Our estimates suggest that in the year 2020, the reductions in adverse health outcomes from lessened exposure to PM2.5 would yield economic benefits in the range of $6 to $14 billion (in 2008 USD), depending on the specific activity. This equates to between $40 and $93 per metric ton of CO2 in health benefits. Specific climate interventions will vary in the health co-benefits they provide as well as in potential harms that may result from their implementation. Rigorous assessment of these health impacts is essential for guiding policy decisions as efforts to reduce GHG emissions increase in scope and intensity.

  18. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test th...

  19. Benefit-cost estimation for alternative drinking water maximum contaminant levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Patrick L.; Small, Mitchell J.; Lockwood, John R.; Schervish, Mark J.

    2001-08-01

    A simulation model for estimating compliance behavior and resulting costs at U.S. Community Water Suppliers is developed and applied to the evaluation of a more stringent maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic. Probability distributions of source water arsenic concentrations are simulated using a statistical model conditioned on system location (state) and source water type (surface water or groundwater). This model is fit to two recent national surveys of source waters, then applied with the model explanatory variables for the population of U.S. Community Water Suppliers. Existing treatment types and arsenic removal efficiencies are also simulated. Utilities with finished water arsenic concentrations above the proposed MCL are assumed to select the least cost option compatible with their existing treatment from among 21 available compliance strategies and processes for meeting the standard. Estimated costs and arsenic exposure reductions at individual suppliers are aggregated to estimate the national compliance cost, arsenic exposure reduction, and resulting bladder cancer risk reduction. Uncertainties in the estimates are characterized based on uncertainties in the occurrence model parameters, existing treatment types, treatment removal efficiencies, costs, and the bladder cancer dose-response function for arsenic.

  20. Zero Benefit: Estimating the Effect of Zero Tolerance Discipline Polices on Racial Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…

  1. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G.

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies? other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles and from recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  2. Comparison of Vehicle Efficiency Technology Attributes and Synergy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duleep, G. [ICF Incorporated, LLC., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Analyzing the future fuel economy of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) requires detailed knowledge of the vehicle technologies available to improve LDV fuel economy. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) has been relying on technology data from a 2001 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study (NAS 2001) on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, but the technology parameters were updated in the new proposed rulemaking (EPA and NHTSA 2009) to set CAFE and greenhouse gas standards for the 2011 to 2016 period. The update is based largely on an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis of technology attributes augmented by NHTSA data and contractor staff assessments. These technology cost and performance data were documented in the Draft Joint Technical Support Document (TSD) issued by EPA and NHTSA in September 2009 (EPA/NHTSA 2009). For these tasks, the Energy and Environmental Analysis (EEA) division of ICF International (ICF) examined each technology and technology package in the Draft TSD and assessed their costs and performance potential based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program assessments. ICF also assessed the technologies, other relevant attributes based on data from actual production vehicles, and recently published technical articles in engineering journals. ICF examined technology synergy issues through an ICF in-house model that uses a discrete parameter approach.

  3. Cost-benefit estimates of an elderly exercise program on Kaua'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Naomi; Watanabe, Marisa; Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L; Pang, Lorrin

    2011-06-01

    The elderly consume a disproportionate amount of health care resources, and the recent trend in obesity will only escalate costs. EnhanceFitness® (EF) is an exercise program designed to increase the strength, flexibility, and balance of older adults. A comprehensive controlled study in Washington state of an elderly population has shown that participants who attend at least one EF class per week reduce healthcare costs by 20% per year. The present study reports the costs and potential benefits of replicating EF on Kaua'i. For Kaua'i the annual cost of an EF pilot program for 132 clients would be $204,735. Attendance records of the Kaua'i program showed that 96 (73%) of those enrolled attended at least weekly. Based on national reports of healthcare costs for the elderly, averting 20% of the costs for these 96 elderly would save $344,256 per year. The expected investment to return ratio, I-R ratio, for EF on Kaua'i is about 1-1.8. On economic grounds, a case can be made to support and expand these types of programs. In these times of budget cuts, cost-benefit analysis provides a common economic "language" to prioritize among different programs.

  4. Current and future benefits from the use of GM technology in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, K-H; Frenzel, Th; Miller, A

    2002-02-28

    For the current generation of genetically modified (GM) crops the improvement of agronomic traits (e.g. herbicide tolerance, insect resistance) has been a major objective. The lack of obvious and direct benefits for the consumer has been a main point of criticism. Future trends will increasingly encompass the modification of quality traits, such as the improvement of sensory and especially nutritional properties. Some of the ongoing developments try to meet the desire of consumers for 'healthy' or 'high-tech' foods in developed countries. Others are intended to assist in adjusting the nutritional status of foods to the needs of consumers in developing countries. Considering the increasing world population and the limited amount of arable land, GM technology may also become a valuable tool to ensure food security. The major prerequisite for the applicability of the technique is the safety of the resulting products. The increasing complexity of modifications intended might require adjustments and improvements of the strategies applied to the safety assessment of GM foods. Present research activities try to meet these new challenges.

  5. Accuracy of Travel Time Estimation using Bluetooth Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Skoven Pedersen, Kristian; Tørholm Christensen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , the concept of outliers and corresponding impacts on travel time accuracy are discussed. Four different estimators named Min-BT, Max-BT, Med-BT and Avg-BT with different outlier detection logic are presented in this paper. These methods are used to estimate travel times using a BT derived dataset. In order...... to quantify the accuracy and robustness of these estimators against outliers, a comparative study between BT and Floating Car Data (FCD) is conducted. Results show that the Min-BT and Med-BT are more robust concerning the existence of outliers in the dataset and can provide more accurate travel time estimates...

  6. Benefits of maximum likelihood estimators for fracture attribute analysis: Implications for permeability and up-scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, R. E.; Healy, D.; De Siena, L.

    2017-02-01

    The success of any predictive model is largely dependent on the accuracy with which its parameters are known. When characterising fracture networks in rocks, one of the main issues is accurately scaling the parameters governing the distribution of fracture attributes. Optimal characterisation and analysis of fracture lengths and apertures are fundamental to estimate bulk permeability and therefore fluid flow, especially for rocks with low primary porosity where most of the flow takes place within fractures. We collected outcrop data from a fractured upper Miocene biosiliceous mudstone formation (California, USA), which exhibits seepage of bitumen-rich fluids through the fractures. The dataset was analysed using Maximum Likelihood Estimators to extract the underlying scaling parameters, and we found a log-normal distribution to be the best representative statistic for both fracture lengths and apertures in the study area. By applying Maximum Likelihood Estimators on outcrop fracture data, we generate fracture network models with the same statistical attributes to the ones observed on outcrop, from which we can achieve more robust predictions of bulk permeability.

  7. The Benefits of Maximum Likelihood Estimators in Predicting Bulk Permeability and Upscaling Fracture Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele Rizzo, Roberto; Healy, David; De Siena, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The success of any predictive model is largely dependent on the accuracy with which its parameters are known. When characterising fracture networks in fractured rock, one of the main issues is accurately scaling the parameters governing the distribution of fracture attributes. Optimal characterisation and analysis of fracture attributes (lengths, apertures, orientations and densities) is fundamental to the estimation of permeability and fluid flow, which are of primary importance in a number of contexts including: hydrocarbon production from fractured reservoirs; geothermal energy extraction; and deeper Earth systems, such as earthquakes and ocean floor hydrothermal venting. Our work links outcrop fracture data to modelled fracture networks in order to numerically predict bulk permeability. We collected outcrop data from a highly fractured upper Miocene biosiliceous mudstone formation, cropping out along the coastline north of Santa Cruz (California, USA). Using outcrop fracture networks as analogues for subsurface fracture systems has several advantages, because key fracture attributes such as spatial arrangements and lengths can be effectively measured only on outcrops [1]. However, a limitation when dealing with outcrop data is the relative sparseness of natural data due to the intrinsic finite size of the outcrops. We make use of a statistical approach for the overall workflow, starting from data collection with the Circular Windows Method [2]. Then we analyse the data statistically using Maximum Likelihood Estimators, which provide greater accuracy compared to the more commonly used Least Squares linear regression when investigating distribution of fracture attributes. Finally, we estimate the bulk permeability of the fractured rock mass using Oda's tensorial approach [3]. The higher quality of this statistical analysis is fundamental: better statistics of the fracture attributes means more accurate permeability estimation, since the fracture attributes feed

  8. Standardized cost estimation for new technology (SCENT) - methodology and tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ereev, S.Y.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology and tool (called SCENT) to prepare preliminary economic estimates of the total production costs related to manufacturing in the process industries. The methodology uses the factorial approach – cost objects are estimated using factors and

  9. A cost-benefit analysis of a pellet boiler with electrostatic precipitator versus conventional biomass technology: A case study of an institutional boiler in Syracuse, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Biton, Leiran; Hopke, Philip K; Zhang, K Max; Rector, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Biomass facilities have received increasing attention as a strategy to increase the use of renewable fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the electric generation and heating sectors, but these facilities can potentially increase local air pollution and associated health effects. Comparing the economic costs and public health benefits of alternative biomass fuel, heating technology, and pollution control technology options provides decision-makers with the necessary information to make optimal choices in a given location. For a case study of a combined heat and power biomass facility in Syracuse, New York, we used stack testing to estimate emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for both the deployed technology (staged combustion pellet boiler with an electrostatic precipitator) and a conventional alternative (wood chip stoker boiler with a multicyclone). We used the atmospheric dispersion model AERMOD to calculate the contribution of either fuel-technology configuration to ambient primary PM2.5 in a 10km×10km region surrounding the facility, and we quantified the incremental contribution to population mortality and morbidity. We assigned economic values to health outcomes and compared the health benefits of the lower-emitting technology with the incremental costs. In total, the incremental annualized cost of the lower-emitting pellet boiler was $190,000 greater, driven by a greater cost of the pellet fuel and pollution control technology, offset in part by reduced fuel storage costs. PM2.5 emissions were a factor of 23 lower with the pellet boiler with electrostatic precipitator, with corresponding differences in contributions to ambient primary PM2.5 concentrations. The monetary value of the public health benefits of selecting the pellet-fired boiler technology with electrostatic precipitator was $1.7 million annually, greatly exceeding the differential costs even when accounting for uncertainties. Our analyses also showed complex spatial

  10. Predicting bulk permeability using outcrop fracture attributes: The benefits of a Maximum Likelihood Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, R. E.; Healy, D.; De Siena, L.

    2015-12-01

    The success of any model prediction is largely dependent on the accuracy with which its parameters are known. In characterising fracture networks in naturally fractured rocks, the main issues are related with the difficulties in accurately up- and down-scaling the parameters governing the distribution of fracture attributes. Optimal characterisation and analysis of fracture attributes (fracture lengths, apertures, orientations and densities) represents a fundamental step which can aid the estimation of permeability and fluid flow, which are of primary importance in a number of contexts ranging from hydrocarbon production in fractured reservoirs and reservoir stimulation by hydrofracturing, to geothermal energy extraction and deeper Earth systems, such as earthquakes and ocean floor hydrothermal venting. This work focuses on linking fracture data collected directly from outcrops to permeability estimation and fracture network modelling. Outcrop studies can supplement the limited data inherent to natural fractured systems in the subsurface. The study area is a highly fractured upper Miocene biosiliceous mudstone formation cropping out along the coastline north of Santa Cruz (California, USA). These unique outcrops exposes a recently active bitumen-bearing formation representing a geological analogue of a fractured top seal. In order to validate field observations as useful analogues of subsurface reservoirs, we describe a methodology of statistical analysis for more accurate probability distribution of fracture attributes, using Maximum Likelihood Estimators. These procedures aim to understand whether the average permeability of a fracture network can be predicted reducing its uncertainties, and if outcrop measurements of fracture attributes can be used directly to generate statistically identical fracture network models.

  11. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Lorenzo; Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food.In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  12. Phenolic compounds of green tea:Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin de-rivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mecha-nisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  13. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Lu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhengwu LuClinical Research Department, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USAAbstract: Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product’s risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance.Keywords: information technology, pharmacovigilance, safety, standard, risk management, adverse event

  14. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  15. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  16. Unrelated Future Costs and Unrelated Future Benefits: Reflections on NICE Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Alec; Adler, Amanda I; Bell, David; Briggs, Andrew; Brouwer, Werner; Claxton, Karl; Craig, Neil; Fischer, Alastair; McGregor, Peter; van Baal, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    In this editorial, we consider the vexing issue of 'unrelated future costs' (for example, the costs of caring for people with dementia or kidney failure after preventing their deaths from a heart attack). The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance is not to take such costs into account in technology appraisals. However, standard appraisal practice involves modelling the benefits of those unrelated technologies. We argue that there is a sound principled reason for including both the costs and benefits of unrelated care. Changing this practice would have material consequences for decisions about reimbursing particular technologies, and we urge future research to understand this better. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  18. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy. [(information dissemination and technology transfer from NASA programs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space Benefits is a publication that has been prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office by the Denver Research Institute's Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies, to provide the Agency with accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The technological innovations derived from NASA space programs and their current applications in the following areas are considered: (1) manufacturing consumer products, (2) manufacturing capital goods, (3) new consumer products and retailing, (4) electric utilities, (5) environmental quality, (6) food production and processing, (7) government, (8) petroleum and gas, (9) construction, (10) law enforcement, and (11) highway transportation.

  19. Evaluating the health benefits of transitions in household energy technologies in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid [Center for Risk Management, Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); [Epidemiology and Burden of Disease Unit, Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva (Switzerland); Kammen, Daniel M. [Goldman School of Public Policy and Energy and Resources Group (ERG), 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of the burden of disease worldwide and have been causally linked with exposure to pollutants from domestic biomass fuels in developing countries. We used longitudinal health data coupled with detailed monitoring of personal exposure from more than two years of field measurements in rural Kenya to examine the reductions in disease from a range of interventions, including changes in energy technology (stove or fuel) and cooking location. Our estimates show that the suite of interventions considered here, on average reduce the fraction of times that infants and children below 5 yr are diagnosed with disease by 24-64% for ARI and 21-44% for acute lower respiratory infections (ALRl). The range of reductions is larger for those above 5 yr, and is highly dependent on the time-activity budget of individuals. These reductions due to environmental management in infant and child ALRl are of similar magnitude to those achieved by medical interventions. (Author)

  20. Incorporating changes in albedo in estimating the climate mitigation benefits of land use change projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bird

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some climate scientists are questioning whether the practice of converting of non-forest lands to forest land (afforestation or reforestation is an effective climate change mitigation option. The discussion focuses particularly on areas where the new forest is primarily coniferous and there is significant amount of snow since the increased climate forcing due to the change in albedo may counteract the decreased climate forcing due to carbon dioxide removal.

    In this paper, we develop a stand-based model that combines changes in surface albedo, solar radiation, latitude, cloud cover and carbon sequestration. As well, we develop a procedure to convert carbon stock changes to equivalent climatic forcing or climatic forcing to equivalent carbon stock changes. Using the model, we investigate the sensitivity of combined affects of changes in surface albedo and carbon stock changes to model parameters. The model is sensitive to amount of cloud, atmospheric absorption, timing of canopy closure, carbon sequestration rate among other factors. The sensitivity of the model is investigated at one Canadian site, and then the model is tested at numerous sites across Canada.

    In general, we find that the change in albedo reduces the carbon sequestration benefits by approximately 30% over 100 years, but this is not drastic enough to suggest that one should not use afforestation or reforestation as a climate change mitigation option. This occurs because the forests grow in places where there is significant amount of cloud in winter. As well, variations in sequestration rate seem to be counterbalanced by the amount and timing of canopy closure.

    We close by speculating that the effects of albedo may also be significant in locations at lower latitudes, where there are less clouds, and where there are extended dry seasons. These conditions make grasses light coloured and when irrigated crops, dark forests or other vegetation such as

  1. Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-10

    Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 and 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements-particularly a focus towards compact cities-that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policy makers to positively influence the overall health of city populations.

  2. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  3. Competing Technologies and Industry Evolution: The Benefits of Making Mistakes in the Flat Panel Display Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Managers at firms facing uncertain competing technologies evolving concurrently face a complex decision set, including options to invest in one technology or other, both technologies, or to wait to invest. This study investigates the role that experience, learning and timing play in affecting the firm-level pros and cons of each of these four strategies in a technological competition situation. Using a unique data set on the evolution of the global flat panel display industry, this study offe...

  4. Costs and Benefits of Vendor Sponsored Learning Materials in Information Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for qualified information technology professionals remains high despite downturns in the economy. It is imperative to provide students with a curriculum that provides a broad foundation in information technology knowledge, skills, and abilities. Students also need access to specialized technologies and learning materials to develop the…

  5. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II

    1993-05-01

    Several advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Advanced Light Water Reactors. One measure of the attractiveness of a new concept is its cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electrical generation. This report provides a common starting point, whereby the cost estimates for the various power plants to be considered are developed with common assumptions and ground rules. Comparisons can then be made on a consistent basis. This is the second update of these cost estimate guidelines. Changes have been made to make the guidelines more current (January 1, 1992) and in response to suggestions made as a result of the use of the previous report. The principal changes are that the reference site has been changed from a generic Northeast (Middletown) site to a more central site (EPRI`s East/West Central site) and that reference bulk commodity prices and labor productivity rates have been added. This report is designed to provide a framework for the preparation and reporting of costs. The cost estimates will consist of the overnight construction cost, the total plant capital cost, the operation and maintenance costs, the fuel costs, decommissioning costs and the power production or busbar generation cost.

  6. The iPad and mobile technology revolution: benefits and challenges for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2013-06-01

    The iPad and other mobile technologies provide powerful new tools to potentially enhance communication for individuals with developmental disabilities, acquired neurogenic disorders, and degenerative neurological conditions. These mobile technologies offer a number of potential benefits, including: (a) increased awareness and social acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), (b) greater consumer empowerment in accessing AAC solutions, (c) increased adoption of AAC technologies, (d) greater functionality and interconnectivity, and (e) greater diffusion of AAC research and development. However, there remain a number of significant challenges that must be addressed if these benefits are to be fully realized: (a) to ensure the focus is on communication, not just technology, (b) to develop innovative models of AAC service delivery to ensure successful outcomes, (c) to ensure ease of access for all individuals who require AAC, and, (d) to maximize AAC solutions to support a wide variety of communication functions. There is an urgent need for effective collaboration among key stakeholders to support research and development activities, and to ensure the successful implementation of mobile technologies to enhance communication outcomes for individuals who require AAC and their families.

  7. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  8. Who reaps the benefits, who bears the risks? Comparative optimism, comparative utility, and regulatory preferences for mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Eiser, J Richard; Harris, Peter R; Pahl, Sabine

    2007-06-01

    Although the issue of risk target (e.g., self, others, children) is widely acknowledged in risk perception research, its importance appears underappreciated. To date, most research has been satisfied with demonstrating comparative optimism, i.e., lower perceived risk for the self than others, and exploring its moderators, such as perceived controllability and personal exposure. Much less research has investigated how the issue of target may affect benefit perceptions or key outcomes such as stated preferences for hazard regulation. The current research investigated these issues using data from a public survey of attitudes toward mobile phone technology (N= 1,320). First, results demonstrated comparative optimism for this hazard, and also found moderating effects of both controllability and personal exposure. Second, there was evidence of comparative utility, i.e., users believed that the benefits from mobile phone technology are greater for the self than others. Third, and most important for policy, preferences for handset regulation were best predicted by perceptions of the risks to others but perceived benefits for the self. Results suggest a closer awareness of target can improve prediction of stated preferences for hazard regulation and that it would be profitable for future research to pay more attention to the issue of target for both risk and benefit perceptions.

  9. Infrared dim target detection technology based on background estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Liu; Zhijian, Huang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, two new algorithms - background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method are presented. The basic principles and the implementing procedure of these algorithms for target detection are described. Using these algorithms, the experiments on some real-life IR images are performed. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective view and objective view. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  10. Estimation of Benefits, Burden, and Harms of Colorectal Cancer Screening Strategies: Modeling Study for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Amy B; Zauber, Ann G; Rutter, Carolyn M; Naber, Steffie K; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Pabiniak, Chester; Johanson, Colden; Fischer, Sara E; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

    2016-06-21

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is updating its 2008 colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations. To inform the USPSTF by modeling the benefits, burden, and harms of CRC screening strategies; estimating the optimal ages to begin and end screening; and identifying a set of model-recommendable strategies that provide similar life-years gained (LYG) and a comparable balance between LYG and screening burden. Comparative modeling with 3 microsimulation models of a hypothetical cohort of previously unscreened US 40-year-olds with no prior CRC diagnosis. Screening with sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), multitarget stool DNA testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy with or without stool testing, computed tomographic colonography (CTC), or colonoscopy starting at age 45, 50, or 55 years and ending at age 75, 80, or 85 years. Screening intervals varied by modality. Full adherence for all strategies was assumed. Life-years gained compared with no screening (benefit), lifetime number of colonoscopies required (burden), lifetime number of colonoscopy complications (harms), and ratios of incremental burden and benefit (efficiency ratios) per 1000 40-year-olds. The screening strategies provided LYG in the range of 152 to 313 per 1000 40-year-olds. Lifetime colonoscopy burden per 1000 persons ranged from fewer than 900 (FIT every 3 years from ages 55-75 years) to more than 7500 (colonoscopy screening every 5 years from ages 45-85 years). Harm from screening was at most 23 complications per 1000 persons screened. Strategies with screening beginning at age 50 years generally provided more LYG as well as more additional LYG per additional colonoscopy than strategies with screening beginning at age 55 years. There were limited empirical data to support a start age of 45 years. For persons adequately screened up to age 75 years, additional screening yielded small increases in LYG relative to the increase in colonoscopy

  11. Use of Technology in an Adult Intensive English Program: Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Carolin; Akbar, Farah Sultana

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study presents results of an online survey on student teachers' technology proficiencies and uses of various tools in an adult Intensive English Program (IEP) in the United States. The ultimate goal was to identify areas of improvement for teacher education programs with regard to technology-enhanced language teaching and student…

  12. Industrial benefits and future expectations in materials and processes resulting from space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed as applied to the field of materials science. Advances made in processing include improved computer techniques, and structural analysis. Technology transfer is shown to have an important impact potential in the overall productivity of the United States.

  13. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  14. Secondary School, University, and Business/Industry Cooperation Yields Benefits to Technological Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ann Marie

    2004-01-01

    Research about school and community cooperation to deliver technological education programs at both secondary school and teacher education levels in Ontario, Canada, has documented that such collaborative classroom practice is not only possible in technological education, but is highly desirable because many modern theories of learning are seen in…

  15. Assessing the Economic and National Security Benefits from Publicly Funded Technology Investments: An IDA Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Narin, Francis; Olivastro, Dominic and Stevens, Kimberly A. " Bibliometrics / Theory , Practice, and Problems," Evaluation Review, vol. 18, no. 1...Partnerships (MEP) Program 46 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) 49 Technology Impact Measurement Issues 53 Session Three: Metrics For Multiple Policy...providing orderly information on the likely impact of proposed investments, based upon historical observation and experience. Metrics are also an

  16. Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates models of the evolution of cognitive and noncognitive skills and explores the role of family environments in shaping these skills at different stages of the life cycle of the child. Central to this analysis is identification of the technology of skill formation. We estimate a dynamic factor model to solve the problem of…

  17. Applying RFID technology in the retail industry – benefits and concerns from the consumer’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Novotny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the benefits and costs of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology in the retail sector. RFID is an enabling technology for the Internet of Things (IoT concept, which constitutes a new vision of the Internet as a medium and forum that expands into our everyday lives and connects us virtually to all of the objects that surround us. This paper gives a balanced view of RFID in retailing by showing its current and potential benefits and costs, in particular from the consumer’s perspective. The authors also present the findings of a survey that examined the attitudes of Hungarian consumers towards the potential threats of RFID, and conclude that these attitudes are part of a larger psychological construct, which embraces opinions and attitudes towards new information and communications technologies in general. Significant relationships between consumer demography and attitudes towards RFID applications were also revealed. The paper suggests a solution to the privacy problem of current RFID applications, which has been elaborated by researchers of the IoT Research Institute at the Eszterházy Károly College in Hungary: if RFID technology were integrated with NFC-enabled mobile phones that included a user interface, consumers would be able to gain control over radio frequency communication.

  18. Reference Models for Structural Technology Assessment and Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Eldred, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Previously the Exploration Concepts Branch of NASA Langley Research Center has developed techniques for automating the preliminary design level of launch vehicle airframe structural analysis for purposes of enhancing historical regression based mass estimating relationships. This past work was useful and greatly reduced design time, however its application area was very narrow in terms of being able to handle a large variety in structural and vehicle general arrangement alternatives. Implementation of the analysis approach presented herein also incorporates some newly developed computer programs. Loft is a program developed to create analysis meshes and simultaneously define structural element design regions. A simple component defining ASCII file is read by Loft to begin the design process. HSLoad is a Visual Basic implementation of the HyperSizer Application Programming Interface, which automates the structural element design process. Details of these two programs and their use are explained in this paper. A feature which falls naturally out of the above analysis paradigm is the concept of "reference models". The flexibility of the FEA based JAVA processing procedures and associated process control classes coupled with the general utility of Loft and HSLoad make it possible to create generic program template files for analysis of components ranging from something as simple as a stiffened flat panel, to curved panels, fuselage and cryogenic tank components, flight control surfaces, wings, through full air and space vehicle general arrangements.

  19. Economic evaluations of health technologies: insights into the measurement and valuation of benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bobinac (Ana)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEconomic evaluations have been applied in the field of healthcare for several decades with the principle aim of improving the economic efficiency of resource allocation, i.e., help maximizing benefits from available (and constrained) resources. Broadly speaking, “economic evaluation is t

  20. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  1. RFID Demystified: Part 1. The technology, Benefits and Barriers to Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, Richard D.; Delgardo, Tiago

    2004-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has by some commentators been heralded as a technology that will have as big an impact on supply chain operations as the advent of computer based planning systems in the early 1970’s. Whereas others say it is just yet another technology fad that in a couple of years will have gone away. We are continually reading conflicting messages about RFID, this is partly due to the term being miss used in some quarters and also because as with all new technologies i...

  2. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  3. Benefits and Barriers of Information and Communication Technologies Adoption in Facilities Management Services Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

      This paper presents the results of a study of factors impacting information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in the supply chain of facilities management services. The research questions addressed in this study are: What are the key factors that influence adoption and assimilation...... results show that there are a number of factors that influence adoption and assimilation of ICT in the supply chain of facilities management services, which have been grouped into organizational, technology and environmental factors. The study is relevant to researchers of ICT adoption, supply chain...

  4. Estimating the energy-saving benefit of reduced-flow and/or multi-speed commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.; Schmid, F.; Spata, A.J.

    1999-07-01

    Kitchen exhaust ventilation systems are recognized as a major energy user within commercial food service facilities and restaurants. Minimizing the design ventilation rate of an appliance/hood system by optimizing hood performance in the laboratory is a viable strategy for reducing the makeup air heating and cooling loads as well as the exhaust and supply fan energy. Cutting back the exhaust flow under conditions of noncooking (appliance idle) can further reduce the energy load associated with a kitchen ventilation system. An optimized, two-speed exhaust system was installed within the scope of an energy-efficient, quick service restaurant (QSR) design and demonstration project. This paper evaluates the energy benefit of this variable-flow strategy as well as the savings associated with reducing the design ventilation rate (compared to an off-the-shelf exhaust hood). The paper describes a new public-domain software tool for estimating heating and cooling loads associated with the makeup air requirements of commercial kitchens. This bin-based software provides ASHRAE engineers with an alternative to hand calculations or more sophisticated hour-by-hour simulation. The dramatic impact that both makeup air set point and geographic location have on the outdoor air load is illustrated. The paper concludes with an industry-wide projection of energy savings associated with optimizing the design and operation of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems.

  5. Technology Licensing for the Benefit of the Developing World: UC Berkeley's Socially Responsible Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In the years since the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, university technology transfer success has been measured primarily by traditional metrics such as numbers of patents filed, revenue obtained from licensed patents and numbers of start-up companies founded to commercialize university intellectual property. Intellectual property (IP)…

  6. The individualization of the employment relations on-line: the benefits and limitations of information technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tanya; Riemsdijk, van Maarten

    2004-01-01

    One of the latest tendencies in the organisational change theory and practice is implementing e- ideas: e-business, e-commerce, e-library, e-learning, and since not long ago – e-HRM. Software engineers design information technologies (IT) to support HR processes, marketing specialists insist that th

  7. Long Term Benefits for Women in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Living-Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Christopher; Horton, Marjorie; Morgan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees provide opportunities for economic mobility. Yet women, underrepresented minority (URM), and first-generation college students remain disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. This study examined the effectiveness of a living-learning community (LLC) for URM and first-generation…

  8. The individualization of the employment relations on-line: the benefits and limitations of information technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    One of the latest tendencies in the organisational change theory and practice is implementing e- ideas: e-business, e-commerce, e-library, e-learning, and since not long ago – e-HRM. Software engineers design information technologies (IT) to support HR processes, marketing specialists insist that

  9. A Space for Learning: How Teachers Benefit from Participating in a Professional Community of Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehli, Hanne; Bungum, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Science teachers need a deep understanding of how science works in modern society. Purpose: This article reports a case study investigating the ways in which a short-term in-service course on a research site of space technology contributes to this understanding. Design and method: The study is performed in three steps: an evaluation…

  10. Producer benefits using Terra Blue treatment technology: Increased pig productivity, expansion, and carbon credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The State of North Carolina and USDA NRCS’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program started a statewide Lagoon Conversion Program (LCP) that provides financial support to livestock farmers installing Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) for manure management. A second generation treatment syst...

  11. An Introduction to Current Trends and Benefits of Mobile Wireless Technology Use in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Mims, Clif; Holmes, Kerry P.

    2006-01-01

    The development of mobile wireless technologies has generated a considerable amount of excitement among practitioners and academics because it results in shifting the academic environment from traditional settings to mobile learning (m-learning) settings. Increasing numbers of institutions of higher education offer courses using mobile wireless…

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  13. Research under the microscope : evaluating the sustainability benefits of new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corder, G.; McLellan, B. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining; Green, S. [Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing, Kensington, WA (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Due to ongoing modernization in developing countries, worldwide demand for mineral-based products is poised for continued growth. By making material goods more widely available, meeting this demand could strengthen economies and improve social equity. However, even if production and utilization efficiencies improve amid growing demand and declining ore grades, mineral-based production will be limited by access to energy, water, allowable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land for waste disposal. Given current paradigms, business growth will not be sustainable. This article discussed promising research projects undertaken at Australia's Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing (CSRP). The research was aimed at developing resource production methods that benefit the community, the environment and industry. The article provided information and context, as well as a review of the key sustainability benefits regarding five CSRP research projects. These projects were selected for sustainable development assessment, using methodologies developed in-house after extensive review of extant research. None of the available methodologies were found to be suitable. The projects that were presented included biomass in the iron and steel industry; banana screen modelling demonstration; geopolymers in mine fill; heat recovery from molten slag through dry granulation; and multiple-pass high-pressure grinding roller mill circuit. The article concluded with a brief discussion regarding the litmus test of sustainability. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  15. A Methodology for Assessing the Military Benefits of Science and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ratio (BCR) greater than 2 to 1. In the area of biology, intrinsic chemical markers (ICMs) provide a means for verifying that food is fully...1.7 million per year. Since the current wastage due to less than optimal quality is about 20%, the savings due to avoiding wastage is about $2.2...3) focusing commercial capabilities on Army needs, such as food preparation, packaging, and preservation technologies that enabled the development

  16. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  17. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  18. Value-added benefits of technology: e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Correa, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide insights into the current supply chain for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the radiology diagnostic imaging equipment business. As is common in many manufacturing and service firms, the rationale of bridging suppliers of OEMs is the ability to leverage technology, software, and accessories pertaining to the various pieces of equipment. Several models of e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry are presented. Although the radiology capital equipment market presents numerous idiosyncrasies that must be addressed to successfully implement an e-business strategy effectively, incredible opportunities exist all along the supply chain for e-business strategies to both eliminate costs and acquire strategic initiatives. Those firms that most successfully listen to their customers and address the barriers to efficiency (B2E) will help move the industry toward more effective utilization of the benefits e-business can create and also obtain first mover advantages. Although the efficiencies that e-business provides are extremely important in the radiology capital equipment market, the main value of e-business in this industry of high-priced and relatively infrequently purchased equipment may well be the value-added benefits the technology brings to its customers, as illustrated in the modeling process. The OEMs that eventually market their finished product directly to hospital and imaging centers via a direct sales force can best take advantage of the connectivity and accessibility of e-commerce.

  19. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  20. Information and communication technologies for informal carers and paid assistants: benefits from micro-, meso-, and macro-levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Stephanie; Stewart, James; Centeno, Clara

    The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT)-based services for informal carers and paid assistants of older people living in the community. We cross-case analysed the effects of twelve initiatives in the EU, the USA and Canada, based on their individual analysis documented through interviews with promoters and a literature review. We carried out the cross-case analysis following a variables-oriented strategy on seven dimensions of impact at micro-, meso- and macro-levels: the quality of life of informal carers and paid assistants, quality of life of care recipients, quality of care, care efficiency and sustainability, acceptability, and infrastructure and accessibility. ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants improve the quality of life of older people and their carers and access to qualified care. They also generate savings which contribute to the sustainability of the care systems. These findings constitute a first look at the benefits of the use of ICT-based services for informal carers and paid assistants. Nevertheless, more research using experimental methods is needed to demonstrate the impact of these ICT-based services at meso- and macro-levels. This would help to support policy-makers to deploy these technologies for long-term care delivery.

  1. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  2. Aqueous-stream uranium-removal technology cost/benefit and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI`s access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints.

  3. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengwu

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product's risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance.

  4. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-05-07

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties.

  5. Partnerships for Clean Development and Climate: Business andTechnology Cooperation Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Price, Lynn; Kumar, Satish; de la Rue du Can,Stephane; Warfield, Corina; Padmanabhan, S.

    2006-08-22

    Development and poverty eradication are urgent andoverriding goals internationally. The World Summit on SustainableDevelopment made clear the need for increased access to affordable,reliable and cleaner energy and the international community agreed in theDelhi Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development on theimportance of the development agenda in considering any climate changeapproach. To this end, six countries (Australia, China, India, Japan,Republic of Korea and the United States) have come together to form theAsia Pacific Partnership in accordance with their respective nationalcircumstances, to develop, deploy and transfer cleaner, more efficienttechnologies and to meet national pollution reduction, energy securityand climate change concerns consistent with the principles of the U.N.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The APP builds on thefoundation of existing bilateral and multilateral initiativescomplements.APP has established eight public-private sector Task Forcescovering: (1) cleaner fossil energy; (2) renewable energy and distributedgeneration; (3) power generation and transmission; (4) steel; (5)aluminium; (6) cement; (7) coal mining; and (8) buildings and appliances.As a priority, each Task Force will formulate detailed action plansoutlining both immediate and medium-term specific actions, includingpossible "flagship" projects and relevant indicators of progress by 31August 2006. The partnership will help the partners build human andinstitutional capacity to strengthen cooperative efforts, and will seekopportunities to engage the private sector. The APP organized An OutreachWorkshop: Business&Technology Cooperation Opportunities forIndustry on August 26, 2006, New Delhi. This paper was prepared toprovide background information for participants of the Conference. Ithighlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and climate technologies,barriers, and partnerships that are being implemented in the US, Indiaand other selected

  6. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  7. Benefit Analyses of Technologies for Automatic Identification to Be Implemented in the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Mike; Schlatter, Ueli

    The tasks and objectives of automatic identification (Auto-ID) are to provide information on goods and products. It has already been established for years in the areas of logistics and trading and can no longer be ignored by the German healthcare sector. Some German hospitals have already discovered the capabilities of Auto-ID. Improvements in quality, safety and reductions in risk, cost and time are aspects and areas where improvements are achievable. Privacy protection, legal restraints, and the personal rights of patients and staff members are just a few aspects which make the heath care sector a sensible field for the implementation of Auto-ID. Auto-ID in this context contains the different technologies, methods and products for the registration, provision and storage of relevant data. With the help of a quantifiable and science-based evaluation, an answer is sought as to which Auto-ID has the highest capability to be implemented in healthcare business.

  8. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  9. Could the Pharmaceutical Industry Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Kimble, Craig A; Stanton, Robert B; Naylor, Mariah

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare regulators are directing attention to the pharmaceutical supply chain with the passage of the Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) and the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has the ability to improve compliance, reduce costs, and improve safety in the supply chain but its implementation has been limited; primarily because of hardware and tag costs. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the benefits to the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare system of the adoption of RFID technology as a result of newly implemented supply chain regulations. The methodology was a review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 96 sources used. With the DSCSA, pharmaceutical companies must track and trace prescription drugs across the supply chain, and RFID can resolve many track-and-trace issues with manufacturer control of data. The practical implication of this study is that pharmaceutical companies must continue to have the potential to increase revenues, decrease associated costs, and increase compliance with new FDA regulations with RFID. Still, challenges related to regulatory statute wording, implementation of two-dimensional barcode technology, and the variety of interfaces within the pharmaceutical supply chain have delayed adoption and its full implementation.

  10. Estimated economic benefits from low-frequency administration of atypical antipsychotics in treatment of schizophrenia: a decision model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furiak Nicolas M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to quantify the direct medical resources used and the corresponding burden of disease in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Because low-frequency administration (LFA of risperidone guarantees adherence during treatment intervals and offers fewer opportunities to discontinue, adherence and persistence were assumed to improve, thereby reducing relapses of major symptoms. A decision tree model including Markov processes with monthly cycles and a five-year maximum timeframe was constructed. Costs were adapted from the literature and discounted at a 3% annual rate. The population is a demographically homogeneous cohort of patients with schizophrenia, differentiated by initial disease severity (mildly ill, moderately ill, and severely ill. Treatment parameters are estimated using published information for once-daily risperidone standard oral therapy (RIS-SOT and once-monthly risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI with LFA therapy characteristics derived from observed study trends. One-year and five-year results are expressed as discounted direct medical costs and mean number of relapses per patient (inpatient, outpatient, total and are estimated for LFA therapies given at three, six, and nine month intervals. The one-year results show that LFA therapy every 3 months (LFA-3 ($6,088 is less costly than either RIS-SOT ($10,721 or RIS-LAI ($9,450 with similar trends in the 5-year results. Moreover, the model predicts that LFA-3 vs. RIS-SOT vs. RIS LAI therapy will reduce costly inpatient relapses (0.16 vs. 0.51 vs. 0.41. Extending the interval to six (LFA-6 and nine (LFA-9 months resulted in further reductions in relapse and costs. Limitations include the fact that LFA therapeutic options are hypothetical and do not yet exist and limited applicability to compare one antipsychotic agent versus another as only risperidone therapy is evaluated. However, study results have quantified the potential health

  11. Energy efficient technology - from this all will benefit; Energieeffiziente Technik - davon profitieren alle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    Within the International Trade Fair of Craft between 11th and 17th March, 2009 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) presented the following lectures: (1) The handicraft in context to demography - The demography in the east German federal states (Thomas Satzmann); (2) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (3) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (4) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (5) Journalist Special: Use of electronic media such as podcast and internet-TV for public relations in the handicraft (Michael Bachmann); (6) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (7) Crafts and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (8) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (9) Activation of facades in existing buildings in combination with air heat and solar thermal power - Theory and reports from the practice (Jens Wolfensteller, Volker Drexel); (10) Fiscal reform in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (11) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (12) Mould fungus, dangerous subtenant - General aspects to mould fungi, recognition, health aspects and removal (Sabine Hoer); (13) The energy competency centre of the Chamber of Commerce Potsdam (Herbert Pape); (14) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (15) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (16) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (17) Amendment of the law for chimneysweepers (Joachim Garrecht); (18) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (19) Handicraft and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (20) Politics in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (21) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht); (22) Challenges of the demography in the handicraft (Evelin Friedrich); (23) The handicraft in the financial crisis

  12. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  13. An Assessment of Benefits and Challenges of Information and Communication Technology to Office Managers in the Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi EO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the benefits and the challenges of information and communication technology (ICT to office managers in the banking industry, in order to ascertain the level of success of ICT to the industry, using questionnaire administered to bank staff and customers (n = 130 of Access Bank Plc and Skye Bank Plc in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. The findings indicated that the office managers of the banks have high rate of exposure to modern information technology IT. The banks staff opined that IT has resulted to reduction in the cost of operations. About 50 percentile of the staff ranked the rate at which IT enhances the confidentiality of information as high. However, the study led to the inference that the staff of the two banks have very low rate for acquiring new skills through capacity development. About 60 percentile of the bank staff have very high tendency to respond to changes in innovation brought about by IT; while 75 percentile indicated that the use of IT by office managers leads to very low rate of fraudulent access to stored information. Also, 58 percentile of the bank customers rated the ease of access to their account as excellent due to the use of IT; and ranked IT excellent in terms of the time saved by customers in accessing their accounts. In addition, the customers rated the use of IT in boosting inter-bank relationship as very good. The challenges of IT to customer service as stated by the customers are: fraud by bank staff (0.5%, delay in inter-bank transaction (10%, poor communication network (40%, poor computer literacy (29.5%, and bridge in the relationship between staff and customers (20%. Therefore, workshop and enlightenment is needed for capacity development on ICT in order to maximally utilize the benefits.

  14. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Agri Eneji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  15. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC.

  16. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  18. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  19. Effcient Estimation of Firm-Specific Betas and its Benefits for Asset Pricing Tests and Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J.E. Cosemans (Mathijs); R. Frehen (Rik); P.C. Schotman (Peter); R. Bauer (Rob)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstractWe improve both the specification and estimation of firm-specific betas. Time variation in betas is modeled by combining a parametric specification based on economic theory with a non-parametric approach based on data-driven filters. We increase the precision of individual beta estim

  20. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method : An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relatio

  1. Preparing undergraduates for the future of scientific collaboration: Benefits, challenges and technological solutions in Distributed REU Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Anagnos, T.

    2012-12-01

    As research problems increasingly require multi-disciplinary approaches they naturally foster scientific collaborations between geographically distributed colleagues. This increasing trend in scientific research, the rapid evolution of communication technology, cognitive research into distance education, and the current generation of undergraduate students' eagerness to embrace and use technology, increases the relevance of distributed REU sites. Like traditional REU sites that host a cohort of students in one geographic location, distributed REU sites also seek to attract, nurture, and retain students in a STEM career pipeline. Distributed REU sites are unique in that some or all of the interns are geographically distributed during the research period. This arrangement allows the REU site to capitalize on distributed scientific resources such as field sites, research facilities, or human capital. At their core, distributed REU sites are fundamentally constructed of elements that have proven to be effective components of any undergraduate research experience. They also strive to develop and employ specialized programming that leverages collaboration tools through a cyberinfrastructure to enable interns to develop meaningful social and academic relationships with one another. Since 2006 the IRIS Consortium and NEES have facilitated separate, NSF funded, distributed REU Sites. Implementation and evaluations of these programs have revealed a number of successes and benefits. Longitudinal tracking indicates that distributed REU Sites are at least as successful as traditional sites in attracting, nurturing, and retaining students in a STEM career pipeline. A distributed arrangement also offers benefits over a traditional REU site, such as the flexibility to place interns at a variety of institutions with mentors making only an annual commitment to participate. This ensures that all mentors are eager to participate and are concerned with their intern's growth. It also

  2. Online HIV awareness and technology affordance benefits for black female collegians - maybe not: the case of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Fay Cobb; Kvasny, Lynette

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the technology affordances associated with and anticipated from an online human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention awareness platform, myHealthImpactNetwork, intended to reach black female college students. This population is at increased risk for HIV transmission, but is not often studied. In addition, this population regularly uses digital tools, including Web sites and social media platforms, to engage in health information seeking. We conducted 11 focus groups with 60 black female college students attending 2 universities in the United States. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using content analyses. Contrary to our proposition, the participants' information needs did not align with the anticipated benefits associated with the technology affordances of the prevention awareness platform. Concerns about personal online social capital, reputation management, and stigma limited participants' willingness to engage with the HIV prevention content on the website. Although the participants use digital tools as a primary means of becoming informed about health, concerns that friends, family, and others in their social networks would assume that they were HIV infected limited their willingness to engage with myHealthImpactNetwork. Print media and conversations with health care professionals were preferred channels for obtaining HIV prevention information. Perceptions of stigma associated with HIV negatively impact health information seeking and sharing in the online social networks in which black college students engage. However, by understanding the unanticipated consequences, researchers can effectively design for cultures and subcultures infected and affected by health disparities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The home-range concept: are traditional estimators still relevant with modern telemetry technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kie, John G; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Fieberg, John; Powell, Roger A; Cagnacci, Francesca; Mitchell, Michael S; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2010-07-27

    Recent advances in animal tracking and telemetry technology have allowed the collection of location data at an ever-increasing rate and accuracy, and these advances have been accompanied by the development of new methods of data analysis for portraying space use, home ranges and utilization distributions. New statistical approaches include data-intensive techniques such as kriging and nonlinear generalized regression models for habitat use. In addition, mechanistic home-range models, derived from models of animal movement behaviour, promise to offer new insights into how home ranges emerge as the result of specific patterns of movements by individuals in response to their environment. Traditional methods such as kernel density estimators are likely to remain popular because of their ease of use. Large datasets make it possible to apply these methods over relatively short periods of time such as weeks or months, and these estimates may be analysed using mixed effects models, offering another approach to studying temporal variation in space-use patterns. Although new technologies open new avenues in ecological research, our knowledge of why animals use space in the ways we observe will only advance by researchers using these new technologies and asking new and innovative questions about the empirical patterns they observe.

  4. Computational estimation of fluid mechanical benefits from a fluid deflector at the distal end of artificial vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, M W; Wadbro, E; Berggren, M

    2013-02-01

    Intimal hyperplasia at the distal anastomosis is considered to be an important determinant for arterial and arteriovenous graft failure. The connection between unhealthy hemodynamics and intimal hyperplasia motivates the use of computational fluid dynamics modeling to search for improved graft design. However, studies on the fluid mechanical impact on intimal hyperplasia at the suture line intrusion have previously been scanty. In the present work, we focus on intimal hyperplasia at the suture line and illustrate potential benefits from the introduction of a fluid deflector to shield the suture line from unhealthily high wall shear stress.

  5. The welfare benefit of a home's location: an empirical comparison of spatial and non-spatial model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinsky, Julia; Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Piras, Gianfranco

    2012-07-01

    This article compares results from non-spatial and new spatial methods to examine the reliability of welfare estimates (direct and multiplier effects) for locational housing attributes in Seattle, WA. In particular, we assess if OLS with spatial fixed effects is able to account for the spatial structure in a way that represents a viable alternative to spatial econometric methods. We find that while OLS with spatial fixed effects accounts for more of the spatial structure than simple OLS, it does not account for all of the spatial structure. It thus does not present a viable alternative to the spatial methods. Similar to existing comparisons between results from non-spatial and established spatial methods, we also find that OLS generates higher coefficient and direct effect estimates for both structural and locational housing characteristics than spatial methods do. OLS with spatial fixed effects is closer to the spatial estimates than OLS without fixed effects but remains higher. Finally, a comparison of the direct effects with locally weighted regression results highlights spatial threshold effects that are missed in the global models. Differences between spatial estimators are almost negligible in this study.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF THE DEMINERALIZED BONE ALLOGRAFTS MADE BY TECHNOLOGY OF CITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Yurasova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is devoted an experimental estimation of osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone implants (DBA made on technology CITO with use of lyophilization and radiating sterilization by stream of fast electrons. As experimental animals, white rats on ectopic osteogenesis model for a period of 40 days and rabbits to which DBA implanted into defect of the jaw with terms of experiment 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 days have been chosen. Results of morphological researches testified to absence of toxicity, presence of high indicators of biointegration and osteoinductance studied DBA. The offered technology of processing of a bone tissue allows to keep biological activity of tissues and to receive biological materials with the expressed plastic properties. Obtained among other data were the bases for the decision of use of these materials in clinic of different bone pathologies.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNIQUE OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF ACTIVITY OF A CONGLOMERATE «THE INNOVATIVE-TECHNOLOGICAL CENTER OF DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF UKRAINE»

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstova, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the clause the basic advantages of creation of an innovative conglomerate «The is innovative-technological center of development of transport system of Ukraine» are considered, the technique of determination of economic benefit of its activity is developed.

  8. Children's Experiences of End Stage Renal Failure, Coping with Its Treatment and Side-Effects, and Perceived Benefits of Starbright World Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Laura Dees; Barry, Leasha M.

    2003-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess experiences of three children (ages 8-17) with end stage renal failure, including their perceptions of treatment and side effects, coping strategies, and STARBRIGHT World technology, a program that provides peer support through video conferencing with other children. The benefits of STARBRIGHT are…

  9. The electronic image stabilization technology research based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Wentao; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiaoying; Yang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The electronic image stabilization technology based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation technique can effectively improve the non normal shift, such as jitter, rotation and so on. Firstly, the ORB features are extracted from the image, a set of regions are built on these features; Secondly, the optical-flow vector is computed in the feature regions, in order to reduce the computational complexity, the multi resolution strategy of Pyramid is used to calculate the motion vector of the frame; Finally, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of the algorithm is carried out. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better stability compared with image stabilization based on the traditional optical-flow motion vector estimation method.

  10. Improving Maryland's Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pé, Alexandra; Wesloh, Daniel; Antoszewski, Graham; Daham, Farrah; Goudarzi, Navid; Rabenhorst, Scott; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    There is enormous potential to harness the kinetic energy of offshore wind and produce power. However significant uncertainties are introduced in the offshore wind resource assessment process, due in part to limited observational networks and a poor understanding of the marine atmosphere's complexity. Given the cubic relationship between a turbine's power output and wind speed, a relatively small error in the wind speed estimate translates to a significant error in expected power production. The University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) collected in-situ measurements offshore, within Maryland's Wind Energy Area (WEA) from July-August 2013. This research demonstrates the ability of Doppler wind lidar technology to reduce uncertainty in estimating an offshore wind resource, compared to traditional resource assessment techniques, by providing a more accurate representation of the wind profile and associated hub-height wind speed variability. The second objective of this research is to elucidate the impact of offshore micrometeorology controls (stability, wind shear, turbulence) on a turbine's ability to produce power. Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM), with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine's rotor layer (40m-160m). Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine's ability to produce power.

  11. Pokémon Go: Ubiquitous Computing Delivering Better Health or Co-Incidental Health Benefits from Technology Use? A Participatory Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Stimulating sustained behavioural change through information and technology has been an aim of much health informatics research. Traditional approaches use technology to mediate communications between health professionals and patients. More recent lifestyle technologies engage the patient directly with information and advice - but what of the phenomena that is Pokémon Go - does it point to another way of achieving health benefits through fun? This paper aims to explore some of the conceptual questions for health informatics stimulated by the phenomenal popularity of Pokémon Go. The paper is grounded analysis of data generated through a preliminary participatory observational study in Australia.

  12. Clinical and economic benefits of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Orozco, John Jairo; Lynch, Peter Matthew; Prieto, Diana; Saunders, Rhodri; Roze, Stephane; Valencia, Juan Esteban

    2016-11-01

    To assess the long-term clinical and economic impact of integrated pump/CGM technology therapy as compared to multiple daily injections (MDI), for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Colombia. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate a hypothetical cohort of patients with T1D. Mean baseline characteristics were taken from a clinical study conducted in Colombia and a healthcare payer perspective was adopted, with a 5% annual discount rate applied to both costs and outcomes. The integrated pump/CGM improved mean life expectancy by 3.51 years compared with MDI. A similar increase occurred in mean quality-adjusted life expectancy with an additional 3.81 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Onset of diabetes-related complications was also delayed as compared to MDI, and mean survival time free of complication increased by 1.74 years with integrated pump/CGM. Although this increased treatment costs of diabetes as compared to MDI, savings were achieved thanks to reduced expenditure on diabetes-related complications. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for SAP was Colombian Pesos (COP) 44,893,950 (approximately USD$23,200) per QALY gained. Improved blood glucose control associated to integrated pump/CGM results in a decreased incidence of diabetes-related complications and improves life expectancy as compared to MDI. Using recommended thresholds from the World Health Organization and previous coverage decisions about health technologies in Colombia, it is a cost-effective alternative to MDI for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Estimation of the number of individuals entitled to dependency benefits and of the associated cost of care in Spain for 2007-2045].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosvilla Rivero, Simón; Moral Arce, Ignacio

    2011-12-01

    To provide estimates of the number of dependent individuals per grade and level for the period 2007-2045 and the cost associated with the care of these individuals for the System for Promoting the Autonomy and Care of Dependent Persons [Sistema para la Autonomía y Atención a la Dependencia (SAAD)]. Based on the Disabilities, Independence and Dependency Situations Survey (2008) and the scale for the assessment of grades and levels of dependency, we applied a two-stage estimation procedure to project the number of dependent individuals. In the first stage, we calculated the probability of a person being dependent and entitled to benefits by using a logit model. In the second stage, using an ordered logit model, we calculated the probability of distinct grades and levels of dependency in dependent persons entitled to benefits. Subsequently, we calculated expenditure projections based on average cost per point scale by grade and level of dependency. Our results suggest a higher incidence of situations of dependency in female beneficiaries than in male beneficiaries, with higher growth rates for almost all categories of grade and level between 2007 and 2045. We estimated that in 2045 there will be 1,592,798 beneficiaries of the SAAD (596,332 men and 996,466 women). Moreover, between 2007 and 2045 the cost of care for dependent people will be multiplied by 2.64 for male beneficiaries and by 2.89 for female beneficiaries, amounting to 41,926 million euros in 2045. The care of dependent persons is a major challenge for Spanish society both because of the number of persons that will require care and because of the greater economic cost involved. These findings should prompt a debate on how to fund services and benefits and how to ensure the sustainability of the system. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Health and Safety Benefits of New Technologies in Mining: A Review and Strategy for Designing and Deploying Effective User-Centred Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining is currently experiencing a rapid growth in the development and uptake of automation and other new technologies (such as collision detection systems; however, they are often developed from a technology-centred perspective that does not explicitly consider the end-user. This paper first presents a review of the technologies currently available (or near-market and the likely human factors issues associated with them. The second part of the paper presents a potential long term strategy for research and development that aims to maximise the safety and health benefits for operators of such new technologies. The strategy includes a four stage research and development process, this covers: better understanding the needs for technology, user requirements and risk/cost analysis; human element design, procurement and deployment processes; evaluation and verification of the strategy; and dissemination of it to relevant stakeholders (including equipment manufacturers, mine site purchasers and regulators. The paper concludes by stressing the importance of considering the human element with respect to new mining technologies and the likely benefits of adopting the type of strategy proposed here. The overall vision is for mining to become safer and healthier through effective user-centred design and deployment of new technologies that serve both operator needs and the demands of the workplace.

  15. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M.; Mansoori, H.; Rezaei, E. Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm-1) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  16. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M; Mansoori, H; Rezaei, E Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm(-1)) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  17. Estimated economic benefit of increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Canadians to or above 100 nmol/L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Samantha M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51–69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L. The diseases affected by 25(OH)D concentration included cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, respiratory infections, and musculoskeletal disorders. We used 25(OH)D concentration–health outcome relations for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease and results of clinical trials with vitamin D for respiratory infections and musculoskeletal disorders to estimate the reductions in disease burden for increased 25(OH)D concentrations. If all Canadians attained 25(OH)D concentrations>100 nmol/L, the calculated reduction in annual economic burden of disease was $12.5 ± 6 billion on the basis of economic burdens for 2016 and a reduction in annual premature deaths by 23,000 (11,000–34,000) on the basis of rates for 2011. However, the effects on disease incidence, economic burden, and mortality rate would be phased in gradually over several years primarily because once a chronic disease is established, vitamin D affects its progression only modestly. Nevertheless, national policy changes are justified to improve vitamin D status of Canadians through promotion of safe sun exposure messages, vitamin D supplement use, and/or facilitation of food fortification. PMID:27942348

  18. Open source home care technology : technical design and development, user research, cost-benefit analysis, and business modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Marike; Gyaltsen-Lohuis, Elles; Keijzer, Ander de; Nauta, Jan M.; Balkenende, Rens; Donninger, Niels; Alphen, Guido van

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress for the Hightech@home project. The aim of this project is to develop technology and knowledge concerning open source home care technology, utilizing open standards. Currently, there is limited availability of high tech sensor and communication technology whil

  19. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  20. Methodology to estimate the cost of the severe accidents risk / maximum benefit; Metodologia para estimar el costo del riesgo de accidentes severos / beneficio maximo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Flores, R. M.; Vega, E., E-mail: gozalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    For programs and activities to manage aging effects, any changes to plant operations, inspections, maintenance activities, systems and administrative control procedures during the renewal period should be characterized, designed to manage the effects of aging as required by 10 Cfr Part 54 that could impact the environment. Environmental impacts significantly different from those described in the final environmental statement for the current operating license should be described in detail. When complying with the requirements of a license renewal application, the Severe Accident Mitigation Alternatives (SAMA) analysis is contained in a supplement to the environmental report of the plant that meets the requirements of 10 Cfr Part 51. In this paper, the methodology for estimating the cost of severe accidents risk is established and discussed, which is then used to identify and select the alternatives for severe accident mitigation, which are analyzed to estimate the maximum benefit that an alternative could achieve if this eliminate all risk. Using the regulatory analysis techniques of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) estimates the cost of severe accidents risk. The ultimate goal of implementing the methodology is to identify candidates for SAMA that have the potential to reduce the severe accidents risk and determine if the implementation of each candidate is cost-effective. (Author)

  1. Technological Support of Estimating Functional Opportunities of Higher Parts of Central Nervous System in the Individuals with Auditory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko M.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new computerized technology of investigating and estimating the individual features of higher parts of the central nervous system in people with auditory deprivation is offered. The essence of the offered technology for investigating and estimating individual functional opportunities of higher parts of the nervous system of an individual with auditory deprivation consists in using the specific sequence of representing the load tests with corresponding criteria of estimating the processed information of different level of complexity, which are applied on hardware devices developed by us. We represented the scales for estimating the parameters of simple and complex sensorimotor reactions, speed qualitative and quantitative indicators of processing information based on the typological properties of the nervous system, such as the functional mobility, strength and balance of basic nervous processes. We suppose that the research using the same tests and criteria of estimating neuro-dynamic properties will increase the opportunity for the analysis of different experimental material and enhance its value

  2. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-05-01

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximising Benefit from Defence Research: A Review of Defence Research and Technology for Alignment, Quality and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    include: From Dstl P2i Remo Technologies Enigma Diagnostics Ltd Acolyte Biomedica Ltd Lucigen Alaska Food Diagnostics Enigma Diagnostics From QinetiQ...specifically created to commercialise Dstl technology are listed below. Acolyte Biomedica Ltd Acolyte Biomedica develops proprietary diagnostic systems

  4. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabl Ari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Methods Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. Results For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3 for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Conclusions Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our

  5. Benefícios do uso de tecnologia de informação para o desempenho empresarial Benefits from the use of information technology for corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Albertin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de informação (TI é um dos componentes mais importantes do ambiente empresarial atual, oferecendo grandes oportunidades para as empresas que têm sucesso no aproveitamento de seus benefícios. Este artigo apresenta as dimensões do uso de TI e a relação entre os benefícios oferecidos pelo uso de TI e o desempenho empresarial, tendo como base a estrutura de benefícios de TI no desempenho empresarial. A metodologia utilizada é o estudo de caso numa empresa líder de seu setor, com investimento significativo em TI e que, a partir do estudo, passou a utilizar tal instrumento para a avaliação e acompanhamento dos gastos e investimentos nessa tecnologia. A contribuição do artigo é a identificação dos benefícios oferecidos pela TI e a relação com o desempenho empresarial, fornecendo subsídios importantes para a sua administração.Information technology (IT has been considered one of the most important components in the current business environment, offering opportunities for companies that successfully take advantage of its benefits. The main purpose of this article is to present the IT usage dimensions and the relationship between the benefits offered by using information technology and business performance, based on the structure of its benefits in business performance. The used methodology is a case study in a leading company that has a significant IT investment, and which, as a result of this study, started using this tool for evaluating and monitoring its costs and investments in this technology. The contribution is the identification of the benefits offered by the use of IT and the relationship with business performance, offering important insights to its management.

  6. Benefits and Challenges of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Integration in Québec English Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Jihan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' and educational consultants' perceptions of ICT integration in Québec English Schools, specifically with regards to the benefits and challenges of ICT integration therein. 23 teachers and educational consultants from seven different school boards participated in the focus group sessions. Results revealed higher…

  7. Estimating CO{sub 2} Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO{sub 2} Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co., LTD(ETP), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Estimating potential of CO{sub 2} emission reduction of non-capture CO{sub 2} utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO{sub 2} emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO{sub 2} of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO{sub 2} emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO{sub 3} (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO{sub 3}). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO{sub 2} reduction through the CO{sub 2} carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO{sub 2} emission technology.

  8. Beyond QALYs: Multi-criteria based estimation of maximum willingness to pay for health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Erik

    2017-03-03

    The QALY is a useful outcome measure in cost-effectiveness analysis. But in determining the overall value of and societal willingness to pay for health technologies, gains in quality of life and length of life are prima facie separate criteria that need not be put together in a single concept. A focus on costs per QALY can also be counterproductive. One reason is that the QALY does not capture well the value of interventions in patients with reduced potentials for health and thus different reference points. Another reason is a need to separate losses of length of life and losses of quality of life when it comes to judging the strength of moral claims on resources in patients of different ages. An alternative to the cost-per-QALY approach is outlined, consisting in the development of two bivariate value tables that may be used in combination to estimate maximum cost acceptance for given units of treatment-for instance a surgical procedure, or 1 year of medication-rather than for 'obtaining one QALY.' The approach is a follow-up of earlier work on 'cost value analysis.' It draws on work in the QALY field insofar as it uses health state values established in that field. But it does not use these values to weight life years and thus avoids devaluing gained life years in people with chronic illness or disability. Real tables of the kind proposed could be developed in deliberative processes among policy makers and serve as guidance for decision makers involved in health technology assessment and appraisal.

  9. An analysis on social cost benefit of city gas safety supervision system - concentrated on estimating the intended amount paid about gas safety of households using city gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Sung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    With the increase of convenient and clean gas fuel consumption, the danger of gas safety accident is also increasing. Therefore, now is the time for requiring many thoughtful concerns and cares for the prevention of gas accident. In this study, the perception of city gas end users on use of city gas was studied and the economic value of improving gas safety was estimated by examining the intended amount paid for improving safety of city gas use. Although most of city gas end-users perceive that gas use is generally safe, they are concerned about a possibility of dander of accidents happened without any notice. On the other hand, about 97% of households using city gas know checking gas safety at a minimum, but only 60% among them are implementing self-checkup. The economic benefit of improving gas safety of city gas end-users in Korea is estimated from the lowest of 121.47 billion to the highest of 317.97 billion annually. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. Sensitivity and Cost-benefit Analyses of Emission-constrained Technological Growth Under Uncertainty in Natural Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Rovenskaya, E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of control of world technological development under prescribed constraints on the emission of greenhouse gases. We use a stylized mathematical model of the world GDP whose growth leads to the increase of industrial emission provided in investment in "cleaning" technology acts as a control parameter in the model. The optimal control maximizing a standard economic utility index is described. Two components in total emission are distinguished: industrial emission a...

  11. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  12. Does physical activity in adolescence have site-specific and sex-specific benefits on young adult bone size, content, and estimated strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckham, Rachel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Johnston, James D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Cooper, David; Kontulainen, Saija

    2014-02-01

    The long-term benefits of habitual physical activity during adolescence on adult bone structure and strength are poorly understood. We investigated whether physically active adolescents had greater bone size, density, content, and estimated bone strength in young adulthood when compared to their peers who were inactive during adolescence. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure the tibia and radius of 122 (73 females) participants (age mean ± SD, 29.3 ± 2.3 years) of the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS). Total bone area (ToA), cortical density (CoD), cortical area (CoA), cortical content (CoC), and estimated bone strength in torsion (SSIp ) and muscle area (MuA) were measured at the diaphyses (66% tibia and 65% radius). Total density (ToD), trabecular density (TrD), trabecular content (TrC), and estimated bone strength in compression (BSIc ) were measured at the distal ends (4%). Participants were grouped by their adolescent physical activity (PA) levels (inactive, average, and active) based on mean PA Z-scores obtained from serial questionnaire assessments completed during adolescence. We compared adult bone outcomes across adolescent PA groups in each sex using analysis of covariance followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments. When adjusted for adult height, MuA, and PA, adult males who were more physically active than their peers in adolescence had 13% greater adjusted torsional bone strength (SSIp , p adolescence had 10% larger adjusted CoA (p adolescence seemed to persist into young adulthood, with greater ToA and SSIp in males, and greater CoA, CoC, and TrC in females.

  13. Clinical benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator in patients with an ejection fraction > 35% estimated by cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Oscar; García-González, Pilar; Valle-Muñoz, Alfonso; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Pérez-Boscá, Leandro; Palanca-Gil, Victor; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Quesada-Dorador, Aurelio; Morell, Salvador; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator prolongs survival and improves quality of life in advanced heart failure. Traditionally, patients with ejection fraction > 35 estimated by echocardiography have been excluded. We assessed the prognostic impact of this therapy in a group of patients with severely depressed systolic function as assessed by echocardiography but with an ejection fraction > 35% as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. We analyzed consecutive patients admitted for decompensated heart failure between 2004 and 2011. The patients were in functional class II-IV, with a QRS ≥ to 120 ms, ejection fraction ≤ 35% estimated by echocardiography, and a cardiac magnetic resonance study. We included all patients (n=103) who underwent device implantation for primary prevention. Ventricular arrhythmia, all-cause mortality and readmission for heart failure were considered major cardiac events. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to systolic function assessed by magnetic resonance. The 2 groups showed similar improvements in functional class and ejection fraction at 6 months. We found a nonsignificant trend toward a higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with systolic function ≤ 35% at long-term follow-up. The presence of a pattern of necrosis identified patients with a worse prognosis for ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in both groups. We conclude that cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator leads to a similar clinical benefit in patients with an ejection fraction ≤ 35% or > 35% estimated by cardiac magnetic resonance. Analysis of the pattern of late gadolinium enhancement provides additional information on arrhythmic risk and long-term prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Biagio F. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Agostinho, Feni, E-mail: feni@unip.br [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Ulgiati, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ulgiati@uniparthenope.it [Università degli studi di Napoli, Parthenope (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  15. Researchers Weigh Benefits of One Computer per Lap: Studies Aim to Determine the Impact the Technology Has on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of school districts nationwide and nine states have invested millions of dollars in "one-to-one" laptop programs, hoping the availability of a computer for every student will improve achievement and other skills. They made those investments despite the fact that research on the impact of such technology on student achievement is…

  16. Effectiveness of Using a Change Management Approach to Convey the Benefits of an Information Security Implementation to Technology Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeannine B.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the problems associated with users' understanding, accepting, and complying with requirements of security-oriented solutions. The goal of the research was not to dispute existing theory on IT project implementations, but rather to further the knowledge on the topic of technology user acceptance of security-oriented IT…

  17. Effectiveness of Using a Change Management Approach to Convey the Benefits of an Information Security Implementation to Technology Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeannine B.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the problems associated with users' understanding, accepting, and complying with requirements of security-oriented solutions. The goal of the research was not to dispute existing theory on IT project implementations, but rather to further the knowledge on the topic of technology user acceptance of security-oriented IT…

  18. Agro-industrial anaerobic digestion cost benefits: Technology utilization in distillery; Aspetti economici della digestione anaerobica nell`agroindustria: Applicazione di una nuova tecnologia in una distilleria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Poli, F.; Mela, E.; Pasqualini, S.

    1991-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion, followed by aerobic post treatment, is widely used as a treatment technology of distillery wastes. An economic comparison between two different treatment processes; a traditional concentration unit and the termophilic hybrid anaerobic digester, was done. The costs/benefits balance shows the strong advantage of the anaerobic process, even if the value of by-products from the concentrator is higher than the ones from the digester; the operation costs (mainly labour and energy) of the concentrator are strongly higher, and the balance becomes negative. The NPV of the two plants shows always negative values for the concentrator, while the digester can become convenient under some conditions.

  19. A Benefit-Cost Assessment of New Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Economy in the U.S. Market

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, R. A.; Shaver, G. M.; Tyner, W. E.; Garimella, S V

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations alongside efforts to reduce oil dependence have accelerated the global deployment of advanced vehicle technologies. In recent years, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and consumers have generally been successful in mutually deploying cleaner vehicle options with little sacrifice in cost, performance or overall utility. Projections regarding the challenges and impacts associated with compliance with mid- and long-term targets ...

  20. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  1. The Exact Estimation of Visual Acuity by VEP Technology:A Report of 726 Cases of Eye Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶广勋; 吴炳为; 张玲莉

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the accuracy of using visual evoked potentials(VEP)technology for visual acuity estimation.The enrolled 726 patients with post-traumatic unilateral decrease in visual acuity included the injured eyes served as the experimental group,and the healthy eyes as the control group.The least signal visual angle(LSVA),and amplitude and latency of P100 were chosen as test indexes.The results under different experimental conditions were recorded by PRVEP technology.All data collected were processed...

  2. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, Brian, E-mail: bpilkington@plymouth.ac.uk [Energy and Sustainability in the Built Environment, Reynolds Building, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Roach, Richard, E-mail: richard.roach@interserve.com [Interserve Project Services Ltd. (United Kingdom); Perkins, James, E-mail: artsresearch@plymouth.ac.uk [C/O Environmental Building Group, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: > Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. > Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. > Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. > Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. > Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  3. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  4. Improving Maryland’s Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pé Alexandra St.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM, with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine’s rotor layer (40m-160m. Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine’s ability to produce power.

  5. Short communication: Estimation of the financial benefit of using Jersey milk at different inclusion rates for Cheddar cheese production using partial budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, J H; Bailey, A P; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-03-01

    Partial budgeting was used to estimate the net benefit of blending Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk for Cheddar cheese production. Jersey milk increases Cheddar cheese yield. However, the cost of Jersey milk is also higher; thus, determining the balance of profitability is necessary, including consideration of seasonal effects. Input variables were based on a pilot plant experiment run from 2012 to 2013 and industry milk and cheese prices during this period. When Jersey milk was used at an increasing rate with Holstein-Friesian milk (25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk), it resulted in an increase of average net profit of 3.41, 6.44, 8.57, and 11.18 pence per kilogram of milk, respectively, and this additional profit was constant throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential input on additional profit was cheese yield, whereas cheese price and milk price had a small effect. The minimum increase in yield, which was necessary for the use of Jersey milk to be profitable, was 2.63, 7.28, 9.95, and 12.37% at 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk, respectively. Including Jersey milk did not affect the quantity of whey butter and powder produced. Although further research is needed to ascertain the amount of additional profit that would be found on a commercial scale, the results indicate that using Jersey milk for Cheddar cheese making would lead to an improvement in profit for the cheese makers, especially at higher inclusion rates.

  6. The exact estimation of visual acuity by VEP technology: a report of 726 cases of eye injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guangxun; Wu, Bingwei; Zhang, Lingli

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the accuracy of using visual evoked potentials (VEP) technology for visual acuity estimation. The enrolled 726 patients with post-traumatic unilateral decrease in visual acuity included the injured eyes served as the experimental group, and the healthy eyes as the control group. The least signal visual angle (LSVA), and amplitude and latency of P(100) were chosen as test indexes. The results under different experimental conditions were recorded by PRVEP technology. All data collected were processed and analyzed by SPSS software. The results showed that the coincidence between subjective and VEP visual acuity was 96.7% in control group, but there was very significant difference in experimental group. It was concluded that with the regression formulation for the amplitude of P(100) and vision under LSVA, visual acuity can be estimated more accurately and impartially.

  7. Safety assessment and risk-benefit analysis of the use of azodicarbonamide in baby food jar closure technology: putting trace levels of semicarbazide exposure into perspective--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, E R; Lynch, B S; Musa-Veloso, K; Goodfellow, G H; Cheng, E; Haighton, L A; Lee-Brotherton, V M

    2005-09-01

    The discovery of trace levels of semicarbazide (SEM) in bottled foods (especially baby foods) led to a consideration of the safety of this hydrazine compound by regulatory agencies worldwide. Azodicarbonamide, which is used in the jar-sealing technology known as Press On-Twist Off (or Push-Twist/PT) closures for the formation of a hermetic, plastisol seal, partially degrades with the heat of processing to form trace amounts of SEM. This review has evaluated the potential toxicological risks of resulting exposure to SEM and also the benefit of the PT technology (with azodicarbonamide) in the context of possible microbial contamination. It also considers the potential impact on infant nutrition if parents come to the conclusion that commercial baby foods are unsafe. SEM shows limited genotoxicity in vitro that is largely prevented by the presence of mammalian metabolic enzymes. Negative results were found in vivo in DNA alkaline elution, unscheduled DNA synthesis and micronucleus assays. This pattern is in contrast to the genotoxic hydrazines that also have been shown to cause tumours. Carcinogenicity studies of SEM are of limited quality, show a questionable weak effect in mice at high doses, which are not relevant to human exposure at trace levels, and show no effect in the rat. The IARC has assigned SEM as Group 3, 'Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans'. Based on estimates of exposure to infants consuming baby foods (with the assumption of SEM levels at the 95th percentile of 20 ng g(-1) in all of the consumed 'ready-to-eat' foods) compared with a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in developmental toxicity studies, the margin of safety is more than 21 000. Since the risk of an adverse effect is negligible, it is clear that any theoretical risk is outweighed by the benefits of continuing use of the PT closure (with azodicarbonamide blowing agent) to ensure both the microbial integrity and availability of commercial baby foods as a valuable

  8. Topics in Microeconometrics: Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Occupational Transitions, Wage and Non-Wage Benefits Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection for Derivatives of Various Dimensional Densities Testing the Additive Separability of the Teacher Value Added Effect Semiparametrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    I study three separate questions in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, I develop and estimate a structural dynamic model of occupation and job choice to test hypotheses of the importance of wages and non-wages and learning in occupational transitions, and find that wages are approximately 3 times as important as non-wage benefits in decisions and…

  9. Topics in Microeconometrics: Estimation of a Dynamic Model of Occupational Transitions, Wage and Non-Wage Benefits Cross Validation Bandwidth Selection for Derivatives of Various Dimensional Densities Testing the Additive Separability of the Teacher Value Added Effect Semiparametrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    I study three separate questions in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, I develop and estimate a structural dynamic model of occupation and job choice to test hypotheses of the importance of wages and non-wages and learning in occupational transitions, and find that wages are approximately 3 times as important as non-wage benefits in decisions and…

  10. Technologies for Enhancement of Bioactive Components and Potential Health Benefits of Cereal and Cereal-Based Foods: Research Advances and Application Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  11. Benefícios do desenvolvimento de projetos de inovação tecnológica Benefits from development of technological innovation projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bellintani Calligaris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os benefícios obtidos com a realização de projetos de inovação tecnológica, por meio de três programas governamentais específicos. Os dados apresentados são resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa em que foi realizado um estudo de caso, com interesse em caracterizar a cooperação entre a Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar e o setor empresarial, que ocorre com a utilização de programas de inovação tecnológica específicos. A partir desse estudo pôde-se verificar que os principais benefícios são, de acordo com os discursos dos envolvidos na execução dos projetos, o desenvolvimento das próprias inovações desenvolvidas e os resultados práticos obtidos tanto para o meio acadêmico como para o empresarial.The objective of this article is to present the benefits obtained with the technological innovation programs by government. This paper presents results of a qualitative research related to a case study characterizing the Federal University of Sao Carlos city-industry cooperation using technological innovation programs. Several researches, entrepreneurs and consultants were interviewed. The speech analysis for these interviews shows that main benefits and developed innovations and practical results for both academic and industrial sectors.

  12. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Procedures and Criteria for the regulation of innovative non-medicinal technologies into the benefit catalogue of solidly financed health care insurances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because great interest in an efficient range of effective medicinal innovations and achievements has arisen, many countries have introduced procedures to regulate the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies into the benefit catalogue of solidly financed health care insurances. With this as a background, this report will describe procedures for the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies by solidly financed health care insurances in Germany, England, Australia and Switzerland. This report was commissioned by the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment at the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information.In order to find the relevant literature and information, systematic literature research, a hand search and a written survey were carried out. All the selected documents (chosen according to defined criteria for inclusion and exclusion were qualitatively evaluated, summarized and presented on a chart using a framework developed for this purpose. All the countries in this report require that some innovative non-medicinal technologies undergo evaluation by a central governing body. This evaluation is a prerequisite for adoption into the benefit catalogue. The process of evaluation can differ (e. g. the people and institutions concerned, the division of the synthesis of evidence and overall evaluation, processing the evidence. Similarities do exist, such as the size and composition of the governing bodies or the overreaching criteria according to which institutions must make their recommendations. This is how all the countries examined in this report determine how the benefits and effectiveness of the innovations, as well as their cost-effectiveness, can be chosen as criteria for the evaluation. Furthermore, there are many criteria which differ from country to country (social and ethical aspects, possible effects on the health system, etc. and which are also relevant to an evaluation. The preferred types of

  14. Core benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    This SPEC Kit explores the core employment benefits of retirement, and life, health, and other insurance -benefits that are typically decided by the parent institution and often have significant governmental regulation...

  15. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON DESIGN OF EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES BY ESTIMATING THE RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Elena BUȘARU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify sources of risk, the project manager will have to define the type of project which is the subject analysis which can offer options and especially sources of analysis of the specific risk factors. A For the projects, for the industrial objectives, technical/technological systems, analysis of identify the sources of risk, assessment and monitoring in order to reduce and/or neutralize risks, will be taken in regard for the following: risk factors within technical/technological systems, external risk factors and/or the conjuctural nature, risk factors associated to human errors, organizational chart of minimal content of risk analysis to the stages of design, execution, assembly and operation of technical/technological systems.

  16. A Novel Method Based on Oblique Projection Technology for Mixed Sources Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the computational complexity of the near-field sources and far-field sources localization algorithms has been considered as a serious problem in the field of array signal processing. A novel algorithm caring for mixed sources location estimation based on oblique projection is proposed in this paper. The sources are estimated at two different stages and the sensor noise power is estimated and eliminated from the covariance which improve the accuracy of the estimation of mixed sources. Using the idea of compress, the range information of near-field sources is obtained by searching the partial area instead of the whole Fresnel area which can reduce the processing time. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed algorithm has the lower computation complexity and has the ability to solve the two closed-spaced sources with high resolution and accuracy. The duplication of range estimation is also avoided. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  17. A Cost Estimation Analysis of U.S. Navy Ship Fuel-Savings Techniques and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    coastal waters during the present conflict in Iraq have experienced excessive filter usage rates and premature RO membrane failures. New... microfiltration (MF) technology can provide a superior level of filtration in most waters and can be renewed by backflushing techniques developed under an...ONR program. MF can facilitate operation in coastal and littoral waters and will also allow operating the RO plant at higher membrane recoveries

  18. Analysis of Two Different DOA Algorithms for the Estimation of Desired Signal Using Smart Antenna Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Snigdha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Employment of powerful Direction-of-Arrival (DOA estimation and beam-forming algorithms with smart antenna systems enables continuous tracking of desired signal irrespective of the signal environment there by, enhancing the quality of wireless services. In this paper emphasis is laid mainly on the performance of the various powerful high-resolution subspace algorithms like MUSIC, root-MUSIC and another fast DOA estimation algorithm making use of pseudo-covariance matrix, taking into the consideration, the number of snap-shots required to build an array correlation matrix. The aim is to compare their performances by varying the number of input signal snap-shots and to find the best algorithm that gives optimum performance with reduced number of snap-shots from the results obtained. Their performance in cases of high signal correlation and rapidly changing signal DOAs is also discussed

  19. Fundamentals of Semantic Web Technologies in Medical Environments: a case in breast cancer risk estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Huerga, Iker; Gerrikagoitia, Jon Kepa

    2010-01-01

    Risk estimation of developing breast cancer poses as the first prevention method for early diagnosis. Furthermore, data integration from different departments involved in the process plays a key role. In order to guarantee patient safety, the whole process should be orchestrated and monitored automatically. Support for the solution will be a linked data cloud, composed by all the departments that take part in the process, combined with rule engines.

  20. On the econometric estimation of the distance function representation of a production technology

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the econometric estimation of multi-output, multi-input distance functions have provided a promising new solution to the single-output restriction implicit in the standard production function. However, a suspicion that regressor endogeneity may introduce possible simultaneous equations bias has concerned some econometricians. In this paper we show that, under profit maximising behaviour, distance functions face no greater danger from such bias than their production func...

  1. Nuclear enterprises at the Institute for Energy Technology - IFE. A socio-economic cost/benefit analysis; Nukleaere virksomheter ved Institutt for energiteknikk - IFE. En samfunnsoekonomisk kost/nytte-analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    A cost-benefit analysis concerning the research reactors JEEP II at Kjeller and the Halden Reactor in Halden, operated by the Institute for Energy Technology. It is concluded for both of the reactors that the benefits of continued operations are outweigh the cost. Financing, accident risk, waste management and nuclear competence are some of the aspects treated. The Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry initiated the evaluation on behalf of the Norwegian Government

  2. Nuclear enterprises at the Institute for Energy Technology - IFE. A socio-economic cost/benefit analysis; Nukleaere virksomheter ved Institutt for energiteknikk - IFE. En samfunnsoekonomisk kost/nytte-analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    A cost-benefit analysis concerning the research reactors JEEP II at Kjeller and the Halden Reactor in Halden, operated by the Institute for Energy Technology. It is concluded for both of the reactors that the benefits of continued operations are outweigh the cost. Financing, accident risk, waste management and nuclear competence are some of the aspects treated. The Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry initiated the evaluation on behalf of the Norwegian Government

  3. Joint Logistics Systems Center Information Technology Budget FY 1995 Budget Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    methods, communication backbone and standardized record formats, supporting Electronic Data Interchange, application of artificial intelligence ...standardized record formats, supporting Electronic Data Interchange, application of artificial intelligence technologies to tactical logistics planning...6.044 6,52 4,94 7,393 7,124 1-18cIP10 Cap hift Mgmt (COM Wholesale siuofaw I’m4 7,006 6,35 7.W5 6,006 6,102 30 wodlyoam 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Detense Busines

  4. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Estimating Topology of Discrete Dynamical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-Juan; Fu, Xin-Chu

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, by applying Lasalle's invariance principle and some results about the trace of a matrix, we propose a method for estimating the topological structure of a discrete dynamical network based on the dynamical evolution of the network. The network concerned can be directed or undirected, weighted or unweighted, and the local dynamics of each node can be nonidentical. The connections among the nodes can be all unknown or partially known. Finally, two examples, including a Hénon map and a central network, are illustrated to verify the theoretical results.

  5. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT) based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations.

  6. Mathematical model for estimating of technical and technological indicators of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to create a mathematical model of the railway station functioning for the solving of problems of station technology development on the plan-schedule basis. Methodology. The methods of graph theory and object-oriented analysis are used as research methods. The model of the station activity plan-schedule includes a model of technical equipment of the station (plan-schedule net and a model of the station functioning , which are formalized on the basis of parametric graphs. Findings. The presented model is implemented as an application to the graphics package AutoCAD. The software is developed in Visual LISP and Visual Basic. Taking into account that the construction of the plan-schedule is mostly a traditional process of adding, deleting, and modifying of icons, the developed interface is intuitively understandable for a technologist and practically does not require additional training. Originality. A mathematical model was created on the basis of the theory of graphs and object-oriented analysis in order to evaluate the technical and process of railway stations indicators; it is focused on solving problems of technology development of their work. Practical value. The proposed mathematical model is implemented as an application to the graphics package of AutoCAD. The presence of a mathematical model allows carrying out an automatic analysis of the plan-schedule and, thereby, reducing the period of its creation more than twice.

  7. Estimating the economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kort, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these regional economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the impacts associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census regions and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. Impacts on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of regional and state solar energy expenditures and their impacts appear in the Appendix.

  8. Preliminary Weight Savings Estimate for a Commercial Transport Wing Using Rod-Stiffened Stitched Composite Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A structural concept called pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure (PRSEUS) was developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. While PRSEUS was an enabling technology for the pressurized HWB structure, limited investigation of PRSEUS for other aircraft structures, such as circular fuselages and wings, has been done. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate the potential weight savings afforded by using the PRSEUS concept for a commercial transport wing. The study applied PRSEUS to the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program composite semi-span test article, which was sized using three load cases. The initial PRSEUS design was developed by matching cross-sectional stiffnesses for each stringer/skin combination within the wing covers, then the design was modified to ensure that the PRSEUS design satisfied the design criteria. It was found that the PRSEUS wing design exhibited weight savings over the blade-stiffened composite AST Program wing of nearly 9%, and a weight savings of 49% and 29% for the lower and upper covers, respectively, compared to an equivalent metallic wing.

  9. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign...

  10. Soil organic carbon stocks under native vegetation - revised estimates for use with the simple assessment option of the Carbon Benefits Project system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) is developing a standardized system for sustainable land management projects to measure, model and report changes in carbon stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for use at varying scales. A global framework of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under native veget

  11. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-06-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  12. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  13. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs. FY 2004 - FY 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a benefits analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2004 budget request will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable. It summarizes the results of the analysis, which focused on economic, environmental, and security benefits related to energy. The report identifies specific measures or indicators of estimated benefits for FY 2004.

  14. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs. FY 2005 - FY 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report describes a benefits analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2005 budget request will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable. It summarizes the results of the analysis, which focused on economic, environmental, and security benefits related to energy. The report identifies specific measures or indicators of estimated benefits for FY 2005.

  15. Benefits of using biogas technology in rural area: karo district on supporting local action plan for greenhouse gas emission reduction of north sumatera province 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) by 26% in 2020. At the UNFCCC (Conference of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change) held in Paris in December 2015 Indonesia committed to reduce GHG; one way by promoting clean energy use for example biogas. Agricultural industry produces organic waste which contributes to global warming and climate change. In Karo District, mostly the people were farmers, either horticulture or fruit and produces massive organic waste. Biogas research was conducted in Karo District in May until July 2016 used 5 biodigesters. The purpose was to determine benefits of using biogas technology in order to reduct GHG emissions. The used design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with treatments: T1 (100% cow feces), T2 (75% cow feces + 25% horticultural waste), T3 (50% cow feces + 50% horticultural waste), T4 (25% cow feces + 75% horticultural waste) and T5 (100% horticultural waste). Parameter research were gas production, pH and temperature. The research result showed that T1 produced the highest methane ( Pbiogas on agricultural waste supported local action plan for greenhouse gas emission reduction of North Sumatera Province 2010-2020. From horticultural waste, there were 2.1 × 106 ton CO2 eq in 2014 which were not calculated in RAD GRK (Regional Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction).

  16. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  17. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  18. Safety-related Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology Elements R and D (SINTER) Network and Global HTGR R and D Network (GHTRN). Strategic benefits of international networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Lensa, W. [Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik ISR, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The nuclear industries and the nuclear research and development (R and D) programmes world-wide have undergone considerable changes over recent years which have resulted in the formation of international industrial consortiums on the one hand and the need for synergistic collaboration in the R and D area due to the reductions of national R and D activities in the nuclear field on the other hand. International networking starting from precompetitive medium- or long-term oriented R and D could be an efficient mean to overcome the problems nuclear energy is facing today with respect to the lack of public acceptance and economic attractivity in a joint effort. Additional motivation is provided by the fact that there is not only a globalisation of markets but also a `globalisation of problems` to be addressed internationally like reductions of environmental impacts and long-term availability of economic energy supply. The tools for telecommunication and telecollaboration are evolving in parallel and offer better conditions for closer collaboration of different R and D teams at distant locations than ever before. It is obvious that these trends and boundary conditions will drastically influence the structures of collaboration not only in the industries, but for R and D on an international level, too. The chances emerging from the creation of a European Union and from the globalisation trends have to be converted into strategic benefits by active response on these `historic changes`. New initiatives have been undertaken in Europe to push for innovations of nuclear reactor technologies via international R and D Networks under the European R and D Framework Programmes (FWP). Innovative approaches are already addressed with limited funding under the actual 4th FWP and should be extended for complementing the commercial efforts on evolutionary LWR concepts by medium- and long-term oriented innovations and R and D. The MICHELANGELO initiative as well as the EU-funded Concerted

  19. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  20. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Feng

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  1. Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C

    2017-03-28

    The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model.

  2. Estimation of Lead (Pb in Toys Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipayan Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead exists extensively in the environment and it is a heavy metal, which is neurotoxic in nature which is harmful to children. In contrast to trace elements such as iron (Fe and zinc (Zn, lead has no recognized benecial effects in human body. With the economic development in India in recent years, the concentration of lead has increased in the environment and henceforth, lead pollution has become a severe problem in the country. Lead poisoning can create an immense damage and irreversible harm to foetal growth, the growth of teenagers and psychological, behavioural and cognitive development. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the lead content in the sample of toys. Material and Methods: 97 different toys were collected and coded as TS, these toys were kept in plastic lock cover which were lead proof. At rst the toys were arranged in order according to the serial number of the code (TS1 – TS97. The FP X-ray uorescence (Innov-X ray analyzer instrument was placed with the window of the analyzer on the surface of the toy vertically in such a way that there was no gap between the toy surface and the sampling window. The parts per million (ppm values of all toys were recorded. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 22 samples were above permissible limits. The different materials demonstrate signicant correlation with the lead content in ppm. Lead is used as a stabilizer in some toys as well as children's items made from PVC plastic. Baby toys made up of plastic have higher concentration of lead. Lead can leach out of products when children handle and swallow them involuntarily.

  3. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern part of Ethiopia. ... with growing coffee without shade tree plants that included stunted growth which ultimately ...... coffee producers' price risk. J. Inter.

  4. Medicaid Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benefits Close About Us Messages from CMCS Program History Leadership Organization Visit CMS Contact Us Close Home > Medicaid > ... for Coverage LTSS Prescription Drugs About Us Program History Leadership Organization Visit CMS Contact Us State Medicaid & CHIP ...

  5. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Roobol, Monique J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Villers, Arnauld; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Páez, Alvaro; Eastham, James A; Lilja, Hans; de Koning, Harry J; Vickers, Andrew J; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M

    2016-11-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus "good practice." Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386-3393. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  7. Estimating the budget impact of new technologies added to the National List of Health Services in Israel: stakeholders' incentives for adopting a financial risk-sharing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Ariel; Greenberg, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Israeli National List of Health Services (NLHS) is updated annually according to a government allocated budget. The estimated annual cost of each new technology added to this list is based on budget-impact estimations provided by the HMOs and the manufacturers. The HMOs argue that once a new technology is reimbursed, extensive marketing efforts by industry expands demand and renders the allocated budget insufficient. Industry claims that HMOs, in order to secure a sufficient budget, tend to over-estimate the number of target patients. We provide a framework for a financial risk-sharing mechanism between HMOs and the industry, which may be able to balance these incentives and result in more accurate early budget-impact estimates. To explore the current stakeholders' incentives and behaviors under the existing process of updating the NLHS, and to examine the possible incentives for adopting a financial risk-sharing mechanism on early budget-impact estimations. According to the financial risk-sharing mechanism, HMOs will be partially compensated by the industry if actual use of a technology is substantially higher than what was projected. HMOs will partially refund the government for a budget that was not fully used. To maintain profits, we assume that the industry will present a more realistic budget-impact analysis. HMOs will be less apprehensive of technology promotion, as they would be compensated in case of budget under-estimation. In case of over-estimation of technology use, the budget re-allocated will be used to enlarge the NLHS which is in the best interest of the health technology industry. Our proposed risk-sharing mechanism is expected to counter balance incentives and disincentives that currently exist in adopting new health technologies in the Israeli healthcare system.

  8. Use of surrogate technologies to estimate suspended sediment in the Clearwater River, Idaho, and Snake River, Washington, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Teasdale, Gregg N.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of fluvial sediment can reduce the biological productivity of aquatic systems, impair freshwater quality, decrease reservoir storage capacity, and decrease the capacity of hydraulic structures. The need to measure fluvial sediment has led to the development of sediment surrogate technologies, particularly in locations where streamflow alone is not a good estimator of sediment load because of regulated flow, load hysteresis, episodic sediment sources, and non-equilibrium sediment transport. An effective surrogate technology is low maintenance and sturdy over a range of hydrologic conditions, and measured variables can be modeled to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), load, and duration of elevated levels on a real-time basis. Among the most promising techniques is the measurement of acoustic backscatter strength using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) deployed in rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, evaluated the use of acoustic backscatter, turbidity, laser diffraction, and streamflow as surrogates for estimating real-time SSC and loads in the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which adjoin in Lewiston, Idaho, and flow into Lower Granite Reservoir. The study was conducted from May 2008 to September 2010 and is part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Programmatic Sediment Management Plan to identify and manage sediment sources in basins draining into lower Snake River reservoirs. Commercially available acoustic instruments have shown great promise in sediment surrogate studies because they require little maintenance and measure profiles of the surrogate parameter across a sampling volume rather than at a single point. The strength of acoustic backscatter theoretically increases as more particles are suspended in the water to reflect the acoustic pulse emitted by the ADVM. ADVMs of different frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Megahertz) were tested to

  9. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  10. Incorporating Technology into Out-of-School Time Programs: Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication # 2010-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashleigh; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth are growing up in an increasingly technology-saturated world. Digital devices, the Internet, and interactive media have become ubiquitous. As a result, young people are not only becoming expert users of technological devices, but technology and technologically-based learning environments are extending student learning beyond the…

  11. Preliminary Discussion on Index Composition of Benefit Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Achievements in Animal Husbandry%畜牧科技成果效益评价指标构成的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓红

    2009-01-01

    为客观评价畜牧科技成果的效益,从畜牧科技成果评价的目的、作用和畜牧科技成果的实际出发,将畜牧科技的评价指标分为社会效益、经济效益和生态效益3个构成部分并进行了探讨,认为,畜牧科技成果的效益评价是一个综合性的体系,需要把社会效益、经济效益和生态效益进行有机的结合;确定评价指标、评价方式和评价结论时,要充分考虑畜牧科技成果的特殊性,采用定性、定量有机结合的综合评价方式进行评价.%The social, economic and ecological benefit of evaluation index of scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry is discussed according to the aim, effect and reality of scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry to objectively evaluate the benefit of scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry. The paper points out that the benefit evaluation of scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry is a comprehensive system with the organic combination of social, economic and ecological benefit, the particularity of scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry should be fully considered when the evaluation index, pattern and conclusion are determined, and the scientific and technological achievements in animal husbandry should be evaluated by using the comprehensive evaluation pattern with the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  12. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B

    1991-01-01

    . Toothbrushing frequency also increased significantly. Ninety-eight per cent of the children enjoyed the campaign and 66 per cent discussed it with their family. Each school was classified according to the proportion of children receiving free school meals, and this showed a statistically significant negative...... correlation with the proportion of children who chose non-cariogenic meals and drinks before the campaign but not afterwards. Toothbrushing frequency showed a significant negative correlation with free meals both before and after the campaign. A positive correlation was found between free meals......The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign...

  13. Reducing young driver crash casualties in Great Britain - use of routine police crash data to estimate the potential benefits of graduated driver licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah J; Begg, Dorothy J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Crashes involving young drivers (YD) cause significant morbidity and mortality in Great Britain (GB). Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is used in some countries to address this. This study assessed potential casualty and cost savings of possible GDL programmes in GB. Police road crash data were analysed to identify YD crashes at night or while carrying passengers. These data were then used to estimate the potential effects of GDL. 314,561 casualties and 3469 fatalities occurred in YD crashes. 25.1% of YD crashes occurred between 9 pm and 6 am and 24.4% occurred with a 15- to 24-year old passenger in the car. A 'strict' form of GDL in GB (night time restriction 9 pm-6 am, no 15-24 year old passengers) with 50% compliance would prevent 114 deaths and 872 serious casualties each year. The estimated value of prevention is £424M pa. A 'less strict' form of GDL (night time restriction 10 pm-5 am, maximum of one 15-19 year old passenger) with 50% compliance would prevent 81 deaths and 538 serious injuries. The estimated value of prevention is £273M pa. Implementing GDL in GB could save significant numbers of lives. Public health organisations have a duty to advocate for such legislation.

  14. Brief communication: The challenge and benefit of using sea ice concentration satellite data products with uncertainty estimates in summer sea ice data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Losch, Martin; Losa, Svetlana N.; Jung, Thomas; Nerger, Lars; Lavergne, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Data assimilation experiments that aim at improving summer ice concentration and thickness forecasts in the Arctic are carried out. The data assimilation system used is based on the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) and a local singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (LSEIK) filter. The effect of using sea ice concentration satellite data products with appropriate uncertainty estimates is assessed by three different experiments using sea ice concentration data of the European Space Agency Sea Ice Climate Change Initiative (ESA SICCI) which are provided with a per-grid-cell physically based sea ice concentration uncertainty estimate. The first experiment uses the constant uncertainty, the second one imposes the provided SICCI uncertainty estimate, while the third experiment employs an elevated minimum uncertainty to account for a representation error. Using the observation uncertainties that are provided with the data improves the ensemble mean forecast of ice concentration compared to using constant data errors, but the thickness forecast, based on the sparsely available data, appears to be degraded. Further investigating this lack of positive impact on the sea ice thicknesses leads us to a fundamental mismatch between the satellite-based radiometric concentration and the modeled physical ice concentration in summer: the passive microwave sensors used for deriving the vast majority of the sea ice concentration satellite-based observations cannot distinguish ocean water (in leads) from melt water (in ponds). New data assimilation methodologies that fully account or mitigate this mismatch must be designed for successful assimilation of sea ice concentration satellite data in summer melt conditions. In our study, thickness forecasts can be slightly improved by adopting the pragmatic solution of raising the minimum observation uncertainty to inflate the data error and ensemble spread.

  15. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Providing Free Public Transit Passes to Students in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Applying a Health Lens to Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Gase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased focus by public health to engage and work with non-health sector partners to improve the health of the general as well as special populations, only a paucity of studies have described and disseminated emerging lessons and promising practices that can be used to undertake this work. This article describes the process used to conduct a Health Impact Assessment of a proposal to provide free public transportation passes to students in Los Angeles County. This illustrative case example describes opportunities and challenges encountered in working with an array of cross-sector partners and highlights four important lessons learned: (1 the benefits and challenges associated with broad conceptualization of public issues; (2 the need for more comprehensive, longitudinal data systems and dynamic simulation models to inform decision-making; (3 the importance of having a comprehensive policy assessment strategy that considers health impacts as well as costs and feasibility; and (4 the need for additional efforts to delineate the interconnectivity between health and other agency priorities. As public health advances cross-sector work in the community, further development of these priorities will help advance meaningful collaboration among all partners.

  16. The social construction of facts and artefacts: or How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinch, Trevor J.; Bijker, Wiebe E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for an integrated social constructivist approach towards the study of science and technology is outlined. Within such a programme both scientific facts and technological artefacts are to be understood as social constructs. Literature on the sociology of science, the science-technology

  17. Portfolio effect of wind power plants based on wind regime dependency. Portugal case-study. Estimating the uncertainty benefit of wind farm portfolios in Portuguese wind regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, N.F.; Trivino, C.; Marco, J.M. [GL Garrad Iberica, S.L.U., Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The uncertainty associated with the wind variability on wind farm energy production estimate may be mitigated when considering several wind farms within a portfolio rather than isolated. If two wind farms are geographically disperse in such a way that the wind regime in which wind farm is immersed can be considered independent or at least partly independent, the deviations on the annual energy production from the average of each wind farm may compensate each other - the so called ''portfolio effect''. This is an important feature for investors and operators when quantifying the associated uncertainty of the predicted energy yield of the overall portfolio for future timescales such as 1- year or 10-years periods. The methodology to determine the degree of dependency between wind regimes have been applied in an hypothetical portfolio of seven wind farms dispersed from north to south in continental Portugal. (orig.)

  18. Why the US Needs a Deep Domestic Research Facility: Owning rather than Renting the Education Benefits, Technology Advances, and Scientific Leadership of Underground Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T

    2013-01-01

    I summarize the status of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and present connections to Energy and Intensity Frontier that benefit from the establishment of SURF and the staging of US-funded experiments in a domestic facility.

  19. Searching for optimal setting conditions in technological processes using parametric estimation models and neural network mapping approach: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novič, Marjana

    2015-09-03

    Engineering optimization is an actual goal in manufacturing and service industries. In the tutorial we represented the concept of traditional parametric estimation models (Factorial Design (FD) and Central Composite Design (CCD)) for searching optimal setting parameters of technological processes. Then the 2D mapping method based on Auto Associative Neural Networks (ANN) (particularly, the Feed Forward Bottle Neck Neural Network (FFBN NN)) was described in comparison with traditional methods. The FFBN NN mapping technique enables visualization of all optimal solutions in considered processes due to the projection of input as well as output parameters in the same coordinates of 2D map. This phenomenon supports the more efficient way of improving the performance of existing systems. Comparison of two methods was performed on the bases of optimization of solder paste printing processes as well as optimization of properties of cheese. Application of both methods enables the double check. This increases the reliability of selected optima or specification limits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  1. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  2. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  3. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  4. Essays on Adoption and Diffusion of New Technology in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daeheon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, network technologies across supply chains have been introduced and promoted with the premised benefits for all participants. However industry experience with an adoption process of some technology suggests that some firms have a great amount of uncertainty in estimating the benefits of its adoption. This uncertainty will…

  5. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  6. Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    RBI process for assessing restoration sites using non-monetary benefit indicators. The RBI approach uses readily-available data to estimate and quantify benefits to people around an ecological restoration site using indicators of nature’s value to people.

  7. What Is Your Favorite Ed Tech Tool? Educators Hail the Benefits of Many Technologies during 30 Years of Effective Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In honor of International Society for Technology in Education's (ISTE's) 30th anniversary, "Learning & Leading with Technology" conducted a poll asking members to cite their favorite teaching tools. After asking members of ISTE's Special Interest Groups to name three tech tools they felt were the most influential in education over the course of…

  8. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Berry; Peters, Suzanne; de Heer, Raymond; Pothuizen, Helen; van der Harst, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now ‘see’ molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However, t

  9. lncremental Costs-benefits of Energy Saving Technology in Green Building%绿色建筑节能技术增量成本与效益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 刘姗姗

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving technology makes the high cost that becomes an obstacle to the development of green building. It is necessary to analyze incremental costs and benefits of energy saving. The energy saving technology is introduced, and the incremental costs and benefit are analyzed. Then a model of incremental costs-benefits of green building is built and the processing of energy saving's economic results are quantified. The results show that the formula of incremental benefits and period of incremental cost recovery. All these provide a theory basis for the energy saving technology's choice.%由于绿色节能技术的运用使得绿色建筑的初期成本高于普通建筑,这成为了绿色建筑推广过程中的制约因素.所以有必要对节能技术的增量成本和效益进行分析.对绿色建筑中常用的节能技术,并基于费用效益理论对节能技术产生的各部分增量成本和效益进行分析,构建增量成本与效益模型.在此基础上对节能技术产生的增量效益进行量化处理,得出增量效益和增量成本回收期的计算公式.为人们能够合理选择绿色建筑节能技术提供理论依据.

  10. Testing the Benefits of Blended Education: Using Social Technology to Foster Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing in Face-to-Face LIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.; Copeland, Andrea J.; Zach, Lisl

    2013-01-01

    Blended education, which mixes elements of face-to-face and online educational delivery, can occur at the activity, course, program, or administrative level. This study examined the use of student blogs to test the benefits of course-level blended educational delivery for LIS students enrolled in a face-to-face course. Data collected from…

  11. Terms of Trade Changes, Technological Progress and Benefits of Industrial Structure An Analysis Based on Multinational Panel Data%贸易条件变动、技术进步与产业结构效益——基于跨国面板数据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恕立; 刘军

    2012-01-01

    Based on technological perspective, this paper first analyzes the effects of terms of trade movements on the benefits of industrial structure in theory, and then, classifies trade products into 5 categories by technological levels; and selects the rate of industrial technological progress and export competitiveness of high-tech industrial products as the measure of industrial structural benefits. Meanwhile, the effects are estimated for a panel of 15 countries over 1987 -2008. The results show that: the improvement of terms of trade in primary products has negative effects on industrial structural benefits, but resource-based and high-tech products have positive ones; the improvement of terms of trade in low-tech products increases the rate of technological progress, but weakens export competitiveness of high-tech industrial products; the improvement of terms of trade in medium-tech products has positive effects on industrial structural benefits in developing and newly industrializing countries, but weakens export competitiveness of high-tech industrial products in developed countries.%本文基于技术视角,将贸易产品从不同技术层级分为5类,并采取工业技术进步率和高技术工业产品出口竞争力衡量工业产业结构效益。同时,利用15个国家1987—2008年的相关数据,实证检验了不同技术层级产品贸易条件变动对工业产业结构效益的影响。结果表明:初级产品贸易条件改善对工业产业结构效益具有负效应;而资源性产品和高技术产品贸易条件改善对工业产业结构效益具有正效应;低技术产品贸易条件改善提高了工业技术进步率却削弱高技术工业产品出口竞争力;中等技术产品贸易条件改善对发展中国家及新型工业化国家工业产业结构效益具有正效应,但削弱了发达国家高技术工业产品的出口竞争力。

  12. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  13. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about...... beneficiaries of cross-border welfare. We present results from an original large-scale survey experiment (N=2525) among Swedish voters, randomizing exposure to cues about recipients' country of origin and family size. Consistent with a model emphasizing the role of stereotypes, respondents react to cues about...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  14. Technology Spillover, Unfair Benefit Distribution and Their Strategy:Literature Review and Comment%技术溢出、利益分配不均和双方决策——综述与评论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳秋珍; 陈昭

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature study on international technology spillover.and analyzes the effects of technology spillover on the relationship between the absorption and the recipient as well as the policies adopted by these two sides. The result shows as follows ; technology spillover often influences the benefit distribution between the absorption and the recipient (foreign market is likely to take technological alliance policy to share technology spillover (instead of technology protection policy to hinder technology spillover ; our government will take intellectual property protection. subsidies and so on to obtain technology spillover, and China's enterprises will also go out actively to get technology spillover.%在梳理现有国际技术溢出研究文献的基础上,分析了技术溢出对溢出方和接收方之间关系的影响以及双方可能采取的策略.研究发现:技术溢出通常会影响溢出方和接收方的利益分配;国外市场采取技术联盟政策分享技术溢出,而非采取保护政策阻碍技术溢出;我国政府会通过采取知识产权保护、补贴等政策获得技术溢出,我国企业也会主动“走出去”来获得技术溢出等.

  15. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  16. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  17. Decision-Making Model for Remanufacturing Process Technologies Based on Synergetic Benefits and its Application%基于协同效应的再制造工艺技术决策模型及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志刚; 蒋小利; 张旭刚; 张华; 鄢威

    2013-01-01

    再制造工艺技术优化选择是实现高效、快速及环境友好地实现再制造成形过程的关键环节之一.但是,废旧零部件失效特征的多样性,导致再制造工艺过程的复杂性,并影响再制造工艺技术的优化配置.为此,综合考虑再制造工艺技术产生的直接效益以及再制造工艺技术之间的协同效应,构建一种适应多种失效特征的废旧零部件再制造工艺技术决策模型.该模型可以辅助选择要实施的再制造工艺技术,获得条件允许下所能产生最大系统效益的再制造工艺技术组合.结合某企业实际,将模型应用于该企业再制造工艺技术决策中,为企业实施再制造提供了技术支持.%Different fault type and severity level of used components may be restored by different process technologies, and results in different performance of remanufacturing.Therefore,re manufacturing process technology selection can often make the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful remanufacturing system.However,there is a lack of effective decision making model for remanufacturing process technology due to varieties in fault types of used components.A decision making model for selecting a remanufacturing process technology is developed,in which both the direct benefits derived from, remanufacturing process technologies and the synergetic benefits between different types of technologies.This model can be used to select the suitable remanufacturing technology portfolios with the largest benefit.Combined with practical situation of an enterprise ,the model is applied to provide technical support for remanufacturing implementation.

  18. 软件成本估算技术比较及趋势分析%Technological Comparison and Tendency Analysis of Software Cost Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文艳

    2009-01-01

    总结软件成本估算的研究应用情况, 对比分析软件成本估算的6种估算方法、6种建模技术、12种估算工具,在此基础上,提出软件成本估算的发展趋势,为关联研究和应用提供了参考.%This paper summarizes the research and application situation to software cost estimation. On base of comparing and analyzing six types of estimation method, six types of building model technology, twelve types of cost estimation tool, proposes the development tendency of software cost estimation. It provides references for research and application.

  19. The Connecting South West Ontario (cSWO) Benefits Model: An Approach for the Collaborative Capture of Value of Electronic Health Records and Enabling Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ted; Huebner, Lori-Anne; Alarakhia, Mohamed; Hollohan, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the benefits model developed and deployed by the connecting South West Ontario (cSWO) program. The cSWO approach is founded on the principles of enabling clinical and organizational value and the recognition that enabling requires a collaborative approach that can include several perspectives. We describe our approach which is aimed at creating a four-part harmony between change management and adoption, best practice research and quality indicators, data analytics and clinical value production.

  20. Estimating the effects of Technology and Depletion on the Real Price of Copper in the U. S. Using a Cointegration Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.

    2001-07-01

    The effects of technology and depletion on U. S. copper scarcity- as measured by real price can be estimated explicitly using econometrics, rather than assuming the their combined effect is implicit in a quadratic trend. The two most relevant cost-decreasing technologies-black-caving and open-pit mining and leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW)-are proxied by their rate of diffusion. Depletion is proxied by average yield. Since these proxies and real price contain a unit root. Johansen's maximum-likelihood estimation procedure is used to test for the number of cointegrating relations, and estimate a vector autoregressive model from which a price equation in error-correction form is derived. A unique cointegrating relation without a trend is found, which supports the hypothesis that the real price of copper has no scarcity-rent component if we believe that this components should be modeled as a trend. The cointegrating relation loads into the price equation, and the convergence towards the long-run equilibrium is almost instantaneous. The estimated combined effect of physical depletion and technology on the U. S. real price of copper shows that the diffusion of block-caving and open-pit mining technologies off set the effect on price of the decline in average yield until the end of the thirties. From 1938 to 1976, the combined effect was slightly positive, and markedly and continuously negative thereafter, as a result of the introduction of leaching and SX-EW technologies, and the stabilization and even increase of average yield. (Author)

  1. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  2. Benefits of Precision Farming Technologies for Mechanical Weed Control in Soybean and Sugar Beet—Comparison of Precision Hoeing with Conventional Mechanical Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed infestations and associated yield losses require effective weed control measures in soybean and sugar beet. Besides chemical weed control, mechanical weeding plays an important role in integrated weed management systems. Field experiments were conducted at three locations for soybean in 2013 and 2014 and at four locations for sugar beet in 2014 to investigate if automatic steering technologies for inter-row weed hoeing using a camera or RTK-GNSS increase weed control efficacy, efficiency and crop yield. Treatments using precision farming technologies were compared with conventional weed control strategies. Weed densities in the experiments ranged from 15 to 154 plants m−2 with Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Matricaria chamomilla and Lamium purpureum being the most abundant species. Weed hoeing using automatic steering technologies reduced weed densities in soybean by 89% and in sugar beet by 87% compared to 85% weed control efficacy in soybean and sugar beet with conventional weeding systems. Speed of weed hoeing could be increased from 4 km h−1 with conventional hoes to 7 and 10 km·h−1, when automatic steering systems were used. Precision hoeing technologies increased soybean yield by 23% and sugar beet yield by 37%. After conventional hoeing and harrowing, soybean yields were increased by 28% and sugar beet yield by 26%.

  3. Benefits and Risks of Electronic Medical Record (EMR): An Interpretive Analysis of Healthcare Consumers' Perceptions of an Evolving Health Information Systems Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chester D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore healthcare consumers' perceptions of their Electronic Medical Records (EMRs). Although there have been numerous studies regarding EMRs, there have been minimal, if any, research that explores healthcare consumers' awareness of this technology and the social implications that result. As consumers' health…

  4. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Wind Energy R&D Program: Impact of Selected Energy Technology Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelsoci, Thomas M. [Delta Research Co., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This benefit-cost analysis focuses on the DOE Wind Energy Program's public sector R&D investments and returns. The analysis accounts for the program's additionality – that is, comparing what has happened as a result of the program to what would have happened without it. The analysis does not address the return on the investments of private companies ("private returns"). Public returns on the program's investments from 1976 to 2008 are identified and analyzed using retrospective analysis.

  5. Environmental impacts and benefits of information and communication technology infrastructure and services, using process and input-output life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Loerincik, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development and the Information Society are two concepts that are not commonly associated. However, both could have a major impact on the other. Information and communication technologies (ICT) may have important negative impacts on the environment. At the same time, ICT can also bring improvements. To provide guidance on how ICT devices and applications can be oriented towards positive effects, new methodology and tools are needed to understand and assess these various effects. I...

  6. Environmental impacts and benefits of information and communication technology infrastructure and services, using process and input-output life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Loerincik, Yves; Jolliet, Olivier; Maréchal, François

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development and the Information Society are two concepts that are not commonly associated. However, both could have a major impact on the other. Information and communication technologies (ICT) may have important negative impacts on the environment. At the same time, ICT can also bring improvements. To provide guidance on how ICT devices and applications can be oriented towards positive effects, new methodology and tools are needed to understand and assess these various effects. I...

  7. Climate technology strategies. Vol. 2. The macro-economic cost and benefit or reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capros, P.; Georgakopoulos, P. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Regemorter, D. van; Proost, S. [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium). Center for Economic Studies; Schmidt, T.F.N.; Koschel, H. [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Mannheim Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik; Vouyoukas, E.L.

    1999-07-01

    Climate technology becomes more and more relevant in international environmental policy negotiations. At the Kyoto conference binding emission reduction targets have been established for several regions of the world. The major challenge is how to realize these reduction goals with minimum costs without generating new distributional and social difficulties. The book analyses the macroeconomic structural and distributional impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies for the EU and the member states. (orig.)

  8. An external peer review of the U.S. Department of Energy`s assessment of ``damages and benefits of the fuel cycles: Estimation methods, impacts, and values``. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-09

    The need for better assessments of the ``external`` benefits and costs of environmental effects of various fuel cycles was identified during the development of the National Energy Strategy. The growing importance of this issue was emphasized by US Department of Energy (DOE) management because over half of the states were already pursuing some form of social costing in electricity regulation and a well-established technical basis for such decisions was lacking. This issue was identified as a major area of controversy--both scientifically and politically--in developing energy policies at the state and national level. In 1989, the DOE`s Office of Domestic and International Energy Policy commissioned a study of the external environmental damages and benefits of the major fuel cycles involved in electric power generation. Over the next 3-year period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future conducted the study and produced a series of documents (fuel cycle documents) evaluating the costs of environmental damages of the coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, hydroelectric, and nuclear fuel cycles, as well as the Background Document on methodological issues. These documents described work that took almost 3 years and $2.5 million to complete and whose implications could be far reaching. In 1992, the Secretary of Energy sought advice on the overall concepts underlying the studies and the means employed to estimate environmental externalities. He asked the Secretary of Energy`s Advisory Board to undertake a peer review of the fuel cycle studies and encouraged the Board to turn to outside expertise, as needed.

  9. Farm technology adoption in Kenya: a simultaneous estimation of inorganic fertilizer and improved maize variety adoption decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogada, Maurice J; Mwabu, Germano; Muchai, Diana

    2014-01-01

    .... Other factors found to influence the adoption of the two technologies were farmer characteristics, plot-level factors and market imperfections such as limited access to credit and input markets, and production risks...

  10. Reproducibility and relevance of future behavioral sciences should benefit from a cross fertilization of past recommendations and today's technology: "Back to the future".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Berry M; Peters, Suzanne M; de Heer, Raymond C; Pothuizen, Helen H J; van der Harst, Johanneke E

    2014-08-30

    Thanks to the discovery of novel technologies and sophisticated analysis tools we can now 'see' molecules, genes and even patterns of gene expression, which have resulted in major advances in many areas of biology. Recently, similar technologies have been developed for behavioral studies. However, the wide implementation of such technological progress in behavioral research remains behind, as if there are inhibiting factors for accepting and adopting available innovations. The methods of the majority of studies measuring and interpreting behavior of laboratory animals seem to have frozen in time somewhere in the last century. As an example of the so-called classical tests, we will present the history and shortcomings of one of the most frequently used tests, the open field. Similar objections and critical remarks, however, can be made with regard to the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, various other mazes, object recognition tests, etc. Possible solutions and recommendations on how progress in behavioral neuroscience can be achieved and accelerated will be discussed in the second part of this review.

  11. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  12. NASA Benefits Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  13. Economic Benefit Evaluation of Renewable Power Generation Technology Based on DEA Method%基于DEA的可再生能源发电技术经济效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢传胜; 贾晓希; 董达鹏; 王蕾

    2012-01-01

    在发电行业中,由于发电厂具有较高的建设和运营成本,因此能效是衡量经济效益的关键因素.采用DEA评价方法比较风电、水电、光伏发电及生物质发电四种可再生能源发电技术的投入、产出情况,输入指标包括单位投资额、折旧率和运营及维护成本,输出指标为发电小时数.算例分析表明,DEA方法可有效评价可再生能源发电技术的经济效益并为其规模化发展提供依据.%In the generation industry, due to the higher construction and operation cost of plant, the efficiency is an important concept of the economic benefit evaluation. The DEA method is applied to evaluate the relative benefit of multi-input and output decision-making units. Four kinds of renewable energy technology including wind power, hydroelectric, PV generation and biomass power generation are taken for an example. The input indices are unit investment quota, depreciation rate, operation and maintenance cost, and the output index is the generation hours. The example results show that the DEA method can effectively evaluate the economic benefit of renewable energy technology, which provides the basis for the scale development.

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  16. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  17. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  18. Utility of space technology for restoration of prime componant of earth ecosystem to the benefit of littoral habitations:a case study from a developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    The Ramsar site, Kolleru wetland ecosystem, in Andhra Pradesh, India, has been evaluated for its habitat using the geomatics technology. Wetlands are of considerable economic importance in view of the biotic diversity and in to the preferred habitat for a variety of resident and migratory birds. The boundary of the lake is derived from the topomaps of 1:25K and the Joint survey records of Forest and Revenue Departments. There location of the boundary is not possible due to conventional techniques, because of the inaccessibility of the areas. The extent of ponds to be demolished is ascertained and the boundary is relocated within permissible limits. The habitat conditions prior to demolition (Feb'2006) and post demolition of fishponds is evaluated using IRS LISS II 1988,LISS III + PAN 1996, IRS LISS III + PAN 2002, IRS LISS IV 2004, IRS LISS III +PAN 2006, Cartosat 2006 data. The Image restoration for all data is done using various Image Processing Techniques. Expert classifiers, NDWI, PCA, and filtering Techniques are used to delineate the Land use / Land cover Classes and the boundaries of fish ponds. The periodic data revealed a highly degraded state of the Kolleru Lake clearly indicating that about 54

  19. High Benefit Cultivation Technology of Potato in Multiple Cropping System in Liaoning Province%辽宁省马铃薯高效复种栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安颖蔚; 史书强; 袁立新; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    经过多年试验示范,针对辽宁省气候特点,总结出马铃薯高效复种栽培模式,筛选出各主产区的适宜品种和相应种植密度,为辽宁省马铃薯科学种植提供依据。马铃薯的三膜覆盖极早熟栽培技术比较适合葫芦岛地区和大连地区应用.下茬复种小西瓜等经济效益较高的作物。马铃薯双膜覆盖栽培技术可克服前期低温的不利影响,缓解晚霜冻害,比常规地膜覆盖提前收获15d以上,其鲜薯价格高,效益可观,为下茬复种粮食和油料作物高产创造条件,比较适合在辽西和辽南的大部分地区应用。马铃薯单膜覆盖栽培技术适用于辽宁大部分地区,下茬可复种蔬菜、粘(甜)玉米等作物。%Based on experimentation and demonstration, and local climate features, high yield and high benefit cultivation models in a two cropping system are put forward, in which the suitable cultivars and plant density are identified, which may lay out scientific foundation for growing potatoes. Three-layer film coverage and early maturing cultivation technique is suitable for Huludao and Dalian, and the succeeding crop such as water melon gave high economic retum. Double-film coverage could overcome the adverse effect of low temperature in early growing season, prevent potato from damage of late frost, and advance 15 days for harvest of potatoes as compared with conventional plastic coverage, therefore potatoes harvested could be marketed at high price and enough time is left for succeeding food or oil crops. This model is suitable for westem and southern Liaoning. Single plastic film coverage is suitable for most parts of Liaoning, and vegetable and waxy (sweet) corn could be the succeeding crop of potato.

  20. Perceived benefits from enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, Henk; Steenbergen, Marlies van; Slot, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture has been developed in order to optimize the alignment between business needs and the (rapidly changing) possibilities of information technology. But do organizations indeed benefit from the application of Enterprise Architecture according to those who are in any way involved

  1. Perceived benefits from enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlies van Steenbergen; Henk Plessius; Dr.ir. Raymond Slot

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture has been developed in order to optimize the alignment between business needs and the (rapidly changing) possibilities of information technology. But do organizations indeed benefit from the application of Enterprise Architecture according to those who are in any way involved

  2. Evaluation of costs and benefits of advances in cytologic technology. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, M R; Hutchinson, M L; Kaufman, E A; Schechter, C B; Garner, D; Kobler, T P; Krieger, P A; Reith, A; Schenck, U

    1998-01-01

    Uterine cervical cytology smears are among the most cost-effective cancer prevention interventions available, but they are not infallible, and new or modified technologies have been and will be proposed to improve diagnostic accuracy. Before these new technologies are accepted, their performance attributes will be carefully studied and defined. Equally important in this era of fiscal constraints are cost/benefit analyses, for which we review certain guidelines. In an effort to control rising costs in the health care sector, there has been a strong incentive to move toward a market system, and a variety of forces are acting to drive down expenditures. These same pressures will continue to be brought to bear on the providers of cervical cytology services. It must be emphasized that the technical knowledge required to define cost-effective medical practice lies within the medical profession itself, which must recognize the following: (a) Resources are finite; (b) Elimination of fraud, abuse and waste is not enough to bring health care expenditures down to levels considered acceptable to government and business; (c) The medical profession must take the responsibility to identify the health and economic consequences of the services it provides and make wise recommendations for allocation of resources to optimize health consequences. The analysis of costs and benefits must be viewed from a societal perspective and presented in terms of the marginal impact on current practice. This does not mean that new technologies must reduce cost; on the contrary, improvements in health can be expected to come at a price, but at a price commensurate with value gained in lives saved or in added quality adjusted life years. To be of value, a new technology for cervical cytology must be more effective in preventing cervical carcinoma. Dysplasia is considered a precursor of carcinoma, and detection of dysplasia has been a surrogate for prevention of cervical carcinoma, but dysplasia does

  3. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  4. 马铃薯覆膜双垄集雨沟播技术效益研究%A Study of Benefit of Mulching Double Ridges Rainwater Gathering Furrow Sowing Technology for Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庾莉萍; 金红梅

    2012-01-01

    在低温阴湿区代表性区域宁夏泾源县进行的马铃薯覆膜技术效益试验结果表明:全膜覆盖栽培的增产增收效果优于半膜覆盖栽培,且增温保湿效果较明显;覆膜时期以秋季最佳,其次是早春覆膜,而播期覆膜的效果最差。%The results of a test on the benefit of mulching technology for potato conducted in Jingyuan county,a representative district of the low temperature and damp area in Ningxia showed that the yield and benefit increase effects of the mulching cultivation were better than those of the half-mulching cultivation and the temperature-increasing and moisture-keeping effects were obvious.The best time for mulching was during Autumn and the secondary was during early Spring and the effect was worst when mulching was conducted during sowing time.

  5. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  6. Estimates of occupational safety and health impacts resulting from large-scale production of major photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, T.; Ungers, L.; Briggs, T.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate both quantitatively and qualitatively, the worker and societal risks attributable to four photovoltaic cell (solar cell) production processes. Quantitative risk values were determined by use of statistics from the California semiconductor industry. The qualitative risk assessment was performed using a variety of both governmental and private sources of data. The occupational health statistics derived from the semiconductor industry were used to predict injury and fatality levels associated with photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The use of these statistics to characterize the two silicon processes described herein is defensible from the standpoint that many of the same process steps and materials are used in both the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. These health statistics are less applicable to the gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide manufacturing processes, primarily because of differences in the materials utilized. Although such differences tend to discourage any absolute comparisons among the four photovoltaic cell production processes, certain relative comparisons are warranted. To facilitate a risk comparison of the four processes, the number and severity of process-related chemical hazards were assessed. This qualitative hazard assessment addresses both the relative toxicity and the exposure potential of substances in the workplace. In addition to the worker-related hazards, estimates of process-related emissions and wastes are also provided.

  7. Health benefits of cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia

    2013-11-01

    In modern society, cocoa is being eaten as a confectionery, contrary to its medicinal use in the past. However, since the last decade, there has been a revival of talks about cocoa's health beneficial effects. Development has been made at the molecular level recently. This review discusses the recent progresses on potential health benefits of cocoa and/or its derivatives, with a focus on the areas that have been paid little attention so far, such as the role of cocoa in immune regulation, inflammation, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, obesity, and diabetes control. Thanks to the advancement in analytical technologies, the cocoa's metabolic pathways have now been properly mapped providing essential information on its roles. Cocoa helps in weight loss by improving mitochondrial biogenesis. It increases muscle glucose uptake by inserting glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscles membrane. Because of its antioxidant properties, cocoa offers neuron protection and enhances cognition and positive mood. It lowers immunoglobulin E release in allergic responses. It can affect the immune response and bacterial growth at intestinal levels. It reduces inflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB. Keeping in view the pleiotropic health benefits of cocoa, it may have the potential to be used for the prevention/treatment of allergies, cancers, oxidative injuries, inflammatory conditions, anxiety, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance.

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  9. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  10. CALCULATION AND USE OF THE PEDOCLIMATIC INDEX (PCI IN THE ESTIMATION AND MODELLING OF WHEAT PRODUCTION DEPENDING ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTENSITY (TPI IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pedoclimatic Index (PCI calculated by us is the product between the Aridity Index (AR and the soil fertility status expressed through number of creditworthiness points (CWS – Creditworthiness of Soil: PCI = AR x CWS .Was used AR calculated after UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme instead of the older De Martonne index. Determinations were performed in 6 different pedoclimatic areas, in which PCI has varied from 12 to 47. Taking into account that AR varies between 0,20 and 1,00 in Romania, while CWS is between 0 and 100, theoretically PCI can range in the interval 0-100 and practically from 10 to 50. For each PCI was calculated the wheat production according to the Technological Processes Intensity (TPI, Creditworthiness (CWS, them also with marks from 1 to 10, and the wheat production pattern was made based on the two parameters. It appears that at a very reduced and reduced index of the technological processes (TPI between 1-4 the wheat yields level is very slightly influenced by the pedoclimatic quality of the culture area. In the areals of culture with PCI below 15 the production can’t reach 30 q/ha, irrespective of the quality of technological processes. At PCI of over 40 the production achieves 60 q/ha if there are applied superior technologies and if the working capital is optimum used. At PCI between 30 and 40 the maximum yield that can be reached in conditions of highest technical and qualitative value of production slightly exceeds 50 q/ha. All these models and nomograms are useful to agricultural management in order to estimate the production, but also for her optimization

  11. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  12. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  13. The Benefits, and Fear, of Cookie Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    "Cookies" are tiny Web browser helpers and are an example of how the useful can get tossed in with the dangerous through the near hysteria brought about by the real threats of computer viruses, hacking, spyware, spam and phishing. This article briefly discusses antispyware legislation by Congress and the pros and cons of past and future…

  14. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  15. International Space Station Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sabbagh, Jean; Sorokin, Igor; Zell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth--not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  16. Program analysis methodology Office of Transportation Technologies: Quality Metrics final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-03-01

    "Quality Metrics" is the analytical process for measuring and estimating future energy, environmental and economic benefits of US DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) programs. This report focuses on the projected benefits of the programs currently supported by the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within EE/RE. For analytical purposes, these various benefits are subdivided in terms of Planning Units which are related to the OTT program structure.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the LHC to 2025 and beyond: Was it Worth it ?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, climate change policy, but often considered impossible for research infrastructures because of the impredictable benefits of scientific discovery. We have designed a CBA model for large scale research infrastructures and applied it to the LHC. After estimating investment and operation costs spread over 30 years (to 2025), combining data from the CERN and the experiments, we evaluate the benefits of knowledge output (publications), human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Additionally, willingness-to-pay for the pure value of discovery at the LHC by the general public is estimated through a survey of around 1,ooo respondendents in four countries. Setting to zero any until now unpredictable economic value of discovery of the Higgs boson (or of any new physics), we compute a probability distribution for the net present va...

  18. Estimating economic thresholds for site-specific weed control using manual weed counts and sensor technology: an example based on three winter wheat trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martina; Gutjahr, Christoph; Möhring, Jens; Weis, Martin; Sökefeld, Markus; Gerhards, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Precision experimental design uses the natural heterogeneity of agricultural fields and combines sensor technology with linear mixed models to estimate the effect of weeds, soil properties and herbicide on yield. These estimates can be used to derive economic thresholds. Three field trials are presented using the precision experimental design in winter wheat. Weed densities were determined by manual sampling and bi-spectral cameras, yield and soil properties were mapped. Galium aparine, other broad-leaved weeds and Alopecurus myosuroides reduced yield by 17.5, 1.2 and 12.4 kg ha(-1) plant(-1)  m(2) in one trial. The determined thresholds for site-specific weed control with independently applied herbicides were 4, 48 and 12 plants m(-2), respectively. Spring drought reduced yield effects of weeds considerably in one trial, since water became yield limiting. A negative herbicide effect on the crop was negligible, except in one trial, in which the herbicide mixture tended to reduce yield by 0.6 t ha(-1). Bi-spectral cameras for weed counting were of limited use and still need improvement. Nevertheless, large weed patches were correctly identified. The current paper presents a new approach to conducting field trials and deriving decision rules for weed control in farmers' fields. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. 空间圆阵列天线超分辨测向技术研究%Study on Technology About Spatial Circular Antenna Array in DOA Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白蕾; 司锡才

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses an algorithm of spatial circular antenna array in super-resolution direction estimation,presents circular antenna array for ship-carried,and lists covariance matrix of this circular array.The MUSIC algorithm and MATLAB software are used to simulate. Its validity of theoretical analysis is confirmed by computer simulation. The result can be taken as the technological and theoretical basis in super-resolution direction estimation engineering.%论述了空间圆阵列天线谱估计超分辨测向的算法,提出了适合于舰载的圆阵列天线阵,列出了圆阵的协方差矩阵。选用MUSIC算法,用MATLAB软件进行了计算机仿真,模拟结果验证了理论分析的正确性。理论分析及结果可作为高分辨测向工程实现的理论基础和技术基础。

  20. Realization and Benefit Analysis of Desktop Cloud Technology in Hospital Information System%桌面云技术应用于医院信息系统的实现与效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘愈嘉; 甘渭河; 江建中; 吴志锦; 甘光华

    2013-01-01

    随着医院信息系统的不断普及和完善,医院对于信息系统的依赖程度已经非常高,对系统稳定性、多样性和移动性的要求也越来越高。通过对桌面云技术在规划部署使用等方面进行分析,从可行性、使用价值、部署方案、常见问题解决、效益分析等方面进行阐述,为医院提供有价值的参考。%As the hospital information system growing popularity and improved, hospital information system for the already very high dependence. On system stability, diversity and mobility are increasingly high requirements. Based on the desktop using cloud technology in areas such as deployment planning analysis, from feasibility, use value, deployment scenarios, solutions to common problems, and other aspects described benefit analysis for the hospital to provide valuable reference.

  1. Energy-saving benefit analysis of infrared heating technology in the automobile paint baking process%红外线加热技术应用于汽车烤漆工艺的节能效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱肖晶; 杨蕾

    2014-01-01

    红外线烤漆房采用红外线加热技术,依靠辐射能迫使油漆内部分子迅速排列、剧烈振动,形成光电子激发态,产生强大内能,提高加热速度及干燥速度,相比传统的燃油式烤漆房,红外线加热提高了能源利用效率,减少柴油消耗量,降低产品的综合单耗,社会效益和经济效益明显。%The new spray booth which was developed by the company using the infrared heating technology,relying on the radi-ant energy forcingthe molecular inside the paint arranged rapidly, severe vibration,formingthe photoelectron excited states,produc-ing strong internal energy with the feature of high heating speed and fast drying,compared to conventional fuel type of Spray booth. The measures improve energy efficiency,reduce diesel oil con-sumption,lower the product integrated unit consumption,improve product quality,social and economic benefit.

  2. 浅析太阳能采暖与生活热水系统的技术与经济效益%On Technology and Economic Benefits of Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恩云

    2014-01-01

    太阳能采暖和生活热水系统由集热器、蓄热水箱、辅助热源和自动化控制系统组成。文章基于太阳能采暖和生活热水系统研究背景,围绕系统的技术工艺原理探讨其在经济和技术方面的可行性,最后分析其技术和经济效益,以突出该系统的应用优势。%Solar heating and domestic hot water system are composed of heat collector, hot water storage tank, auxiliary heat source and automatic control system. Based on the background of solar heating and domestic hot water system, and according to technical theory of the system, this paper explores its economic and technical feasibility, and finally analyses its technology and economic benefits to highlight the advantages of the system.

  3. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles: Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5). Volume 3: Cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary, phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Technology payoffs of representative ground based (Phase 1) and space based (Phase 2) mid lift/drag ratio aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles (AOTV) were assessed and prioritized. A narrative summary of the cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary for both study phases is presented. Costs were estimated using the Grumman Space Programs Algorithm for Cost Estimating (SPACE) computer program and results are given for four AOTV configurations. The work breakdown structure follows the standard of the joint government/industry Space Systems Cost Analysis Group (SSCAG). A table is provided which shows cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  4. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  7. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice ...

  8. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start slowly, and find ways to fit more physical activity into your life. To get the most benefit, ... the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may Help you control your weight. Along with ...

  9. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  12. 数控机床精度动态评估技术研究%Research of NC Machine Accuracy Dynamic Estimation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆杰; 高宏力; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    Using laser interferometer and ball bar to test the accuracy of Numerical Control machine in machining and manufacturing industry, based on the research of machine moving model and error model, an accuracy testing technology based on multi-sensor data fusion technology was proposed. The sensors were fixed on the key parts of machine, acquiring and processing the vibration and current data, and extracted the characteristics which concern the accuracy changing, building the model of relation between data and accuracy, and at the end, realized the accuracy dynamic estimation by testing the data of sensors. The result showed, the accuracy changing concerns the data's characteristics, and it was with industrial prospects.%加工制造业中主要利用激光干涉仪和球杆仪检测机床各项误差,在对数控机床运动模型及各项误差深入研究的基础上,提出了一种基于多传感器信息融合的精度动态评估技术.将传感器安装于机床关键部位,采集其振动、电流信号并进行数据处理,提取与精度变化相关的特征,建立信号与精度间的映射模型,通过对机床各关键部位的信号监测,可以实现机床精度的动态评估.实验结果表明,机床精度变化与信号特征有明显的对应关系,具有研究价值.

  13. Scaling of economic benefits from green roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hao; Clark, Corrie; Zhou, Jiti; Adriaens, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft(2) by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NO(x) uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  14. ”Ingen kan bygge romferge alene” - Læreres utbytte av faglig etterutdanning innen romteknologi. "“You can’t build the space shuttle all alone!” - How teachers benefit from partici pating in an in-service course in space technology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Mehli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a case study of how science teachers benefit from participation in an in-service course on space technology at Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. The course deviates from current policy for teachers’ professional development by being short-term, targeting individual teachers and by having a somewhat narrow subject focus. In this course, teachers work closely with space scientists and engineers, forming a community of practice in highly technological settings. The transfer of this experience to classroom teaching is clearly challenging. By means of in-depth interviews, we have investigated teachers’ outcome from the course and how they see it benefiting their teaching. Results indicate three main categories of outcome: Affective outcome; content knowledge and practical skills; and technological process knowledge. This outcome is found to have an indirect, yet important, influence on the teaching of science that should be taken into account in policy for science teachers’ professional development.

  15. THE ESTIMATION OF SOME CHANGES OF SOIL PHYSICAL STATE UNDER THE EFFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGIES, IN THE CONDITION OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE IN BAIA-MOLDOVA DEPPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some physical and hydrophysical characteristics, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field. For this reason, we analyzed the agrophysical conditions for luvisol albic pseudogleic (SRCS-1980, respectively luvosol albic stagnic-glosic (SRTS-2003 albic luvosoil drained and cultivated, after a period of 28 years (1978-2006 use. The obtained data regarding to te water balance and the evolution of the major physical properties of soil, under the influence of drainage and amelioration works, put into evidence in the first stage (1978-1986 a general improvement of the aerohidrycal state and physical-chemical conditioning. In the next two experimental cycles of 10 years each, have been noticed a increased of compaction degree of soil drained and cultivated on 0-30 cm depth, from weak loose to moderately compaction depending on the remanence of the reclamation technologies.

  16. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request. AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... information technology. Title: Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance, VA Form...

  17. Salary or Benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Oyer, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Employer-provided benefits are a large and growing share of compensation costs. In this paper, I consider three factors that can affect the value created by employer-sponsored benefits. First, firms have a comparative advantage (for example, due to scale economies or tax treatment) in purchasing relative to employees. This advantage can vary across firms based on size and other differences in cost structure. Second, employees differ in their valuations of benefits and it is costly for workers...

  18. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  19. Contemporary methods for realization and estimation of efficiency of 3Daudio technology application for sound interface improvement of an aircraft cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korsun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High information load of crew is one of the main problems of modern piloted aircraft therefore researches on approving data representation form, especially in critical situations are a challenge. The article considers one of opportunities to improve the interface of a modern pilot's cabin i.e. to use a spatial sound (3D - audio technology. The 3D - audio is a technology, which recreates a spatially directed sound in earphones or via loudspeakers. Spatial audio-helps, which together with information on danger will specify also the direction from which it proceeds, can reduce time of response to an event and, therefore, increase situational safety of flight. It is supposed that helps will be provided through pilot's headset therefore technology realization via earphones is discussed.Now the main hypothesis explaining the human ability to recognize the position of a sound source in space, asserts that the human estimates distortion of a sound signal spectrum at interaction with the head and an auricle depending on an arrangement of the sound source. For exact describing the signal spectrum variations there are such concepts as Head Related Impulse Response (HRIR and Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF. HRIR is measured in humans or dummies. At present the most full-scale public HRIR library is CIPIC HRTF Database of CIPIC Interface Laboratory at UC Davis.To have 3D audio effect, it is necessary to simulate a mono-signal conversion through the linear digital filters with anthropodependent pulse characteristics (HRIR for the left and right ear, which correspond to the chosen direction. Results should be united in a stereo file and applied for reproduction to the earphones.This scheme was realized in Matlab, and the received software was used for experiments to estimate the quantitative characteristics of technology. For processing and subsequent experiments the following sound signals were chosen: a fragment of the classical music piece "Polovetsky

  20. Extensive Green Roof Ecological Benefits in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rušenieks, Rihards; Kamenders, Agris

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green roof ecological benefits are studiedin this paper. The research contains a brief explanation aboutgreen roof technology and green roof ecological benefits. Greenroof capability to retain rainwater runoff by accumulating it instorage layers and conducting it back into the atmospherethrough evapotranspiration is studied and modeled. Modeling isdone in Stormwater Management Model 5.0 software. The modelis based on an existing warehouse-type building located in Rigaand hourly Riga...

  1. 云南油菜高产创建技术集成及效益分析%Integrated Technology and Benefit Analysis of Establishing High-yielding Rape in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉珠; 段海春; 杨卫国; 张晓兰; 吴桂仙; 杨腊梅; 王勤; 田文伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the given rape varieties in the project area and aiming to the problems in the traditional rape production, such as high seed rate, high field management costs and low utilization rate of fertilizer and pesticide, a set of synthesized technology integration of high-efficiency rape production was presented, which included minimum tillage and no-tillage cultivation , ditching with machine, suitable sowing time, one-off thinning and ascertaining seedling density, simplifying high-efficient fertilizer application, unifying field management to foster strong seedlings, and machinery preventing aphids. Two rape varieties with early maturity, fine quality, high yield and strong drought tolerance were screened, such as ‘ Yunyouza No.2 ’ and Yunhuayou No.9, which were extended in the rape production areas in Yunnan and the early maturity rape production areas with similar climate conditions to Yunnan rape production areas, and led to the expansion of rape planting area. The project established the high-yielding sample rape area of 680 hm 2 , and the average yield was 3478.5kg/hm 2 , which was increased by 18.6% , as compared to the non-demonstration zone. The average yield was increased by 545.1 kg/hm 2 . The increase in the total output was 370700 kg and the value was increased by 1853300 million Yuan. The expenditure saved was 825 Yuan/hm 2 . The total expenditure saved in the rape area of 680 hm 2 was 561000 Yuan by the widespread radiation and driving. The increase in the average yield of rapeseed was 150-225 kg/hm 2 , which brought very significant economic benefits and social benefits.%在项目区确定适合用种的基础上,针对传统油菜生产中播种量大、田间管理成本高、化肥农药利用率低等问题,集成了免(少)耕栽培、机开沟、适期精量播种、一次间定苗、简化高效施肥、统一管理培育壮苗、机械联防蚜虫等为一体的高效生产综合技术集成。筛选出一系列早熟、优质

  2. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain Estimación de los beneficios en salud y económicos asociados a la reducción de la contaminación atmosférica en el área metropolitana de Barcelona (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Methods: We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM10 for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. Results: The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM10 exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50µg/m³ to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20µg/m³ were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months, 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM10 to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40µg/m³ would yield approximately one third of these benefits. Conclusions: This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.Objetivos: Se presenta una estimación de los beneficios para la salud y económicos de dos escenarios de mejora de la calidad del aire ambiental en 57 municipios del área metropolitana de Barcelona. Métodos: Usando fracciones atribuibles y tablas de vida, se cuantificaron los beneficios para los indicadores de salud seleccionados basándose en

  3. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  4. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  5. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  6. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  7. Educational Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Problem of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Gordon A.

    Benefit-cost analysis consists of establishing ratios of benefits to costs for a set of project variants. The decision rule is to select that project variant where the ratio is a maximum. This paper argues that specification and estimation errors can contribute to findings for large-scale systems of benefit-cost ratios approximating zero. The…

  8. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the cost of debt service (interest and amortization) of the estimated installation costs plus the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  9. A cost benefit study of milk-borne salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, D. R.; Porter, I. A.; Reid, T M; Sharp, J. C.; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    An estimate of the benefits which would result from a ban on the sale of non-pasteurized milk in Scotland has been assessed by costing a recent outbreak of milk-borne salmonellosis in the Grampian Region. The cost of such a ban would not exceed the benefits under any but the most severe assumptions about the values attached to intangible benefits.

  10. Potential benefits of geothermal electrical production from hydrothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Engel, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The potential national benefits of geothermal electric energy development from the hydrothermal resources in the West are estimated for several different scenarios. The U.S. electrical economy is simulated by computer using a linear programming optimization technique. Under most of the scenarios, benefits are estimated at $2 to $4 billion over the next 50 years on a discounted present value basis. The electricity production from hydrothermal plants reaches 2 to 4 percent of the national total, which will represent 10 to 20 percent of the installed capacity in the West. Installed geothermal capacity in 1990 is estimated to be 9,000 to 17,000 Mw(e). The geothermal capacity should reach 28,000 to 65,000 Mw(e) by year 2015. The ''most likely'' scenario yields the lower values in the above ranges. Under this scenario geothermal development would save the utility industry $11 billion in capital costs (undiscounted); 32 million separative work units; 64,000 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/; and 700 million barrels of oil. The most favorable scenario for geothermal energy occurs when fossil fuel prices are projected to increase at 5 percent/year. The benefits of geothermal energy then exceed $8 billion on a discounted present value basis. Supply curves were developed for hydrothermal resources based on the recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment, resource characteristics, and projected power conversion technology and costs. Geothermal plants were selected by the optimizing technique to fill a need for ''light load'' plants. This infers that geothermal plants may be used in the future primarily for load-following purposes.

  11. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  12. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Unpacking Coordination Benefits in Supply Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Irene J.; Maitland, Carleen; Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how coordination among firms in supply networks generates benefits in the short and long terms for firms. It focuses on information technology (IT) and process improvement coordination. Analysis was performed on quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of SMEs in plastics...... manufacturing in Pennsylvania. Results indicate that coordination on both IT and process improvement leads to short- and long-term benefits. These relationships were mediated by the adoption of innovations (when coordinating on IT) and access to new capabilities (in process improvement coordination......). These results extend the understanding of how participation in supply networks benefits individual firms....

  14. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas.

  15. Investigating benefits realisation process for enterprise resource planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badewi, Amgad

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the benefit realisation process for ERP systems so as to develop a benefit realization road map whereby organisations can realize the maximum potential of their ERP systems. This research covers two areas: mechanism of implementation and the destination to change (i.e. road map). It has been found that project management and benefits management approaches are necessary for recouping benefits from investing in Information Technologies (IT) pr...

  16. International ETG-Congress 2007. Special meeting 1: Hybrid drive engineering - power efficient electrical drives. Special meeting 2: Customer benefit by new technologies in railway engineering.. Proceedings; Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007. Fachtagung 1: Hybridantriebstechnik - Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe. Fachtagung 2: Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The specialist conference customer benefit by new technologies in railway engineering took place as part of the international ETG-Congress 2007 (Congress of the Energietechnische Gesellschaft within VDE) in Karlsruhe. Light rapid transit vehicles, operating on DC-fed urban lines and AC-fed regional main lines as well, the state-of-the-art of energy storage devices and their interaction with the DC railway systems power supply, multi-system traction in the European high-speed and goods services and new drive technologies were reviewed. (orig.)

  17. The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Loomis, John; Kroeger, Timm; Casey, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The demand for timely monetary estimates of the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem goods and services has steadily increased over the last few decades. This article describes the use of benefit transfer to generate monetary value estimates of ecosystem services specifically. The article provides guidance for conducting such benefit transfers and summarizes advancements in benefit transfer methods, databases and analysis tools designed to facilitate its application.

  18. Benefits from Network "Parasitology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornudd, Elin

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of experience gained by the Finnish central library for technology in off-line use of computer-based services, both selective dissemination of information and retrospective searches offered by the Royal Institute of Technology Library and the Biomedical Documentation Centre in Stockholm, as well as the Technological Library of Denmark…

  19. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  20. Digital Image Analysis in Pathology: Benefits and Obligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Laurinavicius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology has recently entered the era of personalized medicine. This brings new expectations for the accuracy and precision of tissue-based diagnosis, in particular, when quantification of histologic features and biomarker expression is required. While for many years traditional pathologic diagnosis has been regarded as ground truth, this concept is no longer sufficient in contemporary tissue-based biomarker research and clinical use. Another major change in pathology is brought by the advancement of virtual microscopy technology enabling digitization of microscopy slides and presenting new opportunities for digital image analysis. Computerized vision provides an immediate benefit of increased capacity (automation and precision (reproducibility, but not necessarily the accuracy of the analysis. To achieve the benefit of accuracy, pathologists will have to assume an obligation of validation and quality assurance of the image analysis algorithms. Reference values are needed to measure and control the accuracy. Although pathologists' consensus values are commonly used to validate these tools, we argue that the ground truth can be best achieved by stereology methods, estimating the same variable as an algorithm is intended to do. Proper adoption of the new technology will require a new quantitative mentality in pathology. In order to see a complete and sharp picture of a disease, pathologists will need to learn to use both their analogue and digital eyes.

  1. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  2. Fringe Benefits Compensation of Real Estate Agents and Brokers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T. Winkler; W. Keener Hughen

    2012-01-01

    Fringe benefits compensation offered by employers has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Research in this area has been primarily limited to hourly and salaried employees. This study examines employer-based fringe benefits compensation of real estate agents and brokers. A model is developed that jointly estimates the income, hours worked, and fringe benefits compensation. The findings indicate that fringe benefits increase according to hours worked and the sales professional¡¦s contributio...

  3. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    studies for final analysis and interpretation. Twelve studies could be included in the data synthesis. Results: We found clear evidence that the prospect of exhaustion of benefits results in a significantly increased incentive for finding work. Discussion: The theoretical suggestion that the prospect......This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...... of exhaustion of benefits results in an increased incentive for finding work has been confirmed empirically by measures from seven different European countries, the United States, and Canada. The results are robust in the sense that sensitivity analyses evidenced no appreciable changes in the results. We found...

  4. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein ...

  5. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  6. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  7. Using of the geoinformation technologies for estimation of heavy metals distribution in the soils of urban ecosystems (on example of the city of Kaliningrad, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupakhina, Nataliia; Skrypnik, Lubov; Maslennikov, Pavel; Belov, Nicolai; Feduraev, Pavel; Chupakhina, Galina

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization can be described as a global socio-economic process, accompanied by a profound change of the anthropogenic environment and as a replacement of the natural ecosystems by the urban ones. Heavy metals occupy an important place among the different types of urban environmental pollutants. Since they do not undergo physico-chemical and biological degradation, they can accumulate in the surface soil layer for a long time, being available for the roots of plants and actively involved in the migration processes via trophic pathways. Study of accumulation of heavy metals in the most important component of urban ecosystems, which is soils, allows us to get a reliable estimate of the intensity of technogenic processes and to trace the major migration flows of these toxicants in the urbanized area. The geographic information systems (GIS) are a useful tool for collection, analysis, processing, synthesis and management of the spatially-distributed and other types of data. They provide the two-way communication between cartographic objects and databases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using of GIS technologies for estimating of distribution of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Kaliningrad. A Kaliningrad land region of 18.4 sq.km was investigated. Locations for the collection of samples were determined based on the analysis of anthropogenic loading of the streets of Kaliningrad. The total number of the locations was 57. The selected locations were marked with squares of 1.5 km per 1.5 km. Within each square 7-9 soil samples were collected using the "envelope" method, each sample was collected three times. The abundances of heavy metals (strontium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic) in the soil was determined using the X-ray fluorescence method (Spectroscan Max, NPO Spektron, Saint-Petersburg, Russia). Each sample was purified, in order to remove roots, large rocks, glass, etc., before placing to the cell of the

  8. Attitude Formation of Benefits Satisfaction: Knowledge and Fit of Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gery Markova, Foard Jones

    2011-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action [6], we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...

  9. 一种减轻高层建筑自重的新技术及经济效益分析%New Technology and Economic Benefit Analysis of Reducing Weight of High Rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福生

    2016-01-01

    随着经济和科技的发展,世界各国莫不致力于高层建筑,甚至超高层建筑的发展。高层建筑之所以有如此大的生命力,是因为它能有效地利用空间,能在有限的土地面积内增加建筑面积,缓解用地紧张的问题,同时高层建筑的建筑高度的竞争也反映了国家的政治地位和经济实力。当前,我国的高层建筑结构采用的比较多的仍旧还是钢筋混凝土结构,由于此结构自重偏大、施工周期长,综合效益不如刚结构,加之国家大力倡导装配制结构,所以逐渐被钢结构所代替。和传统的住宅结构相比,钢结构住宅在设计、功能、施工以及经济性等方面具有显著的应用特点。本文讨论了钢结构的应用特点,结合多层钢结构住宅对钢结构的使用要求,重点对其应用的经济性展开论述,获得了对应经济建设的索引数据。%With the development of economy and technology, all countries in the world dedicate to high-rise building or super high-rise building development. The reason why there is such a great vitality is that it can effectively utilize the space, increase the construction area in the limited land area, alleviate the problem of land shortage, and the height competition of high-rise building construction can also reflect the political status and economic strength of the country. At present, high-rise buildings in our country are still quite many reinforced concrete structures. Because this structure has too large weight, long construction period, not just a better comprehensive benefit structure than the rigid structure, and in addition, the state vigorously advocates assembly structure, it is gradually replaced by the steel structure. Compared with the traditional residential structure, the steel structure housing in the design, function, construction, economy and other aspects has significant characteristics. This paper discusses the steel structure

  10. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  11. Unpacking Coordination Benefits in Supply Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Irene J.; Maitland, Carleen; Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how coordination among firms in supply networks generates benefits in the short and long terms for firms. It focuses on information technology (IT) and process improvement coordination. Analysis was performed on quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of SMEs in plastics...

  12. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  13. Estimativa do benefício econômico potencial de dois levantamentos de solos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Estimate of the potential economic benefit of two soil surveys in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Giasson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aplica técnicas de análise de decisão para a quantificação do valor econômico do Levantamento de Reconhecimento de Alta Intensidade dos Solos do Município de Sentinela do Sul, RS (escala 1:50.000, e do Levantamento de Solos da Bacia Carbonífera do Baixo Jacuí, RS (escala 1:100.000 através de informações econômicas sobre as culturas regionais e avaliação da qualidade do levantamento de solos. A estimativa do valor econômico é feita pela quantificação do aumento do rendimento econômico quando o planejamento de uso das terras considera as informações contidas no levantamento de solos. Os resultados desta avaliação evidenciam que os benefícios econômicos gerados pelo uso de informações constantes em levantamentos de solos (R$153,15 ha-1 e R$70,15 ha-1, em escala 1:50.000 e 1:100.000, respectivamente são maiores que os custos associados à execução de levantamentos de solos (R$1,03 ha-1 para um mapa na escala 1:50.000 e R$ 0,38 ha-1 para um mapa na escala 1:100.000.This study applies decision analysis techniques for the qualification of economic value of the a high intensity Soil Survey of Sentinela do Sul County, RS, Brazil (scale 1:50,000 and a soil survey of the Charcoal Basin of the Jacuí River, RS, Brazil (Scale 1:100,000, using economic information related to the major regional crops and soil survey quality. The determination of the economic value is made by quantifying the increase in economic return when land use planning uses soil survey information. Results of this evaluation highlight the economic benefits generated by the use of soil survey information (R$153,15 ha-1 e R$70.15 ha-1, respectivelly for a 1:50,000 map and for a 1:100,000 map are larger that soil survey costs (R$1.03 ha-1 for a 1:50,000 map and R$0.38 ha-1 for a 1:100,000 map.

  14. Research of Quick Damage Estimating System of Accident Vehicles Based on Cloud Technology%基于云技术的事故车辆快速定损报价系统研究和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼荣; 陈开考; 乔文山; 盛琦

    2016-01-01

    通过对事故车辆定损业务要求的分析,结合云技术的发展现状,研究和实践了基于云技术的快速定损报价系统。该系统界面友好,操作简单,成本低。系统可通过手机移动终端进行操作,并适用于各主流品牌车型。%Through analysis on requirement of the accident vehicle damage estimating business, combined with the current development of cloud-technology, carries on the research and practice about the quick damage estimating system based on the cloud-technology. This systematic interface is friendly, operating is easy and the cost is low. It can be operated by mobile terminal, and suitable for the major brand models.

  15. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P. (KTech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  16. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  17. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  18. IT benefits management in local government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Møller Porto; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is increasingly presented as a driving force for service and efficiency improvement in local governments. However, achieving these goals in creating value from IT investments is a significant challenge for local government organizations. Practitioners and researchers...... have proposed numerous approaches to IT benefits management, but our knowledge of current practices and capabilities in local government IT management is still limited. Thus, in this paper we resent an investigation of what characterizes IT benefits management in local government in order to understand...... and improve current practices. Through a comparative case study of two Danish municipalities, we have analyzed the different characteristics of benefits management. Based on this analysis we propose an initial framework for understanding IT benefits management in local government....

  19. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  20. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  1. How will transitioning from cytology to HPV testing change the balance between the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening? Estimates of the impact on cervical cancer, treatment rates and adverse obstetric outcomes in Australia, a high vaccination coverage country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Caruana, Michael; Simms, Kate T; Lew, Jie-Bin; Shi, Ju-Fang; Saville, Marion; Smith, Megan A; Lord, Sarah J; Tan, Jeffrey; Bateson, Deborah; Quinn, Michael; Canfell, Karen

    2017-08-12

    Primary HPV screening enables earlier diagnosis of cervical lesions compared to cytology, however, its effect on the risk of treatment has not been investigated. We estimated the cumulative lifetime risk (CLR) of cervical cancer and excisional treatment; and change in adverse obstetric outcomes in HPV unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination (>70% coverage in 12-13 years) for the Australian cervical screening program. 2-yearly cytology screening (ages 18-69 years) was compared to 5-yearly primary HPV screening with partial genotyping for HPV16/18 (ages 25-74 years). A dynamic model of HPV transmission, vaccination, cervical screening and treatment for precancerous lesions was coupled with an individual-based simulation of obstetric complications. For cytology screening, the CLR of cervical cancer diagnosis, death and treatment would be 0.65%, 0.20% and 13% without vaccination and 0.18%, 0.06% and 7%, in vaccinated cohorts, respectively. For HPV screening, relative reductions of 33% and 22% in cancer risk for unvaccinated and vaccinated cohorts are predicted, respectively, compared to cytology. Without vaccination, a 4% increase in treatment risk for HPV versus cytology screening is predicted, implying a possible increase in pre-term delivery (PTD) and low birthweight (LBW) events of 19-35 and 14-37, respectively, per 100,000 unvaccinated women. However, in vaccinated cohorts treatment risk will decrease by 13%, potentially leading to 4-41 fewer PTD events and from 2 more to 52 fewer LBW events per 100,000 vaccinated women. HPV screening starting at age 25 in populations with high vaccination coverage, is therefore expected to decrease the risks of cervical cancer and excisional treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  3. The Value of RFID Benefits vs Costs

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    RFID technology presents a great potential for creating competitive advantage. By automating and simplifying data collection, it lets users more accurately track assets and monitor key indicators, which in turn gives greater visibility to the operations. However, the benefits received from this technology will be determined by how well it is integrated with the business processes and overall information flow. Because of the fact that the decision to deploy RFID technology in an enterprise is a business decision instead of a technology decision, cost-benefit analysis is a key component of this decision. If an RFID deployment cannot be justified in terms of its economic value to the company, it is not likely to help the company; and consequently, it is not likely to remain a viable deployment over the long term.   The Value of RFID describes the business value of RFID and explains the costs and benefits of this technology comprehensively. Different investment evaluation models are proposed to use in various ap...

  4. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... the implementation of a large intervention undertaken in five project-based organizations in Denmark – the Project Half Double where the same project methodology has been applied in five projects, each of them in five distinct organizations in Denmark, as a bold attempt to realize double the benefit in half...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  5. The value from investments in health information technology at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Colene M; Mercincavage, Lauren M; Pan, Eric C; Vincent, Adam G; Johnston, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-04-01

    We compare health information technology (IT) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to norms in the private sector, and we estimate the costs and benefits of selected VA health IT systems. The VA spent proportionately more on IT than the private health care sector spent, but it achieved higher levels of IT adoption and quality of care. The potential value of the VA's health IT investments is estimated at $3.09 billion in cumulative benefits net of investment costs. This study serves as a framework to inform efforts to measure and calculate the benefits of federal health IT stimulus programs.

  6. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  7. Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Kasi

    2011-01-01

    This paper was written to support a position on using technology in education. The purpose of this study was to support the use of technology in education by synthesizing previous research. A variety of sources including books and journal articles were studied in order to compile an overview of the benefits of using technology in elementary,…

  8. Influence of transportation policy on the multi-mode transportation choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system benefit estimation%交通政策对主卫城间多模式交通选择行为的影响及系统效益测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马书红; 孙言涵

    2015-01-01

    交通政策和管理措施的实施会对主卫城间多模式复合交通出行行为选择方式和系统整体效益产生影响,需要科学评估其影响程度,为城间交通模式的协调配置提供参考。在对城间交通模式及其出行行为特征进行分析的基础上,将基于随机效用理论的MNL模型和基于Logsun 差异的效益测算方法相结合,针对城间4种典型的交通模式,通过构建基准情景和多种可能情景,测算了不同交通政策实施对城间交通出行选择的影响和出行者效益。结果表明,实施公交优先(减少乘客出行时间)对城间交通出行选择行为的影响较大,并具有较明显的系统经济效益,在协调城间交通模式配置时可优先考虑。%Transport policy and management measures have an influence on muti-mode transporta-tion choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system’s whole benefits , which makes it necessary to make a scientific evaluation of the influence and provide a reference for the coordinated con-figuration of the intercity transportation mode .Based on the analysis of intercity transportation mode and the characteristics of travel behavior , MNL on the basis of random utility theory and benefit estimation method on the basis of Logsum differences were combined together .According to the four typical intercity traffic patterns, the influence of the different transportation policies on the intercity travel choice and travelers'benefits were estimated by constructing a baseline scenario and a variety of possible scenarios . The results show that the implementation of bus priority policy ( to reduce passenger travel time ) has a significant impact on intercity travelers'behavior choice and achieves obvious system economic benefits , which should be given priority in the coordination of intercity transportation mode .

  9. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  10. Teacher Retirement Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis is forcing many employers, from General Motors to local general stores, to take a hard look at the costs of the compensation packages they offer employees. For public school systems, this will entail a consideration of fringe benefit costs, which in recent years have become an increasingly important component of…

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  12. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Document Server

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service 5-1-030 tel. 79194 / 72738

  13. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices (5-1-030) will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service (tel. 79194 / 72738)

  14. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...

  15. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered...

  16. Soil carbon, multiple benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, E.; Banwart, S.A.; Noellemeyer, E.; Abson, D.J.; Ballabio, C.; Bampa, F.; Bationo, A.; Batjes, N.H.; Bernoux, M.; Bhattacharyya, T.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013, 40 leading experts from across the world gathered at a workshop, hosted by the European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Italy, to discuss the multiple benefits of soil carbon as part of a Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) project commissioned by Scientific

  17. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In

  18. The Benefits of Latin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  19. Public services, personal benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bob Kuhry; Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker; John Stevens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Publieke productie & persoonlijk profijt. This report looks in detail at the costs of public services (such as care, education, public administration and safety) and the benefits that citizens derive from the government expenditure involved in delivering those services. In 2003,

  20. Inclusion: Who Really Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2009-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of 2003, schools across the nation are mandated to educate students within the regular educational environment. What impact does this merger have on students and teachers? Who really benefits from this merger of regular education and special education? This article discusses the attitudes of general education teachers…