WorldWideScience

Sample records for technology base investment

  1. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  2. Investment in Green Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  3. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology.

  4. Applying Internet-based Technologies to Teaching Corporate Finance and Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoming “Joe” Peng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance faculty are increasingly encouraged to use internet-based technologies in teaching. This paper examines students’ perceptions of finance faculty who use internet-based technologies and the impact on their learning experiences in undergraduate introductory corporate finance, investments, and MBA investments courses. The results suggest that offering all course materials online may enhance students’ learning experiences, however, the technologies may be best thought of as teaching tools. A better methodology for a finance course delivery may be that of in-classroom interactions between an instructor and the students while all the pertinent course materials are available online throughout the semester. There is a statistically significant difference between MBA (Master of Business Administration students and undergraduate business students in terms of their desire to use the internet for learning finance. Consistent with previous research, results indicate that it may not be common practice among faculty to use internet-based technologies, and that assistant professors tend to use technologies in teaching more often than their higher-ranked colleagues do.

  5. GROWTH AND VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY-BASED SMALL FIRMS THE CASE OF HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky Nagy Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital backed enterprises represent a low proportion of companies, even of innovative ones. The research question was, whether these companies have an important role in innovation and economic growth in Hungary compared to other countries. In the first part of the article I present the theoretical background of technology-based small firms, highlighting the most important models and theories of the economic impact and the special development of innovative technology-oriented small firms. In the second part of the article I present the status of the most important indicators of innovation in connection with entrepreneurship, than I elaborate on the measures of start-ups, mainly the high-tech ones with high-growth potential. I describe the current position of venture capital industry, detailing the venture capital investments, with particular emphasis on classical venture capital investments that points out the number and the amount of venture capital investments financing early stage firms with high-growth potential. At the end I summarize the status of Hungarian technology-based small firms and their possibilities to get financial sources form venture capital investors, with regards to the status and the prospects of the JEREMIE program. In Hungary the number of internationally competitive firms, ready and willing to obtain venture capital, is much lower than in the US or Western European countries. Hungary could take advantage of its competitive edges in some special fields of innovation. The efficiency of information flow would reduce the information gap between the demand and the supply side of the venture capital market and more Hungarian firms could be internationally successful through venture capital financing. The recent years’ policy and special programs like JEREMIE generated more transactions, that helped to inform the entrepreneurs about venture capital and helped to co-invest public resources with private equity more

  6. 32 CFR 21.680 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 21.680 Section... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.680 Technology investment... of the nation's technology and industrial base. Technology investment agreements include one kind...

  7. Investment innovation trends: Factor-based investing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Centineo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that it can take a long period of time until research knowledge finds its application in practice and get disseminated as innovation trend. Factor-based investing is such an example. Having its developing roots in the nineties, it took more than two decades until this approach was detected by the by investment community. The goal of this article is to recall the definition of factor investing, present its historical evolvement and motivate its recent break-through and current trend among investment practitioners (known also under the notion smart beta. It aims at familiarizing with this investment approach from a practical perspective and highlighting its diversifying benefits in a portfolio context with the potential to outperform the market on risk-adjusted basis.

  8. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  9. Investing in Information Technology Pays Big Dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    1999-01-01

    A college or university's investment in information technology (IT) makes possible more effective teaching methods using both traditional and IT-based techniques, as well as making both student learning and faculty use of time more productive. A possible plan for making the transition from traditional to mixed teaching methods is presented. (MSE)

  10. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a s

  11. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  12. The return on investment for information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, B P; Bergeron, R A

    1998-01-01

    Investment in information technology accounts for an increasingly large component of the cost of modern health care. In most businesses, a quantitative return on investment analysis forms the basis for decisions regarding technology investment. As a whole, the medical community lags behind in the quantitative analysis of the benefits of information technology. However, economic pressures are forcing health care organizations to step back and understand the implications of technology investments and how they can best be applied to create a more productive staff and, in the end, better patient care.

  13. Information Technology Investments in Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examines investments that will ensure that library information technology (IT) meets future academic needs. Looks back on the introduction of IT to research libraries. Assesses outcomes of IT investments in terms of cost and service benefits, and then focuses on developing new service models. (AEF)

  14. Exploring the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of investment pattern on advanced manufacturing technology in a manner that builds on a longitudinal perspective. Based on the data of investments in AMTs from 567 manufacturing companies this paper develops a longitudinal taxonomy defined by the evolution...

  15. Investments in energy technological change under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ekundayo

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the crucial problem of how environmental policy uncertainty influences investments in energy technological change. The rising level of carbon emissions due to increasing global energy consumption calls for policy shift. In order to stem the negative consequences on the climate, policymakers are concerned with carving an optimal regulation that will encourage technology investments. However, decision makers are facing uncertainties surrounding future environmental policy. The first part considers the treatment of technological change in theoretical models. This part has two purposes: (1) to show--through illustrative examples--that technological change can lead to quite different, and surprising, impacts on the marginal costs of pollution abatement. We demonstrate an intriguing and uncommon result that technological change can increase the marginal costs of pollution abatement over some range of abatement; (2) to show the impact, on policy, of this uncommon observation. We find that under the assumption of technical change that can increase the marginal cost of pollution abatement over some range, the ranking of policy instruments is affected. The second part builds on the first by considering the impact of uncertainty in the carbon tax on investments in a portfolio of technologies. We determine the response of energy R&D investments as the carbon tax increases both in terms of overall and technology-specific investments. We determine the impact of risk in the carbon tax on the portfolio. We find that the response of the optimal investment in a portfolio of technologies to an increasing carbon tax depends on the relative costs of the programs and the elasticity of substitution between fossil and non-fossil energy inputs. In the third part, we zoom-in on the portfolio model above to consider how uncertainty in the magnitude and timing of a carbon tax influences investments. Under a two-stage continuous-time optimal control model, we

  16. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Investments Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with prioritized technology investments that will support NASA's exploration and science missions, while benefiting other Government agencies and the U.S. aerospace enterprise. center dotThe plan provides the guidance for NASA's space technology investments during the next four years, within the context of a 20-year horizon center dotThis plan will help ensure that NASA develops technologies that enable its 4 goals to: 1.Sustain and extend human activities in space, 2.Explore the structure, origin, and evolution of the solar system, and search for life past and present, 3.Expand our understanding of the Earth and the universe and have a direct and measurable impact on how we work and live, and 4.Energize domestic space enterprise and extend benefits of space for the Nation.

  18. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  19. NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area Technology Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations, and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through both ground and flight system testing. The Spaceliner Investment Area plans to mature vehicle technologies to reduce the implementation risks for future commercially developed reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The plan is to substantially increase the design and operating margins of the third generation RLV (the Space Shuttle is the first generation) by incorporating advanced technologies in propulsion, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, avionics, and power. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will allow improvements in design margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be provided through use of advanced integrated health management, operations, and range technologies. The increase in margins will allow components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. These technologies have the potential of enabling horizontal takeoff by reducing the takeoff weight and achieving the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates from an expanding market will result in significant improvements in safety

  20. Why Invest in Economic & Technological Development Zones?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to attract foreign direct investment, China has established 52 Statelevel Economic & technological Investment Zones (ETDZs). ETDZs lay emphasis on capital-intensive, technology-intensive, hi-tech and production export enterprises. The investment scale of every project in the zones is twice that of the rest of the country. A large number of investment projects are large projects with investment capital over US$IO million,

  1. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type...

  2. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement...

  3. \\t Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) for the Management of Information Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) is the Information Technology (IT) governance and management methodology in use at EPA for selecting, controlling and evaluating the performance of EPA IT investments throughout the full lifecycle.

  4. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yuan Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  5. NASA's Spaceliner 100 Investment Area Technology Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner100 Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), launch systems, and operations and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through ground system testing. Flight testing where required, will be advocated on a case by case basis.

  6. Technological and regulatory aspects of quality management during the life cycle of investment and construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kropyvko Serhii Maksymovych

    2016-01-01

    The division of the life cycle of investment and construction projects in four phases, based on their technological features, is proposed in the article. Regulatory aspects of quality management during each phase of the life cycle of investment and construction projects are analyzed. The model of quality management during the phases of the life cycle of investment and construction project is developed.

  7. MOBILE 5G TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION INVESTMENT TIMING DECISION MAKERS CLUSTERING AND WILLINGNESS TO INVEST UNDER VOLATILE DEMAND CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Adamauskas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises need to identify the optimal timing for technological change in order to increase competitiveness and increase the value of the company in an uncertain demanding environment. Investment decisions for adopting new technologies are costly and sometimes risky because technological investments are irreversible. To simulate the process, comprehensive technological adoption regarding investment timing was used in a management decision support model. The constructed model is structured as follows: 1 historical demand paths analysis; 2 application of statistical data validity tests; 3 the forecast of market parameters regarding data arrays using the geometric Brownian motion method, based on Monte Carlo simulation; 4 determination of technological life cycle using a Hodrick–Prescott filter; 5 technological adoption time-window determination; and 6 calculation of company net present values (NPV based on change in free cash-flow. The model for mature 5G mobile markets, created and empirical tested, was performed in relation to 18 largest Europe mobile service providers, as potential decision makers operating across 33 countries. Results confirmed that selection of the technological investment time depends on companies’ strategic financial decisions and financial state. The performed simulations revealed the consequence of 5G technology investment for investor roles, clustered according to financial data within a 5-year period (2010–2014. The analyzed companies were assigned to roles of pioneers-innovators, pragmatics, followers, or laggards. Finally, it is assumed and argued that financial parameters indicate the willingness to adopt new technologies in a global technologically changing environment.

  8. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN ADOPTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghua LIU; Chulin LI

    2003-01-01

    In dynamic uncertain environments, the investment timing of the firm about adopting the existing new technology is influenced by the rival's actions and technological progress. This paper employs option games approach to present a simplified duopoly continuous time model of technology adoption.In the model, the irreversible investment in adoption of the existing new technology is in strategic competitive circumstances and facing the threat of a further new technology after the competition setting is established. The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of technological displacement on firms' strategic investment. The results show that rapid displacement of the technology encourages the leader's investment and discourages the follower's investment. Comparing with the optimal timing without the expectation of a further new technology, the firm hastens to invest when no firm has invested; however, once one firm has invested first, the firm will delay its investment. Using mixed strategy analysis, competitive investment strategies with sequential exercise and simultaneous exercise are derived.

  9. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of host country domestic firms. We rely on a specially designed survey of over 4000 manufacturing firms in Vietnam, and separate out productivity gains along the supply chain (obtained through direct...... transfers of knowledge/technology between linked firms) from productivity effects through indirect FDI spillovers. In addition to identifying indirect vertical productivity spillovers from FDI, our results show that there are productivity gains associated with direct linkages between foreign......-owned and domestic firms along the supply chain not captured by commonly used measures of spillovers. This includes evidence of productivity gains through forward linkages for domestic firms which receive inputs from foreign-owned firms....

  10. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and International Technology Transfer: A Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal Saggi

    2002-01-01

    ...? Using these questions as motivation, this article surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of foreign direct investment...

  11. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field studies done by observation, interview, and questioner, and analysis system done by analyzed the ongoing system in the company. The result from this analysis is a recommendation in investment IT such as sales module, payment module, and report module. Then for the conclusion, this information technology investment planning can be develop to another investment implementation such authorized website of the company and using PDA (Personal Digital AssistantIndex Terms - Planning, Information Technology, Investment, Balance Scorecard

  12. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  13. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options evaluation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  14. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenning, B.D. [Texas Utilities Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options valuation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  15. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo [Department of Economics, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge Alberta (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  16. The Long Conversation Maximizing Business Value from Information Technology Investment

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, Oswaldo; González, Gastón; Ramdani, Boumediene

    2011-01-01

    For many years companies have been investing in enterprise systems and IT initiatives but they are now struggling to achieve the desired results. It takes a long time to make the best of your enterprise systems so businesses must stop looking for the next technology 'silver bullet' and instead maximize the value of existing IT investments.

  17. The Structure of Adjustment Costs in Information Technology Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunbae Chun; Sung-Bae Mun

    2005-01-01

    We examine the pattern of information technology (IT) capital adjustment using data from U.S. industries. Using the gap between actual and desired IT capital stocks, we estimate the shape of the adjustment cost function in IT investment. Both ordinary least squares and nonparametric regression estimates support irreversibility in IT investment.

  18. Technological and regulatory aspects of quality management during the life cycle of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropyvko Serhii Maksymovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The division of the life cycle of investment and construction projects in four phases, based on their technological features, is proposed in the article. Regulatory aspects of quality management during each phase of the life cycle of investment and construction projects are analyzed. The model of quality management during the phases of the life cycle of investment and construction project is developed.

  19. Notification: EPA Investments in Information Technology Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0307, June 10, 2014. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office oflnspector General (OIG) plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's management of information technology (IT) investments.

  20. NASA ESTO Lidar Technologies Investment Strategy: 2016 Decadal Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Komar, George J.; Tratt, David M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Gaab, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) recently updated its investment strategy in the area of lidar technologies as it pertains to NASA's Earth Science measurement goals in the next decade. The last ESTO lidar strategy was documented in 2006. The current (2016) report assesses the state-of-the-art in lidar technologies a decade later. Lidar technology maturation in the past decade has been evaluated, and the ESTO investment strategy is updated and laid out in this report according to current NASA Earth science measurement needs and new emerging technologies.

  1. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital...... decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. METHODS: A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012...... was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. RESULTS: A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted...

  2. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function und

  3. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  4. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  5. Retention payoff-based cost per day open regression equations: Application in a user-friendly decision support tool for investment analysis of automated estrus detection technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Heersche, G; Bewley, J M

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the economic implications of investing in automated estrus detection (AED) technologies can be overwhelming for dairy producers. The objectives of this study were to develop new regression equations for estimating the cost per day open (DO) and to apply the results to create a user-friendly, partial budget, decision support tool for investment analysis of AED technologies. In the resulting decision support tool, the end user can adjust herd-specific inputs regarding general management, current reproductive management strategies, and the proposed AED system. Outputs include expected DO, reproductive cull rate, net present value, and payback period for the proposed AED system. Utility of the decision support tool was demonstrated with an example dairy herd created using data from DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC), Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (Columbia, MO), and published literature. Resulting herd size, rolling herd average milk production, milk price, and feed cost were 323 cows, 10,758kg, $0.41/kg, and $0.20/kg of dry matter, respectively. Automated estrus detection technologies with 2 levels of initial system cost (low: $5,000 vs. high: $10,000), tag price (low: $50 vs. high: $100), and estrus detection rate (low: 60% vs. high: 80%) were compared over a 7-yr investment period. Four scenarios were considered in a demonstration of the investment analysis tool: (1) a herd using 100% visual observation for estrus detection before adopting 100% AED, (2) a herd using 100% visual observation before adopting 75% AED and 25% visual observation, (3) a herd using 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI) before adopting 100% AED, and (4) a herd using 100% TAI before adopting 75% AED and 25% TAI. Net present value in scenarios 1 and 2 was always positive, indicating a positive investment situation. Net present value in scenarios 3 and 4 was always positive in combinations using a $50 tag price, and in scenario 4, the $5

  6. Analysis on Dynamic Decision-Making Model of the Enterprise Technological Innovation Investment under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the environment of fuzzy factors including the return of market, performance of product, and the demanding level of market, we use the method of dynamic programming and establish the model of investment decision, in technology innovation project of enterprise, based on the dynamic programming. Analysis of the influence caused by the changes of fuzzy uncertainty factors to technological innovation project investment of enterprise.

  7. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  8. Investment and emission control under technology and pollution externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, Geoffrey [Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, 616 Uris Hall, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tarui, Nori [Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies incentives to develop advanced pollution abatement technology when technology may spillover across agents and pollution abatement is a public good. We are motivated by a variety of pollution control issues where solutions require the development and implementation of new pollution abatement technologies. We show that at the Nash equilibrium of a simultaneous-move game with R and D investment and emission abatement, whether the free rider effect prevails and under-investment and excess emissions occur depends on the degree of technology spillovers and the effect of R and D on the marginal abatement costs. There are cases in which, contrary to conventional wisdom, Nash equilibrium investments in emissions reductions exceed the first-best case. (author)

  9. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  10. Making smart investments in health information technology: core principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, John D

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five years, thousands of public- and private-sector employees, many volunteering their time, have worked to advance the cause of interoperable, certified, secure electronic health records. As new federal funds become available, should we invest right away or wait for technology and policy perfection? Do we leverage the accomplishments of existing national organizations, or do we start from scratch? The time to invest is now, building on the organizations we already have. To ensure wise investment, I suggest guiding principles assembled from the input of hundreds of providers, patients, payers, vendors, government employees, and standards-development organizations.

  11. COMPETITIVE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN NEW TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baojian YIN; Shigeng HU

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a general dynamic duopoly in which two firms compete in the adoption of current technology with a further new technology anticipated. Three kinds of equilibria may occur in technology adoption, namely the preemptive, sequential, and simultaneous equilibrium, depending on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage. It shows that the faster technological innovation encourages the leader to invest earlier, while induces the follower to invest later. Furthermore,like the investment costs, with the increase of the operating costs, the follower tends to invest later,while the leader tends to invest earlier. However, the investment thresholds are more sensitive to the change of the operating costs than that of the investment costs.

  12. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  13. Managing Investment in Teaching and Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Michael; Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are radically changing the way that teaching and learning activities are organised and delivered within higher education (HE) institutions. A wide range of technologies is being deployed in quite complex and interactive ways, including virtual learning environments (VLEs), mobile communication…

  14. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Christensen, Janne Buck

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012 was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted in 14 relevant studies containing 74 types of information that hospital decision makers found relevant. In addition to information covered by the Core Model, other types of information dealing with political and strategic aspects were identified. The most frequently mentioned types of information in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were not of equal importance to hospital decision makers, however, and full agreement between EUnetHTA's Core Model and the hospital decision-makers' informational needs was not observed. They also need information on political and strategic aspects not covered by the Core Model.

  15. IT Investment Allocation and Organizational Performance: A Study of Information Technology Investment Portfolios in Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ennis Jim C., III

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Federal Government Information Technology (IT) portfolio investments for twenty-seven Federal Government agencies, as provided annually to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in their Agency IT Investment Portfolio Reports (Exhibit 53), and divided Federal agency IT investments into four categories: Innovation,…

  16. Seven Benchmarks for Information Technology Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallen, David; Leach, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Offers benchmarks to help campuses evaluate their efforts in supplying information technology (IT) services. The first three help understand the IT budget, the next three provide insight into staffing levels and emphases, and the seventh relates to the pervasiveness of institutional infrastructure. (EV)

  17. Assessing the Economic and National Security Benefits from Publicly Funded Technology Investments: An IDA Round Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Narin, Francis; Olivastro, Dominic and Stevens, Kimberly A. " Bibliometrics / Theory , Practice, and Problems," Evaluation Review, vol. 18, no. 1...Partnerships (MEP) Program 46 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) 49 Technology Impact Measurement Issues 53 Session Three: Metrics For Multiple Policy...providing orderly information on the likely impact of proposed investments, based upon historical observation and experience. Metrics are also an

  18. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  19. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  20. A boom in energy technology innovation despite decades of stagnant investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, Luis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trancik, Jessika A [SANTA FE INSTITUTE; Kaur, Jasleen [INDIANA UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Rates of patenting in energy technologies in the United States stagnated during a period of low federal investment in the sector from the mid-1980's through 2000. To analyze the current state of the field, we built a new comprehensive database of energy patents in the USA and worldwide aggregated by nation and technology. We show that innovation in energy technologies, as measured by numbers of new patents, has grown dramatically over the last decade both for renewable and fossil fuel-based technologies, but that traditional investment -government and private support for research and development (R&D) -has not risen commensurately. We also show that while venture capital investment in the sector has increased significantly in the last few years it lags the observed uptick in patenting. We find increasing patenting rates in nations worldwide but also differences in regional priorities, as well as a marked divergence in innovation rates across technologies. Renewable energy technologies - especially solar and wind - currently show the fastest rates of innovation, while patenting levels in nuclear fission have remained low despite relatively high levels of sustained investment. While this sharp increase of innovative activity bodes well for change in the energy sector, the future of emerging technologies may hinge on sustained investment in R&D and favorable incentives for market entry.

  1. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  2. Some aspects of technology transfer and direct foreign investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R.

    1978-05-01

    A model showing technology transfer to developing countries links questions of appropriations with the socio-economic reasons for technological change. The rate at which foreign capital is used is found to be directly related to after-tax profits. If the developing country raises taxes on foreign capital, the effect is to increase the proportion of domestic capital needed and to widen the technological gap between the two countries. The analysis also shows a higher gain from new techniques with increased demand volume and suggests large developing countries with similar capital to invest are more likely to generate intermediate technologies. 8 references.

  3. A Research on Investment Casting Technology of Ti Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the materials and the compositions of the surface slurries were chosen by considering the characteristics of Ti investment casting. The effects of solid-liquid ratios on the properties of the slurry and the effects of baking temperatures on the flexural strength have also been investigated. Flawless shells having smooth inner surface were manufactured with proper technology. Ti and its alloys were melted and poured by water-cooled Cu crucible vacuum induction furnace. The qualities of the investment castings made accordingly were studied and analyzed.

  4. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Loukil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of countries have enacted laws aimed at making it easier for firms to invest in their country, while many countries offer various monetary incentives and tax incentives to encourage inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The desire to attract FDI is due not only to the fact that FDI brings in new investment boosting national income and employment, but also due to the expectation that inward FDI would also provide additional spillover benefits to the local economy that can result in higher productivity growth and increased export growth. This study aims to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on innovation in developing countries. The estimation of a panel threshold model on a sample of 54 developing countries for the 1980-2009 period shows the presence of non linear effects in the relationship between FDI and innovation. We find a threshold value of technological development below which FDI has a negative impact on innovation and above which FDI has a significant positive impact on innovation. We conclude that it is not enough for economic policy to attract foreign investments, it is still necessary to support domestic firms to build an absorptive capacity allowing them to enjoy the benefits of multinational firms.

  5. Medical implants by using RP and investment casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Horacek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the production technology of knee joint replacement by using rapid prototyping technology. The aim of the work is to outline the manufacturing technology intended for prototype production with the use of rapid prototyping and investment casting technology for use in orthopaedics and the surgery of knee joint replacement. The research results should make an effective contribution in the attempts to minimize the invasive surgical procedure, shorten the production of knee joint replacement as well as reduce the cost. At present, the research is focused on the preparation of STL data from CT (Computed Tomography and verification of the production technology of prototypes made using available RP technology and its evaluation.

  6. Technology Investment Agendas to Expand Human Space Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The paper develops four alternative core-technology advancement specifications, one for each of the four strategic goal options for government investment in human space flight. Already discussed in the literature, these are: Explore Mars; Settle the Moon; accelerate commercial development of Space Passenger Travel; and enable industrial scale-up of Space Solar Power for Earth. In the case of the Explore Mars goal, the paper starts with the contemporary NASA accounting of ?55 Mars-enabling technologies. The analysis decomposes that technology agenda into technologies applicable only to the Explore Mars goal, versus those applicable more broadly to the other three options. Salient technology needs of all four options are then elaborated to a comparable level of detail. The comparison differentiates how technologies or major developments that may seem the same at the level of budget lines or headlines (e.g., heavy-lift Earth launch) would in fact diverge widely if developed in the service of one or another of the HSF goals. The paper concludes that the explicit choice of human space flight goal matters greatly; an expensive portfolio of challenging technologies would not only enable a particular option, it would foreclose the others. Technologies essential to enable human exploration of Mars cannot prepare interchangeably for alternative futures; they would not allow us to choose later to Settle the Moon, unleash robust growth of Space Passenger Travel industries, or help the transition to a post-petroleum future with Space Solar Power for Earth. The paper concludes that a decades-long decision in the U.S.--whether made consciously or by default--to focus technology investment toward achieving human exploration of Mars someday would effectively preclude the alternative goals in our lifetime.

  7. Correlationally Assessing the Relationship of Information Technology Investments in Electronic Medical Records to Business Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The lag in information exchange and assimilation adoption experienced by modern primary care physicians in the conduct of evidence based medicine may be affecting health care system productivity and patient quality of care. Further, interest in whether or not information technology (IT) investments show an increase in business value has increased…

  8. Correlationally Assessing the Relationship of Information Technology Investments in Electronic Medical Records to Business Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The lag in information exchange and assimilation adoption experienced by modern primary care physicians in the conduct of evidence based medicine may be affecting health care system productivity and patient quality of care. Further, interest in whether or not information technology (IT) investments show an increase in business value has increased…

  9. Improving America's health care system by investing in information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coye, Molly Joel; Bernstein, William S

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale investment in health care information technology (IT) infrastructure will not take place without leadership by the federal government. But how the federal government supports the financing of health care IT is critical. Health care IT development has multiple aspects, but it is fundamentally a problem of community infrastructure development. A policy approach that has had consistent success in financing our country's essential physical infrastructure in transportation and environmental protection will be well suited to fostering health care IT infrastructure as well. We propose the creation of a health care IT revolving loan fund program to invest public dollars in health care IT infrastructure projects through community-level nonprofit lending agencies.

  10. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  11. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  12. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  13. Federal investment in health information technology: how to motivate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    Health care market failures include inefficient standard making, problems with coordination among local providers to optimize care, and inability to measure quality accurately, inexpensively, or reliably. Study of other industries suggests policy directions for health information technology and the magnitude of gains from improving market functioning, which are very large. A perspective drawn from U.S. industrial history--in particular railroads and the interstate highway system--suggests an investment level roughly consistent with recent estimates drawn from the medical literature. The benefits of quick action probably outweigh the benefits of delaying and choosing the perfect funding mechanism.

  14. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from....... Productivity externalities from upstream sectors are associated with joint venture foreign investors while downstream sectors experience direct technology transfers from upstream wholly foreign owned investors. Spillovers from FDI through backward linkages are also detected but only when competition from...

  15. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  16. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments. PMID:26166906

  17. Liquidity, Technological Opportunities, and the Stage Distribution of Venture Capital Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Henry; Mina, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the determinants of the stage distribution of European venture capital investments from 1990 to 2011. Consistent with liquidity risk theory, we find that the likelihood of investing in earlier stages increases relative to all private equity investments during liquidity crisis years. While liquidity is the main driver of acquisition investments and, to some extent, of expansion financings, technological opportunities are overall the main driver of early and late stage venture capital investments. In contrast to the dotcom crash, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the relative likelihood of expansion investments, but not of early and late stage investments.

  18. 基于网络DEA的科技创新型企业投资效率评价分析%The Evaluation and Analysis of Investment Efficiency of Scientific and Technological Innovation Oriented Enterprises Based on Network DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佑元; 王婷

    2016-01-01

    Investment efficiency is the key factor affecting the enterprise value . In the transformation process of dividing investment on the basis of sub-stage , we should establish investment efficiency model and indicator system as well as adopt two -stage network DEA to measure the improvement degree of the investment ratio and non -efficiency investment of Chinese listed technological innovators . The empirical results show that the investment efficiency of listed technological innovators at sub -stage is lower , and the investment redundancy in three areas of R&D expenditure , intangible assets and long -term investment is very obvious . But the investment efficiency of most list-ed companies at the two stages tends to become doubly efficient over time .%企业投资效率是影响企业价值的关键因素.本文在划分投资转化过程子阶段的基础上构建投资效率评价模型及指标体系 ,运用二阶段网络DEA方法测算我国创业板科技创新型上市公司2012~2014年投资效率值及非效率投资的改进程度.实证结果表明 ,科技创新型上市公司利润产生子阶段投资效率较低 ,并且研发支出、无形资产以及长期投资三方面的投资冗余现象明显 ,但是多数上市公司两个阶段的投资效率随着时间的推移逐渐趋向双重高效.

  19. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  20. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    OpenAIRE

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways: An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.; Stephens, T.; McManus, W.

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Vehicle Technology Deployment Pathways. An Examination of Timing and Investment Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, Steve [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McManus, Walter [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Scenarios of new vehicle technology deployment serve various purposes; some will seek to establish plausibility. This report proposes two reality checks for scenarios: (1) implications of manufacturing constraints on timing of vehicle deployment and (2) investment decisions required to bring new vehicle technologies to market. An estimated timeline of 12 to more than 22 years from initial market introduction to saturation is supported by historical examples and based on the product development process. Researchers also consider the series of investment decisions to develop and build the vehicles and their associated fueling infrastructure. A proposed decision tree analysis structure could be used to systematically examine investors' decisions and the potential outcomes, including consideration of cash flow and return on investment. This method requires data or assumptions about capital cost, variable cost, revenue, timing, and probability of success/failure, and would result in a detailed consideration of the value proposition of large investments and long lead times. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Measuring information technology investment among Canadian academic health sciences centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Lorraine; Leonard, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Many recent studies have attempted to accurately measure the expenditure by hospitals in the area of new information technology (IT), for example see Leonard 1998 and Pink et al. 2001. This is usually done as an exercise to compare the healthcare sector with other industries that have had much more success in implementing and leveraging their IT investment (Willcocks 1992; Chan 2000). It is normally hoped that such investigation would help explain some of the differences among the various industries and provide insight into where (and how much) future IT spending should occur in healthcare (Leonard 2004). Herein, we present the results from a study of eight Canadian academic health sciences centres that contributed data in order to analyze the amount of information technology spending in their organizations. Specifically, we focus on one specific indicator: the IT spend ratio. This ratio is defined as the percentage of total IT net costs to total hospital net operating costs, and aims to provide a "relative (or percentage) measure of spending" so as to make the comparisons meaningful. One such comparison shows that hospitals spend only 55% of the amount the financial services sector spends.

  4. 32 CFR 37.110 - What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of instruments are technology investment agreements (TIAs)? 37.110 Section 37.110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS General §...

  5. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  6. Optimal technology choice and investment timing: A stochastic model of industrial cogeneration vs. heat-only production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickart, Marcel [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Madlener, Reinhard [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 18 (ZUE E), 8032 Zurich (Switzerland) and DIW Berlin, Department of Information Society and Competition, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 5, 14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: rmadlener@ethz.ch

    2007-07-15

    In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making problem under uncertainty of an industrial firm that wants to invest in a process technology. More specifically, the decision is between making an irreversible investment in a combined heat-and-power production (cogeneration) system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system (steam boiler) and to purchase all electricity from the grid. In our model we include the main economic and technical variables of the investment decision process. We also account for the risk and uncertainty inherent in volatile energy prices that can greatly affect the valuation of the investment project. The dynamic stochastic model presented allows us to simultaneously determine the optimal technology choice and investment timing. We apply the theoretical model and illustrate our main findings with a numerical example that is based on realistic cost values for industrial oil- or gas-fired cogeneration and heat-only generation in Switzerland. We also briefly discuss expected effects of a CO{sub 2} tax on the investment decision.

  7. Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Joaquin G.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr

  8. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Technology Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate has two primary discretionary avenues for its investment in technologies: the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the ''Tech Base'' program. This volume summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts in FY2004. The Engineering Technical Reports exemplify Engineering's more than 50-year history of researching and developing (LDRD), and reducing to practice (technology-base) the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and technical resources. This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Tech Base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. The objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and

  9. Construction project investment control model based on instant information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-tong

    2006-01-01

    Change of construction conditions always influences project investment by causing the loss of construction work time and extending the duration. To resolve such problem as difficult dynamic control in work construction plan, this article presents a concept of instant optimization by ways of adjustment operation time of each working procedure to minimize investment change. Based on this concept, its mathematical model is established and a strict mathematical justification is performed. An instant optimization model takes advantage of instant information in the construction process to duly complete adjustment of construction; thus we maximize cost efficiency of project investment.

  10. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  11. Information Technology Investment: Agencies Can Improve Performance, Reduce Costs, and Minimize Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    strengthened management of three fundamental assets: personnel, knowledge and information, and capital property/fixed assets. Investments in information ... technology (IT) can have a dramatic impact on all three of these assets. However, an IT project’s impact comes from how the investment is selected, designed

  12. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

  13. DEFENSE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Adopting Best Practices Can Improve Innovation Investments and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    approach to organizing and executing their technology development activities by grouping them into two portfolios: incremental and disruptive, as shown in...for product development . Disruptive R&D is often sponsored by a corporate research organization , which makes project investment decisions... development investments. To develop these plans, companies solicit ideas and information from people across the organization to determine the

  14. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care.

  15. The Baetylus Theorem-the central disconnect driving consumer behavior and investment returns in Wearable Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A

    2016-08-01

    The Wearable Technology market may increase fivefold by the end of the decade. There is almost no academic investigation as to what drives the investment hypothesis in wearable technologies. This paper seeks to examine this issue from an evidence-based perspective. There is a fundamental disconnect in how consumers view wearable sensors and how companies market them; this is called The Baetylus Theorem where people believe (falsely) that by buying a wearable sensor they will receive health benefit; data suggest that this is not the case. This idea is grounded social constructs, psychological theories and marketing approaches. A marketing proposal that fails to recognize The Baetylus Theorem and how it can be integrated into a business offering has not optimized its competitive advantage. More importantly, consumers should not falsely believe that purchasing a wearable technology, improves health.

  16. The Baetylus Theorem—the central disconnect driving consumer behavior and investment returns in Wearable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wearable Technology market may increase fivefold by the end of the decade. There is almost no academic investigation as to what drives the investment hypothesis in wearable technologies. This paper seeks to examine this issue from an evidence-based perspective. There is a fundamental disconnect in how consumers view wearable sensors and how companies market them; this is called The Baetylus Theorem where people believe (falsely) that by buying a wearable sensor they will receive health benefit; data suggest that this is not the case. This idea is grounded social constructs, psychological theories and marketing approaches. A marketing proposal that fails to recognize The Baetylus Theorem and how it can be integrated into a business offering has not optimized its competitive advantage. More importantly, consumers should not falsely believe that purchasing a wearable technology, improves health. PMID:27617162

  17. Investment appraisal for small CHP technology in biomass-fuel power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The paper is essentially an investment appraisal for small CHP (combined heat and power) technology in biomass-fuel power plant and discusses and presents data on the combustion/steam cycle technologies to demonstrate the economic viability of CHP projects using established market costs for technology and employing energy crops as biomass fuel. The data is based on the UK, where electricity prices are low, but the overseas market (where prices are higher and there is potential for UK exports) is also discussed. The report aims to synthesise up-to-date technical and economic information on biomass-fuel CHP projects of small scale and focuses on technical and financial information on equipment, capital, construction and operating costs, and revenue streams.

  18. Quantitative Model of High Technology Risk Investment Based on Psychological Expectations%基于心理预期的高新技术风险投资收益定量分析模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平

    2009-01-01

    In cognizance of income changes in the risk investment, the article put forward two concepts creatively from the influencing factors concerned. One is the Achieved-multiples of the factors which affect the investment income. The other is the Achieved-multiples of investment income. According to the new concepts, it mooted the method about how to describe the changes of factors influencing the risk investment income. What's more, it gave the procedures and methods of the assessment on the risk investment earning and the quantitative models based on the psychological expectations.%针对风险投资收益变化问题,从影响投资收益的因素出发,提出了影响风险投资收益因素的实现倍数和风险投资收益实现倍数的概念,并借用此概念提出了对影响风险投资收益因素变化情况进行描述的方法,给出了评估风险投资收益实现倍数的方法程序和基于心理预期的定量模型.

  19. Influence of elements of “technological revolution” on efficiency of the investment and construction sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murashova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new view on the investment and construction area taking into consideration the influence of information technologies and innovations. The author has pointed out the basic aspects, which could allow making a break-through in management effectiveness, if being implemented in companies’ business or in investment and construction projects. The article presents the definition of the investment and construction cycle as an integrator of innovation solutions. The paper contains the conclusion about the obvious sector development using active implementation of information modeling of the investment and construction project facilities.

  20. 基于大数据技术的金融投资实验室建设探讨%Discussion on Construction of Financial Investment Laboratory Based on Large Data Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂小东; 黄羽中

    2014-01-01

    This article, taking a science and engineering college in Guangzhou as the background, expounds problems and defects existed in the financial investment in colleges and universities under the conditions of the large data and engineering, puts forward how to plan and construct the demonstration laboratory of financial investment and reform traditional teaching pattern of financial investment by hadoop technology and Linux platform technology, thus can make original conceptual teaching into the teaching combining practice and theory to cultivate the students' practical ability. Finally this article expounds the present achievements and future goals of the college.%本文以广州某理工科高校为背景,针对大数据及工科环境下高校金融投资教学存在的不足提出如何通过hadoop技术以及Linux平台对金融投资示范实验室进行建设规划从而将传统的金融投资教学模式进行改革,使原来的概念教学转变为实践与理论并重的教学从而提高了学生的能力。最后本文阐述了学校现阶段取得的成果以及未来的建设目标。

  1. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  2. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.

  3. THE GERMAN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN INNOVATIVE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Карина Юрьевна Ашикарьян

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and economy modernization the special attention is paid to cooperation of the countries in the sphere of innovations and high technologies which is reached at the expense of a transfer of knowledge and technologies. One of priority instruments of innovative and technological cooperation today are direct foreign investments. Germany occupies one of leading provisions among the developed countries of the world and possesses high scientific and technical potential. The importance is got by direct investments of Germany, as main supplier of the real direct investments bringing new technologies and knowledge in economy of Russia. Thus, the German direct investments are the most important source of advanced technologies and the methods of management promoting modernization of the Russian economy and transition to an innovative way of development. Direct German investments accelerate process of integration of the Russian economy  in the world economy, improve use of various advantages of the international labor cooperation and its division, promote involvement in being formed European economic space.The article describes a role of the German direct investments in innovative and technological development of  the Russian economy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-19

  4. Technology Expenditures: A Policy Analysis in a Selected School and Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Timothy Brian

    2012-01-01

    The process of retooling schools to prepare students for the Twenty-First Century requires that schools invest in technology resources and ongoing professional development for teachers to support the transformation of teaching and learning practices through technology integration. Technology resources are still considered to be educational…

  5. Applying the Theory of the Firm to Examine a Technology Startup at the Investment Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayukawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The investment stage of a new technology firm is when resources, opportunities, investors, and early customers first converge. Currently, technology entrepreneurs make many expensive mistakes. They invest in assets and develop capabilities that prove to have limited value. They take too long to discover and validate the product-market fit for their firms during the investment stage and run out of time and money. Understanding how theory can help entrepreneurs make decisions during the investment stage is important to accelerate new-firm formation and growth as well as to reduce the uncertainty of founders and stakeholders of technology firms. This article introduces a model developed to examine deal making during the investment stage of a new technology firm. It is an extension of a model of lateral firm scope proposed by Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom. The extensions come from considering a technology firm as being both a deal-making entity and a pool of resources during the investment stage. A deal is the result of a decision the entrepreneur and others make to coordinate (i.e., work together to achieve a common objective. Benefits from a deal include cash profits for the firm and private benefits for the entrepreneur. This extended model is then applied to examine the author’s firm which is still in the investment stage. Application of the extended model to a real-life situation generated two important insights: i when private benefits include learning from experimentation, the number of deals increases and ii at the start of the investment stage, private benefits drive deal-making, whereas at the end of the investment stage, cash profits derived from asset ownership drive deal-making.

  6. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  7. 基于实物期权方法的新兴技术项目投资时机和投资规模选择%Analysis firm's optimal investing time and scale of emerging technology based on the real option approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁皓; 张宗益

    2012-01-01

    以新兴技术项目投资为背景,修改了实物期权理论中投资机会永生和资产价格随机游走的假设,建立了新兴技术项目的实物期权定价模型,给出了新兴技术项目最佳投资时机和投资规模的表达式,并以此为基础进一步探讨了风险和投资时限对投资时机和投资规模的影响规律,最后通过数值算例验证了结论并指出了影响程度的变动规律.研究结果表明:对投资有时限的新兴技术项目来说,风险的增加会导致投资时机呈现出先提前再延迟的趋势、投资规模呈现出先递减再递增的趋势;投资时限的增加会导致投资时机提前,但对投资规模并无影响.%This paper relaxes the assumptions of infinitely expiration of investing options and random walk of prices in standard real option based on the analysis of emerging technology investment projects. A real option model has been established to value the emerging technology project, and the optimal investing time and the optimal capacity have been provided to discuss the effect of risk and expiration. Using a numerical example, the conclusions are validated and an analysis about degree of influence is presented. The results show that: to the emerging technology project which has finitely expiration, for low levels of risk an increase in risk accelerate the investment time and decrease the capacity of investment, while for high levels of risk an increase in risk delay the investment time and increase the capacity of investment. In addition, an increase in the expiration time can accelerate the investment time, while has no effect on the capacity of investment.

  8. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    FDI through vertical linkages along the supply chain. Our results suggest that domestic firms experience more productivity spillovers through forward linkages from foreign-input suppliers to domestic input users than through backward linkages from foreign customers to domestic producers of inputs......This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from...

  9. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  10. Investment Strategies Optimization based on a SAX-GA Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Canelas, António M L; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a new computational finance approach combining a Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) technique with an optimization kernel based on genetic algorithms (GA). While the SAX representation is used to describe the financial time series, the evolutionary optimization kernel is used in order to identify the most relevant patterns and generate investment rules. The proposed approach considers several different chromosomes structures in order to achieve better results on the trading platform The methodology presented in this book has great potential on investment markets.

  11. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  12. Returns on investments in energy-saving technologies under energy price uncertainty in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, P.J.M.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Veen, van der H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional net present value calculations evaluating the profitability of investments in energy-saving technologies in Dutch horticultural outlays predict a much higher rate of adoption of these technologies than is actually observed. This paper tries to explain this gap by applying a real options

  13. A System Model of Increasing the Investment Potential of Technologically Unrelated Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Alexander G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical substantiation and the progress of practical application of the method for evaluating lagged effects of increasing the investment potential of interaction between industries in meso-level innovation systems on the example of the high-tech sector of Ukraine. The interaction data are considered in terms of their formation in such technologically unrelated sectors as the industrial sector and sector of education and sciences. It has been determined that the analytical basis to form the models of increasing the investment potential in innovation systems of meso-level should be presented by a comprehensive integrated assessment of all sectors involved in the reproduction process including technologically unrelated sectors of highly structured innovative systems. There has been proposed a system model of increasing the investment potential of the high-tech sector taking into account the optimization and synergy effects for system decisions concerning technologically unrelated sectors in economic systems of innovation type of reproduction.

  14. Assessing the capital efficiency of healthcare information technologies investments: an econometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    To examine the different methods that can be used in the quantification of the added value of information technologies (IT) in the health care sector. This quantification represents a major issue for decision-makers and health care professionals when they have to plan an IT investment. Articles were chosen via Medline, internet and the University of Geneva bibliographic portal. Some of the papers were obtained directly from their authors. We examine the most current methods used to evaluate IT return on investment (ROI) in the general business and in the health care sector, drawing attention on methods traditionally used in macroeconomic studies that could reveal themselves disruptive for IT ROI impact evaluation in hospitals. Financial and accounting methods can provide interesting data on a specific IT project but are usually incomplete for revealing the global IT investment influence. Econometric methods tend to demonstrate the positive impact of health care IT (HIT) on hospital production and productivity. Hospitals having higher levels of IT investment tend to deliver a higher level of clinical quality and show improved hospital cost performances. Information technologies are so intermingled with people and processes that the identification of specific IT benefit remains questionable. Using macroeconomic tools could be the best way to analyze and compute IT ROI in health care. Econometric tools take into account all types investments (inputs) and all the returns (outputs) enabling the precise measurement of IT investments impact, breakeven points, and possible threshold levels, thus providing helpful intelligence to reach the higher levels of IT governance in hospitals.

  15. Investments in information systems and technology in the healthcare: Project management mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gomes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare organisations must improve their business practices and internal procedures in order to answer the increasing demand of health professionals and the general public for more and better information. Hospitals invest massively in information systems and technology (IS/IT in the hope that these investments will improve healthcare and meet patients’ demands. The main objective of our research is to study how organisational maturity, enhanced by investments in IS/IT, project management and best practices, leads to successful projects in public healthcare organisations. The rational of our model is that organisational maturity has a positive effect on IS/IT project success, and that this success is also positively enhanced by the use of project management practices. We emphasise that this combination of approaches can increase the effectiveness of projects. Furthermore, it can also improve the confidence that the results of investments will meet stakeholders’ expectations.

  16. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  17. Simulation study of coal mine safety investment based on system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lei; Dou Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    To generate dynamic planning for coal mine safety investment, this study applies system dynamics to decision-making, classifying safety investments by accident type. It validates the relationship between safety investments and accident cost, by structurally analyzing the causality between safety investments and their influence factors. Our simulation model, based on Vensim software, conducts simulation anal-ysis on a series of actual data from a coalmine in Shanxi Province. Our results indicate a lag phase in safety investments, and that increasing pre-phase safety investment reduces accident costs. We found that a 24%increase in initial safety investment could help reach the target accident costs level 14 months earlier. Our simulation test included nine kinds of variation trends of accident costs brought by different investment ratios on accident prevention. We found an optimized ratio of accident prevention invest-ments allowing a mine to reach accident cost goals 4 months earlier, without changing its total investment.

  18. Fostering Entrepreneurial Investment Decision in Medical Technology Ventures in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bettina Keppler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a survey among public and private venture capitalists from countries which attract a large amount of venture capital investment: Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Israel. The objective is to investigate venture capitalists’ investment criteria for medical technology ventures in the start-up or expansion phase. Since existing research evaluated venture capitalists’ general investment criteria, the aim of this study is to provide specific results on entrepreneurial investment decisions for the medical technology sector, which constantly attracted a significant share of European venture capital. The research used semi-structured interviews with 39 venture capitalists and experts. The results show that venture capitalists prefer to invest in companies which develop products for treating and diagnosing diseases showing a high prevalence and large market volumes, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological diseases, and orthopaedic disorders. The study confirms that venture capitalists use a number of industry-specific criteria highly relevant in a changing business environment. These include a high medical need for the product, availability of clinical data, stage of European Conformity approval, high probability of receiving reimbursement from health insurances, medical key opinion leaders supporting technology, management’s regulatory experience and their communication ability with doctors and key opinion leaders.

  19. Science and Technology Investment Strategy for Squadron Level Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    34 Maintainers felt that some of the globally imposed training requirements, such as block training, were entirely inappropriate or overtrained . They also...system risk. He must answer the question of 442 whether or not the new technology could cause loss of life, personnel injury , mission failure, or

  20. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…

  1. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  2. Influence of regulatory uncertainty on capacity investments – Are investments in new technologies a risk mitigation measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwark, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the investment decisions of power companies is vital for a regulator as particularly deficient investments in generation capacity could jeopardize the market in the long run. Considering potential risks that could hamper investments, the paper focuses on regulatory uncertainty and firms’ behavior to mitigate risk. The question of how uncertainty influences investment decisions has been explained by a number of researchers. In the specific case of regulatory uncertainty it is ag...

  3. Addressing Future Technology Challenges Through Innovation and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    thank my loving wife and children for their undying support during my fellowship and career to this point.   1   Chapter 1   Addressing...Future Technology Challenges: Innovate or Die!   I thoroughly disapprove of duels . If a man should challenge me, I would take him kindly and...forgivingly by the hand and lead him to a quiet place and kill him. - Mark Twain Duels are foolish. Mark Twain’s approach to conflict resolution is

  4. Corporate Investment Dynamic Control System Based on Chaos Cycle Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It exists some issues such as the low predict accuracy and a bad convergence performance to predict business investment with BP neural network algorithm. This paper presents a predictive model of business investment based on improved artificial bee colony and chaos periodic disturbance optimizing BP neural network algorithm. At first, use Boltzmann selection strategy and group behaviour control strategy to optimize the artificial bee colony algorithm, and then use the improved algorithm to transform BP neural network algorithm’s optimized parameters into optimization process of artificial bee colony algorithm to reduce the training error of the original algorithm. Finally, use chaotic optimized Logistic mapping enables BP neural network out of the local minimum point in the training process based on secondary chaotic cycle perturbation strategies. Simulation results show that the proposed predictive model of investment in the enterprise based on improved artificial bee colony and chaos periodic disturbance optimizing BP neural network algorithm shows higher predict accuracy and better convergence than normal BP neural network algorithm.

  5. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has...

  6. Dynamic programming to determine optimum investments in information technology on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating the information about a number of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms is gaining interest because of the potential to improve economic results. In this study optimal investment patterns involving five IT applications are evaluated: (1) automated con

  7. Investigations of Properties of Wax Mixtures Used in the Investment Casting Technology – New Investigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. Themeasurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function wereperformed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.

  8. A STUDY OF THE INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR BASED ON BEHAVIORAL FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavior finance introduces psychology, sociology and other research methods into the study of investment behavior to explain how investors handle the information and take actions. This paper presents the literatures as theoretical solutions to the market anomalies of the traditional market theories. The behavioral psychology is examined through the study on the questionnaire of Chinese security investors. The results show that the investors are not always adopt rational behaviors as traditional finance theory assumed, but make a lot of irrational decisions based on individual cognitive and prejudices, even institutional investors often show the characteristic of irrational. In the guidance of the behavioral finance theory, the research will be closer to the reality and give more significant insight to the selection of investment strategy and psychology characteristic used to explain market anomalies.

  9. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.W. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  10. Review of NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Inflatable Decelerator Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E. H.; Mnk, M. M.; James, B. F.; Moon, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program is managed by the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate and is implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The ISPT objective is to fund development of promising in-space propulsion technologies that can decrease flight times, decrease cost, or increase delivered payload mass for future science missions. Before ISPT will invest in a technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the concept must be estimated to be at TRL 3. A TRL 3 signifies that the technical community agrees that the feasibility of the concept has been proven through experiment or analysis. One of the highest priority technology investments for ISPT is Aerocapture. The aerocapture maneuver uses a planetary atmosphere to reduce or alter the speed of a vehicle allowing for quick, propellantless (or using very little propellant) orbit capture. The atmosphere is used as a brake, transferring the energy associated with the vehicle's high speed into thermal energy. The ISPT Aerocapture Technology Area (ATA) is currently investing in the development of advanced lightweight ablative thermal protection systems, high temperature composite structures, and heat-flux sensors for rigid aeroshells. The heritage of rigid aeroshells extends back to the Apollo era and this technology will most likely be used by the first generation aerocapture vehicle. As a second generation aerocapture technology, ISPT is investing in three inflatable aerodynamic decelerator concepts for planetary aerocapture. They are: trailing ballute (balloon-parachute), attached afterbody ballute, and an inflatable aeroshell. ISPT also leverages the NASA Small Business Innovative Research Program for additional inflatable decelerator technology development. In mid-2004 ISPT requested an independent review of the three inflatable decelerator technologies funded directly by ISPT to validate the TRL and to identify technology maturation concerns. An

  11. Investing in Computer Technology: Criteria and Procedures for System Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    The criteria used by the University of Delaware in selecting the PLATO computer-based educational system are discussed in this document. Consideration was given to support for instructional strategies, requirements of the student learning station, features for instructors and authors of instructional materials, general operational characteristics,…

  12. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for investments. Each Bank shall hold retained earnings plus general allowance for losses as support for...

  13. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ruchi; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of addition of renewable resources- solar and wind in the distribution system as deployed in the SGIG projects.

  14. The Fundamentals of a Business Model Based on Responsible Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Dumitrascu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization of profitability and social responsibility is possible under the adoption and practice conditions by the companies of some adequate business models. “Responsible profitability” must benefit as well of management tools that guide the business sequentially, based on some objective decision making criteria towards sustainable economic behaviors. The simultaneous increase of the specific economic over-value generated by social responsible investment (SRI project and responsible intensity of economic employment reflects the company’s strong subscription to the authentic sustainable development path.

  15. Calculation of Investments for the Distribution of GPON Technology in the village of Bishtazhin through database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to daily reports, the income from internet services is getting lower each year. Landline phone services are running at a loss,  whereas mobile phone services are getting too mainstream and the only bright spot holding together cable operators (ISP  in positive balance is the income from broadband services (Fast internet, IPTV. Broadband technology is a term that defines multiple methods of information distribution through internet at great speed. Some of the broadband technologies are: optic fiber, coaxial cable, DSL, Wireless, mobile broadband, and satellite connection.  The ultimate goal of any broadband service provider is being able to provide voice, data and the video through a single network, called triple play service. The Internet distribution remains an important issue in Kosovo and particularly in rural zones. Considering the immense development of the technologies and different alternatives that we can face, the goal of this paper is to emphasize the necessity of a forecasting of such investment and to give an experience in this aspect. Because of the fact that in this investment are involved many factors related to population, geographical factors, several technologies and the fact that these factors are in continuously change, the best way is, to store all the data in a database and to use this database for different results. This database helps us to substitute the previous manual calculations with an automatic procedure of calculations. This way of work will improve the work style, having now all the tools to take the right decision about an Internet investment considering all the aspects of this investment.

  16. News and Views: Perspectives on Graphene and Other 2D Materials Research and Technology Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Ribeiro Soares, Jenaina

    2013-01-01

    With the actual experimental realization of graphene samples, it became possible not only to exploit the special physical properties of graphene but also to exploit its technological applications. As the field developed, the discovery of other 2D materials occurred and this opened up access to a plethora of combinations of a large variety of electrical, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Now there are large investments being made around the world to develop the graphene research ar...

  17. Evaluating the impact of investments in information technology on structural inertia in health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Lee W

    2010-01-01

    Structural inertia is the overall capacity of an organization to adapt within a market environment. This paper reviews the impact of healthcare investments in information management/information technology (IM/IT) on the strategic management concept of structural inertia. Research indicates that healthcare executives should consider the relative state of structural inertia for their firms and match them with potential IM/IT solutions. Additionally, organizations should favorably consider IM/IT solutions that are comparatively less complex.

  18. How does the design of international environmental agreements affect investment in environmentally friendly technologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoglu, Basak

    2007-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2007.30 - ISSN : 1955-611X; This paper studies the link between the design of international environmental agreements and the incentives for the private sector to invest in cleaner technologies. More specifically, it compares the performance, in the Pareto sense, of two types of agreement: an agreement on a uniform standard with transfers ...

  19. Intelligent design of investment casting mold based on a hybrid reasoning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ruisong; Zhang Dinghua; Wang Wenhu; Bu Kun

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid reasoning model was proposed in which CBR (case-based reasoning) was applied to the conceptual design and RBR (rule-based reasoning) was applied to the detailed design after research of the design process and domain knowledge of the acre-engine turbine blade investment casting mold design field. In the conceptual design stage, the representation and retrieval technologies were researched which improve the retrieval efficiency. Meanwhile, RBR was used to modify the retrieval result. The experimentation shows that the approach in this study can be used to obtain a more satisfactory design result.

  20. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.

    2015-12-01

    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  1. 26 CFR 1.954-7 - Increase in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in qualified investments in foreign... § 1.954-7 Increase in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations. (a) Determination of investments at close of taxable year—(1) In general. Under section 954(g), the increase in...

  2. Venture Capital Investment Selection Decision-making Base on Fuzzy Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    Venture capital investment decision-making is the most important issue in venture capital investment selection. There are higher uncertainty and complexity in venture capital investment decision-making process. This paper analysis these uncertain risk in venture capital investment decision-making base the previous studies. Attributed the venture capital candidate firms' select to fuzzy optimal decision-making. Build a risk-weight fuzzy optimal return model to avoid the decision-making risk. Get the optimal solution set.

  3. Research of Investment Projects Searching technology based on Images change detection%基于变化检测的投资项目搜索技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 李万茂; 高连如; 向冬梅; 倪金生

    2011-01-01

    一些露于地表的固定资产投资项目可用遥感影像变化检测的方法自动的搜索并检测出来。其间需要完成对两幅不同时向的影像完成几何校正、影像配准、直方图匹配、影像做差、二值化、小斑去除、搜索结果修正等一系列工作。如果算法参数设置合理,其中大部分操作流程可以使用计算机自动实现。本文详细描述了本智能搜索技术的核心算法与技术流程,并通过基于TitanImage二次开发工具实验证明了其可行性。%Some Fixed Assets Investment Projects which are exposed on the land surface can be automatically detected by change detection methods of remote sensing images. A series of operations on two images of different times must be finished before detections, such as the Geometry Correction, Image Registration, Histogram Matching, Image Subtraction, Image Binarization and Spot Reduction and so on. All these can be automatic performed by computers if proper algorithm parameters are set. The kernel algorithms and technological flow are discussed in this paper, and it was implemented in the statistic system by using Titan Image Software Tool kit, which proved the application feasibility.

  4. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  5. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  6. News and Views: Perspectives on Graphene and Other 2D Materials Research and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Soares, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    With the actual experimental realization of graphene samples, it became possible not only to exploit the special physical properties of graphene but also to exploit its technological applications. As the field developed, the discovery of other 2D materials occurred and this opened up access to a plethora of combinations of a large variety of electrical, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Now there are large investments being made around the world to develop the graphene research area and to boost graphene use in technology. Here, we discuss current research and some future prospects for this area of layered nanomaterials.

  7. Investment and technology upgrade of milk powder producers: A comparative study of Chinese and Dutch firms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of investing in a new milk powder factory, based on a case study of leading domestic producers in China and Netherlands. A key issue is the cost of the project, but a high cost does not mean it is not economically feasible, nor does a low cost guarantee the investment. Instead, systematic indicators should be used to associate the cost with profitability, returns to assets and corporate strategy. Limitations: It is worth noting that the ...

  8. Prioritizing Information Technology Investments: Assessing the Correlations among Technological Readiness, Information Technology Flexibility, and Information Technology Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Management's dilemma, when allocating financial resources towards the improvement of technological readiness and IT flexibility within their organizations, is to control financial risk and maximize IT effectiveness. Technological readiness is people's propensity to embrace and use technology. Its drivers are optimism, innovativeness, discomfort,…

  9. STRATEGIC EXERCISE OF REAL OPTIONS:INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin ZHU; John WEYANT

    2003-01-01

    Viewing investment projects in new technologies as real options, this paper studies the effects of endogenous competition and asymmetric information on the strategic exercise of real options. We first develop a multi-period, game-theoretic model and show how competition leads to early exercise and aggressive investment behaviors and how competition erodes option values. We then relax the typical full-information assumption found in the literature and allow information asymmetry to exist across firms. Our model shows, in contrast to the literature that payoff is independent of the ordering of exercise, that the sequential exercise of real options may generate both informational and payoff externalities. We also find some surprising but interesting results such as having more information is not necessarily better.

  10. Valuing hospital investment in information technology: does governance make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Stephen T; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the investment of patient care information technology (IT) systems by a nationwide sample of U.S. short-term acute care hospitals and the resulting impact these systems have in the productivity of institutions from 1990-1998. Of particular interest is the extent to which for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals obtain different results from the adoption of lT systems. We find that the marginal effect of IT on for-profit hospital productivity is to reduce the number of days supplied, while in not-for-profit hospitals the marginal effect of IT is to increase the quantity of services supplied. This resulting effect is consistent with the differing objectives of not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals and demonstrates the positive marginal value of IT as a sustainable and prudent investment.

  11. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 1: Technology Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2003-01-28

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E. O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; and (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering. The Centers attract and retain top staff, develop and maintain critical core technologies, and enable programs. Through their technology-base projects, they oversee the application of known engineering approaches and techniques to scientific and technical problems.

  12. 钛铝基合金精铸用氧化物陶瓷型壳工艺研究%Technology Research on the Oxide Ceramic Mould for Investment Casting of TiAl-based Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏杰; 陈玉勇; 李宝辉; 赵而团

    2012-01-01

      In this paper, the oxide ceramic mould for investment casting TiAl-based alloys has been investigated. Studies have shown that the Si-O bond generated by the phase transformation improved strength of mould in the roasting process of the binder. Alternating with silica sol and ethyl silicate binder as the binder using on the back layer of zirconium oxide ceramic can improve the mould strength, while providing a good deformability of the mould. Also by experiments, the best route of using alternating silica and ethyl silicate binder prepared as a background layer of zirconium oxide ceramic shell is roasting for one hour in 1000℃.%  研究了钛铝基合金熔模精铸氧化物陶瓷型壳的制备工艺,研究表明,粘结剂主要是在焙烧过程中通过晶相转变生成Si-O键来提高型壳强度的.采用硅溶胶和硅酸乙酯交替作为背层粘结剂可以改善氧化锆陶瓷型壳的强度,同时能够具有良好的退让性.另外,通过实验确定采用硅溶胶和硅酸乙酯交替作为背层粘结剂制备的氧化锆陶瓷型壳的最佳焙烧工艺是在1000℃保温1h.

  13. USING THE AHP METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE STRATEGIC INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES OF NEW PARADIGMS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIJA RISTOVA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise adoption of a Product Life Cycle Management (PLM system is a multi-faceted process that can be simplified by choosing the right information technology (IT deployment model. Cloud computing has been described as a technological change brought about by the convergence of a number of new and existing technologies. The paper provides a review of the main developments in the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Processmethodology as a tool for decision makers to be able to do more informed decisions regarding investments in new paradigms that IT offers. The AHP methodology is a multi-objective, multi criteria decision-making approach that employs a pair-wise comparison procedure to arrive at a scale of preferences among a set of alternatives. The selection process of the alternatives is not possible from the result of the financial analysis alone. Identification of the scalability and the risks assessment as criteria’s give us the comprehensiveness of the treated problem.

  14. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  15. Making Technology Investments Profitable ROI Road Map from Business Case to Value Realization

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Jack M

    2011-01-01

    A guide to getting the crucial business case right?every time Showing professionals how to calculate the value of typical budgeting and funding requests quickly and easily, Making Technology Investments Profitable, Second Edition applies the "Value Realization" process, using proven strategies that maximize the business payoff from IT projects. Filled with case studies, this innovative book enables managers to confidently quantify, in a matter of minutes, the true business value of funding a desired project.New edition explains how to proactively manage the conversion of a business case's valu

  16. A case for Sandia investment in complex adaptive systems science and technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Backus, George A.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Jones, Katherine A.

    2012-05-01

    This white paper makes a case for Sandia National Laboratories investments in complex adaptive systems science and technology (S&T) -- investments that could enable higher-value-added and more-robustly-engineered solutions to challenges of importance to Sandia's national security mission and to the nation. Complex adaptive systems are ubiquitous in Sandia's national security mission areas. We often ignore the adaptive complexity of these systems by narrowing our 'aperture of concern' to systems or subsystems with a limited range of function exposed to a limited range of environments over limited periods of time. But by widening our aperture of concern we could increase our impact considerably. To do so, the science and technology of complex adaptive systems must mature considerably. Despite an explosion of interest outside of Sandia, however, that science and technology is still in its youth. What has been missing is contact with real (rather than model) systems and real domain-area detail. With its center-of-gravity as an engineering laboratory, Sandia's has made considerable progress applying existing science and technology to real complex adaptive systems. It has focused much less, however, on advancing the science and technology itself. But its close contact with real systems and real domain-area detail represents a powerful strength with which to help complex adaptive systems science and technology mature. Sandia is thus both a prime beneficiary of, as well as potentially a prime contributor to, complex adaptive systems science and technology. Building a productive program in complex adaptive systems science and technology at Sandia will not be trivial, but a credible path can be envisioned: in the short run, continue to apply existing science and technology to real domain-area complex adaptive systems; in the medium run, jump-start the creation of new science and technology capability through Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research

  17. Micro precision casting based on investment casting for micro structures with high aspect ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chuang; LI Bang-sheng; REN Ming-xing; FU Heng-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Microcasting is one of the significant technologies for the production of metallic micro parts with high aspect ratio (ratio of flow length to diameter). A micro precision casting technology based on investment casting using centrifugal method was investigated. The micro parts of Zn-4%Al alloy with an aspect ratio up to 200 was produced at the centrifugal speed of 1 500 r/min and the mold temperature of 270 ℃. The investigations on the relationship between flow length and rotational speed were carried out. For microcasting, the flow length is not only dependent on the centrifugal speed under the constant centrifugal radius, but also on the preheating temperature of mold. The flow length increases as the rotational speed and the mold temperature increase, and is much higher at a mold temperature of 270 ℃ than at other mold temperatures.

  18. Optimal Strategies for Low Carbon Supply Chain with Strategic Customer Behavior and Green Technology Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is mainly caused by excessive emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In order to reduce carbon emissions, cap and trade policy is implemented by governments in many countries, which has significant impacts on the decisions of companies at all levels of the low carbon supply chain. This paper investigates the decision-making and coordination of a low carbon supply chain consisting of a low carbon manufacturer who produces one product and is allowed to invest in green technology to reduce carbon emissions in production and a retailer who faces stochastic demands formed by homogeneous strategic customers. We investigate the optimal production, pricing, carbon trading, and green technology investment strategies of the low carbon supply chain in centralized (including Rational Expected Equilibrium scenario and quantity commitment scenario and decentralized settings. It is demonstrated that quantity commitment strategy can improve the profit of the low carbon supply chain with strategic customer behavior. We also show that the performance of decentralized supply chain is lower than that of quantity commitment scenario. We prove that the low carbon supply chain cannot be coordinated by revenue sharing contract but by revenue sharing-cost sharing contract.

  19. Artificial intelligence and exponential technologies business models evolution and new investment opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a huge breakthrough technology that is changing our world. It requires some degrees of technical skills to be developed and understood, so in this book we are going to first of all define AI and categorize it with a non-technical language. We will explain how we reached this phase and what historically happened to artificial intelligence in the last century. Recent advancements in machine learning, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence technology will be addressed, and new business models introduced for and by artificial intelligence research will be analyzed. Finally, we will describe the investment landscape, through the quite comprehensive study of almost 14,000 AI companies and we will discuss important features and characteristics of both AI investors as well as investments. This is the “Internet of Thinks” era. AI is revolutionizing the world we live in. It is augmenting the human experiences, and it targets to amplify human intelligence in a future not so distant from...

  20. The influence of ceramic fibre on thermal expansion of moulding materials for investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolski M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of dilatometric measurements presented in the paper are a supplement to the investigations concerning broadening thecomposition of ceramic slurry intended for investment casting technology with ceramic fibre matrix. An applying of fibre material and a change of rheologic characteristics of ceramic slurry have impelled to develop the method of applying the material to the pattern sets. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been found to be the most favourable method. Partial replacing of the grain silica materials with aluminosilicate materials in the fibrous form has affected the magnitude of dimensional changes taking place during the heating process. In order to determine the magnitude of these changes, there have been prepared slurries of various fibre fraction in the matrix and their thermal expansion has been examined within the temperature range of 273-1273 K

  1. Assessment of the possibility of utilisation of used ceramic moulds originated from the investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of wastes generated by investment casting technology and discussion on possibilities of disposal of the largest quantity waste from this technology - used ceramic mould is presented in the paper. Preliminary examinations of disintegration process of used ceramic mould conducted in various testing conditions were performed in the frame of presented research. Applied system of disintegration doesn’twarrant obtained material to be suitable for reuse in production of ceramic moulds. Investigations of the inter-phase boundary: ceramicmould-casting were performed to examine environmental harmfulness of used ceramic moulds. Additionally ecologic assessment of spentmoulds by means of it’s elution in the aspect of qualifying possibilities of it’s disposal were performed. Gained results qualify the waste from ceramic mould to storage in deposits for neutral wastes.

  2. Innovative approaches to investment decisions substantiation in the sphere of agricultural land use on the base оf ecological and economic assessment of investment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Marekha

    2013-12-01

    the vulnerability index. Firstly, this index shows in what way the investors’ income changes while decreasing the profits in the sphere of agricultural land use by 1 per cent. Secondly, the above mentioned index defines the desire of investors to be present in agriculture under conditions of irrational use of the land resources. The author estimates investment quality by the criterion of «high – low» and interconnects it with substantiation of investment decisions in agricultural land use. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The author concludes that innovative approaches include the following issues: using of the category «investment quality» helps to raise substantiation of investment attractiveness assessment; the assessment of investment quality is undertaken from the side of each investment strategy which helps to describe motivation issues of investment process; the complex ecologically oriented strategy, offered by the author, is innovative by itself as it is based on the ecological and economic indicators of the investment quality, which has never calculated before. The implementation of such a complex ecologically oriented investment strategy is a subject for further researches.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Investment Funds Stocks-based Portfolios and BET Stocks-based Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STANCU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to find out what is the best choice of stocks-based portfolio. The major goal is to find whether is more efficient to invest the whole capital in a single sector, like financial investments, or to create a diversified portfolio, taking into account assets from various economic sectors. Capital allocation will be based on the concept of cointegration. We have chosen this method because it can be applied on non-stationary data series, and, besides, it has the advantage of using the whole set of information provided by the financial assets. Another goal is to study how the portfolio structure adjusts if a shock occurs during the period under analysis so that to preserve a certain return or minimize a potential loss. The study will result in an investment solution in the Romanian capital market, even in the context of financial crisis.

  4. Understanding Information Technology Investment Decision-Making in the Context of Hotel Global Distribution Systems: a Multiple-Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF HOTEL GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY by Daniel J. Connolly Dr. Michael D. Olsen, Chair Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management ABSTRACT This study investigates what three large, multinational hospitality companies do in practice when evaluating and making IT investment decisions. This study was launched in an attempt to 1) learn more about ...

  5. THE DECISION OF INVESTING IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García DÍEZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic tool on the decision of investing in Information and Communication Technology (ICT in small and medium enterprises (SME suggested in Judith Redoli et al. (2008, showed its usefulness helping to understand how an enterprise uses ICT and ‘‘how’’ and ‘‘when’’ a company should incorporate new technological elements. The model was applied successfully in the assessment of 500 SME; as a result a technology deployment project was given to each enterprise in which a priority project was also defined. This short paper presents the second part of that study: a second assessment was made to those SME oriented to detect whether the enterprises on which the analysis was conducted did achieve the deployment of the technologies identified within six months, and the relationship between this fact and the existence of an associated grant. On the other hand, in this research the correlation between the priority project established in the first assessment and the one that was finally completed was demonstrated.

  6. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  7. Empirical Analysis on Government Leading Private Capital Investment in Technology-based SMEs%政府引导民间资本投资科技型中小企业的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀慧; 王筱萍; 张倩倩

    2016-01-01

    利用不完全信息静态博弈原理,构建了政府、科技型中小企业与民间资本投资主体的三方混合战略博弈模型,计算了博弈各方实现最大化效用时的均衡状态解,并进一步分析了在各方博弈过程中相关因素对均衡状态的影响,发现对违反法规的处罚力度、政府的监督成本及监管有效度、政府的资金支持程度等因素都会对博弈的均衡概率产生一定的影响.在此基础上,利用调查数据,对模型推导结果进行了实证检验,支持了相关结论具有可靠性.%Depending on the theory of the static game of incomplete information, this paper constructs a tripartite mixed strategy game model among government, technology-based SMEs and invertors of private capital. The equilibrium state of the maximization of utility of the parties is calculated, the influence of the relevant factors on equilibrium state in process of the game is further analyzed. It is found that the punishment for illegal activities, cost and effectiveness of government supervision, financial support from government and other related factors will affect the probability of equilibrium state. Based on those steps and survey data, this paper demonstrates the model deduction results to support the reliability of those conclusions.

  8. Investment Performance of PT. Gresik Migas Based on Enterpreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In knowing the company's ability to manage the capital invested by the investor, the need for measuring the financial performance of the company. This also applies to companies in the sphere of regional, or local government (Regional Owned Enterprises. Therefore, the focus of this study is: (1 How-owned PT Gresik Migas profile based on performance; 2 How is the performance improvement strategy-owned PT Gresik Migas entrepreneurs based on the scope of the Provincial Government of East Java. The results showed that; 1 Performance PT Gresik oil and gas enterprises in East Java province measured by the conventional method / Ratio Analysis indicates good results (2 There are four strategically to improve the performance of enterprises, namely: (a the ability of the human resource managers of enterprises, including the strengthening of entrepreneurship spirit; (b Clarity and firmness legal basis for the establishment of the rule of enterprises; (c the financial management aspects of public enterprises; and(d Feasibility and sustainability of the business or business unit-owned both the products and the services sector is measured based on the internal and external performance. To improve the performance of enterprises PT. Gas Gresik in East Java province, as well as implementing 4 (four strategy that has been set, then there are some things that need to suggest, namely; 1 For local government should have the courage and firmness to minimize various forms, practices and patterns which raises the political cost, prepare clear SOPs related enterprises managing resource recruitment patterns, consistent to encourage more independent and professional enterprises, without intervention, and pays tribute to the manager who managed to bring enterprises to Go Public; 2 for the management of public enterprises should be able to create an environment more conducive working and always oriented towards the task and the future, foster leadership and managers of

  9. Investments on a Rugged Landscape: The Effect of Investor Population, Network Structure, and Complexity on Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Mas Tur, Elena

    in a specific technological domain. We compare which investor network structures lead to the high rates of technological change and diversity on a given technology landscape. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation indicate networked investor population to outperform the case of isolated stand-alone investors......, in terms of investor benefits as well as achieved technological change. Yet, we also find evidence for the existence of a financial “valley of death” - a certain stage in the technology life-cycle where its characteristics discourage further investments, thereby making the technology likely to “die” due...

  10. The Assessment of Creativity: An Investment-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I review ideas about creativity and its assessment. I open with some general remarks on the nature of creativity. Then I present the investment theory of creativity. Then I describe prompts my colleagues and I have used to measure creativity. Next I describe some of the assessments we have used to measure creativity. The ultimate…

  11. The Assessment of Creativity: An Investment-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I review ideas about creativity and its assessment. I open with some general remarks on the nature of creativity. Then I present the investment theory of creativity. Then I describe prompts my colleagues and I have used to measure creativity. Next I describe some of the assessments we have used to measure creativity. The ultimate…

  12. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  13. Technology based Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant Hiran, Kamal; Doshi, Ruchi; Henten, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Education plays a very important role for the development of the country. Education has multiple dimensions from schooling to higher education and research. In all these domains, there is invariably a need for technology based teaching and learning tools are highly demanded in the acad...

  14. Investigating the Total Cost of Technology in Schools: Tools and Strategies for Managing Technology Investments. Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Pat

    This document describes total cost of ownership (TCO) as a useful tool in the effective planning of technology use in schools. TCO is an analysis of all the costs of computer technology in a school in comparison with the value derived from the current investment. It also includes an assessment of strategies that can be implemented to reduce costs.…

  15. 广州公共科技投入问题研究%Study on Problems of Guangzhou Investment in Public Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霞

    2012-01-01

    近10年来,广州公共科技投入中出现的总量有限,投入结构不合理、转制机构过多、市属机构科研能力薄弱等问题日益明显.政府应在市场化进一步深化过程下,正确定位公共科技投入的政策,有效发挥公共科研机构组织的作用,克服市场化经济中的一些偏离现象,真正体现公共科技的作用.%In the newly ten years, Guangzhou ranks the first in Guangdong in public science and technology, yet it is just the average level of the whole country, far lower than some other big cities. It has the obvious problems such as lack of the overall investment, unfitness in investment structure, too many units transferred and relative weakness of Guangdong - oriented units. Based on the problems mentioned above, Guangzhou government, in the deepening of the market economy, should make correct policies of the investment in public science and technology, effectively moderate the function of public science and technology organizations and overcome some behaviour in market economy in order to show the real function of the public science and technology.

  16. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  17. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  18. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: A general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, a

  19. Impact of Governmental Investment on Science & Technology Innovation:Empirical Test Based on Panel Data of 40 countries from 1982 to 2010%政府科技投入对科技创新的影响研究--基于40个国家1982-2010年面板数据的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芸

    2014-01-01

    In the era of economic globalization, science & technology innovation is attracted more and more im-portance, and governmental investment in science & technology innovation increases in most countries. However, the issue that how the governmental investment influence science & technology innovation lacks of specialized multinational cross-time inspection. The research question of this paper is 'Whether and how governmental invest-ment plays a positive role in promoting science & technology innovation?' We analyze panel data from 40 coun-tries worldwide from 1982 to 2010, estimating the model of Pooled OLS, model of Fixed Effects and model of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Fixed Effects. Regression analysis leads to the following conclusions. Governmental in-vestment significantly promotes science & technology innovation. Furthermore, the efficiency of the capital use of governmental investment in science & technology innovation is low now, and should be improved.%在经济全球化时代,各国都重视科技创新,加大了政府对科技创新的资金投入。但是,政府科技投入对科技创新的影响缺乏专门的、跨国跨时间段的考察。提出“政府科技投入是否以及在多大程度上对科技创新起到积极的促进作用”的研究议题,分析40个国家1982-2010年的面板数据,进行混合最小二乘法、固定效应模型、异方差稳健型固定效应模型三种模型的估计。通过回归分析得出以下结论:政府科技投入显著促进科技创新;政府用于促进科技创新的科技投入资金使用效率较低,尚需改进。

  20. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF THE BASE LEADING RATE OVER INVESTMENT PROJECTS FINANCED BY EU FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Tamas Szora; Iulian Bogdan Dobra

    2009-01-01

    The investment process is a complex economic process that implies risks. Allottingcapital resources in an investment project without using an adequate discount rate of the cashflows, which will take into account the evolution of the base leading rate of NBR (National Bank ofRomania), can lead to the total or partial loss of the invested capital by the European Union, byRomania’s government and by the applicants. There is a permanent concern from the experts tofind an adequate indicator to cal...

  2. The value from investments in health information technology at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Colene M; Mercincavage, Lauren M; Pan, Eric C; Vincent, Adam G; Johnston, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-04-01

    We compare health information technology (IT) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to norms in the private sector, and we estimate the costs and benefits of selected VA health IT systems. The VA spent proportionately more on IT than the private health care sector spent, but it achieved higher levels of IT adoption and quality of care. The potential value of the VA's health IT investments is estimated at $3.09 billion in cumulative benefits net of investment costs. This study serves as a framework to inform efforts to measure and calculate the benefits of federal health IT stimulus programs.

  3. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-02-06

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics.

  4. Case study: impact of technology investment on lead discovery at Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, John G; Banks, Martyn N; Binnie, Alastair; Brenner, Stephen; O'Connell, Jonathan; Petrillo, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    We review strategic approaches taken over an eight-year period at BMS to implement new high-throughput approaches to lead discovery. Investments in compound management infrastructure and chemistry library production capability allowed significant growth in the size, diversity and quality of the BMS compound collection. Screening platforms were upgraded with robust automated technology to support miniaturized assay formats, while workflows and information handling technologies were streamlined for improved performance. These technology changes drove the need for a supporting organization in which critical engineering, informatics and scientific skills were more strongly represented. Taken together, these investments led to significant improvements in speed and productivity as well a greater impact of screening campaigns on the initiation of new drug discovery programs.

  5. Employee Perception of the Impact of Information Technology Investment in Organisations: a survey of the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve their operational efficiency and to maintain their competitiveness in the market place many organisations continue to invest substantially in their Information Technology (IT capability. But how do the employees themselves view the impact and the value of IT investment? This paper considers this question in the context of the hospitality industry. More specifically, it investigates the different perception of hotel employees on the impact of organisational IT investment on (a IT usage by employees, (b employee satisfaction with the IT systems, (c changes in the level of employee performance, and (d organisational performance of the hotel. 945 hotel employees in Bali, Indonesia were surveyed to assess their perception of the organisational impact of IT. Factor analysis, analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed on the data to examine the' range of employee viewpoints. Results showed that there were significant differences among the employees' perception with respect to age, educational level, position in the hotel, and individual income. These findings suggest that even senior management may regard the investment in IT is worthwhile, there may be a divergence of opinion among the employees as to what are the real benefits of IT. In order to fully leverage the potential of their IT investment, managers should pay particular attention to shaping the views of the employees who ultimately determine whether the IT capabilities in an organisation are put to use.

  6. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  7. The behavioural aspect of green technology investments: a general positive model in the context of heterogeneous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Knobloch, F.; Mercure, J.-F.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Elsevier. Studies report that firms do not invest in cost-effective green technologies. While economic barriers can explain parts of the gap, behavioural aspects cause further under-valuation. This could be partly due to systematic deviations of decision-making agents’ perceptions from normative benchmarks, and partly due to their diversity. This paper combines available behavioural k...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Investment Funds Stocks-based Portfolios and BET Stocks-based Portfolios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ion STANCU; Elena RADU (STANGA)

    2010-01-01

    .... The major goal is to find whether is more efficient to invest the whole capital in a single sector, like financial investments, or to create a diversified portfolio, taking into account assets...

  9. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  10. 模糊环境下不对称企业的技术创新投资期权博弈分析%Option-Game Approach to Analyze Technology Innovation Investment With Cost Asymmetry Under the Fuzzy Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭英双; 衡爱民; 龙勇; 吴宏伟; 江礼梅

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the asymmetric duopoly option-game model with investment cost asymmetry, this research discusses the present value of profit flows and the sunk investment costs for the trapezoidal fuzzy number, and Firms' technology innovation investment strategy is analyzed. It constructs followers, leaders of investment value and investment threshold of fuzzy expressions under the fuzzy environment to conduct numerical analysis. And it is concluded that there is still existing the best increasing investment strategy under fuzzy environment, with the development of the trapezoidal fuzzy number of the sunk cost of expected investment, the investment value of business declines, but the critical value for the investment ascends. This offers a kind of explanation to the investment strategies under the fuzzy environment.%本文在不对称双头垄断期权博弈模型基础上讨论了利润流现值和沉没投资成本为梯形模糊数的情形并进行了扩展,对企业技术创新投资策略进行了分析。构建了模糊环境下追随者、领导者的投资价值和投资临界值的模糊表达式并进行数值分析。分析表明模糊环境下仍存在最优投资策略,随着梯形模糊数的沉没投资成本期望值的增加,企业的投资价值下降而投资临界值上升。为模糊环境下投资决策提供了一种解释。

  11. On Improving the Reliability of Distribution Networks Based on Investment Scenarios Using Reference Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Koji

    Distribution systems are inherent monopolies and therefore these have generally been regulated in order to protect customers and to ensure cost-effective operation. In the UK this is one of the functions of OFGEM (Office of Gas and Electricity Markets). Initially the regulation was based on the value of assets but there is a trend nowadays towards performance-based regulation. In order to achieve this, a methodology is needed that enables the reliability performance associated with alternative investment strategies to be compared with the investment cost of these strategies. At present there is no accepted approach for such assessments. Building on the concept of reference networks proposed in Refs. (1), (2), this paper describes how these networks can be used to assess the impact that performance driven investment strategies will have on the improvement in reliability indices. The method has been tested using the underground and overhead part of a real system.

  12. Study on the Relationship between Environmental Investment and Economic Performance——Empirical Evidence Based on the Science and Technology Enterprise%环境投资与经济绩效关系研究——基于科技型企业的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility reports are taken as the research sample from 2009 to 2014 in the listed companies of science and technology , to find the relationship between environmental investment and economic performance . From the perspective of social responsi-bility , the release situation and the disclosure of environmental investment are analyzed , and the indicators of environmental investment and economic performance are under detailed research . Results show that there is no linear relationship between environmental investment and macroeconomic indicators , and also no significant effect on the operating ability . The waste pollution control investment , environmental special fund and environmental tax have significant positive correlation on debt paying ability , developing ability and profitability , but the environmental investment of facilities and system has significant negative correlation on corporate profitability . The cleaning project invest-ment , ecological construction and greening investment have no significant affect on economic performance . So controlling waste pollution , setting up environmental special fund and undertaking environmental tax and fees can realize economic and environmental benefits .%本文以科技型上市公司2009~2014年发布的社会责任报告为研究样本 ,对环境投资与经济绩效之间的关系进行实证研究.从社会责任的视角入手 ,对科技型上市公司社会责任报告的发布状况和环境投资的披露状况进行分析 ,将环境投资与经济绩效指标分类进行细化研究 ,结果表明科技型企业环境投资与宏观经济指标不存在线性关系 ,对公司营运能力也不存在显著影响 ,废弃物污染治理投资、环保专项基金、环境税费与公司偿债能力、发展能力、盈利能力之间呈显著正相关 ,环保设施及系统投资与公司盈利能力之间呈显著负相关 ,清洁项目投资和生态建设及绿化投资对经济

  13. Impact of Investment in Information Technology on Financial Performance of Nigerian Banks: Is There a Productivity Paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILKISU KABIRU USMAN FAROUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the impact of investment in Information Technology (IT on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria. The study covers post-Banking (2006-2010 consolidation period of 5 years. The population of the study comprises of all the 24 banks, and a random sampling of 10 banks was made. The study employs secondary data generated from annual reports and accounts of the banks, records maintained by the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN reports. The data obtained were analyzed using the panel data regression model where investment in IT (hardware, software and Automated Teller Machine [ATM], total earnings (TR and total cost (TC of the 10 sampled banks were used as the independent variables while financial performance is the dependent variable, proxied by return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, net profit margin (NPM and earnings per share (EPS. Four hypotheses were developed and tested in line with the proxies to the dependent variables. The result from the panel regression revealed that there is a significant relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables, but the test revealed that the impact of IT investment on the financial performance of Nigeria banks is significant for ROA, ROE and EPS at 5% significance level but not significant for NPM at 5% and 10% significance level. The effect of TR is positive and that of TC is negative on all the four financial performance measures, but the effect of IT investment on all the four financial performance variables is negative, which is not an expected sign. This means that an increase on IT spending leads to a decrease in the financial performance of Nigerian banks, that is to say heavy IT investment does not increase banks profitability, hence there is existence of IT productivity paradox in the Nigeria banking industry.

  14. THE EVALUATION SYSTEM OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ON THE PRE-INVESTMENT STAGE THROUGH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Kostsikava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Soviet Union design solutions were evaluated according to different criteria and indicators. At the present stage of evaluation systems of design solutions stands systemengineering doctrine is allocated. It is complemented by the theory of efficiency and financial sustainability investment project in view of the general market concept. Also great attention is paid to the virtual object modeling. It is urgent to include the behavior prediction of an investment construction project model at each stage of its life cycle. The high cost of all phases of this life cycle makes it necessary to calculate the feasibility of the investment. Very urgent to do it as accurately as possible and before we start of design works on the stage of the investment plan evaluation. Belarus has legislated pre-investment stage of construction project development. To evaluate the design solution at this stage is necessary to develop an investment justification, a project management plan and a business plan. They will evaluate and will compare several options for future objects by the complex. This requires not only time, but considerable financial costs. In order to optimize the process to develop an evaluation system design solutions based on existing projects. It allows the customer (investor choose design solutions to build the object without developing of pre-design documentations for several options. This system it is advisable to try out the example of apartment house building with the assistance of the national fund of project documentation and objects-analogues data bank. The developed evaluation system of design solutions for residential real estate objects in the pre-investment stage is supposed to use the theory of neural networks and neyroprogramming. This system bases on the input parameters projects. The hidden layer neurons are trained to choose suitable projects of apartment houses with their classification. The projects will be classified

  15. Modeling and Analysis in Support of Decision Making for Technological Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, S

    2003-06-11

    Engineering design, resource allocation, military operations, and investment strategies share a major common trait, which is, to a large extent, independent of their different origins, specific features, and intended goals. The unifying trait is the fact that, in any of these endeavors, one has to make reasonable choices, at multiple levels of decision making, among various possible and sometimes competing prospective solutions to an important and consequential practical problem. While the specifics of the problem depend on application, context, additional constraints, etc., the ultimate--albeit imprecise--goal in all these activities is to ''optimize performance,'' which is to have maximal success/profit/return with minimal time/effort/investment. In general, the underlying system is ruled by complex and often unknown dynamics, and affected by various uncertainties, which are unknown as well; on the other hand, there are numerous levels of decision making, which result in a hierarchical structure in the decision process (tree) that is both asynchronous and non-deterministic. Usually, indifferent of the specific application, as one lowers the level of decision making, alternatives depend on fewer independent variables and models become more detailed and physics/engineering based. On the contrary, at higher levels, various components aggregate and decision making is based more on fuzzier criteria instead of readily quantifiable physics/engineering details. Moreover, decisions are strongly influenced by the educational and personal biases of the people who take them. In some instances, this may blur, if not totally obfuscate objective comparisons between various options. Therefore, a crucial point in decision-making is properly understanding and quantifying the tradeoffs, including all their future relevant consequences. Since the interaction between various choices is an intricate nonlinear process, the focus shifts from the dynamics itself to

  16. Historical Analysis of Investment in Solar Energy Technologies (2000-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Bartlett, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The solar energy industry experienced unprecedented growth in the eight years from 2000 to 2007, with explosive growth occurring in the latter half of this period. From 2004 to 2007, global private sector investment in solar energy increased by almost twenty-fold, marking a dramatic increase in the short span of four years. This paper examines the timing, magnitude, focus and location of various forms of investment in the solar energy sector. It analyzes their trends to provide an understanding of the growth of the solar industry during the past eight years and to identify emerging themes in this rapidly evolving industry.

  17. Multi-Period Model of Portfolio Investment and Adjustment Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ximin; LU Meiping; DENG Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-period portfolio investment model with class constraints, transaction cost, and indivisible securities. When an investor joins the securities market for the first time, he should decide on portfolio investment based on the practical conditions of securities market. In addition, investors should adjust the portfolio according to market changes, changing or not changing the category of risky securities. Markowitz mean-variance approach is applied to the multi-period portfolio selection problems. Because the sub-models are optimal mixed integer program, whose objective function is not unimodal and feasible set is with a particular structure, traditional optimization method usually fails to find a globally optimal solution. So this paper employs the hybrid genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Investment policies that accord with finance market and are easy to operate for investors are put forward with an illustration of application.

  18. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  19. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  20. Generating private co-investments in area-based urban regeneration: Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Storgaard, Kresten

    In recent years, public-private collaboration as well as private co-investments has been intensely promoted in Danish area-based urban regeneration policy and programmes. The paper will discuss to which extent these ambitions have been full-filled, and what has actually attracted private investme...

  1. Maximizing the return on investments in information technology by incorporating best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Most system administrators know what needs to be done to make their systems secure and manageable but these needs are tough to sell to upper management in a tight economy. However, system administrators using industry accepted best practices can calculate a return on investment for budgeting purposes, justifying expenses by comparing them with expected costs if such practices are not in place.

  2. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  3. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  5. Understanding the relationship between safety investment and safety performance of construction projects through agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Miaojia; Cheung, Clara Man; Li, Heng; Hsu, Shu-Chien

    2016-09-01

    The construction industry in Hong Kong increased its safety investment by 300% in the past two decades; however, its accident rate has plateaued to around 50% for one decade. Against this backdrop, researchers have found inconclusive results on the causal relationship between safety investment and safety performance. Using agent-based modeling, this study takes an unconventional bottom-up approach to study safety performance on a construction site as an outcome of a complex system defined by interactions among a worksite, individual construction workers, and different safety investments. Instead of focusing on finding the absolute relationship between safety investment and safety performance, this study contributes to providing a practical framework to investigate how different safety investments interacting with different parameters such as human and environmental factors could affect safety performance. As a result, we could identify cost-effective safety investments under different construction scenarios for delivering optimal safety performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investment Decision Support for Engineering Projects Based on Risk Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions are usually made on the basis of the subjective judgments of experts subjected to the information gap during the preliminary stages of a project. As a consequence, a series of errors in risk prediction and/or decision-making will be generated leading to out of control investment and project failure. In this paper, the variable fuzzy set theory and intelligent algorithms integrated with case-based reasoning are presented. The proposed algorithm manages the numerous fuzzy concepts and variable factors of a project and also sets up the decision-making process in accordance with past cases and experiences. Furthermore, it decreases the calculation difficulty and reduces the decision-making reaction time. Three types of risk correlations combined with different characteristics of engineering projects are summarized, and each of these correlations is expounded at the project investment decision-making stage. Quantitative and qualitative change theories of variable fuzzy sets are also addressed for investment risk warning. The approach presented in this paper enables the risk analysis in a simple and intuitive manner and realizes the integration of objective and subjective risk assessments within the decision-makers' risk expectation.

  7. Evaluation of Performance of Investment Funds Based on Decision Models (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of a suitable investment funds is very important from investors' point of view and may have a significant impact on the profit or loss of the funds. Therefore, evaluation of performance of investment funds to choose the most suitable fund will be given special emphasis. One of the new techniques for evaluating the performance of the Funds based on efficiency is the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. Accordingly, the present study is aimed to analyze and evaluate the performance of investment Funds in capital market of Iran, using the technique of efficiency evaluation through data envelopment analysis technique (DEA. This research is a descriptive - applicable study and to analyze the efficiency and effectiveness, 53 investment funds in the capital market of Iran in 2013 were considered as the sample. To analyze the efficiency of these funds, data envelopment analysis (DEA is used. Research findings showed that in 2013, of a total of 53 examined funds, 11 funds were in the efficiency situation and the other 42 funds were in a state of inefficiency. Also the reference funds and virtual composited funds of all inefficient funds were evaluated.

  8. DEA-BASED INVESTMENT STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE CROATIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Gardijan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the DEA-based investment strategy for constructing of a stock portfolio in the Croatian stock market. The relative efficiency of the DMUs, which are in this case the selected stocks from Zagreb Stock Exchange, is obtained from the output oriented CCR and BCC models. The set of inputs consists of risk measures, namely return variance, Value at Risk (VaR and beta coefficient $(\\beta$, while monthly return represents an output. Following the „efficiency scores“, obtained from the models, we construct a portfolio of DEA-efficient stocks (DEA-portfolio. This portfolio can be modified over time according to changes of the DMU's efficiency scores. By comparing the returns of the EA-portfolio and the market return during the given time period, the applicability of the investment strategy based on a DEA methodology, as a strategy for achieving superior returns, is estimated.

  9. Optimal Cycle Time and Preservation Technology Investment for Deteriorating Items with Price-sensitive Stock-dependent Demand Under Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Arpan D.

    2014-04-01

    The article analyzes economic order quantity for the retailer who has to handle imperfect quality of the product and the units are subject to deteriorate at a constant rate. To control deterioration of the units in inventory, the retailer has to deploy advanced preservation technology. Another challenge for the retailer is to have perfect quality product. This requires mandatory inspection during the production process. This model is developed with the condition of random fraction of defective items. It is assumed that after inspection, the screened defective items are sold at a discounted rate instantly. Demand is considered to be price-sensitive stock-dependent. The model is incorporating effect of inflation which is critical factor globally. The objective is to maximize profit of the retailer with respect to preservation technology investment, order quantity and cycle time. The numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to work out managerial issues.

  10. Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    of these systems target a specific treatment or condition and might not be sufficient to support the care management work at home. Based on a case study approach, my research investigates home-based healthcare practices and how they can inform future design of home-based healthcare technology that better account...

  11. R & D project's investment evaluation based on real option and its value at risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-zhi(沈玉志); ZHOU Xiao-fei(周效飞)

    2003-01-01

    The authors looked upon it as real options and applied the VaR(Value at Risk) method to the evaluation of its risk value based on the analysis of R & D project investment characteristics,and advanced the evaluation model of the project's return and risk according to financial theories.This paper expounded the two-dimension evaluation model of project,and divided it into five decision-making regions.

  12. DEA-BASED INVESTMENT STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE CROATIAN STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta Gardijan; Vedran Kojić

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the DEA-based investment strategy for constructing of a stock portfolio in the Croatian stock market. The relative efficiency of the DMUs, which are in this case the selected stocks from Zagreb Stock Exchange, is obtained from the output oriented CCR and BCC models. The set of inputs consists of risk measures, namely return variance, Value at Risk (VaR) and beta coefficient $(\\beta)$, while monthly return represents an output. Following the „efficiency scores“, obtained f...

  13. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Ertuan; Kong Fantao; Chen Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and streng...

  14. Constructions of the Average Rate of Return of Pension or Investment Funds Based on Chain Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Białek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of the proper construction of the average rate of return of pension (or investment funds. We refer to some economical postulates given by Gajek and Kaluszka (2000. We present, discuss and compare several measures of the average rate of return of funds. We also present alternative measures based on original chain indices. We take into consideration discrete and continuous time stochastic models.

  15. EQUIPT: supporting European stakeholders to make decisions about investment in evidence-based tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available EQUIPT brings together expertise from multiple disciplines and aims to provide policy makers and wider stakeholders with bespoke information about the economic and wider returns that investing in evidence-based tobacco control including smoking cessation agendas can generate. Led by Health Economics Research Group (HERG at Brunel University, London, EQUIPT is a partnership of 11 consortium members from 7 member states – Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  16. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  17. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  18. Mean-variance portfolio analysis data for optimizing community-based photovoltaic investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of electricity generated by Photovoltaic (PV systems is affected by factors such as shading, building orientation and roof slope. To increase electricity generation and reduce volatility in generation of PV systems, a portfolio of PV systems can be made which takes advantages of the potential synergy among neighboring buildings. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment [1]. We present a set of data relating to physical properties of 24 houses in Oregon, USA, along with simulated hourly electricity data for the installed PV systems. The developed Matlab code to construct optimized portfolios is also provided in Supplementary materials. The application of these files can be generalized to variety of communities interested in investing on PV systems.

  19. Mean-variance portfolio analysis data for optimizing community-based photovoltaic investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Lee, Hyun Woo

    2016-03-01

    The amount of electricity generated by Photovoltaic (PV) systems is affected by factors such as shading, building orientation and roof slope. To increase electricity generation and reduce volatility in generation of PV systems, a portfolio of PV systems can be made which takes advantages of the potential synergy among neighboring buildings. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment [1]. We present a set of data relating to physical properties of 24 houses in Oregon, USA, along with simulated hourly electricity data for the installed PV systems. The developed Matlab code to construct optimized portfolios is also provided in . The application of these files can be generalized to variety of communities interested in investing on PV systems.

  20. Asset Management Planning – providing the evidence to support robust and risk-based investment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Chrissy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project [1] is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme [2] and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN [3] supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.

  1. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  2. The missing technology: an international comparison of human capital investment in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogner, Bianca K

    2010-01-01

    This article explores human capital investment to understand cross-sectional variation and differences in growth of health spending among the US, Australia and Canada. Using a human capital model developed by Mincer, the article examines how rate of return to schooling and years of schooling impact wage rate levels in healthcare. The model is extended to approximate the probable trajectory of healthcare wage rate growth and thus the impact on health spending. The results suggest that a higher rate of return to schooling and a more educated healthcare workforce in the US may contribute to higher healthcare wage rates and thus contribute to higher health spending levels than in Canada and Australia. The results also suggest that average healthcare wage rates are growing at the rate of potential GDP; healthcare wage rates are not driving the growth of health spending.

  3. Multistage Effort and the Equity Structure of Venture Investment Based on Reciprocity Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For venture capitals, it is a long process from an entry to its exit. In this paper, the activity of venture investment will be divided into multistages. And, according to the effort level entrepreneurs will choose, the venture capitalists will provide an equity structure at the very beginning. As a benchmark for comparison, we will establish two game models on multistage investment under perfect rationality: a cooperative game model and a noncooperative one. Further, as a cause of pervasive psychological preference behavior, reciprocity motivation will influence the behavior of the decision-makers. Given this situation, Rabin’s reciprocity motivation theory will be applied to the multistage game model of the venture investment, and multistage behavior game model will be established as well, based on the reciprocity motivation. By looking into the theoretical derivations and simulation studies, we find that if venture capitalists and entrepreneurs both have reciprocity preferences, their utility would have been Pareto improvement compared with those under perfect rationality.

  4. Management of investment-construction projects basing on the matrix of key events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozenko Andrey Aleksandrovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the current problematic issues in the management of investment-construction projects, examines the questions of efficiency increase of construction operations on the basis of the formation of a reflex-adaptive organizational structure. The authors analyzed the necessity of forming a matrix of key events in the investment-construction project (ICP, which will create the optimal structure of the project, basing on the work program for its implementation. For convenience of representing programs of the project implementation in time the authors make recommendations to consolidate the works into separate, economically independent functional blocks. It is proposed to use an algorithm of forming the matrix of an investment-construction project, considering the economic independence of the functional blocks and stages of the ICP implementation. The use of extended network model is justified, which is supplemented by organizational and structural constraints at different stages of the project, highlighting key events fundamentally influencing the further course of the ICP implementation.

  5. A comparison of periodontal status in the two regional, population-based studies of SHIP and INVEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Birte; Demmer, Ryan T.; Bernhardt, Olaf; Papapanou, Panos N.; Schwahn, Christian; Kocher, Thomas; Desvarieux, Moise

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the prevalence of periodontal disease between two randomly selected population-based studies (the Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)) and address relevant methodological issues. Methods Comparison was restricted to 55–81-years-olds. Attachment loss (AL), probing depth (PD), and tooth count were assessed in INVEST (full-mouth, six sites) and SHIP (half-mouth, four sites). Subjects were classified according to the CDC/AAP case definition. Recording protocols were standardized. Mixed linear or logistic models were used to compare INVEST with SHIP. Results Mean half-mouth AL was lower in INVEST vs. SHIP (INVEST: 2.9mm versus SHIP: 4.0mm, p<0.05). Findings were similar across multiple periodontal disease definitions. After equalisation of recording protocols and adjustment for periodontal risk factors, mean AL and PD were 1.2mm and 0.3mm lower in INVEST vs. SHIP (p<0.001). The odds for severe periodontitis (CDC/AAP) was 0.2-fold in INVEST vs. SHIP (p<0.001). Confounding effects of age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and use of interdental care devices were highest as indicated by change-in-estimate for study. Conclusion Implementation of the proposed method for comparison of epidemiological studies revealed that periodontitis was less prevalent in INVEST compared to SHIP, even after extensive risk-factor adjustment. PMID:23061920

  6. ROMANIAN INVESTMENT POLICY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the year 2009, the European Union, as well as the rest of the world, was affected by the economic and financial crisis, and one of the effects reflected in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI projects and also in the reduction of their host locations. Creating a healthy economic environment, that should be efficient for any form of international investment , represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. This paper concentrates on analyzing our country’s attractiveness from the international investor’s point of view, it also focuses on the Romanian investment policy, its investment climate, as well as on identifying or valuating the strengths and opportunities offered by Romania. The advantages of the foreign direct investments are universally recognized and they basically include the expansion of the production capacity and income, job creation, technologically diffusion and economic development. Creating an appropriate economic environment, that is efficient for any form of international investments represents the nowadays challenge of all market economies. OECD member states experience, for example, outlines the advantages of a functional legal and normative climate, based on the principles of transparency and non discrimination, that are essential for attracting foreign investments. In the actual competition for attracting FDI, every state tries to offer as many incentives to the future foreign investors. The Romanian investment policy sets out incentives in a non-discriminatory and transparent way offering the investors the specific criteria. The Romanian business environment has improved significantly in recent years, driven in particular by EU accession. Major progress has been recorded in areas such as the fiscal environment, rule of law, the fight against corruption and property registration. When considering our country a possible location for the development of their businesses, the foreign

  7. Shared Investment by NIS and National Labs Develops Cutting-Edge Safeguards Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Williams, Laura S.

    2012-04-01

    This article, regarding a new technology for detecting undeclared enrichment at gas centrifuge enrichment plants, was written for the DOE/NNSA NA-24 Highlights, a newsletter intended for public release.

  8. Critical external factors behind hotels' investments in innovation and technology in emerging urban destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Fernández, Juan Ignacio; Sáez Cala, Antonia; Figueroa Domecq, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The decision-making processes of tourism firms are being conditioned by the profound transformations taking place in both client demand and destination dynamics. This new scenario requires an increased level of information, innovation and technology if tourism firms are to remain competitive. In particular, information and communication technologies (ICTs) can provide competitive advantages by improving a firm’s knowledge of its own internal structures and of the milieu i...

  9. Technology base for microgravity horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Magnuson, J. W.; Scruby, R. R.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced microgravity plant biology research and life support system development for the spacecraft environment are critically hampered by the lack of a technology base. This inadequacy stems primarily from the fact that microgravity results in a lack of convective currents and phase separation as compared to the one gravity environment. A program plan is being initiated to develop this technology base. This program will provide an iterative flight development effort that will be closely integrated with both basic science investigations and advanced life support system development efforts incorporating biological processes. The critical considerations include optimum illumination methods, root aeration, root and shoot support, and heat rejection and gas exchange in the plant canopy.

  10. Are The Profit Rates of the Islamic Investment Deposit Accounts Truly Performance Based? A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study we were motivated to ascertain whether the profit rates of the investment deposit accounts based on the profit and loss sharing contracts offered by the Islamic banks are truly based on the performance of the underlying assets or otherwise, by taking Malaysia as our case study. Given the facts that Islamic investment deposits are interest free in nature and that they are supposedly used in real economic activities, one would naturally expect that their returns are directly relat...

  11. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  12. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  13. CONDITIONS OF INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN AREA OF RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jankowska-Mihułowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the electronic product code (EPC in an enterprise may turn out to be one of the choices in the future. The subject of this article is an analysis preceding decisive conditions in an investment process of its implementation. These reflections are preceded by the research in Polish enterprises, aiming at an estimation of the possibility of the RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification transponder commercialisation (market potential being consistent with the EPC requirements. Conducting such research in the future will lead to a decrease in the decision gap among managers within the scope of the possibility of implementing the innovative solution described, as well as the anticipated business results.  Methods of analysis and synthesis have been applied, within the theory of decision-making and telecommunications. An interdisciplinary approach to the issue in question constitutes the added value of this article.  The conclusion comprises a synthesis of the article contents—crucial decisive areas that require monitoring and simultaneous estimation (now and in the future regarding implementation of the electronic product code in an organization. In general, these areas are macro environment, competitive environment, strategic potential of an organization, and managers’ decisiveness.

  14. China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment:The Role of Natural Resources and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; WANG; ZHIHONG; YU

    2014-01-01

    Using the data of China’s OFDI in more than 150 host countries or regions for the period of 1991-2009, in this paper we examine the underlying motivations and locational determinants of China’s OFDI, with a focus on the role of natural resources and technology. Our findings indicate that the host country’s natural resource abundance, interacted with its institutional quality, is a crucial determinant of China’s OFDI. There is strong evidence that in the recent period of 2003-2009, the host country’s overall natural resource abundance, oil abundance and metal abundance had a sizable positive effect on China’s OFDI. In particular, China’s OFDI was driven to resource-abundant countries with poor institutional quality and governance, and this pattern was strongest for oil but not metal resources. However, we find little evidence supporting the resourceseeking motivation in the pre-2003 period. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the technology-exploiting motivation but not for the technology-seeking hypothesis. We show that, when the host is a lowincome country, China’s OFDI increases if the host country’s technology is more backward, indicating that Chinese investors might be taking advantage of their technology gap relative to the local firms.

  15. Influenza Vaccine: Federal Investments in Alternative Technologies and Challenges to Development and Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    late 1990s and early 2000s, detection of the H5N1 avian influenza (also known as “bird flu”) virus in animals raised concerns among experts that it or...of infection by, for example, the H5N1 avian influenza virus (also known as “bird flu”). Alternative technologies that can be used in producing...genes. Recombinant technology is currently used in U.S.-marketed vaccines against other diseases, such as hepatitis B and the human papillomavirus

  16. Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers:Evidence from China’s manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>FDI will cause technological advance in host industry by its spillover effects.The approaches of technology spillover include horizontal spillover and vertical spillover.Most scholars do research on the two kinds of spillover effects separately. Therefore,by using panel data and Malquist index of China’s manufactuting industry, this paper analyses the two spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry in one frame in order to test scientifically the spillover effects of FDI on China’s manufacturing industry.

  17. Considerations regarding the influence of the base leading rate over actualization rate of investment projects financed by EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Tamaş SZORA; Iulian Bogdan DOBRA

    2010-01-01

    The investment process is a complex economic process that implies risks. Allotting capital resources in an investment project without using an adequate discount rate of the cash flows, which will take into account the evolution of the base leading rate of NBR (National Bank of Romania), can lead to the total or partial loss of the invested capital by the European Union, by Romania’s government and by the applicants. There is a permanent concern from the experts to find an adequate indicator t...

  18. Simulation-based valuation of project finance investments. Crucial aspects of power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, Matthaeus

    2010-12-15

    The liberalization of electricity markets transformed a regulated and stable market to a market with former unknown price volatility. This results in a high uncertainty which is mainly due to the, from an economic point of view, lack of storability of the commodity electricity. Thus investments in power plants are highly risky. This dissertation analyzes crucial aspects within the valuation of a power plant financed via project finance, a popular financing method for projects with high capital requirements. Starting with the development of a valuation model based on stochastic modelling of the future cash flows the focus of the analysis is on the impact of model complexity and electricity prices. (orig.)

  19. Based on the value investment theory to explore the optimal securities investment portfolio%基于价值投资理论的最优证券投资组合探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯原

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了现代证券投资组合理论与价值投资理论的对立以及各自优缺点,并根据价值投资理论对风险的度量进行重新定义,借用现代证券投资组合的思想构建基于价值投资理论的最优证券投资组合。%This paper analyzes the opposition between the theory of modern portfolio theory and the theory of value investments and analyzes their respective advantages and disadvantages, drawing on the merits of value investment theory and the modern portfolio theory, according to the theory of value investment to redefine the measure of risk, using thought of the modern securities investment portfolio to build optimal investment portfoliowhich based on the value investment theory.

  20. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals' collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals' reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual's reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants.

  1. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals’ collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals’ reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual’s reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants. PMID:27611686

  2. MAHIS-based analysis and design of financial investment planning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Guisheng; Li Chunsheng

    2008-01-01

    In financial investment planning, a large number of components that interact in varying and complex ways are involved. This leads to complex behavior that is difficult to understand, predict and manage. A single intelligent technique can not solve the complicated and elaborate investment planning problems. It is necessary to study those problems synthetically by combining the multiple intelligent techniques. We employed fussy algorithms, genetic algorithms, etc. to solve complicated financial portfolio management in this paper. We analyse and design an agent-based hybrid intelligent system by following the methodology for constructing agent-based hybrid intelligent system (MAHIS). The system starts with the financial risk tolerance evaluation based on fussy algorithms. Asset allocation, portfolio selections, interest predictions, and ordered weighted averaging can be conducted by using hybrid intelligent techniques. The planning agent in the system can easily access all the intelligent processing agents, including the agents of financial risk tolerance assessment, asset allocation, portfolio selection, interest prediction, and decision aggregation. Overall system robustness is facilitated.

  3. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  4. A Methodology for Assessing the Military Benefits of Science and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ratio (BCR) greater than 2 to 1. In the area of biology, intrinsic chemical markers (ICMs) provide a means for verifying that food is fully...1.7 million per year. Since the current wastage due to less than optimal quality is about 20%, the savings due to avoiding wastage is about $2.2...3) focusing commercial capabilities on Army needs, such as food preparation, packaging, and preservation technologies that enabled the development

  5. Achieving ’Appropriate’ Levels of Investment in Technological Change: What Have We Learned,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    impact of various mechanisms the government might use to stimulate civilian R&D spending and the more rapid diffusion of technological innova - tion. The...Review of Economics and Business, Spring 1977, pp. 7-29; and Richard R.Nelson and Sidney G. Winter, "In Search of a Useful Theory of Innova - tion...that has characterized much of economists’ previous thinking about innova - tion--the distinction between resource allocation decisions involving

  6. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cos...

  7. Energy Technology Investments: Maximizing Efficiency Through a Maritime Energy Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Schneck is a certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a graduate of the Georgia Institute of Technology with Highest Honors and a degree in Industrial...Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid Kathleen Schneck Herren Associates Senior Engineering Consultant Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Glen Sturtevant...Navy a tvos - FYI6 Fundl09 (V1) _n_ . ... _lv_ ... ___ l ~ I ~ I 2010 I 2Qll I 20u r\\Mdio,g ($1𔃻) Belt • (SM) -~1ilestones and Decision Points

  8. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights reserved...

  9. 预期更新技术出现时新技术采用中经营成本对投资策略的影响%IMPACT OF OPERATING COSTS ON INVESTMENT STRATEGIES IN NEW TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION WITH A FURTHER NEW TECHNOLOGY ANTICIPATED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷宝健; 胡适耕; 雷冬霞

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of new technologies often represents acrucial component of firms' investment decisions.This paper studies a dynamic duopoly model in which two firms compete in adoption of current technology with afurther new technology anticipated.Here it is assumed that the operating costs are not zero which has more explanatory power of the real world.There exist three kinds of equilibria that may occur in adoption of current technology,which mainly depends on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage.It shows that the faster technological substitution or innovation encourages the leader to invest earlier while induces the follower to invest later.Furthermore,like the investment costs,with the increase of operating costs the follower tends to invest later while the leader tends to invest earlier,the investment thresholds are more sensitive to the change of operating costs than that of investment costs.

  10. The Risk Criteria for Discriminating Technology Innovation Investment Decision Errors of High-tech Enterprises%判别高新技术企业技术创新投资决策错误的风险准则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边云岗; 郭开仲

    2014-01-01

    The technological innovation of high-tech enterprises is a high-risk activity. High-risk means the probability of obtaining high risk gain or suffering large risk loss. Therefore, the correct decision on technological innovation investment is help-ful to maximize the investment income. Through an analysis of the law on technological innovation investment risk-benefit, it is found that an optimal degree of risk and a critical degree of risk exist in the technological innovation investment objectives. For rational decision makers, a risk tolerance interval including the optimal degree of risk should be determined, based on the enterprise's own risk tolerance and business strategy, as a the risk criteria for discriminating technology innovation investment decision errors, and an error function should be created to measure the degree of the investment decision error based on the error-eliminating theory in order to take appropriate remedial measures. Finally, a wrong decision example is analyzed to illustrate the risk criteria is scientific and rational.%高新技术企业的技术创新是一种高风险活动,高风险意味着面临获得高风险收益或遭受高风险损失的可能。因此,正确的技术创新投资决策有利于实现收益的最大化。通过对企业技术创新投资风险收益规律的分析发现,企业技术创新投资客观上存在最佳风险度和临界风险度,认为对于理性的技术创新投资决策者而言,应根据企业自身的风险承担能力和经营战略,确定包括最佳风险度在内的风险容忍区间,作为判别技术创新投资决策错误的风险准则,并通过消错理论中的错误函数度量投资决策错误的程度,以便采取相应的补救措施。最后通过错误投资决策的实例分析,说明了该风险准则的科学性和合理性。

  11. Investing In The Army Organic Industrial Base To Operate And Win In A Complex And Austere Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the government encouraged consolidation through mergers and acquisitions . For GOGO facilities, the government used the base realignment and closure...specific investments the government needs to make in the AOIB to ensure it remains a strategic advantage for the United States for years to come. To...investments the government needs to make in the AOIB to ensure it remains a strategic advantage for the United States for years to come. To define

  12. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS...

  13. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due...... heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine...

  14. HIMSS Venture+ Forum and HX360 Provide Industry View of Health Technology Innovation, Startup and Investment Activity; Advancing the New Model of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burde, Howard A; Scarfo, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Presented by HIMSS, the Venture+ Forum program and pitch competition provides a 360-degree view on health technology investing and today's top innovative companies. It features exciting 3-minute pitch presentations from emerging and growth-stage companies, investor panels and a networking reception. Recent Venture+ Forum winners include TowerView Health, Prima-Temp, ActuaiMeds and M3 Clinician. As an industry catalyst for health IT innovation and business-building resource for growing companies and emerging technology solutions, HIMSS has co-developed with A VIA, a new initiative that addresses how emerging technologies, health system business model changes and investment will transform the delivery of care. HX360 engages senior healthcare leaders, innovation teams, investors and entrepreneurs around the vision of transforming healthcare delivery by leveraging technology, process and structure.

  15. Effects of climate uncertainties on welfare optimal investment streams into mitigation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Lessmann, K.; Lorenz, A.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss a stylised portfolio of climate change mitigation options and ask the following question: what is the intertemporally optimal mix of these options under the boundary condition of a climate guardrail and uncertainty about the temperature response to rising carbon dioxide concentrations? We impose a guardrail that requires the increase of global mean temperature T to be limited to 2K with at least a minimum probability P (e.g., P=0.75). The uncertainty about the temperature response is captured by a PDF for climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake. For economic optimisation, we use an ensemble-version of the growth model MIND [1]. As a key results we show that robust climate protection paths will require aggressive mitigation measures [2]. In this context it is also possible to ask for the economic potential of reducing uncertainty in climate sensitivity [3] and ocean heat uptake [4] that is generically by orders of magnitude larger than the costs induced by the related research programmes. References [1] O. Edenhofer., N. Bauer, E. Kriegler: The Impact of Technological Change on Climate Protection and Welfare: Insights from the Model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54 (2-3): 277-292 (2005). [2] H. Held, E. Kriegler, K. Lessmann, O. Edenhofer, Efficient Climate Policies under Technology and Climate Uncertainty, Energy Economics, in press. [3] T. Schneider von Deimling, H. Held, A. Ganopolski, S. Rahmstorf, Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climates, Climate Dynamics 27, 149-163, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0126-8 (2006). [4] A. Lorenz, Diploma Thesis, U Potsdam (2007).

  16. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  17. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...

  18. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  19. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  20. Causality relations between foreign direct investment and portfolio investment volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Gozgor, Giray; Erzurumlu, Yaman O.

    2010-01-01

    Following the liberalization of financial markets, Goldstein and Razin (2006) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment, our paper examines the causality relations between foreign direct investment and volatility of foreign portfolio investment. Utilizing monthly and quarterly data set of Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Turkey, volatility of portfolio investments, which indicated evidence of ARCH effects for all fou...

  1. Case Study for the Return on Investment of Internet of Things Using Agent-Based Modelling and Data Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Houston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances towards new paradigms such as the Internet of Things, there is a desire among business leaders for a reliable method to determine the value of supporting these ventures. Traditional simulation and analysis techniques cannot model the complex systems inherent in fields such as infrastructure asset management, or suffer from a lack of data on which to build a prediction. Agent-based modelling, through an integration with data science, presents an attractive simulation method to capture these underlying complexities and provide a solution. The aim of this work is to investigate this integration as a refined process for answering practical business questions. A specific case study is addressed to assess the return on investment of installing condition monitoring sensors on lift assets in a London Underground station. An agent-based model is developed for this purpose, supported by analysis from historical data. The simulation results demonstrate how returns can be achieved and highlight features induced as a result of stochasticity in the model. Suggestions of future research paths are additionally outlined.

  2. Technology-based service proposal screening and decision-making effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riel, van Allard C.R.; Semeijn, Janjaap; Hammedi, Wafa; Henseler, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Decision-making in early stages of technology-based service (TBS) innovation projects proves to be challenging. Current failure rates in service innovation are high, while the investments in innovation projects are substantial. Research suggests that enhancing decision-making in the screen

  3. A PC-BASED MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF INVESTMENT IN MANUFACTURING EQUIP:MENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Fourie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The investment in advanced manufacturing equipment must be evaluated on two levels, ie. a general technical investigation, and an in-depth technical and economical analysis if necessary. This is especially true for a country like South Africa where new technologies like robotics are relatively untried . It is therefore important to choose a suitable framework for both technical and economic analyses. This framework forms the foundation of the discussed evaluation model. For practical use, the evaluation and choice process is programmed for use on a PC.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belegging in toerusting vir gevorderde vervaardiging word gewoonlik op twee vlakke geevalueer, nl. 'n algemene tegniese ondersoek en 'n deeglike tegniese en ekonomiese ontleding, indien vereis. Dit is veral waar in 'n land soos Suid-Afrika waar nuwe ontwikkelings soos robotika nag relatief onbekend is. Dit is dus belangrik om 'n gepaste raamwerk te kies vir beide die tegniese en die ekonomiese ontledings. Hierdie raamwerk is die basis van die ontledingsmodel wat bespreek word. Om toepassing te vergemaklik, word die ontledings- en keuseprosesse geprogrammeer vir 'n mikrorekenaar.

  4. Price Determination for Educational Services Based on the Investments in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga Radu Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at highlighting the link between educational marketing (product/service and price determination for educational services and investment in education, using empirical models and customization of classic approaches (interpolation method addressed to individual educational investment.

  5. Stimulating household flood risk mitigation investments through insurance and subsidies: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    In the period 1998-2009, floods triggered roughly 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard in Europe. Climate change and socio/economic trends are expected to further aggrevate floods losses in many regions. Research shows that flood risk can be significantly reduced if households install protective measures, and that the implementation of such measures can be stimulated through flood insurance schemes and subsidies. However, the effectiveness of such incentives to stimulate implementation of loss-reducing measures greatly depends on the decision process of individuals and is hardly studied. In our study, we developed an Agent-Based Model that integrates flood damage models, insurance mechanisms, subsidies, and household behaviour models to assess the effectiveness of different economic tools on stimulating households to invest in loss-reducing measures. Since the effectiveness depends on the decision making process of individuals, the study compares different household decision models ranging from standard economic models, to economic models for decision making under risk, to more complex decision models integrating economic models and risk perceptions, opinion dynamics, and the influence of flood experience. The results show the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate investment in loss-reducing measures for different household behavior types, while assuming climate change scenarios. It shows how complex decision models can better reproduce observed real-world behaviour compared to traditional economic models. Furthermore, since flood events are included in the simulations, the results provide an analysis of the dynamics in insured and uninsured losses for households, the costs of reducing risk by implementing loss-reducing measures, the capacity of the insurance market, and the cost of government subsidies under different scenarios. The model has been applied to the City of Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

  6. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are famil...

  7. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  8. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...... to benefit from their personal preferences and to remain rational actors in the financial market....

  9. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible......Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...

  10. A New Optimization Model about Enterprise Equipment Investment Project based on Integrated Entropy Weight and Fuzzy Matter Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Xiaoping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The equipment investment scheme evaluation of enterprise is usually multi-objective optimization problem affected by many factors. Among many optimization methods, the common fuzzy matter element is based on the matter-element analysis and combined with the concepts of fuzzy mathematics, which can reflect the subjective fuzzy judgment; the common entropy weight method makes use of the judgment matrix composed of evaluation index value, Weights gotten by the common entropy weight method mainly reflects usefulness of data and can't reflect actual importance of evaluation indexes. Considering this fact, this study integrates engineering economics, reliability theory, fuzzy matter element and entropy theory presents a new optimization model about enterprise equipment investment project and also presents detailed methods and steps of application of integrated model in concrete example, which can offer the reference for project investment activity of practical enterprise equipment.

  11. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  12. A paperless course on structural engineering programming: investing in educational technology in the times of the Greek financial recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextos, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the structure of an undergraduate course entitled 'programming techniques and the use of specialised software in structural engineering' which is offered to the fifth (final) year students of the Civil Engineering Department of Aristotle University Thessaloniki in Greece. The aim of this course is to demonstrate the use of new information technologies in the field of structural engineering and to teach modern programming and finite element simulation techniques that the students can in turn apply in both research and everyday design of structures. The course also focuses on the physical interpretation of structural engineering problems, in a way that the students become familiar with the concept of computational tools without losing perspective from the engineering problem studied. For this purpose, a wide variety of structural engineering problems are studied in class, involving structural statics, dynamics, earthquake engineering, design of reinforced concrete and steel structures as well as data and information management. The main novelty of the course is that it is taught and examined solely in the computer laboratory ensuring that each student can accomplish the prescribed 'hands-on' training on a dedicated computer, strictly on a 1:1 student over hardware ratio. Significant effort has also been put so that modern educational techniques and tools are utilised to offer the course in an essentially paperless mode. This involves electronic educational material, video tutorials, student information in real time and exams given and assessed electronically through an ad hoc developed, personalised, electronic system. The positive feedback received from the students reveals that the concept of a paperless course is not only applicable in real academic conditions but is also a promising approach that significantly increases student productivity and engagement. The question, however, is whether such an investment in educational technology is indeed

  13. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness and Return-on-Investment of a Mindfulness-Based Worksite Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Wier, M.F. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment analysis comparing a mindfulness-based worksite intervention to usual practice. Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven governmental research institute employees were randomized to the intervention or control gro

  14. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  15. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  16. Prediction of recrystallisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwisawas Chinnapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of gas turbines for jet propulsion and power generation requires the manufacture of turbine blades from single crystal nickel-based superalloys, most typically using investment casting. During the necessary subsequent solution heat treatment, the formation of recrystallised grains can occur. The introduction of grain boundaries into a single crystal component is potentially detrimental to performance, and therefore manufacturing processes and/or component geometries should be designed to prevent their occurrence. If the boundaries have very low strength, they can degrade the creep and fatigue properties. The root cause for recrystallisation is microscale plasticity caused by differential thermal contraction of metal, mould and core; when the plastic deformation is sufficiently large, recrystallisation takes place. In this work, numerical and thermo-mechanical modelling is carried out, with the aim of establishing computational methods by which recrystallisation during the heat treatment of single crystal nickel-based superalloys can be predicted and prevented prior to their occurrence. Elasto-plastic law is used to predict the plastic strain necessary for recrystallisation. The modelling result shows that recrystallisation is most likely to occur following 1.5–2.5% plastic strain applied at temperatures between 1000 ∘C and 1300 ∘C; this is validated with tensile tests at these elevated temperatures. This emphasises that high temperature deformation is more damaging than low temperature deformation.

  17. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M.; Singer, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF’s strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement. PMID:27587853

  18. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M; Singer, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement.

  19. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  20. A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Bednarski, April E.; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L.; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L.; Bedard, James E. J.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A.; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Howell, Carina E.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; MacKinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W.; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N.; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K.; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary A.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R.; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of…

  1. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Albert N. [Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D (ACE R&D) is one of the subprograms within DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office. The ACE subprogram's R&D is conducted in cooperation with the DOE Combustion Research Facility (CRF). This report summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of the net benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty diesel engines.

  2. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, A L; Langland, R T; Minichino, C

    2001-10-03

    In FY-2000, Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory faced significant pressures to meet critical project milestones, and immediate demands to facilitate the reassignment of employees as the National Ignition Facility (the 600-TW laser facility being designed and built at Livermore, and one of the largest R&D construction projects in the world) was in the process of re-baselining its plan while executing full-speed its technology development efforts. This drive for change occurred as an unprecedented level of management and program changes were occurring within LLNL. I am pleased to report that we met many key milestones and achieved numerous technological breakthroughs. This report summarizes our efforts to perform feasibility and reduce-to-practice studies, demonstrations, and/or techniques--as structured through our technology centers. Whether using computational engineering to predict how giant structures like suspension bridges will respond to massive earthquakes or devising a suitcase-sized microtool to detect chemical and biological agents used by terrorists, we have made solid technical progress. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering, as well as impact all of LLNL. Each Center is responsible for the vitality and growth of the core technologies it represents. My goal is that each Center will be recognized on an international scale for solving compelling national problems requiring breakthrough innovation. The Centers and their leaders are as follows: Center for Complex Distributed Systems--David B. McCallen; Center for Computational Engineering--Kyran D. Mish; Center for Microtechnology--Raymond P. Mariella, Jr.; Center for Nondestructive Characterization--Harry E. Martz, Jr.; and Center for Precision Engineering--Keith Carlisle.

  3. PARTICULARITIES OF CAREER IMPROVEMENT IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY AND INVESTMENT PROGRAMS FOR LIFELONG LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Oana - Maria LUNGU

    2011-01-01

    The concept of career planning comes nowadays along with the lifelong learning concept, which means investing in people’s potential and knowledge, supporting innovation and acquiring as many quality knowledge as possible by attending educational and learning programs. The most important investments that are made are in the human resources and the biggest profits come from the human capital and the experienced employees. Also, a great asset for the success companies are the persons who find th...

  4. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farese, P.; Gelman, R.; Hendron, R.

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  5. Tool to Prioritize Energy Efficiency Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farese, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    To provide analytic support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of the Building Technology Program (BTP), NREL developed a Microsoft Excel-based tool to provide an open and objective comparison of the hundreds of investment opportunities available to BTP. This tool uses established methodologies to evaluate the energy savings and cost of those savings.

  6. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and strength. The results indicate that a higher viscosity of binder leads to a higher viscosity and suspensibility of slurry with the same powder/binder ratio. The retention rate and thickness of primary layer increase with an increase in the viscosity of the slurry, and a higher retention rate is associated with a thicker primary layer. The gel velocity of the slurry is correlated with the gel velocity of the binder. The green strength and the baked strength of the primary layer are determined by the properties of the binder after gel and by the production of the binder after fired, respectively.

  7. A Framework for Determining the Return on Investment of Simulation-Based Training in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Bukhari MS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a framework that has been developed to monetize the real value of simulation-based training in health care. A significant consideration has been given to the incorporation of the intangible and qualitative benefits, not only the tangible and quantitative benefits of simulation-based training in health care. The framework builds from three works: the value measurement methodology (VMM used by several departments of the US Government, a methodology documented in several books by Dr Jack Phillips to monetize various training approaches, and a traditional return on investment methodology put forth by Frost and Sullivan, and Immersion Medical. All 3 source materials were adapted to create an integrated methodology that can be readily implemented. This article presents details on each of these methods and how they can be integrated and presents a framework that integrates the previous methods. In addition to that, it describes the concept and the application of the developed framework. As a test of the applicability of the framework, a real case study has been used to demonstrate the application of the framework. This case study provides real data related to the correlation between the pediatric patient cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA survival rates and a simulation-based mock codes at the University of Michigan tertiary care academic medical center. It is important to point out that the proposed framework offers the capability to consider a wide range of benefits and values, but on the other hand, there are several limitations that has been discussed and need to be taken in consideration.

  8. A Framework for Determining the Return on Investment of Simulation-Based Training in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hatim; Andreatta, Pamela; Goldiez, Brian; Rabelo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a framework that has been developed to monetize the real value of simulation-based training in health care. A significant consideration has been given to the incorporation of the intangible and qualitative benefits, not only the tangible and quantitative benefits of simulation-based training in health care. The framework builds from three works: the value measurement methodology (VMM) used by several departments of the US Government, a methodology documented in several books by Dr Jack Phillips to monetize various training approaches, and a traditional return on investment methodology put forth by Frost and Sullivan, and Immersion Medical. All 3 source materials were adapted to create an integrated methodology that can be readily implemented. This article presents details on each of these methods and how they can be integrated and presents a framework that integrates the previous methods. In addition to that, it describes the concept and the application of the developed framework. As a test of the applicability of the framework, a real case study has been used to demonstrate the application of the framework. This case study provides real data related to the correlation between the pediatric patient cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) survival rates and a simulation-based mock codes at the University of Michigan tertiary care academic medical center. It is important to point out that the proposed framework offers the capability to consider a wide range of benefits and values, but on the other hand, there are several limitations that has been discussed and need to be taken in consideration.

  9. 基于COBIT的投资项目库管理的预算控制信息化研究%The Research of Basing on COBIT Investment Project Management Budget Control Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时宇; 冉丽敏; 时小荣

    2012-01-01

    COBIT是目前国际上通用的信息系统审计的标准,它在商业风险、控制需要和技术问题之间架起了一座桥梁,以满足管理的多方面需要。投资项目库中的预算控制管理的水平与效果与投资项目的利益息息相关。随着信息化的普及,投资项目库中的预算控制管理信息化也迫在眉睫。%COBIT is the universal information system audit standards,which sets up a bridge between the business risks,the needs of control and technical problems,in order to meet the multifaceted needs of management.Level and the effect of the investment project library budget control management is closely related to the interests of the investment projects.With the popularization of information technology,budget control and management of information technology in the library of investment projects is also imminent.This paper aims to establish the study of information technology based on COBIT investment project library management budget control.

  10. Design and Implementation of Intelligence Investment Management Platform Based on 3D GIS%基于三维 GIS 的智慧招商管理平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤梅; 沈雨; 王庆

    2015-01-01

    The platform integration of various types of investment resources,based on the full use of geographic infor-mation technology,network technology,mobile Internet and information technology,such as three-dimensional simulation in an intuitive three-dimensional scene on a full range of investment information resources information management,not only standardize the investment process,improve the quality of investment,and strengthen the government′s awareness of active service,for government and business decision-making information and evidence.%该平台在整合各类招商资源的基础上,充分运用地理信息技术、网络技术、移动互联和三维仿真等信息技术,在直观的三维场景中,对招商信息资源进行全方位的信息化管理,不仅规范了招商流程,提升了招商质量,而且强化了政府的主动服务意识,为政府和企业决策提供了信息和依据。

  11. Investment Invited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    T he 2006 Major Projects Investment Consultation and Talks, an investment promotion fair, jointly sponsored by the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and the Nanjing Municipal Government, will be held at the Nanjing International Expo Center from May 28 to 30. Organizers of the event also include Nanjing's neighboring cities of

  12. Evaluation of Urban Infrastructure Investment Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of urban infrastructure investment in China has brought with it some serious problems that cannot be ignored, such as low investment efficiency and faulty investment decision-making. Therefore, based on the latest research findings related to infrastructure efficiency evaluation theory and evaluation methods, this paper uses empirical evidence from Heilongjiang province to analyze urban infrastructure investment efficiency. To analyze investment efficiency in the province, a new infrastructure investment efficiency evaluation model is developed known as the SDEA-Malmquist model. The model reveals that urban infrastructure investment projects in Heilongjiang province are relatively effective and stable but that the efficiency of such investments varies according to the city in which they are made. Overall efficiency is consistent with the TFC (total final consumption index, but the index fluctuates within a narrow range between cities due to technological differences.

  13. Abnormal profitability and foreign investment based on the investigation of covered interest parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bor-Yi; Chiou, Jer-Shiou; Wu, Pei-Shan

    2007-10-01

    Most literature focuses on how foreign investment and the market returns are related. Instead, this study attempts to identify the origin of abnormal behavior by foreign investors, as well as the relationship among the error in covered interest parity (ECIP), foreign investment (INV), and stock returns (RS). This study finds that the behavior of ECIP can be accurately represented by the ARJI model, which is capable of describing sudden jumps in the economy. Consequently, CBP-ARJI thus provides an effective means of studying the interaction among underlying variables. Empirically, ECIP has a negative statistical significant influence on foreign investment. While RS and INV have no mutual volatility spillover effect, they have a close correlation in terms of jump intensity. The previous jump of INV had more impact on current INV, while RS had little impact. The early withdrawal of foreign investment causes stock indexes to fall, creating potential losses for general investors. Foreign investment thus observes abnormal ECIP behavior, while leading the market movements, are always better off.

  14. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...... of underinvestment and, hence, induces cutting down investment. On the other hand, severely constrained firms benefit more by getting closer to the first-best investment implying higher investment....

  15. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  16. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global produ

  17. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2002-07-01

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E.O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships.

  18. DERIVATIVE OF SET MEASURE FUNCTIONS AND ITS APPLICATION (THEORETICAL BASES OF INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is necessary to develop the theoretical fundamentals for solving the investment objectives presented in the form of set function as vector optimization tasks or tasks of constrained extremum. Methodology. Set functions and their derivatives of measure are used as research of investment objectives. Necessary condition of set function minimum is proved. In the tasks for constrained extremum the method of Lagrange is used. It is shown that this method can also be used for the set function. It is used the measure for proof, which generalizes the Lebesgue measure, and the concept of set sequence limit is introduced. It is noted that the introduced limit over a measure coincides with the classical Borel limit and can be used in order to prove the existence of derivative from set function over a measure on convergent of sets sequence. Findings. An algorithm of solving the investment objective for constrained extremum in relation to investment objectives was offered. Originality. Scientific novelty lies in the fact that in multivariate objects for constrained extremum one can refuse from immediate enumeration. One can use the proposed algorithm of constructing (selection of options that allow building a convex linear envelope of Pareto solutions. This envelope will let the person who makes a decision (DM, select those options that are "better" from a position of DM, and consider some of the criteria, the formalization of which are difficult or can not be described in mathematical terms. Practical value. Results of the study provide the necessary theoretical substantiation of decision-making in investment objectives, when there is a significant number of an investment objects and immediate enumeration of options is very difficult on time costs even for modern computing techniques.

  19. Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Mark M.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Hassan, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    We use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males. The model incorporates gender differences in the level and responsiveness of brawn to nutrition in a Roy-economy setting in which activities reward skill and brawn differentially. Empirical evidence from rural Bangladesh provides support for the model and the importance of the distribution of brawn. PMID:25152536

  20. Thailand : Investment Climate Assessment Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an up-to-date assessment of the investment climate of Thailand. As the socio-economic framework in which enterprises operate including infrastructure, policies and regulations improving the investment climate is helpful for productivity and economic growth. The report is based mainly on the results of the second round of the Thailand Productivity and Investment Climate...

  1. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  2. INVESTMENT EVALUATION BASED ON THE COMMERCIAL SCOPE - THE PRODUCTION OF NATURAL-GAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROENS, DF; HANEVELD, WKK

    1995-01-01

    The annual production planning of a natural gas trading and transporting company is modelled as a linear system of (in)equalities. The model is used to quantify the increase of robustness with respect to commercial uncertainty, resulting from investments in production capacities. A novel concept is

  3. The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be "degraded" or "underutilized," investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

  4. Co-investment paradigms as alternatives to payments for tree-based ecosystem services in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namirembe, S.; Leimona, B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Bernard, F.; Bacwayo, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple paradigms have emerged within the broad payments for ecosystem services (ES) domain for internalizing externalities of local land-use change decisions. These range from reward of ready-made ES delivery (commoditised) to reward of processes of ES generation (co-investment). Evidence from tre

  5. Evaluating Investments For Services: A Value Chain Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcyz Roztocki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework based on value chain analysis to evaluate investments for services. The rationale for this approach is that to properly evaluate the benefits of any services investments, the value and cost interactions resulting from different business processes or activities need to be considered. To achieve reliable cost estimations, the framework employs a costing system, which integrates activity-based costing with the economic value added performance measure. The proposed framework is illustrated using a hypothetical case of an information technology investment in a car repair shop.

  6. Creative Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prices for Chinese art are shattering records locally and internationally. Is the investment well placed?Mem Aziz is brimming with confidence about the future of his business in China. Director of Australia’s Redrock Gallery,

  7. Trade, Investment and Innovation Performance Under New Triangle Trade Mode—— A Study Based on Technology Spillover and Absorptive Capacity%“新三角贸易”模式下的贸易、投资与创新绩效——基于知识溢出与吸收能力视角的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈韬

    2012-01-01

    Based on data of regional FDI and inter-commodity trades, this article studies the affective aspects on domestic innovation in two contexts of introduced advanced technique and inward FDI simulated by Triangle Trade Pattern. It finds that, absorptive capacities determine local creative activities. Low level of industrial correlation hampers knowledge spillage through FDI in high-tech region. Existing technology stock satisfies tech- nical requirements of imported parts and components rather than imported capital goods, which make the digested or absorptive spillovers from the latter less. China benefits a lot from spillovers of components primarily impor- ted from Asian economies. Governments should increase R&D financial support in machinery and equipment in- dustry and import more parts from European countries and USA for wide spillover-absorptive activities favoring balanced bilateral trade.%本文采用地区细分的贸易和投资数据,从技术引进、吸引外商直接投资(FDI)两大路径研究“新三角贸易”模式下知识外溢对本土创新绩效的影响。研究表明:吸收能力是影响本土创新的关键因素;产业关联度低是制约高技术领域FDI知识溢出的重要原因。

  8. Advanced location-based technologies and services

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the number of mobile device users worldwide, location-based services (LBSs) have become pervasive, and the demand for them will continue to grow. Exploring recent changes in the technology and its uses, Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services takes an in-depth look at new and existing technologies, techniques, applications, and opportunities. Under the editorial guidance of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from experts in the field, the book examines the breadth and depth of advanced LBS technologies and techniques. The book provides up-to-date informati

  9. 价格与技术不确定条件下的发电商碳捕获投资模型及分析%The Power Producer's Carbon Capture Investment Model and its Analysis under Price and Technology Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 叶泽; 李薇

    2012-01-01

    In the 21st century, the emissions of greenhouse gases has brought serious threats to human being's living environment. This growing concern has made carbon emission reduction an important topic in the international community. Because the energy industry is the main producer of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) , understanding its carbon emission reduction strategy is of prime importance in the sustainable movement. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment is a major research field about carbon emission in power producers. This research area contains many uncertainties, such as technology uncertainty, carbon trade price uncertainty and the equilibrium uncertainty of power transaction market. At present, most literatures model the carbon capturing investment as an irreversible investment problem based on the real option theory, and generally consider only one kind of uncertainty. This paper presents an oligopoly power producer's carbon capture investment model under CCS technology uncertainty and carbon trade price uncertainty, and investigates the impact of relevant parameters and policy-related investment subsidy on investment threshold based on the analysis and numerical simulation of the model. Recent literatures on carbon trade price in Europe show that CO2 trade price follows the Geometric Brownian motion. Based on the findings of these literatures, this paper assumes that CCS technology follows the Poisson process, presents an oligopoly power producer's CCS investment value function, and obtains two variables partial differential equations with Bellman equation and Ito's Lemma. By defining a new stochastic variable based on the ratio of carbon trade price to CCS investment triggered by CCS technology progress, we can obtain the analytic solutions of the investment value function. In addition, based on the value matching and smooth pasting conditions of the real option theory, we can obtain the oligopoly power producer's CCS investment threshold conditions; invest

  10. Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB model – Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Z. Ogutu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the global climate–economy–biosphere (CoCEB model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume – as in Part 1 – that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less sensitive.

  11. The paradoxical moderating effect of body image investment on the impact of weight-based derogatory media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katelyn E; Jarry, Josée L

    2013-03-01

    Weight-based derogatory media consist of derogation of celebrities for failing to meet the thin ideal. This study examined the impact of weight-based derogatory media on women's body satisfaction, appearance self-esteem, fear of negative appearance evaluation, and negative affect. Female undergraduates (N=240) were exposed to either tabloid-style pictures and articles derogating average size celebrities for gaining weight, or to the same images accompanied by neutral information. Women in the derogation condition reported greater fear of negative appearance evaluation than did women in the neutral media condition. Contrary to predictions, women low in maladaptive body image investment reported lower body satisfaction and appearance self-esteem in the derogatory media condition than they did in the neutral condition, while women high in maladaptive investment did not differ across conditions. Highly invested women's unexpected reaction may be understood as a defence against a threat to a valued domain of the self. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive neurorehabilitation based on interactive video technology

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; Solana Sánchez, Javier; R. Sánchez; González Palmero, S.; Sánchez González, Patricia; Gómez Pérez, C.; Morell Vilaseca, Marc; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.; Gómez Aguilera, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is the main cause of disability in developed societies. New interactive technologies help therapists in neurorehabilitation in order to increase patients’ autonomy and quality of life. This work proposes Interactive Video (IV) as a technology to develop cognitive rehabilitation tasks based on Activities of Daily Living (ADL). ADL cognitive task has been developed and integrated with eye-tracking technology for task interaction and patients’ performance monitoring....

  13. Theoretical bases of multidimensional modeling of sustainable development in investment and construction activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sborshchikov Sergey Borisovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the system processes of investment and construction activities (ISA are considered as a set of economic space and time. The concept of economic space contains a generalized representation of the properties of technical and economic system in the initial state of its development. The space of investment and construction activities is a techno-economic system, the space, in which the movement is possible within the framework of sustainable development. A characteristic feature of economic space is its unity and indivisibility. The concept of economic space is closely related to the concept of economic time. The transition from one state of techno-economic system to another is described by the input and output variables. The task of ISA is to achieve optimal conditions for the rational use of system resources. The article identifies and discusses ISA subsystems and their interaction in the coordinate system. The space investment and construction activities encompasses a set of core and auxiliary processes, the behavior of techno-economic system, its mode of functioning in the context of sustainable development.

  14. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  15. A Business Case Method for IT Investments in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of information technology (IT) investments is increasingly important for Danish municipalities. This is why they along with other both public and private sector organizations increasingly are using IT business cases. The business case is a document specifying the main rationale...... behind the expected value and cost of an IT investment for the adopting organization. However, experiences from Danish municipalities reveal difficulties in developing effective IT business cases for purposes beyond simple cost savings. Based on collaborative action research with Danish municipalities...

  16. Energy Saving Melting andRevert Reduction Technology (E0SMARRT): Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimension for Investment Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Cannell; Dr. Mark Samonds; Adi Sholapurwalla; Sam Scott

    2008-11-21

    The investment casting process is an expendable mold process where wax patterns of the part and rigging are molded, assembled, shelled and melted to produce a ceramic mold matching the shape of the component to be cast. Investment casting is an important manufacturing method for critical parts because of the ability to maintain dimensional shape and tolerances. However, these tolerances can be easily exceeded if the molding components do not maintain their individual shapes well. In the investment casting process there are several opportunities for the final casting shape to not maintain the intended size and shape, such as shrinkage of the wax in the injection tool, the modification of the shape during shell heating, and with the thermal shrink and distortion in the casting process. Studies have been completed to look at the casting and shell distortions through the process in earlier phases of this project. Dr. Adrian Sabau at Oak Ridge National Labs performed characterizations and validations of 17-4 PH stainless steel in primarily fused silica shell systems with good agreement between analysis results and experimental data. Further tasks provided material property measurements of wax and methodology for employing a viscoelastic definition of wax materials into software. The final set of tasks involved the implementation of the findings into the commercial casting analysis software ProCAST, owned and maintained by ESI Group. This included: o the transfer of the wax material property data from its raw form into separate temperature-dependent thermophysical and mechanical property datasets o adding this wax material property data into an easily viewable and modifiable user interface within the pre-processing application of the ProCAST suite, namely PreCAST o and validating the data and viscoelastic wax model with respect to experimental results

  17. LOCAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE IMPACT OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT UNDER THE RISK-RELATED CONDITIONS OF MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin VELEV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization in a worldwide scale is even more noticeable in the each country during period of world economic crisis due to the differences in the economic status, deformed by the crisis phenomena. In that case, the conflict between global tendencies and local manifestations in the regional aspect of economic phenomena is even more evidently noticeable as a direct reflection of the resource deficiency. The mineral resources are directly related to that process, not only as a first phase of the transformation of the raw material potential for each country, but also as a serious violator of the ecological equilibrium as a result of the applied technologies. Each country is enforced to resolve the various issues related to preserving the own resource potential as much as possible and to subordinate its investment and technological decisions to an integrated and in-depth utilization in compliance with the sustainable development of society

  18. SINVLIO: using semantics and fuzzy logic to provide individual investment portfolio recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    García-Crespo, Ángel; López-Cuadrado, José Luis; González-Carrasco, Israel; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio selection addresses the problem of how to diversify investments in the most efficient and profitable way possible. Portfolio selection is a field of study that has been broached from several perspectives, including, among others, recommender systems. This paper presents SINVLIO (Semantic INVestment portfoLIO), a tool based on semantic technologies and fuzzy logic techniques that recommends investments grounded in both psychological aspects of the investor and traditional financial p...

  19. R&D Investment and The Performance of Firms:Empirical Analysis Based on Listed SMEs’ Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xianzhen; Wu; Jinxi

    2011-01-01

    Based on 122 listed SMEs in Shenzhen Securities,this study evaluates the current situation of SMEsR&D investment and estimates R&D rate of return by using Cobb-Douglas production function as econometric studies of the contribution of R&D.The main findings are that the science-based sectors with the highest R&D intensity have a relatively low rate of return to R&D,the very traditional industries have the lowest return.Finally,we give some explanations to these findings.

  20. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  1. [An analysis of the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development between 2000-2002: a base line towards future valuations beginning with the implementation of the National Health Research Priority Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Rosângela; Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Rodrigues, Rodolfo Rego Deusdará

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development in health (R&D/H) between the years of 2000-2002, trying to contrast them with the items of the National Health Research Priority Agenda, in order to attempt a base line that makes capable future evaluations on the inductor role. The data was collected by a research carried out with the main goal of measure resources invested in R&D/H in the country on the period, considering only the Ministry of Health investments. The researches were independently categorized by 2 researchers based on 24 subdivisions which compose the Agenda. The amount of the resources invested by the Ministry of Health on the period was of R$ 199.3 millions. Most of the expense was related to researches in transmittable diseases (31.5%), followed by systems and policies in health (16.3%) and communication and information in health (8.6%). Conditions that represent a substantial disease burden (non transmittable diseases, mental health, violence, accidents and traumas, elderly person health) received relative small amount of resource. The work establishes a starting point from which managers of scientific and technological policy may assess the progressive influence of the Agenda and the reduction of the identified imbalances.

  2. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  3. Is Russia successful in attracting foreign direct investment? Evidence based on gravity model estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariev Oleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it is to answer the question of whether Russia is successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI. Second, it is to identify partner countries that “overinvest” and “underinvest” in the Russian economy. We do this by calculating potential FDI inflows to Russia and comparing them with actual values. This research is associated with the empirical estimation of factors explaining FDI flows between countries. The methodological foundation used for the research is the gravity model of foreign direct investment. In discussing the pros and cons of different econometric methods of the estimation gravity equation, we conclude that the Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood method with instrumental variables (IV PPML is one of the best options in our case. Using a database covering about 70% of FDI flows for the period of 2001-2011, we discover the following factors that explain the variance of bilateral FDI flows in the world economy: GDP value of investing country, GDP value of recipient country, distance between countries, remoteness of investor country, remoteness of recipient country, level of institutions development in host country, wage level in host country, membership of two countries in a regional economic union, common official language, common border and colonial relationships between countries in the past. The potential values of FDI inflows are calculated using coefficients of regressors from the econometric model. We discover that the Russian economy performs very well in attracting FDI: the actual FDI inflows exceed potential values by 1.72 times. Large developed countries (France, Germany, UK, Italy overinvest in the Russian economy, while smaller and less developed countries (Czech Republic, Belarus, Denmark, Ukraine underinvest in Russia. Countries of Southeast Asia (China, South Korea, Japan also underinvest in the Russian economy.

  4. Exploring the internalization rationale for international investment: wholly owned subsidiary versus technology licensing in the worldwide chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Globalization has underlined the need for firms to exploit technological capabilities on a global scale. This study attempts to make a comprehensive investigation of various factors influencing the choice between wholly owned subsidiary and technology licensing as a strategy for expansion abroad. To underpin our main research questions, we rely on different theoretical contributions which have variously emphasized the importance of cultural distance, learning, nature of technology and competi...

  5. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  6. Energy Return on Investment (EROI for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Brandt

    Full Text Available Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs, nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  7. Evaluation model of venture investment based on fuzzy matter-element method of combined weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation model of an international venture investment project on the basis of fuzzy matter-element and combined weight methods is introduced. First, the compound fuzzy matter-element of optimal subordinate degree is constructed on the principle of the bigger-more-optimal or the less-more-optimal depending on the actual evaluation indicators, and combined with standard fuzzy matter-element to form a difference-square fuzzy matter-element. Secondly, a combined weight is calculated by both information ent...

  8. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital...

  9. Development of a new risk-based framework to guide investment in water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Dani J; Ghadouani, Anas; Sinang, Som Cit; Ivey, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    An innovative framework for optimising investments in water quality monitoring has been developed for use by water and environmental agencies. By utilising historical data, investigating the accuracy of monitoring methods and considering the risk tolerance of the management agency, this new methodology calculates optimum water quality monitoring frequencies for individual water bodies. Such information can be applied to water quality constituents of concern in both engineered and natural water bodies and will guide the investment of monitoring resources. Here we present both the development of the framework itself and a proof of concept by applying it to the occurrence of hazardous cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. This application to existing data demonstrates the robustness of the approach and the capacity of the framework to optimise the allocation of both monitoring and mitigation resources. When applied to cyanobacterial blooms in the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia, we determined that optimising the monitoring regime at individual lakes could greatly alter the overall monitoring schedule for the region, rendering it more risk averse without increasing the amount of monitoring resources required. For water resources with high-density temporal data related to constituents of concern, a similar reduction in risk may be observed by applying the framework.

  10. Private Venture Capital’s Investment on University Spin-Offs: A Case Study of Tsinghua University Based on Triple Helix Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yuchen; Hu, Yimei; Wang, Jingyi

    2015-01-01

    -offs on the investment willingness of private venture capitals. The research is an attempt to investigate venture capitals’ investment willingness on university spin-offs under the Chinese context addressing the triple helix literature. The findings show both political inspirations and managerial implications for public...... and transition economies where governments are transforming their roles. Thus the main purpose of this study is to investigate how private venture capitals’ investment willingness on university spin-offs are influenced by universities and governments under the Chinese context based on the triple helix model...

  11. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  12. Space-Based Observation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    jusqu’ici par des systèmes aéroportés, par des systèmes spatiaux. Les capteurs spatiaux sont des capteurs radar et optiques . Les capteurs optiques ...de l’observation de la terre à partir de capteurs spatiaux offre de nombreux avantages par rapport à l’observation à partir de capteurs terrestres...résolution optique . Le SAR a également d’autres fonctionnalités telles que la classification basée sur les techniques Doppler ou la polarimétrie, la

  13. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination of Upstream Technological Innovation Investment under Stochastic Demand%上游企业技术创新的供应链协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪莲; 邓峰

    2013-01-01

    A supply chain game model about upstream technological innovation investment to decrease manufacture costs is constructed. The research illustrates that decentralized decision of the manufacturer' s innovation investment cannot coordinate the supply chain. A contract of supply chain coordination based on quantity discount schedule is proposed. The results show that manufacturer can provide infinite quantity discounts for coordination of supply chain. Furthermore, the conditions which are feasible to all supply chain members are pointed out, and an analysis on sharing the after - coordination profits is presented.%在随机需求条件下,建立了上游制造商技术创新投入降低生产成本的供应链博弈模型.研究发现,在分散决策情况下,制造商的创新投入无法达到供应链整体最优,为此提出了使供应链达到协调的数量折扣契约,结果证明这样的数量折扣有无穷多个;进一步指出了该契约可以为各方接受所需的条件,并对供应链协调后的利润分配问题进行探讨.

  15. Optimal investment paths for future renewable based energy systems - Using the optimisation model Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    that with an oil price at 100 $/barrel, a CO2 price at40 €/ton and the assumed penetration of hydrogen in the transport sector, it is economically optimal to cover more than 95% of the primary energy consumption for electricity and district heat by renewables in 2050. When the transport sector is converted......This paper investigates a possible long term investment path for the Nordic energy system focussing on renewable energy in the supply sector and on hydrogen as the main fuel for transportation, covering up to 70% of all transport in 2050. The optimisation model Balmorel [Ravn H, et al. Balmorel......: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. 〈www.Balmorel.com〉; 2001. [1

  16. Guidelines for integrating socially responsible investment in the investment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, F.J.; Slager, A.

    2009-01-01

    Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) is of growing importance for institutional investors. Our analysis shows that SRI strategies can be grouped in ethically-based, investment-driven and value-ensuring objectives. We demonstrate that this categorization strengthens decisionmaking in SRI. Based on

  17. A model based on Copula Theory for sustainable and social responsible investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Bilbao-Terol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model is proposed that allows us to obtain a portfolio made up of sustainable and socially responsible (SR investment funds. This portfolio tracks the one that investors might have chosen if they had not taken into account social, ethical and ecological (SEE issues in their investment decisions. Therefore, in the first stage, reference portfolio exclusively made up of conventional funds is obtained. For the construction of the conventional portfolio the Prospect Theory has been used: net profits as the financial objective and error function as the utility function. In the second stage, a portfolio consisting exclusively of SR-funds is built. To do so, the reference portfolio is used as an ideal point, with the objectives of the SR-investor being the relative wealth with respect to the reference portfolio and the SEE quality of the portfolio. The relative wealth will be manipulated by a downside-risk measure, the Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR, and the periodic values of the portfolio. The second objective is the SR Quality of the portfolio, taking into account the personal values of a particular investor. This is built using Fuzzy Set Theory tools. We are faced with a multi-objective problem which is solved by using Goal Programming methodology. The estimation of both conventional and SR markets has been carried out by a semi-parametric approach by using the Copula Theory for modeling the dependence structure of the assets’ returns. The approach has been applied to a set of 38 conventional and 12 ethical funds domiciled in Spain.

  18. Estimating the value of a Country's built assets: investment-based exposure modelling for global risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Pomonis, Antonios; Gunasekera, Rashmin; Ishizawa, Oscar; Gaspari, Maria; Lu, Xijie; Aubrecht, Christoph; Ungar, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In order to quantify disaster risk, there is a demand and need for determining consistent and reliable economic value of built assets at national or sub national level exposed to natural hazards. The value of the built stock in the context of a city or a country is critical for risk modelling applications as it allows for the upper bound in potential losses to be established. Under the World Bank probabilistic disaster risk assessment - Country Disaster Risk Profiles (CDRP) Program and rapid post-disaster loss analyses in CATDAT, key methodologies have been developed that quantify the asset exposure of a country. In this study, we assess the complementary methods determining value of building stock through capital investment data vs aggregated ground up values based on built area and unit cost of construction analyses. Different approaches to modelling exposure around the world, have resulted in estimated values of built assets of some countries differing by order(s) of magnitude. Using the aforementioned methodology of comparing investment data based capital stock and bottom-up unit cost of construction values per square meter of assets; a suitable range of capital stock estimates for built assets have been created. A blind test format was undertaken to compare the two types of approaches from top-down (investment) and bottom-up (construction cost per unit), In many cases, census data, demographic, engineering and construction cost data are key for bottom-up calculations from previous years. Similarly for the top-down investment approach, distributed GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation) data is also required. Over the past few years, numerous studies have been undertaken through the World Bank Caribbean and Central America disaster risk assessment program adopting this methodology initially developed by Gunasekera et al. (2015). The range of values of the building stock is tested for around 15 countries. In addition, three types of costs - Reconstruction cost

  19. An Approach for Assessing the Benefits of IT Investments in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betz, Michaela; Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops and demonstrates a novel approach for ex-ante assessment of business benefits from IT investments in global supply chains. Extant IT assessment approaches are typically based on the assumption that benefit realization from IT investments involves a single stakeholder and are pro......-duced by the technology as an isolated product. In contrast, research on global supply chains has shown that benefits generated from IT investments in this domain are typically generated by the coor-dinated use of many stakeholders and by technologies producing complimentary effects in systemic relationships....... The assessment approach in this paper brings the contingent inter-organizational and technological dependencies of IT investments to the forefront of the assessment. It provides actors in industries relating to global supply chains the means to better apprehend the possible benefits from an IT investment...

  20. 己内酰胺生产技术进展及项目投资分析%Caprolactam production technological prowess and project investment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 冯美平

    2013-01-01

    The caprolactam production technologies were briefly introduced. The latest progress in caprolactam production technology was described in detail, including butadiene process, cyclohexene hydration, cyclohexanone oxime gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement, cyclohexanone oximation. The ammoximation process and hydroxylammonium phosphate ( HPO) process were compared and analyzed for caprolactam. It was pointed out that the ammoximation process had the characteristics of simple process, moderate conditions, low-level three wastes and low investment. The investment prospects of caprolactam projects were analyzed. It was put forward that SINOPEC should carefully conduct project evaluation in order to avoid risk while constructing a caprolactam project applying the cyclohexanone ammoximation process with the independent intellectual property or traditional cy-clohexane route.%简述了己内酰胺生产现状;详述了己内酰胺生产技术最新进展,包括丁二烯工艺、环己烯水合工艺、环己酮肟气相贝克曼重排新工艺、环己酮氨肟化工艺;对比剖析了己内酰胺氨肟化新工艺技术与HPO法技术,指出环己酮氨肟化新工艺具有流程简化,反应条件温和,三废少,投资少的特点;并对己内酰胺项目投资前景进行分析,提出中石化采用环己酮氨肟化法自主技术及环己烷法生产工艺路线新建己内酰胺项目并做好项目评估,规避项目风险.

  1. Investments in fossil energy technology: How the government's fossil energy R&D program has made a difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  2. 金融危机背景下山东省财政科技投入与自主创新绩效关系分析%The Analysis of Relations between Financial Technology Investment and Independent Innovation Performance in Shandong Province under the Background of the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小军; 吴爱华

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the actuality of government R&D investment of Shandong Province, and discovers that government R&D investment gets lower in the financial crisis. Then the paper discovers the long equilibrium relations between government R&D investment and independent innovation performance by quantitative analysis and finds their leverage is more obvious in the financial crisis. Then there is more realistic meaning for the construction of Shandong peninsula manufacturing base by increasing government investment in science and technology and forming diversified R&D investment mode.%分析山东省政府财政科技投入现状,发现金融危机下政府科技投入出现回落.通过定量分析表明政府财政科技投入与自主创新绩效之间存在长期均衡关系,而且金融危机下政府财政科技投入对自主创新绩效的“杠杆效应”更加显著,那么加大政府财政科技投入力度、形成多元化的R&D投入模式对山东半岛制造业基地建设更具有现实意义.

  3. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  4. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  5. Gold versus stock investment: An econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to have a portfolio in investment to diversify the investment to different kinds of instruments. Based on previous research, it is concluded that gold is a good portfolio diversifier, a hedge against stock and safe haven in extreme stock market condition. As an investment instrument, stock is exposed to macroeconomic risks and global stock market risks. In this research, we conduct a comparison between the stock investment and gold investment by using the probit econometric model and data from 1997 to 2011. The final result obtained from the model shows that the gold investment is more advantageous than the stock investment.

  6. The technology vicinity: a location based view on technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Kocaoglu, D.F.; Anderson, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    The issue of technology transfer has been viewed from many different perspectives. In this case the focus is on the process of (production) technology transfer. One of the difficulties in studying international technology transfer is the definition of technology. The many technology definitions that

  7. ICT Investment and Productivity: A Provincial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, Statistics Canada, for the first time, made available estimates of information and communication technology (ICT) investment by province. Given the importance of ICT investment for productivity growth, these data are important for the comparative analysis and understanding of productivity growth by province. The objective of this report is to present the basic data on ICT investment and ICT investment per worker in Canada and the ten provinces over the 1981-2007 period. The first par...

  8. Skill-biased Technological Progress, Education Investment and Income Inequality---Empirical Research Based on Chinese Data%技能偏向型技术进步、教育投入与收入不平等--基于全国数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群峰

    2015-01-01

    在技能偏向型技术进步的框架下研究教育投入影响收入不平等的作用机制,将其影响区分为要素结构效应和要素回报效应,采用Firpo提出的RIF回归分解方法,检验1995~2013年间教育的要素结构效应与要素回报效应对收入分配不平等程度的影响。结果表明:教育的要素结构效应降低收入不平等,但教育的要素回报效应却在更大程度上扩大收入不平等,其总效果最终仍然为收入不平等程度上升,这种上升应该归因于技能偏向型技术进步导致的高低技能劳动者之间收入差距扩大。%In the framework of skill-biased technological advancement, this paper gets the education return effect and struc-tural effects on income inequality though theoretical model. Using the RIF regression decomposition method developed by Firpo (2009), it tests the degree of income inequality from 1995 to 2013. The results show that:the structure effects of edu-cation reduce income inequality, but the skill-biased technical advancement increases the effect, the final total effect rises income inequality. It can be attributed to the income gap between different workers by the skill-biased technological ad-vancement.

  9. WDM PONs based on colorless technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Fabienne; Simon, Gael; Chanclou, Philippe; Pizzinat, Anna; Lin, Huafeng; Zhou, Enyu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Passive Optical Network (PON) is foreseen to be part of the Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. Business and mobile fronthaul networks already express the need to develop WDM PONs in the access segment. Fixed wavelength transceivers based on Coarse WDM are already available to respond to today's market needs but Dense WDM technologies will be needed and colorless technologies are essential to provide simple and cost-effective WDM PON systems. We propose in this paper to demonstrate the capabilities of a DWDM PON system prototype based on self-seeded RSOAs and designed to transmit CPRI over 60 km of fiber at 2.5 Gbit/s.

  10. A Firm Level Study of Information Technology Productivity in Europe Using Financial and Market Based Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peslak

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years, business has invested significant resources in information technology, hardware, software, and manpower. The Productivity Paradox is the seeming lack of productivity gains despite the increased investment in IT. For many years the existence of a Productivity Paradox has been the subject of research interest. Conflicting results have been obtained from a variety of data sets. Until this time however there has been no study that has investigated European companies’ use of information technology and its impact on productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate information technology productivity with a new data set from a European published source, and measuring productivity using both market and financial based measures. Results of the study indicated that information technology did have a consistent positive impact on firm level productivity in Europe for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. Both market and financial based productivity measures provided consistent positive significant returns with regard to IT productivity. The major contribution of the study is that it provides an analysis of the impact of European information technology on firm and economic productivity.

  11. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... ADDRESSES. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lesa A. Johnson, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in...

  12. Communicating Customer Value Based on Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Czarniewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the idea of gaining a position of competitive advantage by companies operating in the knowledge-based economy and in the age of modern technology. The rate of change in companies’ environments forces organizations to react quickly to clients’ needs. In recent years, there has been an observed systematic increase in the importance of communicating customer value in Poland. This paper shows changes (trends in the system of market communication in the age of modern technology and changes in the economy. The author presents the mechanisms and effects of communication in age new technology in Poland. Modern technologies enable the collection, storage and transmission of information. Reflections contained in the paper do not have definite characteristics and should be treated as an opinion in the discussion.

  13. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants.

  14. Private Capital and Investment Climate for Economic Growth: Empirical Lessons based on ARDL bound test technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Tchouassi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using time series, autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL-bound test approach and error-correction model (ECM, this paper aims to analyze how private capital and investment climate contribute to economic growth in African countries: Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Tunisia, South Africa and Zambia. We find that in short-run there is a significant relationship between private capital, economic freedom and economic growth in Cameroon, in Côte d’Ivoire, in South Africa and in Zambia. In long run, we establish that a long term relationship exists between the variables. This implies that there is a long run cointegration relationship among the variables in some equations in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, South Africa and Zambia. Employing the appropriate order of the ARDL specification and multidimensional economic freedom proxies to examine this linkage, the results obtained are not all significant.  JEL Classifications: C13, C22, E22, F43, O11, O47 Key-Words: Private capital, Investment climate, Economic freedom, Economic growth, Time series, ARDL bound test approach, Error-Correction Model. Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Biomimetic Cilia Based on MEMS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo Zhou; Zhi-wen Liu

    2008-01-01

    A review on the research of Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology based biomimetic cilia is presented. Biomimetic cilia, enabled by the advancement of MEMS technology, have been under dynamic development for the past decade. After a brief description of the background of cilia and MEMS technology, different biomimetic cilia applications are reviewed. Biomimetic cilia micro-actuators, including micromachined polyimide bimorph biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, electro-statically actuated polymer biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, and magnetically actuated nanorod array biomimetic cilia micro-actuator, are presented. Subsequently micromachined underwater flow biomimetic cilia micro-sensor is studied, followed by acoustic flow micro-sensor. The fabrication of these MEMS-based biomimetic cilia devices, characterization of their physical properties, and the results of their application experiments are discussed.

  16. 茂名地区科技投入产出案例分析%A Case Study on Regional Science and Technology Investment Outputs---In the Case of Maoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨勋

    2013-01-01

    The situation of regional science and technology development could be reflected objectively by analyzing the rela-tionship between regional technological investment and scientific research achievements. Based on the statistical analysis of the number of S&T personnel、R&D spending、scientific research achievements and etc in 2005—2011, this article had studied the problems existing in the science and technology development of Maoming among the 6 years, and proposed some advices as well.%  分析一个地区的科技投入与科技成果产出之间的关系,能客观地反映该地区的科技发展现状。文章通过对茂名市2005—2011年度科技活动人员、经费投入支出、科技成果产出等的统计分析,探讨了茂名市这6年间在科技发展方面的情况及存在的问题,并提出解决问题的几点建议。

  17. Technology-based Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an updated review of what is known about the performance of technology-based mergers and acquisitions (TBM&As) and their determinants. This review brings together papers published from 1990 to 2012 in top-rated academic journals within nearly all fields...

  18. DWDM Devices Based on Planar Waveguide Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A review is presented on some of our recent results for designs, simulations and fabrication of several photonic integrated devices, such as arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and etched diffraction gratings (EDGs), based on planar waveguide technologies. Some novel designs for flat-top AWGs and EDGs with flat-top spectral responses are presented.

  19. Designing Personalization in Technology-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Personalization technology has the potential to optimize service for each person's unique needs and characteristics. One way to optimize service is to allow people to customize the service themselves; another is to proactively tailor services based on information provided by people or inferred from their past behaviors. These approaches function…

  20. Technology-based Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an updated review of what is known about the performance of technology-based mergers and acquisitions (TBM&As) and their determinants. This review brings together papers published from 1990 to 2012 in top-rated academic journals within nearly all fields...

  1. Human capital and the adoption of information and communications technologies: Evidence from investment climate survey of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar MUGHAL; Diawara, Barassou

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of human capital on the adoption and diffusion of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) in the Pakistani firms using the World Bank Enterprise Survey 2002-07. The paper considers various indicators of human capital and measures of ICT adoption and diffusion. On-the-job training, manager's level of qualification and production workers' level of education are found to positively determine the use of emails, website and other means of communication in a ...

  2. Applying Modern Portfolio Theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model to DoD’s Information Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    performs poorly. According to Elder & Westra, companies like Walt Disney Co., AT&T and Sprint Corporation are some of the few companies who decided to... Expansion Option (platform technologies, acquisitions, open architecture)  Contraction Option (outsourcing, alliances)  Compound...TELCOM should consider one or more of the following real options: option to wait; option to execute; or expansion option. The option to wait would

  3. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  4. IT Capability as Moderator Between IT Investment and Firm Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongmei; LU Hongjian; HU Junhua

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting results from previous research relating information technology (IT) investments and firm performance suggest that there is no direct relationship between IT investments and firm performance. The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is introduced as a research tool to examine how IT resources and capabilities affect firm performance. A theoretical rationale model is then used to investigate the relationship between IT investment and firm performance. The IT capability is assumed to be an important moderator variable rather than a mediator variable linking IT investments to firm performance, while the time period, the firm size, and the industry type, all recognized as factors influencing performance, are treated as control variables. The model and hypotheses are verified by sample data from leading IT firms in China. The data confirms the moderating effect of the IT capability.

  5. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  6. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  7. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  8. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

    2012-06-06

    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  9. A study on the effectiveness of investment strategy based on the concept of pivot points levels using Matthews criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Wiliński

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the possibility of assessing traditional investment strategy based on the pivot points for using with other than the commonly used criterion is examined. The authors attempted to apply the Matthews Correlation Coefficient (further reffered as MCC criterion based on a confusion matrix when assessing the strategy to include more factors than the traditional criteria (such as profit, profit vs. Risk, Sharpe ratio, Calmar ratio and to express these factors by one number. The criterion based on a confusion matrix is, in authors beliefs, unique in this application and gives a fairly valuable estimation of trading strategy. An example of several strategies tested on EURUSD 1h time series in selected intervals in the years 2012-2013 is considered. Among these strategies there is a simple strategy based on the concept of pivot points levels and more complex derivative strategies, based on the vector of optimized values of certain parameters. These strategies are evaluated using both traditional criteria and modification of MCC proposed by the authors.

  10. IMPLICATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON SMALL ANS MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta, MIHAILĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign investments contribute massively to the increase of business profitability. Attraction and efficient allocation of capital inflows (mainly in the form of high quality investment made at microeconomic level represent the main “engine” for GDP growth in medium and long term. This will facilitate private sector access to finance investments, encourage technology transfer and innovation, promote technological parks and business incubators, stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship, support female entrepreneurship, increase efficiency and labor productivity for private companies , as well as management practices based on the principle of investing in people. Analysing the business environment involves, among other things, identifying and removing barriers that produce strain effects of overcoming difficulties for firms, respectively: - the desire that the investment in human capital would have immediate effects; - Insufficient correlation of wage increases and granting bonuses with increasing productivity; - Dialogue and partnerships with universities that could bring competitive advantage stands sometimes in incipient phases;

  11. The internet based on presence system technology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styugin, M.; Kaygorodov, A.

    2016-04-01

    In our study we analyze how to create the systems based on “communication-resource-presence”- technology. We formulate functional and architectural requirements. It is shown some new features in this systems that pertain to communication and information search on the Internet. The Internet passed three infrastructure stages from the communication between two hosts to the resource intermediation and communication in real presence systems. The systems based on the presence technologies have just started to develop. Our study shows what criteria’s they must meet. One of this criteria is the division of site resources into the "rooms" logically separated from each other. The users can see and connect to each other. The contextual data of user presence in a particular "room" can be used when searching for them in the context of professional competence.

  12. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  13. Technology enables value-based nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Roy L

    2012-01-01

    Although America spends more per capita on health care than any other nation in the world, care is neither consistent nor effective. The rising prominence of value-based care initiatives gives nurse executives an opportunity to lead clinical practice into a new evidence-fueled decision-making era. Technology holds the key to making emerging better practices and the latest clinical breakthroughs available at the point of care.

  14. Additive Technologies Based on Composite Powder Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynin, I. V.; Oryshchenko, A. S.; Malyshevskii, V. A.; Farmakovskii, B. V.; Kuznetsov, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities of application of promising adaptive technologies of bulk laser deposition and selective laser sintering in machine building with the aim of creation of complex-configuration parts and reconditioning of worn components of various-purpose articles from metallic powder materials are considered. The possibilities of the production chain from making of metallic powders to creation of ready coatings and articles on the base of a single unit are described.

  15. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  16. Evaluation on Optimal Scale of Rural Fixed-asset Investment-Based on Microcosmic Perspective of Farmers’ Income Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqian; DENG; Kangkang; SHAN; Yan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    The rural fundamental and productive fixed-asset investment not only makes active influence on the changes of farmers’ operational,wages and property income,but it also has an optimal scale range for farmers’ income increase. From the perspective of farmers’ income increase,this article evaluates the optimal scale of rural fixed-asset investment by setting up model with statistic data,and the results show that the optimal scale of per capita rural fixed-asset investment is 76. 35% of per capita net income of rural residents,which has been reached in China in 2009. Therefore,compared with the adding of rural fixed-asset investment,a better income increase effect can be achieved through the adjustment of rural fixed-asset investment structure.

  17. Priority environmental investment programme: Development and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegovan Zoran M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is created to serve as a methodological base and possible work plan for Assistance in Priority Environmental Investment Programme Development and Implementation in the Republic of Serbia. It will contribute to improved mechanisms for selection of priority environmental investments. Also, the paper should outline a scope of work for technical assistance for Republic of Serbia in developing mechanisms for identifying and selecting priority environmental investments. The main feature of the long-term environmental policy in the Republic of Serbia is absence of integrated approach, which goes hand by hand with the international environmental standards, and lack of efficient economic instruments and regulations. It causes an inadequate technology policy and location of the polluters. Besides that there has been a lack of appropriate environmental monitoring system good enough to provide efficient ex-ante and ex-post protection. It has caused a lot of environmental damages so that a completely new approach in the field of environment is expected to be created out of which the Priority Environmental Investment Programme (PEIP should be a main tool for experience of good environmental governance in the Republic of Serbia as well as in the region of SEE.

  18. Whether the Information Investment can Improve the Technology Efficiency of Industrial Listing Corporation%信息技术投资是否提高了工业上市公司的技术效率?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of information technology investments on its technical efficiency of China's Industrial List-ing Corporation between 2000 and 2012 . The panel Stochastic Frontier (PSFA) models and the translog production function , are used to calculated the technical efficiency of listing corporation . Moreover , it analyzed the influence factors of information technology investment on technical efficiency by Panel Data model . Results indicate that information technology investment are not to enhance the efficiency of Indus-trial Listing Corporation . However , enterprise governance , scale , industry , regional and other factors can significantly affect the efficien-cy of technology . This shows that China's Industrial Listing Corporation may be excessive investment in information technology , or did not play its role through effective management . Therefore , at the micro level , the integration of informatization and industrialization is not in-creasing investment in information technology , but to improve the management level , give full play to the role of information technology in-vestment .%本文分析了我国工业上市公司2000~2012年间信息技术投资对其技术效率的影响。采用面板随机前沿(PSFA )模型,通过超越对数生产函数,计算了上市公司的技术效率,并用面板数据模型分析了信息技术投资等因素对技术效率的影响。结果发现信息技术投资并没有给工业上市公司带来效率提升,而企业公司治理、规模、行业、地域等因素却对技术效率具有显著的影响。这说明我国工业上市公司可能存在信息技术投资过度,或者没有通过有效地管理发挥其作用。因此,在微观层面上,信息化与工业化融合并不是不断增加信息技术投资,而是要提高管理水平,充分发挥信息技术投资的作用。

  19. Boardroom Network Location and Investment Expenditure in Technological Innovation:Research on the Technology-Intensive Firms in A-Share%董事会网络位置与企业技术创新投入——基于技术密集型上市公司的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马连福; 张琦; 王丽丽

    2016-01-01

    基于社会网络视角,以2010—2013年中国技术密集型上市公司数据为样本,研究董事会网络位置与企业技术创新投入的关系,并检验了产权性质与创新环境对以上关系的影响.结果显示:董事会网络位置对企业技术创新投入有显著的积极影响;相比国有企业,董事会网络位置对民营企业技术创新投入的促进效用更显著;与市场化程度较低的地区相比,在市场化程度较高的地区董事会网络位置对技术创新投入的提升效用更显著.结果表明,董事会网络位置、产权性质及创新环境是影响企业技术创新投入的重要因素.%From the social network perspective, based on the samples of China's a-share listed companies of tech-nology-intensive industries from 2010 to 2013, this paper studies how the boardroom network location influences investment expenditure in technological innovation, and tests the influences of property rights and innovation envi-ronment on the above relationship. The results show that the boardroom network location has significant positive influence on technology innovation investment. Boardroom network location can effectively improve technological innovation expenditure in private-own enterprises. Compared with the lower marketized regions, the utility of board-room network location improving technological innovation expenditure is more significant in higher marketized re-gions. This study shows that the boardroom network location, property rights and innovation environment are im-portant factors influencing investment expenditure in technological innovation.

  20. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  1. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  2. 基于VIKOR法的房地产投资决策研究%Analysis on Real Estate Investment Decision Based on VIKOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 曹杰; 王龙; 岳世宏; 庄向仕; 张境洁

    2014-01-01

    The real estate investment decision-making index system is construted mainly concerning from the four aspects of regional familiarity, enterprise scale, management risk and investment cost. Based on determining the index weight, this paper analyzes the real estate investment index using VIKOR method, gets the interest rate of various investment programs, and analyzes the decision results in detail, providing a theoretical reference for the effective promotion of real estate investment decision.%本文构建的房地产投资决策指标体系主要是从区域的熟悉度、企业规模以及经营风险和投资成本四方面考虑的。在确定指标权重的基础上运用VIKOR法对房地产投资指标进行分析,得到各个投资方案的利益比率,并对决策结果进行了详细的分析,为有效提升房地产投资决策提供理论参考。

  3. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  4. Information-Technology Based Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. H.

    2001-04-01

    Developing countries emphasize expansion of the educated population but demand for quality improvement follows later. Current science education reform is driven in part by post cold war restructuring of the global economy and associated focus on the education of a more scientifically literate society, due to the industrial change from labor-intensive to high-technology type, and the societal change inherent in the present information era. Industry needs employees of broad and flexible background with inter disciplinary training, engineers with better physics training, and well trained physicists. Education researches have proved that active-learning based methods are superior to the traditional methods and the information technology (IT) has lot to offer in this. Use of IT for improving physics education is briefly discussed with prospects for collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region via Asian Physics Education Network (ASPEN), UNESCO University Foundation Course in Physics (UUFCP), etc.

  5. Terahertz wireless communications based on photonics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, Tadao; Horiguchi, Shogo; Minamikata, Yusuke; Yoshimizu, Yasuyuki; Hisatake, Shintaro; Kuwano, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Terada, Jun; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-07

    There has been an increasing interest in the application of terahertz (THz) waves to broadband wireless communications. In particular, use of frequencies above 275 GHz is one of the strong concerns among radio scientists and engineers, because these frequency bands have not yet been allocated at specific active services, and there is a possibility to employ extremely large bandwidths for ultra-broadband wireless communications. Introduction of photonics technologies for signal generation, modulation and detection is effective not only to enhance the bandwidth and/or the data rate, but also to combine fiber-optic (wired) and wireless networks. This paper reviews recent progress in THz wireless communications using telecom-based photonics technologies towards 100 Gbit/s.

  6. Clock comparison based on laser ranging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samain, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the domain of time and frequency standards has required some important improvements of existing time transfer links. Several time transfer by laser link (T2L2) projects have been carried out since 1972 with numerous scientific or technological objectives. There are two projects currently under exploitation: T2L2 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The former is a dedicated two-way time transfer experiment embedded on the satellite Jason-2 allowing for the synchronization of remote clocks with an uncertainty of 100 ps and the latter is a one-way link devoted for ranging a spacecraft orbiting around the Moon. There is also the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project, exploited until 2012 and designed in the frame of the Chinese navigation constellation. In the context of future space missions for fundamental physics, solar system science or navigation, laser links are of prime importance and many missions based on that technology have been proposed for these purposes.

  7. Selection and Evaluation of Priority Domains in Global Energy Internet Standard Development Based on Technology Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Ciwei, Gao; Jing, Zhang; Min, Sun; Jie, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The selection and evaluation of priority domains in Global Energy Internet standard development will help to break through limits of national investment, thus priority will be given to standardizing technical areas with highest urgency and feasibility. Therefore, in this paper, the process of Delphi survey based on technology foresight is put forward, the evaluation index system of priority domains is established, and the index calculation method is determined. Afterwards, statistical method is used to evaluate the alternative domains. Finally the top four priority domains are determined as follows: Interconnected Network Planning and Simulation Analysis, Interconnected Network Safety Control and Protection, Intelligent Power Transmission and Transformation, and Internet of Things.

  8. INVESTMENT CLIMATE OF KAZAKHSTAN: CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina Abugalievna TEMIRBULATOVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture still remains a little attractive to most of investors. Modern investment into agrarian sector of Kazakhstan and growth of its investment appeal restrains an acute shortage of financial resources, poorly developed material base, low solvent demand of the population therefore growth of investments is one of major factors of ensuring economic development of agriculture in general, improvement of quality of life of the population of the village, updating of regional technical and technological base, fixed assets in agriculture. In this regard special relevance researches on improvement of mechanisms of attraction of investments into agrarian sector of economy and methods of increase of investment appeal of agriculture for the purpose of ensuring its sustainable economic development. If to consider already created interstate unions, in this plan it is expedient to consider relationship between Romania and Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan and Romania will develop in common electronic decisions in education, medicine and agriculture. In Kazakhstan communications with inclusion of the earth in market the turn appears need for new financial instruments as mortgage valuable issue papers (bonds. The proposed Мodel of land - mortgage lending will be the main way to increase the investment attractiveness Republic of Kazakhstan.

  9. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  10. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  11. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investments in harm reduction through the rounds-based funding model (2002-2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Hunter, Benjamin M; Albers, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    and inequitable access to these services and face widespread stigma and discrimination. In 2013, the Global Fund launched a new funding model-signalling the end of the previous rounds-based model that had operated since its founding in 2002. This study updates previous analyses to assess Global Fund investments...

  12. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investments in harm reduction through the rounds-based funding model (2002-2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jamie; Hunter, Benjamin M; Albers, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    and inequitable access to these services and face widespread stigma and discrimination. In 2013, the Global Fund launched a new funding model-signalling the end of the previous rounds-based model that had operated since its founding in 2002. This study updates previous analyses to assess Global Fund investments...

  13. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  14. A GIS-based framework for evaluating investments in fire management: Spatial allocation of recreation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Catrina I. Páez; Edgard. Chávez

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service is responsible for developing tools to facilitate effective and efficient fire management on wildlands and urban-wildland interfaces. Existing GIS-based fire modeling software only permits estimation of the costs of fire prevention and mitigation efforts as well as the effects of those efforts on fire behavior. This research demonstrates how the...

  15. The Impact of a Computer Based Information System (CBIS) on Foreign Investments Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Chester

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact that computer based information systems (CBIS) could have on U.S. multinational corporations operating in Canada, particularly in the province of Quebec, and the implications for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that went into effect on January 1, 1994. The study focused on how the…

  16. Environment investment: transition from end-investment to multi-investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Luqiang

    2006-01-01

    Environmental investment must change its direction from end-investment to multi-investment, such as ecological construction, recycling economy and environmental protection. Only it can meet the needs of breaking the bottleneck of resources and environment for Chinese sustainable development. And the transition can help us realize low-cost and high-speedy increasing of economy, as well as the construction of ecological health, beautiful environment, economic development and harmonious new society. Material recycling in ecosystem can run well by self-organization and self-regulation by nature with low-cost and even non-cost. So, the environmental investment in ecological construction should be the profits maximum investment. Butit needs country's support in financial policy on ecological or environmental compensation. Recycling economy is a brand-new pattern ofeconomic growth, which formed gradually in the course of mankind exploring and practicing sustainable development. Fountainhead prevention, reducing and whole processing control are its significant characteristics,which are different from any former economic and environmental protection system. Investing in technology development and relevant industry of recycling economy should be the other major field of environment investment in China in the future.

  17. The Study of Optimization of Human Capital Investment Portfolio about Talent in High Technology Industry in the New Normal%经济新常态下高技术产业人力资本投资组合优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张樨樨; 陆世晴

    2015-01-01

    Under the economic environment of the new normal ,Industry leaders neglected the human capital investment portfolio led to that human capital input donnot match the output .In fact ,the human capital investment return rate is low but people have high expectations of investment .By constructing the simulation model based on C -D production function ,We make a research on human capital investment portfolio from the empirical perspective .The results show thatthe health careinvestment ,formal education investment and training investment is conducive to the overall improvement of the output .In addition ,We realized that the investment of social security is not conducive to the overall output in short term . When the high technology enterprise organization make a plan about human capital investment portfolio ,this article can provide reference for them .%目前,对人力资本投资组合关注的失衡化导致人力资本投入与产出不对等的现象频发。投资深化的溢出性期望与人力资本投资收益率低下的无奈现实形成鲜明的冲击性反差。通过构建基于C-D生产函数的仿真模型,深化对高技术产业人力资本投资组合研究,解析人力资本投资组合中健康保健投入、正规教育投入以及培训投入对整体产出的异质化作用,进一步明确社会保障投入对整体产出的“假性抑制作用”。在不忽视薪资与培训等传统方式方法的同时,通过重视健康保健投入与多元化社会保障投入逐步实现高技术产业人力资本投资的优化组合。

  18. Theoretical and applied aspects of the development of environmental investment in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Chygryn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is investigation of the theoretical and applied features of environmental investment at the domestic level for improvement of the definitions and theoretical approaches to expanding directions of environmental investments. The results of analysis. In the article it is considered the relevance and preconditions of the domestic system of environmental investment. The author proved that out of sight it is the improvement of the conceptual apparatus to update a preventive nature of environmental investments. Also it is undoubtedly important the formation of an effective system of motivation an ecological investment. It was investigated the basic approaches to the definition of environmental investment in the context of effect which will be accompanied the implementation of relevant investment activities. In order to promote the implementation of environmental investment mechanism it is outlined system features (characteristics of environmental investment. Basing on critical analysis of scientific research it is generalized theoretical approaches to environmental investment components of the mechanism by the following areas: by peculiarities, by investment objects, by the type of environmental investment, by the purposes of environmental investments. Basing on theoretical and methodical approaches it is systematized and separated environmental investments in the relevant areas of environmental investment. These areas are characterized by production technology, quality production, production organization, personnel, innovation activity, technology processing (recycling waste, ecological audit. It is emphasized that the object of environmental investment could be a system of management of the company (nanoeconomy including implementing or improving an environmental management system. The author pays attention to the approaches to the formation of motivation system of environmental investment which include

  19. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  20. Rolling capital: managing investments in a value-based care world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuta, Lynette

    2016-06-01

    The importance of capital planning is increasing as the healthcare industry moves toward value-based care. Replacing unwieldy and inflexible traditional capital planning processes with a rolling capital planning approach can result in: Greater standardization, facilitating better strategic planning across the whole system. Reduced labor intensity in the planning and budgeting process. Reduced costs through being able to plan better for replacement purchases and take advantage of group purchasing and bundling opportunities. Increased transparency in the decision-making process.

  1. Maximizing Space Investment: Tightening Link between Warfighters and Materiel for Space-Based Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    development and planned enhancements (based on the author’s personal experience). 35 ― Business Process Modeling ( BPM ) is the representation of...to their businesses .‖ Business Process Modeling Forum. http://www.bpmodeling.com/faq (accessed 16 January 2011). BPM can help the EC author...considers economic, political, and 2 military pressures on fielding space capability for the warfighter and proposes small changes, coupled with a

  2. Sustainability and Risk: Towards a Risk-Based Sustainability Rating for Real Estate Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Meins; Daniel Sager

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To identify the relative contribution of selected sustainability features to property value risk with the aim of generating a risk-based weighting system for a property sustainability rating.Approach - For a given set of sustainability features, a discounted cash flow (DCF) model is used to derive the weights. The anticipated demand for each sustainability feature is described by three future states of nature. Subjective probability distributions describe the occurrence of the futur...

  3. Paranoid investments in nursing: a schizoanalysis of the evidence-based discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; Gastaldo, Denise; Perron, Amélie

    2007-04-01

    There are those who would argue that, recently, the profession of nursing has made a radical shift, while others believe that a schism has been created among both scholars and clinicians as a result of the emerging dominance of the evidence-based nursing movement. This paper offers a philosophical critique of this movement using Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's concept of schizoanalysis. As a conclusion, the authors posit that nursing professionals maintain a stance of academic freedom of thought and scientific integrity through the acceptance of multiplicity, diversity, and polyvocality, and by challenging with politically charged concepts the totalizing perspectives that often spread through the profession/discipline of nursing.

  4. An Ecosystem-Based Job-Creation Engine Fuelled by Technology Entrepreneurs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tony Bailetti; Sonia D Bot

    2013-01-01

      Job creation is at the centre of the rationale provided by governments and publicly funded organizations for investing in services purported to support entrepreneurs to launch and grow technology startup...

  5. Reuse-based software production technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Software reuse is viewed as a key technology to improve software product quality and productivity. This paper discusses a series of technologies related with software reuse and software component technology: component model, which describes component's essential characteristics; component acquisition technology, of which domain engineering is the main approach; component management technology, of which component library is the kernel; application integration and composition technology, of which application engineering is the main approach; software evolution technology, of which software reengineering is the main approach, etc. This paper introduces the software development environment: JadeBird Software Production Line System, which effectively integrates the above-mentioned technologies.

  6. 上市公司的科技投入对公司绩效的贡献度研究%Research on the Contribution of Science and Technology Investment to Company Performance of Listing Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗声明

    2014-01-01

    科技创新是经济发展、社会进步的动力源泉,坚定发展自主创新是我国上市公司提高核心竞争能力的必由之路。本文以科学地评价科技投入对我国上市公司绩效的贡献度为核心研究内容,遴选了 R&D 科技投入和其它科技投入及其派生指标作为科技投入的表征变量,遴选了产品销售收入、净利润、净资产收益率、每股收益率及其增长率作为公司绩效的表征变量,并通过相关分析和回归分析展开了实证分析。实证分析的结论表明,科技投入和我国上市公司绩效之间存在一定的关联,但影响作用并不明显。针对这一实际问题,本文给出了相应的政策建议,以期让科技投入更好地促进上市公司绩效的提升。%Technology innovation is the source of economic development and social progress . Independent innovation is the route which can improve the core competition ability of listing corporation .In this paper ,the contribution of science and technology investment was researched for company performance of listing corporation . R&D investment and other investment have been selected as the variables which can express science and technology investment ,and four variables are also selected to express company performance of listing corpo-ration such as product sales revenue ,net profit , return on net assets ,and earnings per share .Empirical analysis show that there is a cer-tain correlation between science and technology investment and listing corporation performance ,but the effect is not obvious .According to this problem , corresponding policy recommendations have been given in order to make science and technology investment to better promote the listing corporation performance .

  7. The China-Canada Bilateral Investment Treaty after Its Signatures:A Comment Based on International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Qingjiang

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the long-haul efforts, a bilateral invest-ment treaty was signed by China and Canada. Due to the inability to com-plete its domestic ratification procedure on the Canadian part, the treaty, which is supposed to facilitate the investment relationship between the two countries, is pending for its due effect. Contrary to the general expectation of Chinese scholars, prospective investors and possibly Chinese officials in-volved, there emerged arguments in Canada that the treaty warrants closer scrutiny . A brief legal analysis of the article shows that the investment trea-ty not only is not so distinguishable from other bilateral investment agree-ments but lags behind the investment chapter of the NAFTA to which Cana-da is a party for years. A further look at the critiques pinpoints that the ar-guments are unwarranted and many of them are either derivative from mis-understanding of the treaty or due to political bias. The article further ar-gues that, in accordance with both the customary rules of international law on signed but unratified treaties’ legal effect, as evidenced by Article 18 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and the discourses of the publicists in this regard, Canada shall refrain from taking measures against Chinese investors which contravene the aims and purpose of the BIT as the Chinese signatory is waiting for the BIT being given its due force.

  8. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Wind Energy R&D Program: Impact of Selected Energy Technology Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelsoci, Thomas M. [Delta Research Co., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This benefit-cost analysis focuses on the DOE Wind Energy Program's public sector R&D investments and returns. The analysis accounts for the program's additionality – that is, comparing what has happened as a result of the program to what would have happened without it. The analysis does not address the return on the investments of private companies ("private returns"). Public returns on the program's investments from 1976 to 2008 are identified and analyzed using retrospective analysis.

  9. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from India

    OpenAIRE

    Saikia, Dilip

    2009-01-01

    India has been continually attracting massive foreign investments since the opening up of its economy with a series of liberalization policies in the early 1990s. This inward FDI plays an important role in the Indian economy as a financier of her BOP. However in recent years, India has been fast emerging as an exporter of large foreign direct investment. An increasing number of Indian firms are resorting to outward investment in order to access new technologies, skills and managerial expertis...

  10. A Technology-based Model for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Math Emporium, opened in 1997, is an open 7000-squaremeter facility with 550+ workstations arranged in an array of widely spaced hexagonal "pods", designed to support group work at the same time maintaining an academic air. We operate it 24/7 with math support personnel in attendance 12 hours per day. Students have access to online course resources at all times, from anywhere. We have used this unique asset to transform traditional classroom-based courses into technology based learning programs that have no class meetings at all. The structure of the program is very different from the conventional one, having a new set of expectations and motivations. The results include: more effective students, substantial cost savings, economies of scale and scope and a stream-lined process for creating new on-line courses.

  11. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  12. Assessing wood-based synthetic natural gas technologies using the SWISS-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Barreto, Leonardo; Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group; Stucki, Samuel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). General Energy

    2007-10-15

    In future, new biomass technologies can gain significant importance in the Swiss energy sector. Therefore, this paper assesses the economic conditions under which new biomass technologies become competitive. The focus of this assessment is on the production of synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from wood in a methanation plant. The assessment is conducted with the cost-optimization model SWISS-MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation). SWISS-MARKAL projects future technology investments and provides an integrated analysis of primary, secondary, final and end-use energy in Switzerland. In addition to a reference scenario, the effects of increasing oil and gas prices, the effects of allocating subsidies to the methanation plant and the effects of competition between the methanation plant and a biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis are evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed by varying investment costs of the methanation plant. The results are in favour of bio-SNG in the transportation sector where the synergetic use of bio-SNG and natural gas reduces the dependence on oil imports and the level of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  13. Risk-based investment trade-off related to building facility management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillandier, F. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France)], E-mail: franck.taillandier@univ-savoie.fr; Sauce, G. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France); Bonetto, R. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2009-04-15

    Due to his or her profession, any building facility manager has to face many decision-making situations. One of the most important to be mentioned is the arbitration of a multi-year maintenance plan for buildings. Deciding between proposed maintenance actions, according to several constraints, so as to aim at satisfying corporate strategy is a complex choice. Risk approaches can be particularly effective because of their ability to handle complexity and uncertainties. The problem is then to be able to propose a method considering risks, adapted to the specific context of building facility management. Our method, regarded as a traditional approach, includes needed resources (i.e. costs) according to constraints (i.e. budget), but it also considers several risk domains (safety, technical preservation, client satisfaction, etc.), through the consequences (gain and loss). It proposes an ergonomic arbitration system based on filters following two complementary approaches: a selection of the fundamental actions and then an optimization of the plan (in a global view). The aim, for decision-makers, is to build their own solution by testing multiple angles of vision in simulation logic. This article presents the principles of the method, illustrated by an example of a real case conducted for a leading French company.

  14. Credit Rating via Dynamic Slack-Based Measure And It´s Optimal Investment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Delavarkhalafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we check the credit rating of firms applied for a loan. In this regard we introduce a model, named Dynamic Slack-Based Measure (DSBM for measuring credit rating of applicant companies. Selection of financial ratios that represent the financial state of a company -in the best possible way- is one of the most challenging parts of any credit rating analysis. At first, ranking needs to identify the appropriate variables. Therefore we introduce five financial variables to provide a ranking. As noted above, we assess the performance of these firms. Then we introduce the dynamic model of SBM and theorems, also we discuss the overall structure of DSBM. Then we will present the implementation and the simulation model. After that, we propose a stochastic controlled dynamic system model to express the optimal strategy. Banks expect companies selected with DSBM model, act in accordance with this strategy. This stochastic dynamic system is originated from the balance sheets of firms applying for a loan. Finally we evaluate the performance of the system and strategy problem.

  15. The Impact of Public Investment on Private Investment and GDP---An Analysis Based on SVAR Model%公共投资对私人投资和地区产出的影响--基于SVAR模型的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泽炯; 杨勇

    2017-01-01

    Based on SVAR model,this paper studies the impact of public investment on private investment and GDP in terms of the investment in education,transport,warehousing,water conservancy,electric power, environment improvement and public utilities and concludes that the investment in education,transport,ware-housing,water conservancy and electric power has “crowding-out effect”on private investment,while the investment in public utilities has “crowding-in effect”.All these public investments have negative influence on GDP.Efforts should be made to control the public investment scale,improve investment efficiency and remove the limitation of the system and mechanism to attract more private investment and expand the investment in public utilities.%运用 SVAR模型研究了安徽教育类、交运与仓储类、水利电力与环境类和公用事业类公共投资对地区私人投资和生产总值的影响。结果显示,前三类对私人投资均存在较弱的挤出效应,而公用事业类投资对私人投资存在一定的挤入效应;四大类公共投资对安徽生产总值均有一定的负面作用。建议控制政府公共投资的规模,保证效率;破除体制机制障碍,引入更多私人投资;加大地区公用事业性投资。

  16. A randomised control trial assessing the impact of an investment based intervention on weight-loss, beliefs and behaviour after bariatric surgery: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity surgery is currently the most effective method for achieving weight loss, not all patients lose the desired amount of weight and some show weight regain. Previous research shows that successful weight loss may be associated with the amount of investment the patient feels that they have made in their operation. For example, those who feel that it has taken more time and effort to organise, has cost more money, has been more disruptive to their lives and has caused pain are more likely to lose weight after their operation. Therefore, it seems as if the greater the sense of investment, the greater the motivation to make the operation a success. The present study aims to build on these findings by encouraging weight loss surgery patients to focus on the investment they have made, thus making their investment more salient to them and a means to improve weight loss outcomes. The study involves an open randomised parallel group control trial with patients allocated either to the control or investment intervention group. Using third party blinded randomization, half the patients will be asked to rate and describe the investment they have made in their operation just before surgery then 3 and 6 months after surgery. All patients will record their weight, beliefs about food, intentions to change and actual eating and exercise behaviour at baseline then 3, 6 and 12 months follow up. Patients will be recruited from the bariatric surgery pre-assessment clinic at University College Hospital, London. The primary outcome is to explore the impact of the investment based intervention on patient's weight and BMI, with secondary outcomes of patients' beliefs about foods, behavioural intentions and diet and exercise behaviours. It is predicted that the investment intervention will improve excess weight loss post-surgery, together with beliefs about food, intentions to change and actual change in diet and exercise behaviour. This has cost implications for the NHS and

  17. Investment behavior and investment aggregates during China's economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2006-01-01

    In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.

  18. Investment and Employment - Drivers of European Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and related specialty practice, the development of the European Economic Community along with the factors determining them (such investments and staff represents a topic that is of great notoriety. This paper shows the role and influence that direct investment in the economy and employment ratio can propagate in the growth of gross domestic product per capita to ensure increased economic sustainability of countries in the European Community. The most important economic effects of FDI on the host economy can be represented by labor productivity growth through knowledge transfer (know-how technology, management skills and marketing term in countries emerging favor progress technological and economic growth. To determine this goal, in the context of economic logic, this research shows the importance of gross domestic product, total and per capita, as a macroeconomic indicator synthetic, and encouraging and using the action of factors that can also provide political steps, organizational and financial, achieving levels attesting social progress and prosperity. The study highlights a Custom Analysis on gross domestic product per capita, direct investment and the proportion of people employed in total for 24 European Union countries in 2014 and also develop an econometric model multifactorial based on system statistics. Research shows utility in making decisions about investment growth in the European Community by attracting a workforce that is in full compliance with state investment policies and by providing a high living standard.

  19. Regulatory Incentives and Disincentives for Utility Investments in Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.

    2017-05-31

    Electric power is America's most capital-intensive industry, with more than $100 billion invested each year in energy infrastructure. Investment needs are likely to grow as electric utilities make power systems more reliable and resilient, deploy advanced digital technologies, and facilitate new services to meet some consumers' expectations for greater choice and control. But do current regulatory approaches provide the appropriate incentives for grid modernization investments? This report presents three perspectives: -Financial analyst Steve Kihm begins by explaining that any major investor-owned electric utility that wants to raise capital today can do so at a reasonable cost. The question is whether utility managers want to raise capital for grid modernization. Specifically, they look for investments that create the most value for their existing shareholders. In cases where grid modernization investments are not the best choice in terms of shareholder value, Kihm describes shareholder incentive mechanisms that regulators could consider to encourage such investments when they are in the public interest. -From an institutional perspective, Dr. Janice Beecher finds that the traditional rate-base/rate of return regulatory model provides powerful incentives for utilities to pursue investments, cost control, efficiency and even innovation, and it is well suited to the policy objectives of grid modernization. Prudence of grid modernization investments (fair returns) depends on careful evaluation of the specific asset, and any special incentives (bonus returns) should be used only if they promote economic efficiency consistent with the core goals of economic regulation. According to Beecher, realizing the promises of grid modernization depends on effective implementation of the traditional regulatory model and ratemaking tools to serve the public interest. -Conversely, former commissioner and clean energy consultant Ron Lehr says that rapid electric industry

  20. Cell-based technologies for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santoro Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal genetic disorder, which causes the progressive breakdown of neurons in the human brain. HD deteriorates human physical and mental abilities over time and has no cure. Stem cell-based technologies are promising novel treatments, and in HD, they aim to replace lost neurons and/or to prevent neural cell death. Herein we discuss the use of human fetal tissue (hFT, neural stem cells (NSCs of hFT origin or embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, in clinical and pre-clinical studies. The in vivo use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which are derived from non-neural tissues, will also be discussed. All these studies prove the potential of stem cells for transplantation therapy in HD, demonstrating cell grafting and the ability to differentiate into mature neurons, resulting in behavioral improvements. We claim that there are still many problems to overcome before these technologies become available for HD patient treatment, such as: a safety regarding the use of NSCs and pluripotent stem cells, which are potentially teratogenic; b safety regarding the transplantation procedure itself, which represents a risk and needs to be better studied; and finally c technical and ethical issues regarding cells of fetal and embryonic origin.

  1. China Curbs the Investment in Copper Smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>According to a recent document released by the State Development and Reform Commission (SDRC), the investment in copper smelting by China’s enterprises will be put under strict control so as to prevent the blind investment and duplication in copper smelting projects at low technical standard. The document stipulated a series of conditions including equipment, technology, energy consumption and environmental protection.

  2. The Investment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  3. 基于实物期权的船舶投资决策分析框架研究%Ship Investment Decision Framework Based on Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敏敏

    2011-01-01

    For the problems existed in the traditional ship investment decision, a framework is developed based on Project Management. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis are made by using of real option analysis.Option Pricing Model is established, and Crystal Ball software is used to simulate the fluctuation ratio of shipping market through Monte Carlo method, and then the project of ship investment is evaluated. Finally, the results indicate the ship investment projects with option have much more value than those ship investment projects by traditional analytical methods.%针对传统船舶投资过程中存在的问题,旨在建立一个基于项目管理的船舶投资决策分析框架.在对投资项目进行定性分析的基础上,认为船舶投资中存在着期权价值.通过建立期权定价模型, 并利用Crystal Ball软件运用蒙特卡洛模拟方法模拟航运市场波动率, 从而对船舶投资项目进行评价.最后通过实例分析得出, 拥有实物期权的船舶投资项目的价值要大于传统方法求得的投资项目价值.

  4. Metamaterials and Metamaterial-Based Antenna Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-ning

    2014-01-01

    The study of metamaterials is among the most important and attractive topics of the electromagnetic field theory and applications in the past 15 years. Much effort has been devoted to scientific research into the new physical phenomena with great progress. This paper presents the thoughts about the applications of metamaterials in innovative antenna designs from an engineering perspective. The new understanding of metamaterials offers us great possibility to translate the physical concepts of metamaterials in laborato-ries to innovative antenna designs in practical engineering applications. The technologies have been successfully developed, significantly improving key performances of antennas at microwave and millimeter-wave bands. The recently invented metamaterial-based antennas demonstrate not only wide operating bandwidth, high antenna efficiency, high gain, but also significantly reduced volume with simple mechanical structures.

  5. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-07-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  6. ELECTRIC FIELD SENSORS BASED ON MEMS TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Chao; Xia Shanhong; Deng Kai; Bai Qiang; Chen Shaofeng

    2005-01-01

    The design and optimization of two types of novel miniature vibrating Electric Field Sensors (EFSs) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology are presented.They have different structures and vibrating modes. The volume is much smaller than other types of charge-induced EFSs such as field-mills. As miniaturizing, the induced signal is reduced enormously and a high sensitive circuit is needed to detect it. Elaborately designed electrodes can increase the amplitude of the output current, making the detecting circuit simplified and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Computer simulations for different structural parameters of the EFSs and vibrating methods have been carried out by Finite Element Method (FEM). It is proved that the new structures are realizable and the output signals are detectable.

  7. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  8. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... of installed capacity in the market. In the numerical results, we find that the strategic firm tends to invest at a higher demand trigger level and lower capacity compared to the social planner for both the baseload and peakload investment cases. Hence, the strategic firm is expected to invest at a later date...

  9. On how access to an insurance market affects investments in safety measures, based on the expected utility theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorheim Abrahamsen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.b.abrahamsen@uis.n [University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Asche, Frank [University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2011-03-15

    This paper focuses on how access to an insurance market should influence investments in safety measures in accordance with the ruling paradigm for decision-making under uncertainty-the expected utility theory. We show that access to an insurance market in most situations will influence investments in safety measures. For an expected utility maximizer, an overinvestment in safety measures is likely if access to an insurance market is ignored, while an underinvestment in safety measures is likely if insurance is purchased without paying attention to the possibility for reducing the probability and/or consequences of an accidental event by safety measures.

  10. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  11. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  12. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  13. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 基于实物期权的矿业投资时机分析%Analysis of Mining Investment Timing based on the Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 谢志勤; 蔡嗣经

    2011-01-01

    The mining investment that can be delayed is equal to a real option. Based on the improved decision-making model of best mining investment timing, the critical price and value of zinc mine investment at abroad were analyzed. The results showed that the critical price of the zinc mining investment P* is $ 2 069. 69 and the critical value V( P* ) is $ 348.60. It is feasible to invest the zinc mining project in 2010. The critical price of the zinc mining is most sensitive to production cost C. If the production cost C decreases by 1%, the critical price will be reduced by 0. 772 1%. The critical value is most sensitive to convenience yield δ. If the convenience yield decreases by 1%, the critical value will be increased by 1. 329 7%.%可延迟的矿业投资相当于一个买入期权.基于改进的最佳投资时机决策模型,实证分析了国外某锌矿投资的临界价格和临界价值.结果表明:锌矿投资的临界价格p=2069.69美元,临界价值V(P)=348.60美元,在2010年对该锌矿进行投资是可行的;锌矿投资的临界价格对矿产品生产成本C的变化最为敏感,生产成本降低1%,投资临界价格降低0.7721%;临界价值对便利收益δ的变化最为敏感,便利收益降低1%,则临界价值提高1.329 7%.

  15. 基于DEA模型的最优基金投资策略研究%Research on optimal fund investment strategy based on DEA model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞芳; 鲍远娟; 陶超; 朱家明

    2016-01-01

    为慈善基金提出了最优投资策略,定义了投资回报率的度量,投资回报率分别由主成分分析以及数据包络分析模型测量得到,并根据投资回报率选择了10个最优投资的大学。根据马克维茨投资组合理论确定高校投资额,用目标院校近5年投资回报率的平均值和标准差构建了投资组合模型,资金分配的具体比例能唯一确定。根据规模报酬估计投资时间,帮助慈善基金实现利益最大化。%Proposes an optimal investment strategy for charity fund,which mainly includes three parts.First,define a measurement of rate on investment(ROI),the two factors in ROI are measured with principal component analysis (PCA)and data envelopment analysis(DEA)model,respectively.The ten optimal investment universities are selected according to ROI.Second,the investment volume of selected ten universities is determined by Markowitz portfolio theory.Construct the portfolio model with the mean and the standard deviation of ROI during recent 5 years. According to Markowitz portfolio model,the concrete proportion of fund allocation is determined uniquely.Finally, proposes a strategy of estimating the investment time duration based on scale reward to help maximize the fund benefit.

  16. Mapping Students Use of Technologies in Problem Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how students use technology to enhance their learning in problem-based learning environments. The research methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative studies. The results are based on students’ interviews, a survey and students’ reflections in course......-related blog posts; they show that students have positive perceptions toward using technologies in problem-based learning environments....

  17. Impact of Information Technology (IT Investments on the Cost Efficiency of Indian Private Sector Banks-A Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Surulivel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study explores the Cost efficiency of Indian Private Sector banks by employing Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA. This paper empirically evaluated the impact of Information Technology (IT on the Cost efficiency of the Indian private sector banks .The present study is based on panel data over the period of 2009-2013. For this study, all the 13 old private sector banks and 7 new private sector banks of India are being considered. This study identifies the average cost efficiency of old private sector banks found to be 94.9% and for new private sector banks 82.6% over the entire period of study. The findings of this study suggest that to some extent IT impact the cost efficiency of Indian private sector banks. Some of Old private sector bank cost inefficiency reduced by 28% for the study period by Information Technology (IT and for New private sector banks cost inefficiency reduced by 11.3% Information Technology (IT. Thus, Information Technology contributes to cost efficiency to both old and new private sector banks.

  18. Investment Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The total area of the restoration of the Great Baoen Temple Pagoda in Nanjingis 230,000 square meters, in which 100,000 square meters are the construction ofthe temple and the pagoda. The construction projects include Baoen Pagoda, GreatHall of Baoen (also called Precious Hall of the Great Hero), the restoration ofthe Bridge of the Fragrant River, the Imperial Tablet and the base of

  19. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...... actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy...... design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies...

  20. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Domestic Investment: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumana, Léonce

    2003-01-01

    Does it matter for domestic investment whether a country’s financial system is bank based or stock-market based? This paper posits that financial intermediation affects domestic investment notably by alleviating financing constraints, allowing firms to increase investment in response to increased demand for output. The key result is that the structure of the financial system has no independent effect on investment, in the sense that it does not enhance the response of investment to changes in...

  1. RFID Technology Based Attendance Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Nainan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID is a nascent technology, deeply rooted by its early developments in using radar as a harbinger of adversary planes during World War II. A plethora of industries have leveraged the benefits of RFID technology for enhancements in sectors like military, sports, security, airline, animal farms, healthcare and other areas. Industry specific key applications of this technology include vehicle tracking, automated inventory management, animal monitoring, secure store checkouts, supply chain management, automatic payment, sport timing technologies, etc. This paper introduces the distinctive components of RFID technology and focuses on its core competencies: scalability and security. It will be then supplemented by a detailed synopsis of an investigation conducted to test the feasibility and practicality of RFID technology.

  2. 化石能源补贴政策对分布式发电技术投资影响研究%Research on the influence of Fossil Energy Subsidy Policy on the Investment of Micro-grid Distributed Generation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张徐东; 刘洋; 刘宏志; 曾鸣

    2012-01-01

    为降低能源密集型产业的能源单耗、降低能源强度,需对能源补贴政策进行优化,在能源补贴政策发生变化后,微电网分布式发电技术投资结构将发生变化.从传统发电与可再生能源分布式发电技术的角度分析了减少化石能源补贴对微电网分布式发电技术投资的影响程度.根据经济、技术及环境指标运用多层次决策(MADM)法对能源补贴减少前后的各种微电网分布式发电技术的效益和成本进行了计算,并与化石能源投资成本进行了对比.算例分析结果表明,削减化石能源补贴可增加微电网分布式发电技术的投资份额,改善环境质量.%To reduce energy consumption per unit,as well as energy intensity in the energy-intensive industries,it is necessary to optimize the energy subsidy policy. With the change of energy subsidy policy,investment structure of micro grid distributed generation technology will be changed. This paper firstly analyzes the impacts of the reduction of fossil energy subsidies on micro-grid distributed generation technology investments from the view of traditional generation and renewable energy generation technologies. Based on the economic,technical and environmental indicators,the MADM method is used to calculate the benefits and costs of various micro-grid distributed generation technologies by considering the influence of reduction of fossil energy subsidies. Comparison of fossil energy investment cost,example results show that the reduction of fossil energy subsidies can be beneficial to increasing of investment shares on micro-grid distributed generation technologies and thereby improving environmental quality.

  3. Cosmetic devices based on active transdermal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Active transdermal technology, commonly associated with drug delivery, has been used in recent years by the cosmetic industry for the aesthetic restoration of skin and delivery of cosmetic agents. In this article, we provide an overview of the skin's structure, various skin types, skin's self-repair mechanisms that are stimulated from the usage of cosmetic devices and discuss cosmetic applications. Summaries of the most common active transdermal technologies such as microneedles, iontophoresis, sonophoresis, lasers and microdermabrasion will be provided, in relation to the marketed cosmetic devices available that incorporate these technologies. Lastly, we cover combinations of active technologies that allow for more enhanced cosmetic results, and the current limitations of cosmetic devices.

  4. Perspectives on Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Direct Investment in OECD Countries based on Panel Data Econometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dias Karunaratne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of FDI inflows and outflows to host countries and from the source countries emerged in the 1980s as the major vehicle technology transfer that accelerated the globalization or international integration of 25 leading OECD economies over a period of 25 years (1983-2007. Although neoclassical and endogenous growth theories provide unequivocal support for FDI flows because they generate positive externalities or spillover effects through channels of GDP growth, capital formation and R&D, the empirical evidence in support of these claims are mixed. The panel data econometrics performed using a new multiplicatively complete index of total factor productivity provide fresh insights on the cross-border FDI generated through technology transfer and other channels. The empirical findings for the OECD countries are markedly different from the spillover effects on developing countries that are plagued by technology absorptive capacity effects due to the operation of threshold effects of underdeveloped human capital resources. The empirics on cross-border FDI flows and the spillover effects that they generate in OECD countries will provide much needed information to design and implement policies to harness the net benefits from cross-border FDI flows and shed light on the design of policies to reconcile the conflicting policies of austerity and growth that are required to prevent the sovereign debt racked euro-zone countries from imploding the single currency union based on the euro.

  5. A Quantitative Approach for Measuring Technological Forecasting Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan, Mustafa Batuhan; Oztemel, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Successful technological forecasting is important to invest scarce funds to emerging technologies. A generic model to measure the success of forecasting overall technological changes is introduced in this paper, called degree of Technological Forecasting Capability. It measures the success rate of forecasts in manufacturing processes based on four important aspects of a manufacturing system; Flow Time, Quantity/Day, Scrap Ratio, and New Investment Revenue. The proposed approach has been verif...

  6. Sensors based on SAW and FBAR technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gancedo, L.; Milne, W. I.; Luo, J. K.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last few years a number of sensing platforms are being investigated for their use in drug development, microanalysis or medical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) are devices integrating more than one laboratory functions on a single device chip of a very small size, and typically consist of two main components: microfluidic handling systems and sensors. The physical mechanisms that are generally used for microfluidics and sensors are different, hence making the integration of these components difficult and costly. In this work we present a lab-on-a-chip system based on surface acoustic waves (for fluid manipulation) and film bulk acoustic resonators (for sensing). Coupling surface acoustic waves into liquids induces acoustic streaming and motion of micro-droplets, whilst it is well-known that bulk acoustic waves can be used to fabricate microgravimetric sensors. Both technologies offer exceptional sensitivity and can be fabricated from piezoelectric thin films deposited on Si substrates, reducing the fabrication time/cost of the LOC devices.

  7. Brain-Based Learning With Technological Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of technology in secondary schools is varied and depends on the training and interest of the individual instructors. Even though technology has advanced way beyond its utilitarian roots of being viewed solely by educators as a useful machine for teachers to key exams and worksheets on, there are still many secondary educators who still…

  8. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman方程下的最优再保险和最优投资%Optimal Investment and Reinsurance Based on Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉松

    2013-01-01

    从保险公司的角度出发,在投资基金价格服从带漂移的几何布朗运动的假定下,基于Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman理论,给出了使得盈余终值的期望指数效用最大化的比例再保险函数的最优比例,及其各个风险市场的最优投资比例.%From the insurer's point of view,on the assumption that investment fund follows the Geometric Brownian motion,based on the theory of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation,the paper gives the optimal proportion of the proportional reinsurance and the capital amount of each risky investment markets,which can make the expected exponential utility of terminal wealth maximum.

  9. Analysis of Investment Risk Based on Monte Carlo Method%蒙特卡洛法在投资项目风险分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 张本涛; 马庆

    2011-01-01

    本文以经济净现值为评价指标来度量项目的投资风险,确定各影响因素的概率分布,建立了基于三角分布的风险评价的随机模型,采用蒙特卡罗方法进行模拟,利用MATLAB编程实现,得到投资项目的净现值频数分布的直方图和累计频率曲线图,并对模拟结果进行统计和分析,可得到净现值的平均预测值以及风险率,为评价投资项目的风险提供了理论依据.%In this paper, based on the important economic evaluation index NPV, the paper measures the risk of investment projects, determines the probability distribution of various factors, establishes the risk evaluation of the stochastic model based on the triangular distribution, which is simulated using Monte Carlo method, and realises by MATLAB programming, then can get the frequency distribution histograms and cumulative frequency curve of the net present value of investment projects, predictive average value and the rate risk are obtained by statistic analysis,providing a theoretical basis for risk evaluation of investment projects.

  10. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  11. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  12. Investigation into How Managers Justify Investments in IT Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Richmond Ikechukwu

    2012-01-01

    Organization leaders are dependent on information technology for corporate productivity; however, senior managers have expressed concerns about insufficient benefits from information technology investments. The problem researched was to understand how midsized businesses justify investments in information technology infrastructure. The purpose of…

  13. Analysis on the Land Use Behavior of Diversification Peasant Household Based on Allocation, Diversification and Investment Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Luo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of traditional economy transforming into modern economy in china, farmer’s diversification phenomena has arisen and developed and will continue a long time in the future. Accordingly, the general economic type of farmer diversification will effect on the rural source allocation. The land use behavior characteristics of diversification farmer are the aims of the study. Theoretic analyzing and empiristical testing methods are used for the allocation, diversification and investment effects introduced by farmer diversification. It concluded that the allocation effect of land transfer and diversification effect of agricultural labor decreasing are mostly proved, but the investment effect of diversification income which will improve agricultural production capital is not significant.

  14. Estimating the return on investment from a health risk management program offered to small Colorado-based employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z; Tabrizi, Maryam; Henke, Rachel Mosher; Benevent, Richele; Brockbank, Claire V S; Stinson, Kaylan; Trotter, Margo; Newman, Lee S

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether changes in health risks for workers in small businesses can produce medical and productivity cost savings. A 1-year pre- and posttest study tracked changes in 10 modifiable health risks for 2458 workers at 121 Colorado businesses that participated in a comprehensive worksite health promotion program. Risk reductions were entered into a return-on-investment (ROI) simulation model. Reductions were recorded in 10 risk factors examined, including obesity (-2.0%), poor eating habits (-5.8%), poor physical activity (-6.5%), tobacco use (-1.3%), high alcohol consumption (-1.7%), high stress (-3.5%), depression (-2.3%), high blood pressure (-0.3%), high total cholesterol (-0.9%), and high blood glucose (-0.2%). The ROI model estimated medical and productivity savings of $2.03 for every $1.00 invested. Pooled data suggest that small businesses can realize a positive ROI from effective risk reduction programs.

  15. Specialized Investment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robert S.

    1970-01-01

    The informational needs of the investing public should be met by the public library. Suggestions for specialized investment information services with broad appeal, technical charts, and advisory services which public libraries might consider purchasing. (JS)

  16. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds...

  17. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  18. Measuring a Country's Product Ladder and Technology Level based on Trade Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the technology level of products based on the concept of product ladder. While many studies on country technology competitiveness use the aggregate indices such as total factor productivity and revealed comparative advantage, this study estimates the ranking of about 2000 products in product ladder by using SITC 5 digit level export data. Based on the product ladder, this study measures the country and industry ranking and explores the characteristics of the ranking. It provides the international comparison of inter-industry and intra-industry ranking differences in product ladder. The statistical relationships between the ranking in product ladder and the determinants of technology level such as R&D and physical capital investment and wage, confirms that the measured ranking in product ladder could be regarded as an indirect indicator of technology level. The product ladder is applied to the estimation of production function to see the effect of the product differentiation on labor productivity.

  19. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M. Ivić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign investment is a key factor in the development of a modern economy, the trade, the most important means of enterprise business, the organization of production, supply of goods and services worldwide. Through foreign investment, companies organize production on a global scale, provide an efficient supply of raw materials, energy, labor, and then sell their products and services in the most important markets in a profitable way. Based on such a business, companies can optimally utilize its advantages in technology, knowledge, and economies of scale. Developing countries due to debt and unfavorable economic conditions are showing interest in foreign investment, especially when various loans and financial help stop arriving. Transition countries integrate into the world economic system, negative economic tendencies can be overcome by international capital movements. Developed countries faced to a financial crisis, are also interested in the sizeable input of foreign capital, where foreign investment becomes the most important element of development strategies. This work gives special attention to the input of foreign direct investments and their effects in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  20. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  1. Venture Investment Incentive Mechanisms and Simulation with Venture Entrepreneurs Having Multistage Efforts Based on Fairness Preference Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When venture capital has been invested into venture companies, venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs form a principal-agent relationship. Take into account the fact that the venture entrepreneur’s effort is a long process, because the effort is not the same at different stage. Therefore, efforts variables are seen as the multistage dynamic variable, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of the classic principal-agent theory in the paper. Further, in the later stage effort of venture entrepreneurs is affected by the size of prestage benefit with venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs; thus the fairness preference model is improved, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of fairness preference theory. Both theoretical derivation and simulation have demonstrated that, under the condition of information asymmetry, if the fairness preference of venture entrepreneurs holds, then (1 venture capitalists provide venture entrepreneurs with level higher than that without fairness preference, (2 in every single stage venture entrepreneurs make efforts higher than those without fairness preference, and (3 in two periods both venture investors and venture entrepreneurs gain total real gains higher than those in two periods without fair preference.

  2. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  3. R & D STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN AN ASYMMETRICAL CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minggao XUE; Pu GONG

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes R & D investment decisions in an asymmetrical case. The investment decisions share three important characteristics. First, the investment is completely irreversible. Second,there are two kinds of uncertainties over the future returns from the investment and over technology in R & D process, respectively. Third, there is strategic competition in the asymmetrical case. This article presents the optimal investment threshold values and the optimal investment rule of high-efficient firm (leader), and shows that the investment threshold values are reduced by competition of two firms.Finally, the mixed investment strategies for two firms, the probability that each firm separately exercises the option to invest, and the probability that two firms simultaneously exercise the option are given in the paper.

  4. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  5. Research on Investment Decision of University Fixed Assets Based on Big Data and Cloud Accounting%基于大数据云会计的高校固定资产投资决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2015-01-01

    高校固定资产是高校运行发展的保障.文章从投资效率、投资质量和投资成本等方面分析了大数据云会计技术对高校固定资产投资决策的影响,并分析了基于云会计平台的高校固定资产投资决策流程.%The university fixed assets are the safeguard for the university running and the development. This paper from the investment efficiency,the quality of investment and investment cost,analysis the influence of big data cloud accounting of the fixed assets investment decision ,and based on the analysis of the accounting cloud platform of the fixed assets investment decision-making process.

  6. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    forecast the consequences of various alternatives? Sustainment Investment: the Problem Operations Supplying the fleet, customer support, etc...Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Context We are managing the sustainment of a system. • Some modernization ...Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University The process is inside the gray box. Customers are outside. Work input

  7. Evaluation on Investment Project Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process%基于模糊层次分析法的投资项目评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯春梅

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, a fuzzy judgment matrix was established and its judg-ment consistency was tested.For the complexity and fuzziness of investment estimation problem, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was present for factors affecting the accuracy of investment estimation.The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was presented combining with example.It provides reference for improvement on investment estimation accuracy.%结合投资估算精度的特点,采用模糊层次分析法,建立模糊判断矩阵并判断其一致性;针对投资估算问题的复杂性和模糊性,建立投资估算精度影响因素模糊综合评价模型,并结合实例对投资估算精度进行模糊综合评价,以期为改善投资估算精度提供参考。

  8. An Analysis of the Factors Impacting Employee's Specific Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-hua; GE Wen-lei

    2008-01-01

    The amount of specific investment from employees is limited, and the reasons of the under-investment from employees are analyzed in this paper. Based on the relationship of the specific investment and the employee demission, an empirical study has been conducted focusing on the factors influencing the employee turnover and the specific investment. A theoretical model of the factors influencing employee's specific investment is given.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENTS IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Cornel Virgil CHIRIAC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of investment is extremely complex, perceived with different meanings and significations. The use of investment strategies in the management activity implies the application of scientific techniques and methods. In order to ensure a constant economic growth it is necessary to prepare investment projects. In practice the predominant one is the investment activity based on real investments performed for the modernising of assets, in order to ensure their physical and moral wear and tear.

  10. Study of technical feasibility and the payback period of the invested capital for the installation of a grid-connected photovoltaic system at the library of the Technological Federal University of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marin Campos, Ana Katherine Rodríguez Manrique, Bruno Victor Kobiski, Eloy Fassi Casagrande Júnior, Jair Urbanetz Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the technical feasibility, and the payback period of the capital invested to install a Grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV system on the rooftop of the library of the Technological Federal University of Parana (UTFPR, Curitiba campus. The rooftop has 897 square meters, and the photovoltaic modules will be used to supply electricity to four consumption scenarios. It is hoped that with the normative resolution 482 of the National Agency of Electric Energy (ANEEL, published in April 2012, the payback period on the initial investment of the PV system is shorter than when there was no such resolution. It is known that, although the resolution represents a breakthrough for inserting the Grid-connected Photovoltaic power generation, it is still not enough to expand this technology. The high tax of the PV equipment and the absence of incentives for this form of generation still prevent large-scale use. In addition, this article also shows the PV systems installed in Florianópolis (LABSOLAR / UFSC and Curitiba, such as the Green Office (GO, which is situated at the Technological Federal University of Parana.

  11. Monitoring the effectiveness evaluation of investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopin Alex O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article raised the question of monitoring regulatory evaluation of the effectiveness of regional investment projects. This is justified by the fact that the current regulatory framework defined indicators for measuring the effectiveness of regional investment projects, but these figures are usually used only at the design stage of the project, an interim assessment of the effectiveness of a sufficiently simplified and based on the level of exploration investment.

  12. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  13. 基于机会规划的房地产投资时机决策%Investment Opportunity Research of the Real Estate Based on Chance Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄新田; 朱俊; 刘洋

    2011-01-01

    Combining the net present value analysis of the real options with the Markov transition matrix,and using the real-estate enterpriser confidence index,the Markov-Bayesian transition matrix was constructed by which the changes of the macro-economic was reflected.Based on these,from the value of the real options contained by the investment decisions of the real estate enterprise,making use of the chance restriction to bring market price risk into the investment decision-making analytical framework,and discounting the cash flows by the required investment return rate of the different Markov states,a 0-1 integer chance programming was established to study the opportunity optimal investment decision based on the multi-stage scenario tree mode.Empirical analysis of the Jingjiang item invested by the Baosteel Group Enterprise Development Corporation was also presented.%将实物期权的净现值分析和马尔可夫转移矩阵相结合,利用房地产企业家信心指数,构建出反映宏观经济变动的马尔可夫-贝叶斯转移矩阵.在此基础上,从房地产企业投资决策所蕴含的实物期权价值出发,利用机会约束将市场价格风险纳入投资决策的分析框架,以不同的马尔可夫状态的必要投资回报率进行现金流贴现,在多阶段情景树的基础上,构建出多阶段0-1整数机会规划来研究房地产企业最优的投资决策时机.以宝钢集团企业开发总公司的靖江项目为背景,给出实证分析.

  14. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....

  15. Intelligence Investment of Communist China,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-17

    INTELLIGENCE INVESTMENT OF COMMUNIST CHINA By: Wang Lingling English pages: 51 Source: Chinese Communist Affairs, Vol. 26, Nr. 4, 1983, pp. 35-45...Education Is a necessary channel for the transfer of science and technology to social productive force. Under the prerequisite that "Communist China has...poor understanding of education held by the leaders. The financial income of Communist China was about H)O-120 billion Chinese yuans, (Comment of

  16. A Priority Rule-Based Heuristic for Resource Investment Project Scheduling Problem with Discounted Cash Flows and Tardiness Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Najafi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource investment problem with discounted cash flows (RIPDCFs is a class of project scheduling problem. In RIPDCF, the availability levels of the resources are considered decision variables, and the goal is to find a schedule such that the net present value of the project cash flows optimizes. In this paper, we consider a new RIPDCF in which tardiness of project is permitted with defined penalty. We mathematically formulated the problem and developed a heuristic method to solve it. The results of the performance analysis of the proposed method show an effective solution approach to the problem.

  17. Real Options Analysis of Electricity Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane Marte

    2012-07-01

    This thesis utilizes real options analysis for evaluating investment opportunities in the electricity sector. It also formally tests how investors in hydropower plants have included uncertainty when considering their investment opportunities. The real options method applies financial options theory to quantify the value of management flexibility and is chosen due to three important characteristics of investments in the electricity sector. First; the investment is completely or partially irreversible, second; the investor can choose when to invest in the facility, and third; there is uncertainty in several factors affecting the cash flows of the investments. Factors of uncertainty include the development of electricity prices, policies, technological advances, and macroeconomics measures.Four papers are included in this thesis. Paper 1, Upgrading hydropower plants with storage: Timing and capacity choice, presents a valuation framework for deciding when to upgrade an existing hydropower plant and which capacity to choose. The second paper, Transmission capacity between Norway and Germany: A real options analysis, sheds light on when two electricity markets, in this case Norway and Germany, should be connected through a sub sea cable. The investor can choose when to invest and the capacity of the cable, and may also choose to invest sequentially. Paper 3, Optimal timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage, investigates when investment in a pumped hydropower plant with storage should be undertaken and what the capacity of the facility should be. Whereas the three first papers investigate investment opportunities, Paper 4, Uncertain climate policy decisions and investment timing: Evidence from small hydropower plants, studies when investors in small hydropower plants chose to invest. The analyses disclose whether the net present value approach or the real options method best describe the investment decisions made by the investors. Viewing investment

  18. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational pro

  19. Adhesives; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. The guide is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with…

  20. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available gap between capability planning and acquisition of product systems in the SANDF. (Thaba J et al, 2015). The need for decision support tools and technologies to assist capability planners to close this gap and make sound decisions has become more...

  1. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational pro

  2. An Investment Beneift Assessment Method Based on Triangular Fuzzy Numbers for Distribution Network%基于三角模糊数的配电网项目投资效益评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 于腾凯; 刘翔宇

    2015-01-01

    配电网项目投资涉及面广,投资规模逐年加大,在投资规划中占有很大比重,但影响投资收益的因素繁杂多样,使得电网企业面临诸多潜在的投资风险。配电网项目投资的科学评价将是防范投资市场风险的有效途径。基于配电网投资结构有针对性地提出了影响电网发展的主要因素,分别从投资收益及决策两个方面建立评价指标体系,并提出了基于三角模糊数的配电网投资评价模型,实现定性与定量评价相结合。实例验证表明,该评价方法能够客观有效地反映当前投资水平,对配电网投资规划及投资评估有重要价值。%Distribution network investment involve a wide range of aspects,and the amount of investment has been increasing year by year which is making it account for a large proportion in the whole investment plan.However, the investment benefit is influenced by various kinds of factors,which make the power grid companies face numerous potential investment risk.Scientific evaluation of distribution network investment will be an effective way to avoid investment market risk.The main factors affecting the development of power grid are presented based on the investment structure of distribution network,the evaluation index system is established from both investment returns and decision respectively,and the model of investment evaluation for distribution network based on triangular fuzzy number is proposed,realizing the combination of evaluation between qualitative and quantitative.Practical example shows that the evaluation method is objective and effective,which could reflect the current level of investment and have significant value for distribution network investment planning and investment assessment.

  3. Innovative cold joining technologies based on tube forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on innovative cold joining technologies for connecting tubes and fixing tubes to sheets. The proposed technologies are based on the utilization of plastic instability waves in thin-walled tubes subjected to axial compression and may be seen as an alternative to conventional joining technologies based on mechanical fixing with fasteners, welding and structural adhesive bonding. Besides allowing connecting dissimilar materials and being successfully employed in fixture conditions that are difficult and costly to achieve by means of conventional joining the new proposed technologies also cope with the growing concerns on the demand, lifecycle and recycling of materials.

  4. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  5. Water2Invest: Global facility for calculating investments needed to bridge the climate-induced water gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jairus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Meijer, Karen; van Aalst, Maaike; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers responsible for climate change adaptation investments are confronted with large uncertainties regarding future water availability and water demand, as well as the investment cost required to reduce the water gap. Moreover, scientists have worked hard to increase fundamental knowledge on climate change and its impacts (climate services), while practical use of this knowledge is limited due to a lack of tools for decision support under uncertain long term future scenarios (decision services). The Water2Invest project aims are to (i) assess the joint impact of climate change and socioeconomic change on water scarcity, (ii) integrate impact and potential adaptation in one flow, (iii) prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. Global water availability is computed between 2006 and 2100 using the PCR-GLOBWB water resources model at a 6 minute spatial resolution. Climate change scenarios are based on the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that defines four CO2 emission scenarios as representative concentration pathways. Water demand is computed for agriculture, industry, domestic, and environmental requirements based on socio-economic scenarios of increase in population and gross domestic product. Using a linear programming algorithm, water is allocated on a monthly basis over the four sectors. Based on these assessments, the user can evaluate various technological and infrastructural adaptation measures to assess the investments needed to bridge the future water gap. Regional environmental and socioeconomic effects of these investments are evaluated, such as environmental flows or downstream effects. A scheme is developed to evaluate the strategies on robustness and flexibility under climate change and scenario uncertainty

  6. IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets (INVEST: Defining the New Goals of an International Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Inagaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The INVEST conference, an international meeting to define the scientific goals and required technology for a new ocean drilling program, was held at the University of Bremen on 22–25 September 2009. Based on the large attendance and vigorous engagement of scientists in the discussion of new science/technology ideas, INVEST was extremely successful. Initially 400 participants were expected, but the INVEST steering and organization committees were thrilled to see a much larger number of scientists flock to Bremen to demonstrate their support and enthusiasm for the continuation of an international scientific ocean drilling program. In all, 584 participants, including sixty-four students, from twenty-one nations and >200 institutions and agencies attended the INVEST conference. Contributions to INVEST included 103 submitted white papers that were posted on the INVEST webpage (http://www.marum.de/iodp-invest. html, and breakout discussions in fifty working groups that focused on a range of topics during the course of the conference. In addition, students and early career scientists, as well as national funding agency managers and platform providers, presented a total of eighty-six posters. Interspersed with the working group and plenary sessions were twelve keynote lectures, chosen to highlight overarching themes and new directions in research and technology.

  7. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of the plant to avoid irreversible fouling...

  8. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of the plant to avoid irreversible fouling...

  9. Building information modeling based on intelligent parametric technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xudong; TAN Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to push the information organization process of the building industry,promote sustainable architectural design and enhance the competitiveness of China's building industry,the author studies building information modeling (BIM) based on intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling is a new technology in the field of computer aided architectural design,which contains not only geometric data,but also the great amount of engineering data throughout the lifecycle of a building.The author also compares BIM technology with two-dimensional CAD technology,and demonstrates the advantages and characteristics of intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling,which is based on intelligent parametric modeling technology,will certainly replace traditional computer aided architectural design and become the new driving force to push forward China's building industry in this information age.

  10. Investing in systematic factor premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, Kees G.; Slager, Alfred M. H.; Stork, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and evaluate factor investing in the US and Europe for equities and bonds. We show that factor-based portfolios generally produce comparable or better portfolios than market indices. We expand the analysis to other asset classes and factors, work with other optimisation

  11. Chemicals Giant Optimistic about Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Fenmei

    2002-01-01

    @@ A top official of the US company Dupont said his business will increase investment in China for new manufacturing projects as well as developments of technology and human resources. Charles Holliday,chairman of Dupont, said the Chinese market is becoming increasingly important for DuPont.Holliday was Dupont's key policy maker for its investment in China during the 1990s, when he served as top executive for the company's AsiaPacific operations.

  12. Strategic framework and methodical bases of technological package development management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Artyukhov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article deals with the problem of technological package management. Based on the concept of integrated innovation we consider the evolutionary approach for technology package management. Directions of evaluation process of package are presented. Scheme of improving of technological package is proposed. The process of technological package development is considered in case of development of granulation equipment that includes a variety of technologies, which are incorporated into the technological package “Granulator”. For technological package development the technology package lifecycle, technology map of package and technology trajectory are interrelated considered. The results of the analysis. The technology package we propose to consider as a kind of system, the development of which is evolutionary. According to UNIDO recommendations [8] analysis of acceptability of technology includes an assessment of technical and economic features of technology package in context of production in national environment. As a basic tool of technology package development authors propose to consider technology transfer as part of integrated innovation approach. Enterprises of modern sectors, especially high-tech, at the same time use a large number of technologies, distributed according to functional application, but only some of these technologies are critical in terms of specialization. Therefore, for management technology package authors propose to divide into the classes with appropriate management instruments (optimization object and development strategy. The authors investigated such key product indicators of granulation systems technological trajectory analysis: – dimensions and performance, reliability and ease of operation; – product criterias; – versatility – one granulator may be established to work with different performance and wide range of products; – ecological purity – waste formation during

  13. Grey Model of the Investment Portfolio Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of investment portfolio is a very important theory in the modern economical system.Based on the feature of the theory, the paper sets up new various kinds of models of investment portfolio,namely grey optimization models. These models are more practical and objective to existing problems.

  14. IT投资对我国机械制造业上市公司技术效率的影响分析%Empirical Research on Impact of Investment in Information Technology on Technical Efficiency of Listed Companies in Machinery Manufacturing Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娟

    2011-01-01

    将IT投资作为投入要素和企业特征变量,基于SFA模型和DEA-Tobit模型分别构造了6个模型,以2004-2008年我国机械、设备、仪表制造业上市公司为样本,就IT投资对我国机械制造业上市公司技术效率的影响进行了实证分析.结果表明:SFA和DEA在测算技术效率方面具有较好的一致性,"生产率悖论"仍然存在;两种视角下测得的技术效率具有显著差异,且在SFA中,作为企业特征变量的IT投资的影响大于其作为生产要素的影响,这在DEA中情况正好相反;企业规模与技术效率正相关,企业资产负债率和企业年限与技术效率负相关,股权集中度与技术效率的关系不显著.%From these two perspectives, namely information technology as production factor and as firm-specific factor, this paper studies the relationship between the investment in information technology and technical efficiency of listed companies in machinery manufacturing industry of China.The results show as follows:the methods of SFA and DEA are consistent in measuring technical efficiency;the productivity paradox exists in listed companies in machinery manufacturing industry of China;the impact of the investment in information technology on technical efficiency when the investment in information technology being as a firm-specific factor is more obvious than that when it being as a production factor based on SFA, and this condition based on DEA is opposite; technical efficiency has the positive correlation with firm's scale, has the negative correlation with asset-liability ratio and firm's age,and the relation between ownership concentration and technical efficiency isn't confirmed.

  15. Image Restoration Technology Based on Discrete Neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Duoying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of computer science and technology, the development of artificial intelligence advances rapidly in the field of image restoration. Based on the MATLAB platform, this paper constructs a kind of image restoration technology of artificial intelligence based on the discrete neural network and feedforward network, and carries out simulation and contrast of the restoration process by the use of the bionic algorithm. Through the application of simulation restoration technology, this paper verifies that the discrete neural network has a good convergence and identification capability in the image restoration technology with a better effect than that of the feedforward network. The restoration technology based on the discrete neural network can provide a reliable mathematical model for this field.

  16. Investment alternative: the status quo or PACS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Brink, John A.; Cywinski, Jozef K.

    1990-08-01

    While the cost of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) can be substantial, the cost of continuing with present manual methods may become prohibitive in growing departments as the need for additional space and personnel (both technical and professional) to meet the increasing requirements for all image management activities continues to grow. This will occur simultaneously with increasing pressures on problems of the present system, i.e., lost films, lost revenues, delayed reporting and longer diagnostic cycle times. Present methods of image archiving communication and management i.e. the relationship of procedure volume to VFE requirements for professional and technical personnel, costs of film, film storage space, and other performance factors are analyzed based on the database created by the Technology Marketing Group (TMG) computerized cost analysis model applied to over 50 US hospitals. Also, the model is used to provide the projected cost of present methods of film management for an average US 400 +bed hospital based on ten year growth rate assumptions. TMG PACS Tracking data provides confirmation of staffmg pattern correlation to procedure volume. The data presented in the paper provides a basis for comparing the investment in maintaining the status quo to an investment in PACS.

  17. The emergence of new technology-based industries: the case of fuel cells and its technological relatedness to regional knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    to emerging radical technologies that create the foundation for new industries. The article develops a new measure for technological relatedness between the knowledge base of a region and that of a radical technology based on patent classes. It demonstrates that emerging fuel cell technology develops where...... the regional knowledge base is technologically related to that of fuel cells and consequently confirms the evolutionary thesis....

  18. Socially responsible investments

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China.   The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...

  19. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...... adaptation of the home choose ownership. This article analyses the consumer's optimization. The model provides an explanation for the observation that homeowners typically live in larger dwelling units than tenants. It also provides an explanation for a high price of housing services tending to reduce...

  20. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.