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Sample records for technologies organic coating

  1. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  2. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  3. Unidirectional coating technology for organic field-effect transistors: materials and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huabin; Wang, Qijing; Qian, Jun; Yin, Yao; Shi, Yi; Li, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential for developing organic electronics. The encouraging development in solution-processed OFETs has attracted research interest because of their potential in low-cost devices with performance comparable to polycrystalline-silicon-based transistors. In recent years, unidirectional coating technology, featuring thin-film coating along only one direction and involving specific materials as well as solution-assisted fabrication methods, has attracted intensive interest. Transistors with organic semiconductor layers, which are deposited via unidirectional coating methods, have achieved high performance. In particular, carrier mobility has been greatly enhanced to values much higher than 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. Such significant improvement is mainly attributed to better control in morphology and molecular packing arrangement of organic thin film. In this review, typical materials that are being used in OFETs are discussed, and demonstrations of unidirectional coating methods are surveyed.

  4. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  5. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  6. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  7. Applying a novel electrostatic dry powder coating technology to pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingliang; Ma, Yingliang; Zhu, Jesse

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to apply a novel dry powder technology to coat pellets with different coating materials grounded into fine powders. Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Eudragit® EPO, Eudragit® RS/RL and Acryl EZE were used as the coating materials to achieve immediate release, sustained release and delayed release, respectively. Three steps including preheating, powder adhesion and curing were carried out to form the coating film while liquid plasticizers were used to decrease the glass transition temperature of coating powders and also served to reduce the electrical resistance of pellets. Results of SEM indicated coating film could be better formed by increasing curing temperature or extending curing time. Dissolution tests showed that three different drug release profiles, including immediate release, sustained release and delayed release, were achieved by this coating technology with different coating formulations. And the dry powder coated pellets using this developed technology exhibited an excellent stability with 1 month at 40 °C/75% RH. The coating procedure could be shortened to within 120 min and the use of fluidized hot air was minimized, both cutting down the overall cost dramatically compared to organic solvent coating and aqueous coating. All results demonstrated that the novel electrostatic dry powder coating method is a promising technology in the pharmaceutical coating industry.

  8. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  9. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  10. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  11. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  12. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanfeng; Zhu, Jesse; Ma, Yingliang; Zhang, Hui

    2008-06-24

    Dry coating is a coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms derived from powder coating of metals. In this technology, powdered coating materials are directly coated onto solid dosage forms without using any solvent, and then heated and cured to form a coat. As a result, this technology can overcome such disadvantages caused by solvents in conventional liquid coating as serious air pollution, high time- and energy-consumption and expensive operation cost encountered by liquid coating. Several dry coating technologies, including plasticizer-dry-coating, electrostatic-dry-coating, heat-dry-coating and plasticizer-electrostatic-heat-dry-coating have been developed and extensively reported. This mini-review summarized the fundamental principles and coating processes of various dry coating technologies, and thoroughly analyzed their advantages and disadvantages as well as commercialization potentials.

  13. Low Energy Atomic Photodesorption from Organic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucchesini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic coatings have been widely used in atomic physics during the last 50 years because of their mechanical properties, allowing preservation of atomic spins after collisions. Nevertheless, this did not produce detailed insight into the characteristics of the coatings and their dynamical interaction with atomic vapors. This has changed since the 1990s, when their adsorption and desorption properties triggered a renewed interest in organic coatings. In particular, a novel class of phenomena produced by non-destructive light-induced desorption of atoms embedded in the coating surface was observed and later applied in different fields. Nowadays, low energy non-resonant atomic photodesorption from organic coatings can be considered an almost standard technique whenever large densities of atomic vapors or fast modulation of their concentration are required. In this paper, we review the steps that led to this widespread diffusion, from the preliminary observations to some of the most recent applications in fundamental and applied physics.

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  15. Coating Technologies for Insensitive Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    GM 9540P is an accelerated cyclic corrosion test that was developed by the automotive industry to more accurately replicate long-term outdoor...Impact resistance can be described as a paint property that 23 quantitatively characterizes the adhesion and flexibility of a coating with...will be tested as previous panels. 1. Polyurea over Pitt-Char XP, 2. Pitt-Char XP over Multiprime 97-680 primer, with Pitthane urethane TC, 3

  16. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  17. Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

    1988-10-01

    Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to

  18. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; Hanna, Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  19. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  20. Innovative fiber coating systems based on organic modified ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Kay; Kobelke, Jens; Rose, Klaus; Helbig, Manfred; Zoheidi, Mohammad; Heinze, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    We describe the application of inorganic organic hybrid materials (ORMOCERs) as optical fiber coatings for use in Fiber Bragg Grating sensors and high power transmission fibers. The materials are UV curable, enable a single layer thickness of about 50 μm and show high a high peak temperature stability >300 °C. Regarding the fiber protection the coatings have been investigated using tensile strength measurements before and after temperature load. Best coatings maintain the high tensile strength of 68 N (125 μm fiber) with a Weibull parameter of 182 after a temperature cycling up to 300 °C. For the first time a low refractive index ORMOCER will be presented showing a numerical aperture of 0.47 at a wavelength of 1000 nm on a pure silica fiber. This corresponds to a refractive index of 1.37. The fiber possesses a fiber loss of 18 dB/km at a wavelength of 1000 nm. The fibers have been coated using a gravity as well as pressure technology. The latter possesses extremely minimized die equipment and is therefore well applicable for small coating amounts. The so called dead volume within the coating die is about 1 ml. The overall dead volume is only influenced by the supply pipe and can be reduced down to 5 ml.

  1. Failure behavior of protective organic coatings under corrosive conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; WU Yi-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Recent research activities on the formation of micro-defects and porosity in organic coatings were reviewed. The mechanisms of aggressive ionic conduction through organic coatings were analyzed. The micro-mechanisms for the failure behavior of coatings under corrosive environments were discussed in detail. These mechanisms included blistering (i. e. osmotic blistering, anodic blistering and cathodic blistering) in the coating, wet-adhesion loss at the substrate/coating interface, cathodic delamination of coating from the substrate. Based on these researches, it was found that the failure behavior of organic coatings is closely related to the micro-defects in coatings, regardless of the failure mode. Additionally, the general failure mode of a coating system was proposed to interpret the failure behavior of organic in corrosion environments. The topics discussed can provide some insights into the development of a methodology for designing fail-safe coating systems.

  2. Lifetime prediction and failure analysis of organic coatings by EIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; WU Hang; MA Shi-ning; XU Bin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Organic coatings are widely used to control the corrosion of steel structure. The anticorrosive property of these coatings depends on their barrier properties, making a separation between the corrosive medium and the substrate. But unavoidable completely small pores, cracks and other defects in organic coatings may cause ions, water, gases, and other corrosive species penetrate and distribute in the coatings, causing accumulation and swelling of coatings, so leading to the degradation of coatings. In addition, water affects the permeation of oxygen and other corrosive medium, consequently the presence of such substances at coating-metal interface promotes corrosion of metal substrate. So the absorbability of the coatings to water may be one of the most important factors in undercoating corrosion. In recent years, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been established and frequently used as a non-destructive testing method for assessing the performance of organic coatings, especially for the determination of the water content in organic coatings, since the capacitance of the coatings is sensitive to the penetration of water. So from EIS it can extract a wealth of information on the electrochemical corrosion of coated steels, especially, it can be utilized to assess organic coatings used under particular surroundings. The principle, methods and application of EIS on evaluating life-span and analyzing failure mechanism of organic coatings are also introduced briefly. Combining other analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM and FTIR with electrochemical technique, it will blaze a way in studying degradation mechanism of organic coatings and estimating their lifetime.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP), FINAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP TAGNITE--TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN (T/QAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the Environmental Testing and Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program is to verify pollution prevention and performance characteristics of coating technologies and make the results of the testing available to prospective coating technology use...

  4. Application of impedance spectroscopy during the lifetime of organic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, D.H. van der; Westing, E.P.M. van; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy is evaluated for three situations during the lifetime of organic barrier coating. These situations are: • Defect free coatings • Delaminated, but intact coatingsCoatings with defects combined with cathodic delamination It is shown th

  5. The Proceedings of the 53rd International Meeting of Physical Chemistry Organic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, P. [Institut de Topologie et de Dynamique des Systemes de l`Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, associe au CNRS,1,rue Guy de la Brosse, 75005 Paris (France)

    1996-07-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 53rd international meeting on physical chemistry held in Paris. The main topics discussed include theoretical and experimental aspects of adhesion, electrochemical techniques, plasma techniques, spin{minus}coating, coil{minus}coating, organosilane grafting and other techniques of film deposition, physicochemical characterization of films and interfaces and applications of organic coatings. There were 58 papers presented and all have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  6. Impact of the organic coating on nanoparticles stability and reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert, A.; Sivry, Y.; Ould Boualy, L.; Roselyne, F.; Juillot, F.; Menguy, N.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    The strong increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) during the last decade may ultimately result in their release in environmental settings, as predicted for different types of NPs by Gottshalk et al.. Most of these NPs incorporate functionalized coatings to gain industrial benefits, which in turn may play a critical rule for the whole NPs reactivity. Thus, along with stability studies focusing on the fate of NPs in natural systems, an accurate understanding of the coating impacts on the NPs behaviour and reactivity is highly required. This study aims to estimate the impact of three different coatings on the NPs dissolution rates in natural water (Seine river water), and their sorption properties onto a model mineral substrate. In this work, ZnO NPs have been coated, either with triethoxycaprylylsilane (hydrophobic), methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hydrophilic), or aminopropyltriethoxusilane (cationic). The dissolution rates were determined using two protocols: the Donnan Membrane Technique to measure the remaining free metal concentration in solution, and a 1 kDa ultrafiltration procedure to access both the free metal and small organic complexes part. For all three coating types, a fast dissolution step is reached in less than one day, followed by a slow precipitation of new mineral phases to finally reach a steady state. No major differences in the dissolution rates and profiles have been observed. Sorption studies on synthetic microsized goethite have been conducted at pH 7.5. The sorption ratio has been estimated as a function of initial NPs concentrations (from 10-7 M to 10-3 M), and follows a Langmuir shape for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings at concentrations lower than 2.10-4 M. Interestingly, those two NPs exhibit high sorption capacities (10 times higher) compared to free Zn2+ sorption. On the other hand, at those concentrations, the cationic coating only induces a weak sorption without any defined trend. Moreover, for the

  7. Organic electrode coatings for next-generation neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregueta-Robles, Ulises A; Woolley, Andrew J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Lovell, Nigel H; Green, Rylie A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however, several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes.

  8. ORGANIC ELECTRODE COATINGS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NEURAL INTERFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises A Aregueta-Robles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes.

  9. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...... semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating......-xylene and tetrahydronaphthalene showed the possibility of coating speeds up to 60 m/min. The simulation further revealed the maximum coating head distances for a given wet film thickness. Finally, we show a solar-cell with slot-die coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM-layer based on the parameters obtained by the simulated data, which...

  10. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  12. Technologies in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    (pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide......In organic farming a dilemma is posed by the heavy reliance on nutrients from conventional livestock farming. For Danish organic plant producers the influx of conventional nutrients accounts for up to 70% of their nutrients. Facing this problem, Danish organic farmers’ organizations have decided...

  13. Application of Coating Technology for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To commercialize the ATF cladding concepts, various factors are considered, such as safety under normal and accident conditions, economy for the fuel cycle, and developing development challenges, and schedule. From the proposed concepts, it is known that the cladding coating, FeCrAl alloy, and Zr-Mo claddings are considered as a near/mid-term application, whereas the SiC material is considered as a long-term application. Among them, the benefit of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the fuel cycle economy regarding the manufacturing, neutron cross section, and high tritium permeation characteristics. However, the challenge of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the lower oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at high-temperature than other concepts. Another important point is the adhesion property between the Zr-based alloy and coating materials. As an improved coating technology compared to a previous study, a 3D laser coating technology supplied with Cr powders is considered to make a coated cladding because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. We are systematically studying the laser beam power, inert gas flow, cooling of the cladding tube, and powder control as key points to develop 3D laser coating technology. After Cr-coating on the Zr-based cladding, ring compression and ring tensile tests were performed to evaluate the adhesion property between a coated layer and Zr-based alloy tube at room temperature (RT), and a high-temperature oxidation test was conducted to evaluate the oxidation behavior at 1200 .deg. C of the coated tube samples. A 3D laser coating method supplied with Cr powders was developed to decrease the high-temperature oxidation rate in a steam environment through a systematic study for various coating parameters, and a Cr-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube of 100 mm in length to the axial direction can be successfully manufactured.

  14. Platinum and Iridium Coatings Obtained by Double Glow Plasma Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wangping; CHEN Zhaofeng; CHEN Zhou; CONG Xiangna; QIU Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Pt and Ir coatings were produced by double glow plasma technology on the surface of Ti alloy substrates.The chemical compositions of the coatings were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.The microstructure and morphology of the coatings were observed by scanning electron microscopy.The hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings were estimated by nanoindentation.The measurements of adhesive forces of the coatings were performed with scratch tester.The results indicated that the Pt and Ir coatings displayed the preferred (220) orientation due to the initial nuclei with preferred growth on the surface of the substrates.The interface between the Pt coating and substrate exhibited no evidence of delamination.The Ir coating was composed of irregular columnar grains with many nanovoids at the interface between the coating and substrate.The mean values of hardness for Pt and Ir coatings were 0.9 GPa and 9 GPa,respectively.The elastic modulus of Pt and Ir coatings were 178 GPa and 339 GPa,respectively.The adhesive forces of the Pt and Ir coatings were about 66.4 N and 55 N,respectively.The Pt and Ir coatings adhered well to the Ti alloy substrates.

  15. PROCEEDINGS: LOW- AND NO-VOC COATING TECHNOLOGIES - 2ND BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents an international conference that provided a forum for the exchange of technical information on coating technologies. It focused on improved and emerging technologies that result in fewer volatile organic compound (VOC) and toxic air emissions that those from ...

  16. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  17. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    organic -inorganic hybrid films to be one of the most promising approaches for replacing chromate-based pre-treatments – particularly hexavalent chrome ...NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/54 IONIC TRANSPORT THROUGH METAL-RICH ORGANIC COATINGS by Brandy Mobley Kevin M. Cook Anna K. Safigan Noah Wichrowski Zachary...PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/54 19 August 2016 IONIC TRANSPORT THROUGH METAL-RICH ORGANIC COATINGS by Brandy Mobley Kevin M. Cook Anna

  18. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    high strength structural aluminum parts. 8 These metal-rich primers are organic -based and comprise the three components mentioned above—e.g...M.G.S Ferreira, O. Nuyken, “Electrochemical Study of Inhibitor-Containing Organic -Inorganic Hybrid Coatings on AA2024,” Corrosion Science 51, 1...NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/54 IONIC TRANSPORT THROUGH METAL-RICH ORGANIC COATINGS by Brandy Mobley Kevin M. Cook Anna K. Safigan Noah Wichrowski Zachary

  19. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperature of 1100 °C. This leads to longer protection of bottom layer against high-temperature exposure. The methodology is based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy investigations of structural elements in composite plasma coatings of the ZrO2 – Y2O system. Resistance of plasma coatings (Мe – Cr – Al – Y/ZrO2 – Y2O3-type, used as TBC to protect gas turbine engine blades under conditions of frequent thermal cyclings is limited by cleavage of an outer ceramic layer. Structural and electron microprobe investigations have shown that as a result of thermal cycling an outer atmosphere due to porous structure of the ceramic coating layer, migrates to the surface of lower metal coating, causing its oxidation. As a result, the metal-ceramic Al2O3 layer is formed at a metal-ceramic interface and it changes a stress state of the coating that causes a reduction of protective properties. Thus, a high heat resistance of thermal barrier coatings depends on processes occurring at the interface between metal and ceramic coating layers. A laser impact on samples with TBC leads to changes in the structure of the oxide layer of ZrO2 – Y2O3. In this case its initial surface characterized by considerable relief is significantly flattened due to processing and the coating is fractured and it is separated in fragments. As the oxide coating has low thermal conductivity, and the time of laser exposure is about 10–3 sec, a heat flux

  1. Novel detection and process improvement for organic coating-film defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harumoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Hisai, Akihiro; Asai, Masaya; Ota, Hideo; Endo, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Spin coating has been used as a photoresist application method for many years,[1,2] and it has continued to include applications such as the tri-layer with stacked photoresist, Si containing anti-reflected coating (Si-ARC), and Spin on Carbon (SOC). Last year we reported EUV defectivity improvement, but the causes of some defect types were not found.[3,4] In this study, the defects unique to the coated organic film were detected using an LS9300 by Hitachi High-Technologies, and some of these defects were able to be mitigated by optimizing the SOKUDO-DUO track system. Utilizing these systems in tandem, we have revealed a mechanism of EUV pattern defect reduction linked to novel detected film coating defects. During the conference, we will discuss expansion of this concept to other film coatings.

  2. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  3. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Organic coatings for marine and shipping applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Bos, W.M.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the maritime environment is strongly aggressive, coatings needed to protect steel can be classifi ed as ‘heavy duty coatings’. In most maritime applications because of maintenance diffi culties a long service life is generally required. This, together with safety and environmental issues, dema

  5. Biorepellent Organic Coatings for Improved Microsieve Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso, M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    Microsieves are a new type of Si-based membranes, which are coated with a SixN4 top layer. Although SixN4 is known to be relatively inert, surface contamination (fouling through e.g. protein adsorption) is critical for application in microfiltration. As a result, surface modification is needed to pr

  6. Organic coatings for marine and shipping applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Bos, W.M.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the maritime environment is strongly aggressive, coatings needed to protect steel can be classifi ed as ‘heavy duty coatings’. In most maritime applications because of maintenance diffi culties a long service life is generally required. This, together with safety and environmental issues,

  7. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  8. Study on Technology and Properties of Brush Plating Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Ping

    2004-01-01

    A new brush plating process with a soluble anode of nickel was introduced. TDY112 brush plating solution was used on the No.20 carbon steel substrate. It has the higher deposit velocity, better properties and lower cost. Scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), optical microscope, microhardness test and wear test were adopted to detect the surface quality and the properties of the coating, such as micrograph, microstructure, micro-hardness wear resistance and adherence between the coating and the substrate. The experimental results showed that the suitable technological parameters to be used, the coatings had better the surface quality, higher hardness and wear resistance.

  9. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    bcc Ta coatings on A723 steel. The sample was subjected to pulse laser heating ( PLH ) test at 2.5 msec, 1.0 J/mm2, 20 cycles, simulating ~1400ºC...electroplated HC Cr deposited on A723 steel under the same PLH conditions. While HC Cr is full of cracks causing erosion of the substrate steel, the MPP Ta...untempered martensite resulting from temperatures into austenite region. 20 Fig. 6g Pulsed Laser Heating ( PLH ) adhesion test of MPP deposited Ta

  10. ANTICORROSION PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COATINGS CONTAINING POLYPHENYLENEDIAMINE PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kohl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at the synthesis of polyphenylenediamine, its description and determination of parameters whose knowledge is required for the formulation of organic coatings pigmented with this compound. Polyphenylenediamine phosphate was prepared by oxidation polymerization in acidic environment. Phosphoric acid was used as the doping acid. Based on the results, pigmented organic coatings containing polyphenylenediamine at volume concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 3%; 5%, and 10% were formed. The effect of the conductive polymer on the organic coatings‘ corrosion properties was examined via accelerated corrosion tests. From the results of an accelerated corrosion test it follows that if added to an epoxy-ester coating, this pigment improves appreciably the coating‘s corrosion resistance, especially at low pigment volume concentrations.

  11. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for electroluminescent organic semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana

    Organic materials have been given much attention due to their intriguing properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications combined with their low price and fairly straight-forward large-scale synthesis. Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers emit polarized light...... of the fibers with oxygen. We have developed a bilayer coating that does not change significantly the p6P spectrum but strongly reduces bleaching. This bilayer coating consists of a first layer of a stable polymer (PMMA) on top of the organic nanofibers as a protecting layer for avoiding modifications of the p6...

  12. Corrosion protection of condensing boilers with organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, M.; Schicker, M.; Richner, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    An investigation was conducted into whether organic coatings may be used to provide protection from the corrosive condensate which occurs in condensing boilers. The suitability of various coating systems was investigated in laboratory tests. On the basis of these results, a heat curing phenolic resin was selected for field trials in boilers from various manufacturers. The boilers were operated for up to two years. The condition of the coating was investigated during operation and after completion of the trial period. It was found that the selected coating provides good corrosion protection in areas not exposed to very high temperatures, which is precisely where condensation is most severe and there is thus the greatest risk of corrosion. (orig.)

  13. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  14. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--EVERMORE PAINTS AND COATINGS INC. FORMULA 5 COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is of a test of the pollution prevention capabilities of a polyamide-epoxy-silicone modified paint coating. It was analyzed for volatile organic emissions, hazardous air pollutants, film thickness, gloss, appearance, MEK rub resistance, abrasion resistance and other ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--EVERMORE PAINTS AND COATINGS INC. FORMULA 5 COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is of a test of the pollution prevention capabilities of a polyamide-epoxy-silicone modified paint coating. It was analyzed for volatile organic emissions, hazardous air pollutants, film thickness, gloss, appearance, MEK rub resistance, abrasion resistance and other ...

  17. Organic matrix composite protective coatings for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, Harry W.; George, Pete

    1995-01-01

    Successful use of composites in low earth orbit (LEO) depends on their ability to survive long-term exposure to atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, charged particle radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and space debris. The AO environment is especially severe for unprotected organic matrix composites surfaces in LEO. Ram facing unprotected graphite/epoxy flown on the 69-month Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission lost up to one ply of thickness (5 mils) resulting in decreased mechanical properties. The expected AO fluence of the 30 year Space Station Alpha mission is approximately 20 times that seen on LDEF. This exposure would result in significant material loss of unprotected ram facing organic matrix composites. Several protective coatings for composites were flown on LDEF including anodized aluminum, vacuum deposited coatings, a variety of thermal control coatings, metalized Teflon, and leafing aluminum. Results from the testing and analysis of the coated and uncoated composite specimens flown on LDEF's leading and trailing edges provide the baseline for determining the effectiveness of protectively coated composites in LEO. In addition to LDEF results, results from shuttle flight experiments and ground based testing will be discussed.

  18. Organic coatings degradation: Comparison between natural and artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflorian, F. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)], E-mail: defloria@ing.unitn.it; Rossi, S.; Fedel, M. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    The protective properties of organic coated galvanised steel for outdoor applications are generally evaluated by means of accelerated laboratory tests, including electrochemical techniques. An open question is how these accelerated tests can be correlated with natural exposure in different environments. It is well known that many papers did not found any significant correlation between the natural exposure and laboratory tests. In this paper we propose a different approach. The starting point is the consideration to define the natural weathering by monitoring a few different environmental parameters affecting the organic coatings properties (energy from UV radiation, wet time, temperature, etc.), and not just considering the time of exposure. We studied two different galvanised materials: Zn and Zn-Al coatings, three different primers and one top coat. The samples were exposed for 12 months in three different natural environments: Trento (Italy), alpine region, Marseille (France) by the Mediterranean sea and Daytona (USA), a humid tropical environment. At the same time all the meteorological parameters were collected. The coatings weathering was evaluated in the laboratory after some different accelerated tests (salt spray chamber, UV exposure, cyclic test) and after natural exposure. A correlation between the 'natural stresses' and the 'artificial stresses' was investigated.

  19. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank [KROENERT GmbH and Co KG, Schuetzenstrasse 105, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  20. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  1. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for organic semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    of the nanofibers with oxygen. Operation of devices in vacuum is a solution but the equipment necessary makes impossible the manufacturing of the devices so we propose the use of a coating for reducing bleaching. It is observed that spin-coated PMMA do not damage the morphology of the fragile nanofibers and also do...... not interfere with the luminescence spectrum from the p6P but it is also not effective in stopping the bleaching. On the other hand, the use of a nonreactant and stable polymer (PMMA) as a direct contact layer on top of the organic nanofibers works as a protecting layer for avoiding modifications of the p6P...

  2. Mapping water uptake in organic coatings using AFM-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, S; Lyon, S; Greensmith, P; Smith, S D; Gibbon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The long-term failure of seemingly intact corrosion resistant organic coatings is thought to occur via the development of ionic transport channels, which spontaneously evolve from hydrophilic regions on immersion, i.e., as a result of localized water uptake. To this end, we investigate water uptake characteristics for industrial epoxy-phenolic can coatings after immersion in deionized water and drying. Moisture sorption and the changing nature of polymer-water interactions are assessed using FTIR for dry and pre-soaked films. More water is found to be absorbed by the pre-soaked coatings on exposure to a humid environment, with a greater degree of hydrogen-bonding between the polymer and water. Furthermore, morphological changes are then correlated to localized water uptake using the AFM-IR technique. Nanoscale softened regions develop on soaking, and these are found to absorb a greater proportion of water from a humid environment.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Sagieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the technological level of production of Russian organizations. Areas of study cover the characteristics of the use of technology in manufacturing (the extent of use and level of technology, the problems solved by using specific types of technologies and the use in the production process of intellectual property; factors driving growth of technological level of the surveyed medium and large organizations and provides them with a competitive advantage

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  5. Dual-coated lactic acid bacteria: an emerging innovative technology in the field of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Margolles, Abelardo

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are living micro-organisms that do not naturally have shelf life, and normally are weakly protected against the digestive action of the GI tract. A new dual coating technology has been developed in an effort to maximize survival, that is, to be able to reach the intestine alive and in sufficient numbers to confer the beneficial health effects on the host. Dual-coating of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the result of fourth-generation coating technology for the protection of these bacteria at least 100-fold or greater than the uncoated LAB. This innovative technique involves a first pH-dependent protein layer that protects bacteria from gastric acid and bile salt, and a second polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from external factors, such as humidity, temperature and pressure, as well as the digestive action during the passage through the GI tract. Dual-coated probiotic formulation is applicable to different therapeutic areas, including irritable bowel syndrome, atopic dermatitis, acute diarrhea, chronic constipation, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. An updated review of the efficacy of doubly coated probiotic strains for improving bacterial survival in the intestinal tract and its consequent clinical benefits in humans is here presented.

  6. Corrosion Protection of AM50 Magnesium Alloy by Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Renguo; ZHENG Xiaohua; BAI Shuju; BLAWERT Carsten; DIETZEL Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of the corrosion protection of Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings for AM50 magnesium alloy prepared by simple immersion and heat treatment was investigated. Its corrosion resistance and morphologies of the Nafion/DMSO organic coatings were studied by electrochemical corrosion testing and optical microscopy. The results show that Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can improve the corrosion resistance of AM50 magnesium alloy effectively. Also, the corrosion resistance increases with the surface density of the organic coatings.

  7. Erosive separation of organic coatings from fibrous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M; Momber, A W

    2004-11-01

    The separation of organic coatings from fibrous substrates is a key problem in recycling processes. This problem applies to carpets, technical textiles and automotive interior components. This paper reports about results of laboratory studies involving the application of high-speed liquid jets to solve this problem. Results from high-speed video images are used to qualify the principal erosion process. It is shown that the coating material is first ground by the jet; the generated erosion debris is then pushed through the permeable fibrous fabric of the substrate. It is also found that threshold conditions exist for the coating grinding process and for the debris transportation. These threshold conditions depend on target composition and process parameters. A phenomenological separation model is introduced. The influence of key process parameters, namely jet velocity, exposure time, stand-off distance and impact angle, is also investigated. It is found that high-speed liquid jets are suitable tools for separating organic coatings completely and selectively from fibrous substrates. Recommendations on how to optimise the erosion process are derived from the results.

  8. Advanced manufacturing technologies for the BeCOAT telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael N.; Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-02-01

    The beryllium cryogenic off-axis telescope (BeCOAT) uses a two-mirror, non re-imaging, off- axis, Ritchey Chretian design with all-beryllium optics, structures and baffles. The purpose of this telescope is the system level demonstration of advanced manufacturing technologies for optics, optical benches, and baffle assemblies. The key issues that are addressed are single point diamond turning of beryllium optics, survivable fastening techniques, minimum beryllium utilization, and technologies leading to self-aligning, all-beryllium optical systems.

  9. Towards fully spray coated organic light emitting devices

    OpenAIRE

    GILISSEN, Koen; STRYCKERS, Jeroen; Manca, Jean; DEFERME, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Pi-conjugated polymer light emitting devices have the potential to be the next generation of solid state lighting. In order to achieve this goal, a low cost, efficient and large area production process is essential. Polymer based light emitting devices are generally deposited using techniques based on solution processing e.g.: spin coating, ink jet printing. These techniques are not well suited for cost-effective, high throughput, large area mass production of these organic devices. Ultrasoni...

  10. Theorizing the Organization of Technology Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben

    In this paper, we explore how, why and which structures are consequential to the organization of technology entrepreneurship. Technology entrepreneurship is a relatively unexplored field of research; yet body of research in this promising area of scholarly enquiry, both theoretically and empirica......In this paper, we explore how, why and which structures are consequential to the organization of technology entrepreneurship. Technology entrepreneurship is a relatively unexplored field of research; yet body of research in this promising area of scholarly enquiry, both theoretically...

  11. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    CERN Document Server

    Klepper, C C; Yadlowsky, E J; Carlson, E P; Keitz, M D; Williams, J M; Zuhr, R A; Poker, D B

    2002-01-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresp...

  12. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  14. Biomimetic organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings for titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Gergely, Csilla; Elkaim, Rene; Wachtel, Ellen; Cuisinier, Frederic J G; Füredi-Milhofer, Helga

    2009-06-01

    A new class of organic-inorganic nanocomposites, to be used as coatings for surface enhancement of metal implants for bone replacement and repair, has been prepared by a biomimetic three-step procedure: (1) embedding amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) particles between organic polyelectrolyte multilayers (PE MLs), (2) in situ transformation of ACP to octacalcium phospate (OCP) and/or poorly crystalline apatite nanocrystals by immersion of the material into a metastable calcifying solution (MCS) and (3) deposition of a final PE ML. The organic polyelectrolytes used were poly-L-glutamic acid and poly-L-lysine. The nanocomposites obtained by each successive step were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and XRD, and their suitability as coatings for metal implants was examined by mechanical and in vitro biological tests. Coatings obtained by the first deposition step are mechanically unstable and therefore not suitable. During the second step, upon immersion into MCS, ACP particles were transformed into crystalline calcium phosphate, with large platelike OCP crystals as the top layer. After phase transformation, the nanocomposite was strongly attached to the titanium, but the top layer did not promote cell proliferation. However, when the coating was topped with an additional PE ML (step 3), smoother surfaces were obtained, which facilitated cell adhesion and proliferation as shown by in vitro biological tests using primary human osteoblasts (HO) directly seeded onto the nanocomposites. In fact, cell proliferation on nanocomposites with top PE MLs was far superior than on any of the individual components and was equivalent to proliferation on the golden standard (plastic).

  15. Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings for Magnesium Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renguo SONG; Xiaohua ZHENG; Carsten Blawert; Wolfgang Dietzel

    2007-01-01

    Nafion/polypyrrole and Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings were prepared on the surface of pure magnesium by simple immersion and heat treatment. The morphologies and corrosion resistance of the organic coatings were investigated by using optical microscopy and electrochemical corrosion testing, respectively. It is shown that Nafion/polypyrrole organic coatings resulted in the corrosion resistance of magnesium decreasing;while Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Also,the corrosion resistance increased with the thickness of the Nafion/DMSO organic coating increased.

  16. Coronary Stent Materials and Coatings: A Technology and Performance Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry; Zafar, Haroon; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Zafar, Junaid; Sharif, Faisal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art for coronary stent materials and surface coatings, with an emphasis on new technologies that followed on from first-generation bare metal and drug-eluting stents. These developments have been driven mainly by the need to improve long term outcomes, including late stent thrombosis. Biodegradable drug-eluting coatings aim to address the long term effects of residual durable polymer after drug elution; the SYNERGY, BioMatrix, and Nobori stents are all promising devices in this category, with minimal polymer through the use of abluminal coatings. Textured stent surfaces have been used to attached drug directly, without polymer; the Yukon Choice and BioFreedom stents have some promising data in this category, while a hydroxyapatite textured surface has had less success. The use of drug-filled reservoirs looked promising initially but the NEVO device has experienced both technical and commercial set-backs. However this approach may eventually make it to market if trials with the Drug-Filled Stent prove to be successful. Non-pharmacological coatings such as silicon carbide, carbon, and titanium-nitride-oxide are also proving to have potential to provide better performance than BMS, without some of the longer term issues associated with DES. In terms of biological coatings, the Genous stent which promotes attachment of endothelial progenitor cells has made good progress while gene-eluting stents still have some practical challenges to overcome. Perhaps the most advancement has been in the field of biodegradable stents. The BVS PLLA device is now seeing increasing clinical use in many complex indications while magnesium stents continue to make steady advancements.

  17. Technology of Strengthening Steel Details by Surfacing Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Mul, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers the problem of forming wear resistant meal ceramic coatings on steel surfaces using the results of our own investigations and the analysis of achievements made in the country and abroad. Increasing the wear resistance of surface layers of steel details is achieved by surfacing composite coatings with carbides or borides of metals as disperse particles in the strengthening phase. The use of surfacing on wearing machine details and mechanisms has a history of more than 100 years. But still engineering investigations in this field are being conducted up to now. The use of heating sources which provide a high density of power allows ensuring temperature and time conditions of surfacing under which composites with peculiar service and functional properties are formed. High concentration of energy in the zone of melt, which is created from powder mixtures and the hardened surface layer, allows producing the transition zone between the main material and surfaced coating. Surfacing by the electron beam directed from vacuum to the atmosphere is of considerable technological advantages. They give the possibility of strengthening surface layers of large-sized details by surfacing powder mixtures without their preliminary compacting. A modified layer of the main metal with ceramic particles distributed in it is created as a result of heating surfaced powders and the detail surface layer by the electron beam. Technology of surfacing allows using powders of refractory metals and graphite in the composition of powder mixtures. They interact with one another and form the particles of the hardening phase of the composition coating. The chemical composition of the main and surfaced materials is considered to be the main factor which determines the character of metallurgical processes in local zones of melt as well as the structure and properties of surfaced composition.

  18. Study of Different Technologies for Film Coating of Drug Layered Pellets Using Ethylcellulose as Functional Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Melegari, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The research project focused on the study of different technologies for film coating of pellets using ethylcellulose as barrier-membrane coating polymer. In particular, two different approaches were investigated: the conventional aqueous film coating and the dry powder coating methods. The research carried out during the first part of the PhD provided a comprehensive study of the conventional aqueous film coating process of guaifenesin-loaded pellets in order to understand the variables af...

  19. IBAD-MgO technology for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, William [Dept. of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology has been successfully applied to high-temperature superconductor coated conductors (CC) as textured substrates. Since the coated conductors were proposed as a potential framework for utilizing the superior transport characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 and related cuprate oxides, several methods including rolling-assisted bi-axial textured substrates (RABiTS) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD), as well as IBAD, have been attempted. As of 2016, most companies that are trying to commercialize CC adapt IBAD technology except for American Superconductors who use RABiTS predominantly. For the materials in the IBAD process, initial efforts to use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or related fluorites in Fujikura in Japan have quickly given way to MgO which technique was developed by Stanford University in the USA. In this review, we present a historical overview of IBAD technology, in particular, for the application of CC. We describe the key scientific understanding of nucleation, the texturing mechanism, and the growth of large bi-axial grains and discuss some potential new IBAD materials and systems for large-scale production.

  20. Preparation of high temperature resistant fabrics using low temperature curing organic silicone coating technology%低温固化有机硅耐高温涂层织物的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振荣; 张玉双; 王红梅; 赵晓明

    2015-01-01

    In order to decrease the curing temperature and time of organic silicone, epoxy resin was grafted on the silicone resin. The inorganic fillers, such as aluminium, kaoline and white carbon powder, were added into the grafted silicone resin and then coated onto glass fiber fabric. Infrared spectroscopy indicated the sec-hydroxyl groups on the branched chain of the epoxy resin reacted with silicone. 66.2 wt% residual mass at 700 ℃ was obtained by TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer), which indicated that the grafted silicone was stable at high temperature. The coating fabric was cured at 60 ℃ for 10 min to finish the curing process. The ablation test showed that the heat insulating property of the coating fabric was much higher than that of the original fabric.%为降低有机硅树脂固化的温度和时间,利用环氧树脂对自制有机硅低聚物进行改性,并进一步在改性硅树脂中添加铝粉、高岭土及白炭黑等功能填料制备复合有硅树脂溶液,将其涂覆在玻璃纤维织物表面,最终制备出具有低温固化功能的隔热涂层玻璃纤维织物.结果表明:环氧树脂分子侧链上的仲羟基与有机硅低聚物发生了接枝反应,环氧基团的保留也为涂层过程中实现低温固化提供了条件;改性硅树脂在700℃时的残留质量为66.2%,具有良好的热稳定性;复合有机硅树脂涂层后的织物可在60℃下烘10 min,完成固化过程,烧蚀试验表明涂层后织物的隔热性能显著提高.

  1. Organic photovoltaics: technologies and manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed, that the organic electronics industries and organic solar cells in particular, are in the transition stage towards commercialization. The companies and R&D institutes in this area are moving now from research and development stage to manufacturing. The biggest challenges are how to

  2. Organic photovoltaics: technologies and manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed, that the organic electronics industries and organic solar cells in particular, are in the transition stage towards commercialization. The companies and R&D institutes in this area are moving now from research and development stage to manufacturing. The biggest challenges are how to sc

  3. Refinement of Magnetite Nanoparticles by Coating with Organic Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cîrcu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite nanoparticles are of great importance in nanotechnology and nanomedicine and have found manifold applications. Here, the effect of coating of magnetite nanoparticles with organic stabilizers, such as O-phosphoryl ethanolamine, glycerol phosphate, phospho-l-ascorbic acid, phospho-d,l-serine, glycolic acid, lactic acid, d,l-malic acid, and d,l-mandelic acid was studied. Remarkably, this procedure led to an improvement of saturation magnetization in three cases rather than to an unfavorable decrease as usually observed. Detailed X-ray powder diffraction investigations revealed that changes in the average crystallite occurred in the coating process. Surprisingly, changes of the average crystallite sizes in either direction were further observed, when the exposure time to the stabilizer was increased. These results imply a new mechanism for the well-known coating of magnetite nanoparticles with stabilizers. Instead of the hitherto accepted simple anchoring of the stabilizers to the magnetite nanoparticle surfaces, a more complex recrystallization mechanism is likely, wherein partial re-dispersion of magnetite moieties from the nanoparticles and re-deposition are involved. The results can help producers and users of magnetite nanoparticles to obtain optimal results in the production of core shell magnetite nanoparticles.

  4. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials.

  5. Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V. (Duke)

    2012-04-02

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  6. Size-controlled dissolution of organic-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F Marc; Brown, Gordon E; Lowry, Gregory V

    2012-01-17

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO(3) at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be ∼1 J/m(2), which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, a, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  7. Organizing for Networked Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book provides seven practical examples of how Danish companies implemented new information technology in order to transform their internal and external business processes. The purpose is to share some of the companies' concerns and hopes during this implementation process, with each case...

  8. Organic Coatings on Primitive Grains in IDPs: Implications for the Formation of Solar System Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Wirick, S.; Keller, L. P.; Sandford, S.

    2009-12-01

    Chondritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are the most primitive samples of extraterrestrial material available for laboratory analysis [1]. These ~10 micron CP IDPs are unequilibrated aggregates of mostly submicron, anhy-drous grains of a diverse variety, including olivine, pyroxene, glass, and sulfide. We previously reported that CP IDPs contain a significant amount of organic matter, and concluded that parent body aqueous processing, which these IDPs never experienced, was not the mechanism that produced much of the pre-biotic organic matter of the early Solar System [2]. However, we were not able to establish either the time or mechanism of its production. The individual grains in these CP IDPs are coated by layers of carbonaceous material [3], typically ~100 nm thick, which holds the grains together. We have analyzed these grain coatings by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy using the Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X1A of the National Synchrotron Light Source. We have obtained C-XANES maps, using a 35 nm probe spot, of ultramicrotome sections from CP IDPs. Cluster analysis, which compares spectra from each pixel in the map and identifies groups of pixels exhibiting similar spectra [4], was used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis indicates most carbonaceous grain coatings have very similar C-XANES spectra, demonstrating that carbonaceous coatings on the individual grains in CP IDPs are organic, with the two strongest absorption features from C=C and C=O. This organic matter coats the individual grains, implying an assembly sequence beginning with grain formation, followed by the emplacement of the organic coating, and finally the assembly of the primitive dust particles. The organic grain coatings in the primitive CP IDPs appear to have formed prior to the aggregation of the most primitive dust particles currently available for laboratory analysis, indicating that these grain coatings are the

  9. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  10. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  11. Work and technological innovation in organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, M J A; Abrahão, R F; Gemma, S F B; Montedo, U B; Menegon, N L; Guarneti, J E; Ribeiro, I A V

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a sustainable cultivation ecologically, economically and socially. Several researches in organic agriculture have been made from technical perspectives, economic traits or related to ecological aspects. There are practically no investigations into the nature of the technology used in organic agriculture, especially from an ergonomic perspective. From the activity analysis, this study aimed to map the technology used in the production of organic vegetables. Properties producing organic vegetables were selected representing the State of São Paulo. It was applied an instrument (questionnaire and semi-structured interview) with their managers and it was made visual records to identify adaptations, innovations and technological demands that simultaneously minimize the workload and the difficulties in performing the tasks and increase work productivity. For some of the technological innovations a digital scanner was used to generate a virtual solid model to facilitate its redesign and virtual prototyping. The main results show that organic farmers have little technology in product form. The main innovations that enable competitive advantage or allow higher labor productivity occur in the form of processes, organization and marketing.

  12. Novel chip coating approaches to improve white LED technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Paul; Schweighart, Marko; Sommer, Christian; Wenzl, Franz-P.; Zinterl, Ernst; Hoschopf, Hans; Pachler, Peter; Tasch, Stefan

    2008-02-01

    Key market requirements for white LEDs, especially in the general lighting and automotive headlamp segments call for improved concepts and performance of white LEDs based on phosphor conversion. Major challenges are small emission areas, highest possible intensities, long-term color stability, and spatial homogeneity of color coordinates. On the other hand, the increasingly high radiation power of the blue LEDs poses problems for all involved materials. Various thick film coating technologies are widely used for applying the color conversion layer to the semiconductor chip. We present novel concepts based on Silicate phosphors with high performance in terms of spatial homogeneity of the emission and variability of the color temperature. Numerical calculation of the optical properties with the help of state-of-the-art simulation tools was used as a basis for the practical optimization of the layer geometries.

  13. Press Hardening Steel (PHS): a new coating and process technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faderl, J. [voestalpine Stahl Linz GmbH (Austria); Vehof, R. [Polynorm N.V., Bundschoten (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Press hardening technology has been known for many years. Increased requirements with respect to safety and light weight construction of the steel body for cars and trucks force the automotive industry to use high strength steels more and more. Strength levels up to 1000 MPa can be provided with AHSS grades. Above 1000 MPa, these steel grades are coming to their limit with respect to strength vs. formability balance. PHS is a very attractive alternative concept. Hardenable 22MnB5 has been supplied - uncoated - for a long time. To avoid decarburization during heat treatment and to improve corrosion behaviour hot dip aluminized 22MnB5 was introduced to the market. Both materials, uncoated and hot dip aluminized, do not provide cathodic corrosion protection without postcoating (sheradizing..). In the last two years an improved press hardening technology and a zinc based coating providing cathodic protection was developed by voestalpine. Some results about strength homogeneity, formability, corrosion behaviour of this voestalpine-PHS technology will be presented in the paper. (orig.)

  14. A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 3: preparation and characterization of bovine serum albumin particles coated with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Dos Santos, I; Richard, J; Thies, C; Pech, B; Benoit, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Solvent-free microparticles, loaded with bovine serum albumin as a model protein, were produced using a novel supercritical (SC) fluid-based coating technology. Coating material consists either of trimyristin (Dynasan 114) or of Gelucire 50-02. Microparticles obtained were characterized as regards their morphology, protein content and in vitro release profile. A discontinuous coating made of micro-needles of trimyristin led to an initial burst release of approximately 70% in 30 min. However, a prolonged release of the BSA could be achieved in a phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C over a 24 h period from particles coated with Gelucire 50-02. Furthermore, it was shown that BSA does not undergo any degradation after SC CO(2) treatment under the conditions used in the coating process.

  15. Designing Work, Technology, Organizations and Vice Versa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    link work and organisation to the use of artefacts and technological systems (and vice versa), exploring by means of different cases of organizational and design research articulations and disarticulations of daily work and design; the doing of objects and technologies in everyday organizational life...... of design has been ‘black-boxed’ and easily implied as an updated (and more fashionable) version of the traditional idea of structuring organizational processes. At the same time, working and organizing seem to be embedded nowadays in increasingly complex and situated technologies and practices....... If the spreading of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has changed workplaces (and even the very meaning of 'workplace' as an area marked by the physical presence of different human actors), working and organizing mobilizes the joint action of humans, technologies and knowledges. The aim of the book...

  16. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials.

  17. Hot spray technology of TA7 titanium alloy coated by molybdenum and its bonding strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoquan; Du Zeyu; Yang Xuguang

    2006-01-01

    A kind of surface modification test was introduced, by which plasma spray in argon atmosphere with CNC4500 system was applied for TA7 titanium alloy to be coated with molybdenum, and technology to produce metallurgical bonding at interface of coating and base meal was tested by heating in vacuum condition for diffusion after hot spray.With the help of scan electron microscope analysis ( SEM) , the effect of argon inlet pressure and heating temperature on coating structure as well as product of diffusion layer were studied.The glued tensile test method was used to measure bonding strength of base metal to coating.The result has shown that both argon inlet pressure and heating temperature exert some effect on coating structure and the width of diffusion layer.A bonding strength of base metal to coating which is greater than molybdenum coating itself may be attained and can be controlled in more than 50 MPa level with tested hot spray technology.

  18. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  19. New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Guo, XiaoXi; Wang, ShuLing; Wang, XueLan; Zhou, YanPing; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-15

    In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples.

  20. Organic electronics emerging concepts and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Santato, Clara

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the tremendous potential of organic electronics, concentrating on those emerging topics and technologies that will form the focus of research over the next five to ten years. The young and energetic team of editors with an excellent research track record has brought together internationally renowned authors to review up-and-coming topics, some for the first time, such as organic spintronics, iontronics, light emitting transistors, organic sensors and advanced structural analysis. As a result, this book serves the needs of experienced researchers in organic electronics, graduate

  1. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUALITATIVE ELLIPSOMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE STUDY OF CORROSION PROCESSES UNDER ORGANIC COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, J; Kruger, J.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the further development of an ellipsometric technique used to study corrosion processes under organic coatings. These developments include the ability to (1) detect the effect of different organic coating, (2) distinguish between surface roughening and film growth or dissolution, and (3) study corrosion processes occurring on separate anodic and cathodic sites.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  3. Improvement on Performances of Internal Combustion Engine Using the Technology of Ceramic Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建生; 付晓光; 张建昭

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technology of using ceramic coating on piston rings of an internal combustion engine, and the comparison of mechanical efficiency and performances of an actual engine before and after the application of ceramic coating on the piston rings. The experimental results show that the mechanical efficiency and power output are enhanced by 4% and 2.6%, respectively, with fuel consumption reduced by 2.9%. Further studies on coating processing and coating materials as well as the reliability and durability will be of great significance in the application and popularization of the new technology.

  4. Ultrasonic spray coating polymer and small molecular organic film for organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Letian; Xie, Wenfa

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating process (USCP) with high material -utilization, low manufacture costs and compatibility to streamline production has been attractive in researches on photoelectric devices. However, surface tension exists in the solvent is still a huge obstacle to realize smooth organic film for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by USCP. Here, high quality polymer anode buffer layer and small molecular emitting layer are successfully realized through USCP by introducing extra-low surface tension diluent and surface tension control method. The introduction of low surface tension methyl alcohol is beneficial to the formation of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) films and brings obvious phase separation and improved conductivity to PEDOT:PSS film. Besides, a surface tension control method, in which new stable tension equilibrium is built at the border of wetting layer, is proposed to eliminate the effect of surface tension during the solvent evaporation stage of ultrasonic spray coating the film consists of 9,9-Spirobifluoren-2-yl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide doped with 10 wt% tris [2-(p -tolyl) pyridine] iridium (III). A smooth and homogenous small molecular emitting layer without wrinkles is successfully realized. The effectiveness of the ultrasonic spray coating polymer anode buffer layer and small molecular emitting layer are also proved by introducing them in OLEDs.

  5. Ultrasonic spray coating polymer and small molecular organic film for organic light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shihao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Letian; Xie, Wenfa

    2016-11-22

    Ultrasonic spray coating process (USCP) with high material -utilization, low manufacture costs and compatibility to streamline production has been attractive in researches on photoelectric devices. However, surface tension exists in the solvent is still a huge obstacle to realize smooth organic film for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by USCP. Here, high quality polymer anode buffer layer and small molecular emitting layer are successfully realized through USCP by introducing extra-low surface tension diluent and surface tension control method. The introduction of low surface tension methyl alcohol is beneficial to the formation of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) films and brings obvious phase separation and improved conductivity to PEDOT:PSS film. Besides, a surface tension control method, in which new stable tension equilibrium is built at the border of wetting layer, is proposed to eliminate the effect of surface tension during the solvent evaporation stage of ultrasonic spray coating the film consists of 9,9-Spirobifluoren-2-yl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide doped with 10 wt% tris [2-(p -tolyl) pyridine] iridium (III). A smooth and homogenous small molecular emitting layer without wrinkles is successfully realized. The effectiveness of the ultrasonic spray coating polymer anode buffer layer and small molecular emitting layer are also proved by introducing them in OLEDs.

  6. Circuit design in organic semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heremans, P.; Dehaene, W.; Steyaert, M.; Myny, K.; Mariën, H.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Veenendaal, E. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art of digital and analog circuits that have been shown in recent years in organic thin-film transistor technology on flexible plastic foil. The transistors are developed for backplanes of displays, and therefore have the characteristics to be unipolar and t

  7. Technological status of organic photovoltaics (OPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a technological status of organic and polymer photovoltaics (OPV) for both single and tandem junctions. We list the current state-of-the-art at the laboratory level for very small rigid and mostly vacuum processed devices to larger area flexible and printed devices. In comparison...

  8. Organic Process Technology Valuation: Cyclohexanone Oxime Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin C.; Breen, Maureen P.

    2010-01-01

    Three contemporary processes for cyclohexanone oxime synthesis are evaluated in a case study. The case study introduces organic chemistry students to basic cost accounting to determine the most economical technology. Technical and financial aspects of these processes are evaluated with problem-based exercises that may be completed by students…

  9. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsonakis, I. A., E-mail: ikartsonakis@ims.demokritos.gr [IAMPPNM, NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , Sol-Gel Laboratory (Greece); Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering NTUA (Greece); Kordas, G. [IAMPPNM, NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , Sol-Gel Laboratory (Greece)

    2013-08-15

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 {+-} 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  10. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  11. Self-adaptive phosphor coating technology for wafer-level scale chip packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Linsong; Rao Haibo; Wang Wei; Wan Xianlong; Liao Junyuan; Wang Xuemei; Zhou Da

    2013-01-01

    A new self-adaptive phosphor coating technology has been successfully developed,which adopted a slurry method combined with a self-exposure process.A phosphor suspension in the water-soluble photoresist was applied and exposed to LED blue light itself and developed to form a conformal phosphor coating with selfadaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and better-performing spatial color uniformity.The self-adaptive phosphor coating technology had been successfully adopted in the wafer surface to realize a waferlevel scale phosphor conformal coating.The first-stage experiments show satisfying results and give an adequate demonstration of the flexibility of self-adaptive coating technology on application of WLSCP.

  12. Comparison of additive amount used in spin-coated and roll-coated organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Pei; Lin, Yuze; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All-polymer and polymer/fullerene inverted solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and roll-coating processes. The spin-coated small-area (0.04 cm(2)) devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in nitrogen. The roll-coated large-area (1.0 cm(2)) devices were...... prepared on ITO-free flexible substrates under ambient conditions. The use of a solvent additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), facilitated phase separation and enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The PCE of polymer/fullerene solar cells increased from 4.58% to 8.12% with 2.5% (v/v) DIO when using...... the spin-coating process, and increased from 1.37% to 2.09% with 5% (v/v) DIO in the roll-coating process. The PCE of all-polymer solar cells increased from 1.44% to 3.51% with 4% (v/v) DIO when employing the spin-coating process. For the roll-coated large area devices the PCE increased from 0.15% to 0...

  13. Solderability perservative coatings: Electroless tin vs. organic azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Jackson, A.M.; Gordon, H.M. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper compares the solderability performance and corrosions ion protection effectiveness of electroless tin coatings versus organic azole films after exposure to a series of humidity and thermal (lead-free solders) cycling conditions. The solderability of immersion tin is directly related to the tin oxide growth on the surface and is not affected by the formation of Sn-Cu intermetallic phases as long as the intermetallic phase is protected by a Sn layer. For a nominal tin thickness of 60{mu}inches, the typical thermal excursions associated with assembly are not sufficient to cause the intermetallic phase to consume the entire tin layer. Exposure to humidity at moderate to elevated temperatures promotes heavy tin oxide formation which leads to solderability loss. In contrast, thin azole films are more robust to humidity exposure; however upon heating in the presence of oxygen, they decompose and lead to severe solderability degradation. Evaluations of lead-free solder pastes for surface mount assembly applications indicate that immersion tin significantly improves the spreading of Sn:Ag and Sn:Bi alloys as compared to azole surface finishes.

  14. Ultrasonic Coating and Holographic Exposure Technology. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    bumps . The improvements were made possible with proper choice of spray coating variables. Figure 24 and Figure 25 show LC spin coated onto spray...in the same method as in a semiconductor wafer leveling process. Other considerations for this system will depend largely upon the desired pattern

  15. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  16. 40 CFR 63.5752 - How do I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? (a) Use equation 1 of this... 12 months. ER22AU01.017 Where: HAPSC = weighted-average organic HAP content for all aluminum coating materials, kilograms of organic HAP per liter of coating solids. m = number of different aluminum...

  17. Evaluation of UV-permeability and photo-oxidisability of organic ultraviolet radiation-absorbing coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Neng; Chen, Yuhe, E-mail: yuhec@sina.com; Bao, Yongjie; Zhang, Zeqian; Wu, Zaixing; Chen, Zhangmin

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • We investigate organic UV radiation-absorbing coatings for use on bamboo surfaces. • The size of glass exactly inserted into sample cell of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. • A model was made to predict UV absorption of coatings. • We examine carbonyl groups change of coatings after ageing. • Two formulations which could effectively protect coating were obtained. - Abstract: Enhancing the durability of the coatings used on bamboo products is essential for increasing their use in outdoor environments. In this study, we investigated organic UV radiation-absorbing coatings for use on bamboo surfaces. The degree of resistance of the coatings, which contained 2-(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-phenyl)-5-chlorinated benzotriazole (BTZ-1), to UV radiation degradation was determined through spectroscopic analysis. The critical BTZ-1 loading amount was determined by analysing the spectroscopic data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to elucidate the relationship between the degree of photooxidation of the coatings and their BTZ-1 concentration. The experimental results showed that the coatings provided a high degree of shielding from UV radiation. The critical loading amount was determined to be 1.82 ± 0.05 g BTZ-1/m{sup 2}. The coatings formed using the formulations that contained 3 and 5 wt% BTZ-1 exhibited the lowest degree of photooxidation after exposure to UV radiation.

  18. Application of the Molecular Adsorber Coating technology on the Ionospheric Connection Explorer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Secunda, Mark S.

    2016-09-01

    The Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) is a zeolite based highly porous coating technology that was developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to capture outgassed contaminants, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, silicones, epoxies, potting compounds, and other similar materials. This paper describes the use of the MAC technology to address molecular contamination concerns on NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) program led by the University of California (UC) Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory. The sprayable paint technology was applied onto plates that were installed within the instrument cavity of ICON's Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FUV). However, due to the instrument's particulate sensitivity, the coating surface was vibrationally cleaned through simulated acoustics to reduce the risk of particle fall-out contamination. This paper summarizes the coating application efforts on the FUV adsorber plates, the simulated laboratory acoustic level cleaning test methods, particulation characteristics, and future plans for the MAC technology.

  19. Recent RHIC in-situ coating technology developments

    CERN Document Server

    Hershcovitch, A.; Brennan, J.M.; Chawla, A.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C-J; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Kobrin, P.; Laping, R.; Poole, H.J.; Jimenez, J.M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.; Sochugov, N.

    2013-04-22

    To rectify the problems of electron clouds observed in RHIC and unacceptable ohmic heating for superconducting magnets that can limit future machine upgrades, we started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for $in-situ$ coating of the RHIC 316LN stainless steel cold bore tubes based on staged magnetrons mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of Cu followed by amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. The Cu coating reduces wall resistivity, while a-C has low SEY that suppresses electron cloud formation. Recent RF resistivity computations indicate that 10 {\\mu}m of Cu coating thickness is needed. But, Cu coatings thicker than 2 {\\mu}m can have grain structures that might have lower SEY like gold black. A 15-cm Cu cathode magnetron was designed and fabricated, after which, 30 cm long samples of RHIC cold bore tubes were coated with various OFHC copper thicknesses; room temperature RF resistivity measured. Rectangular stainless steel and SS discs were Cu coated. SEY of rectangular samples were measured at ro...

  20. Crystallization and deuterium permeation behaviors of yttrium oxide coating prepared by metal organic decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Chikada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide coatings were fabricated on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by metal organic decomposition with a dip-coating technique, and their deuterium permeation behaviors were investigated. The microstructure of the coatings varied with heat-treatment temperature: amorphous at 670ºC (amorphous coating and crystallized at 700ºC (crystallized coating. Deuterium permeation flux of the amorphous coating was lower than the uncoated steel by a factor of 5 at 500ºC, while that of the crystallized coating was lower by a factor of around 100 at 400‒550ºC. The permeation fluxes of both coatings were drastically decreased during the measurements at higher temperatures by a factor of up to 790 for the amorphous coating and 1000 for the crystallized one, indicating a microstructure modification occurred by an effect of test temperature with hydrogen flux. Temperature dependence of deuterium diffusivity in the coatings suggests that the decrease of the permeation flux has been derived from a decrease of the diffusivity. Characteristic permeation behaviors were observed with different annealing conditions; however, they can be interpreted using the permeation mechanism clarified in the previous erbium oxide coating studies.

  1. Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

  2. Laser ablation and competitive technologies in paint stripping of heavy anticorrosion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuöcker, Georg D.; Bielak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    During the last years surface preparation prior to coating operations became an important research and development task, since tightened environmental regulations have to be faced in view of the deliberation of hazardous compounds of coatings. Especially, ship-yards get more and more under pressure, because the environmental commitment of their Asian competitors is fairly limited. Therefore, in the US and in Europe several technology evaluation projects have been launched to face this challenge. The majority of coating service providers and ship yards use grit blasting; this process causes heavy emissions as of dust and enormous amounts of waste as polluted sand. Coating removal without any blasting material would reduce the environmental impact. Laser processing offers ecological advantages. Therefore thermal processes like laser ablation have been studied thoroughly in several published projects and also in this study. Many of these studies have been focused on the maintenance of airplanes, but not on de-coating of heavy protective coatings. In this case the required laser power is extra-high. This study is focused on the maintenance of heavy anti-corrosion coatings and compares the industrial requirements and the opportunities of the innovative laser processes. Based on the results of this analysis similar approaches as e.g. plasma jet coating ablation have been studied. It was concluded that none of these methods can compete economically with the conventional processes as grit blasting and water jetting since the required ablation rate is very high (>60m2/h). A new process is required that is not based on any blasting operation and which does not depend strongly on the coating's characteristic. The delamination of the coating where the coatings is not removed by evaporation, but in little pieces of the complete coating system meets these requirements. The delamination can be accomplished by the thermal destruction of the primer coating by an intense heat pulse

  3. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  4. The Fabrication of Microstructure Surface of Super- hydrophobic Coating by Surface Gelation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hui; WANG Houzhi; ZHAO Lei; ZHAO Huizhong

    2008-01-01

    The microstructured surface of materials were fabricated by a two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process. In fluorinated polymer with PTFE doping, the well-proportioned composite sols were prepared using sol-gel processing under the hydrochloric acid and deficiency of water conditions. After the substrate was coated by composite sols, and the gelation treatment on the surface of composite coating, the micrometer-scale and nanometer-scale hierarchical structures were formed in surface layer of material. XPS and TEM technologies were employed to identify that the gelation occurs just on the surface of composite coating. The morphology of coating surface was observed by SEM and AFM technologies. The microstructured surface of material can be fabricated using this inexpensive and easily controlled method on low surface energy resin materials, the super-hydrophobic coatings materials can be prepared.

  5. Development of process technologies for improvement of electroless nickel coatings properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Pingarrón, A.; Bolarín-Miró, A.; Sánchez – de Jesús, F.; Vargas-Mendoza, L.; Trujillo-Barragán, M.; Molera-Sola, P.; Hernandez-Gallegos, M. A.; Valdez-Navarro, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes research and technology developments that enable to improve nickel electroless coating properties. This work deals with: (a) different methods in order to achieve Ni-P-Mo coatings. (b) Other development is related with coatings with addition of hard particles such as SiC, WC or Al2O3,(c) Electroless nickel deposits on PBT and austempered ductile iron (ADI). (d) In addition, nickel coatings were deposited on powder metallic pieces and finally, electroless nickel coatings, in conjunction with layers from thermal spray process were formed. Characterization of all coatings by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness, wear and corrosion tests were carried out. Results indicate positive increment in both mechanical and electrochemical properties which enhance field applications in Mexican industry.

  6. A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 2: solubility considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Dos Santos, I; Thies, C; Richard, J; Le Meurlay, D; Gajan, V; VandeVelde, V; Benoit, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Solubility measurements of candidate coating materials have been performed in supercritical (SC) CO(2) so as to select appropriate coating materials for implementation of a solvent-free coating process previously described. Solubility of lipidic compounds such as waxes (paraffin, beeswax, Carnauba wax), pure triglycerides (tricaprin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin) and mixture of glycerides and fatty acid esters (Gelucire) in SC CO(2) were evaluated in a static mode under different temperature and pressure conditions, ranging from 13-52 degrees C and from 50-220 bar, whether the CO(2)was in its liquid or SC state. It was shown that the compounds which are mixtures of various components give rise to a selective extraction of the lower melting point components, as evidenced from thermal analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions of the coating materials.

  7. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  8. Corrosion protection by sonoelectrodeposited organic films on zinc coated steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et Taouil, Abdeslam; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Mourad; Lallemand, Fabrice; Lallemand, Séverine; Gigandet, Marie-Pierre; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    A variety of coatings based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole were deposited on zinc coated steel in presence or absence of ultrasound, and studied in terms of corrosion protection. Cr III and Cr VI commercial passivation were used as references. Depth profiling showed a homogeneous deposit for Cr III, while SEM imaging revealed good surface homogeneity for Cr VI layers. These chromium-based passivations ensured good protection against corrosion. Polypyrrole (PPy) was also electrochemically deposited on zinc coated steel with and without high frequency ultrasound irradiation in aqueous sodium tartrate-molybdate solution. Such PPy coatings act as a physical barrier against corrosive species. PPy electrosynthesized in silent conditions exhibits similar properties to Cr VI passivation with respect to corrosion protection. Ultrasound leads to more compact and more homogeneous surface structures for PPy, as well as to more homogeneous distribution of doping molybdate anions within the film. Far better corrosion protection is exhibited for such sonicated films.

  9. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  11. Automated growth of metal-organic framework coatings on flow-through functional supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, F; Palomino Cabello, C; Clavijo, S; Estela, J M; Cerdà, V; Turnes Palomino, G

    2015-05-11

    A fully automated method for the controlled growth of metal-organic framework coatings on flow-through functional supports is reported. The obtained hybrid flow-through supports show high performance for the automated extraction of water pollutants.

  12. Employment of gold-coated silver nanowires as transparent conductive electrode for organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunho; Kim, Bongsung; Im, Inseob; Kim, Dongjae; Lee, Haeseong; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Cho, Sung Min

    2017-08-01

    This study proposes a simple method of Au coating on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) transparent conductive films as the anode of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) to increase the work function of the film and thus enhance hole transport. We carefully engineer the process conditions (pretreatment, solution concentrations, and coating number) of the coating using a diluted HAuCl4 solution on the Ag NWs film to minimize etching damage on Ag NWs accompanying the galvanic replacement reaction. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy show work function increase of Ag NWs upon Au coating. OLED devices based on Au-coated Ag NWs show a lower turn-on voltage and higher luminance, compared with pristine Ag NWs device. Although the Ag NWs device displays poor efficiencies in the low luminance range due to a high leakage, some of the Au-coated Ag NWs devices showed efficiencies higher than those of the ITO device in a high luminance.

  13. Water-Based Assembly of Polymer-Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Functional Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Souvik [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; McGrail, Benard Peter [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy & Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, 77843-3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Texas A& M University, 3122 TAMU College Station TX 77843-3122 USA

    2016-12-27

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained tremendous attention for their porosity, size selectivity, and structural diversity. There is a need for MOF-based coatings, particularly in applications such as separations, electronics and energy; yet forming thin, functional, conformal coatings is prohibitive because MOFs exist as a powder. Layer-by- layer assembly, a versatile thin film coating approach, offers a unique solution to this problem, but this approach requires MOFs that are water-dispersible and bear a surface charge. Here, we address these issues by examining water-based dispersions of MIL-101(Cr) that facilitate the formation of robust polymer-MOF hybrid coatings. Specifically, the substrate to be coated is alternately exposed to an aqueous solution of poly(styrene sulfonate) and dispersion MIL-101(Cr), yielding linear film growth and coatings with a MOF content as high as 77 wt%.This approach is surface-agnostic, in which the coating is successfully applied to silicon, glass, flexible plastic, and even cotton fabric, conformally coating individual fibers. In contrast, prior attempts at forming MOF-coatings were severely limited to a handful of surfaces, required harsh chemical treatment, and were not conformal. The approach presented here unambiguously confirms that MOFs can be conformally coated onto complex and unusual surfaces, opening the door for a wide variety of applications.

  14. Self-healing antimicrobial polymer coating with efficacy in the presence of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Luis J.; Goddard, Julie M.

    2016-08-01

    A method to prepare a self-healing, antimicrobial polymer coating that retains efficacy against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence of organic matter is reported. A coating composed of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was applied to a maleic anhydride functionalized polypropylene support. The chemistry of the polymer coating was designed to impart hydrophobicity due to the styrene subunits, intrinsic antimicrobial character (>99.9% reduction) from the cationic primary amine groups, and enhanced antimicrobial character (> 99.99% reduction) after chlorination of N-halamine forming groups. Antimicrobial effectiveness was demonstrated under conditions of increasing organic load. Up to 500 ppm horse serum, chlorinated coatings retained full antimicrobial character (>99.99% reduction). Even at 50,000 ppm of horse serum, the coating provided ∼90% reduction as prepared, and between ∼75% and ∼80% reduction in the form of N-halamines. Microscopy confirmed no evidence of bacterial adhesion on the coating surface. Finally, the coating exhibited self-healing properties after exposure to acid and alkaline solutions and restoration by heat, as confirmed through spectroscopy from the rebuilding of characteristic chemical bonds. Such robust antimicrobial polymer coatings with efficacy under conditions of increasing organic load may support reducing microbial cross-contamination in food and biomedical industries.

  15. Silicon micro venturi nozzles for cost-efficient spray coating of thin organic P3HT/PCBM layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Michael A.; Büchele, Patric; Brünnler, Manfred; Deml, Sonja; Lechner, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Improvements on spray coating are of particular interest to different fields of technology as it is a scalable deposition method and processing from solutions offer various application possibilities outside of typical facilities. When it comes to the deposition of expensive and film-forming media such as organic semiconductors, consumption and nozzle cleaning issues are of particular importance. We demonstrate the simple steps to design and fabricate micro venturi nozzles for economical spray coating with a consumption as low as 30-50 µl · min-1. For spray coating an active area of 25 cm2 a 2.45-4.01 fold coating efficiency is observed compared to a conventional airbrush nozzle set. The electrical characterization of first diodes sprayed with an active layer thickness of ~750 nm using a single micronozzle at a coating speed of 1.7 cm2 · min-1 reveals a good external quantum efficiency of 72.9% at 532 nm and a dark current of ~7.4 · 10-5 mA · cm-2, both measured at  -2 V. Furthermore, the high resistance of the micronozzles against solvents and most acids is provided through realization in a silicon wafer with silicon dioxide encapsulation, therefore allowing easy and effective cleaning.

  16. High Performance Protein-Coated Microcrystals of Rhizomucor miehei Lipase: Preparation and Application for Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Simas; Kiriliauskaitė, Vita; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Bendikienė, Vida

    2015-05-01

    The goal of obtaining enzyme forms with higher catalytic activity, greater stability, and improved reusability has been pursued for the last few decades. Various novel biocatalyst designs have been created, and protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) are one of them. PCMC is an enzyme immobilization method based on simultaneous precipitation of protein and carrier, forming micron-sized enzyme-coated crystals. Highly active Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) PCMCs were prepared by immobilizing the protein onto K2SO4 as a carrier salt in acetone as a precipitating solvent. The formation of RML PCMCs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Preparation of RML PCMCs was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Obtained PCMCs were found to be more active and stable during p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis in n-hexane, compared to liquid RML. The enzymatic activity and temperature optimum increased from 0.011 U/mg(soluble) lipase to 8.70 U/mg(immobilized) lipase and from 30 to 37 °C, respectively. Additionally, the ability of RML PCMCs to catalyze flavor ester 2-phenethyl octanoate synthesis was investigated. Some reaction parameters were optimized, resulting in 80 % conversion within 1 h with an enhanced reusability, compared to commercial immobilized RML preparation. Thus, PCMCs offer a cheap and effective technology for obtaining highly active lipase preparations for biocatalysis in organic media.

  17. Improvement on the Fatigue Performance of 2024-T4 Alloy by Synergistic Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Shu Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rotating bending fatigue tests of 2024-T4 Al alloy with different oxide coatings were carried out. Compared to the uncoated and previously reported oxide coatings of aluminum alloys, the fatigue strength is able to be enhanced by using a novel oxide coating with sealing pore technology. These results indicate that the better the coating surface quality is, the more excellent the fatigue performance under rotating bending fatigue loading is. The improvement on the fatigue performance is mainly because the fatigue crack initiation and the early stage of fatigue crack growth at the coating layer can be delayed after PEO coating with pore sealing. Therefore, it is a so-called synergistic coating technology for various uses, including welding thermal cracks and filling micro-pores. The effects of different oxide coatings on surface hardness, compressive residual stress, morphology and fatigue fracture morphology are discussed. A critical compressive residual stress of about 95–100 MPa is proposed.

  18. 40 CFR 63.5797 - How do I determine the organic HAP content of my resins and gel coats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of my resins and gel coats? 63.5797 Section 63.5797 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Casting § 63.5797 How do I determine the organic HAP content of my resins and gel coats? In order to determine the organic HAP content of resins and gel coats, you may rely on information provided by...

  19. Nickel Based Coatings Containing TiN Nanoparticles Prepared by Ultrasonic-Electrodeposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the surface properties of steel substrates, nano Ni-TiN composite coatings were prepared using ultrasonic-electrodeposition technology in this study. The effects of ultrasonic on composite coatings were studied. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD study had been utilized to detect the crystalline and amorphous characteristics of Ni-TiN composite coatings. The surface morphology and metallurgical structure of composite coatings were observed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and High Respective Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM. Finally the corrosion resistance was tested. The results show that the ultrasonic has greatly effects on TiN nanoparticles in composite coatings. And the introduction of ultrasonic and TiN particles cause the nickel grains to become fine. The average grain diameter of TiN particles is 30 nm. The Ni grain is measured approximately 60 nm. The test of corrosion resistance shows the nano Ni-TiN composite coating is proved with good corrosion resistance. The corrosion rate of 45 steel is about 5 times than that of Ni-TiN composite coating and the corrosion rate of Ni coating is above thrice than that of Ni-TiN composite coating.

  20. Handbook of polymer coatings for electronics chemistry, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1990-01-01

    This completely revised edition remains the only comprehensive treatise on polymer coatings for electronics. Since the original edition, the applications of coatings for the environmental protection of electronic systems have greatly increased, largely driven by the competitive need to reduce costs, weight and volume. The demands for high-speed circuits for the rapid processing of signals and data, high-density circuits for the storage and retrieval of megabits of memory, and the improved reliability required of electronics for guiding and controlling weapons and space vehicles have triggered

  1. Sorbent-coated diffusion denuders for direct measurement of gas/particle partitioning by semi-volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, L.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lane, D.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, North York, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    Sorbent-coated annular denuder-based samplers have been developed for direct determination of both gaseous and particulate semi-volatile organic species. The first such sampler, the Integrated Organic Vapor/Particle Sampler, has been validated for sampling semi-volatile PAH in ambient air and environmental tobacco smoke. Multi-channel versions of the IOVPS have been used successfully for investigation of gas/particle partitioning of a variety of semi-volatile organic species in combustion source-enriched environmental chambers. Subsequent improvements have resulted in two new higher-capacity samplers, the IOGAPS and the jumbo-IOGAPS, that use the same sorbent for sampling trace organics in the ambient atmosphere for 24--48 hr periods over a wide temperature range. Construction of these new samplers began by incorporating the IOVPS coating technology onto the gas collection surfaces of the higher capacity GAP sampler. Substantial design effort aims to ensure that vapor phase components as volatile as naphthalene can be trapped efficiently and retained by the sorbent-coated surface while the particles pass through to the filter.

  2. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Optical Parameters (OP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by UV-Vis has demonstrated that the Quartz/ITO/PEDOT/PANI-X1 layer does not have displacement of absorption for wavelengths greaters after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Thus, the spectral irradiance of the OLED informed the irradiance of 100 W/m2, and this result, compared with the standard Light Emitting Diode (LED, has indicated that the OLED has higher irradiance. After 1000 hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.

  3. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...... knowledge on chemical and physical degradation mechanisms is required, and that improvements in resistance to elevated temperatures and abrasion would decrease the risk of use and increase the potential application areas of organic coatings exposed to acidic environments in the chemical industry....

  4. Microcantilever sensors coated with a sensitive polyaniline layer for detecting volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, C; Leite, F L; Manzoli, A; Sandovall, R D; Fatibello, O; Herrmann, P S P

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a silicon cantilever sensor coated with a conducting polymer layer. The mechanical response (deflection) of the bimaterial (the coated microcantilever) was investigated under the influence of several volatile compounds-methanol, ethanol, acetone, propanol, dichloroethane, toluene and benzene. The variations in the deflection of the coated and uncoated microcantilevers when exposed to volatile organic compounds were evaluated, and the results indicated that the highest sensitivity was obtained with the coated microcantilever and methanol. The uncoated microcantilever was not sensitive to the volatile organic compounds. An increase in the concentration of the volatile organic compound resulted in higher deflections of the microcantilever sensor. The sensor responses were reversible, sensible, rapid and proportional to the volatile concentration.

  5. Nonionic surfactant enhanced semipermanent coatings for capillary electrophoresis of inorganic anions without use of organic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Liu, Qian; Li, Yi; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2011-09-01

    Separation of inorganic anions by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is usually conducted in co-electroosmotic mode due to the large electrophoretic mobilities of inorganic anions. Semipermanent surfactant coatings have been shown to be effective for CE of inorganic anions due to their strong capability of electroosmotic flow (EOF) manipulation. However, semipermanent coatings often suffer from their unsatisfactory stability. In addition, organic solvent additives are usually required to adjust the selectivity, which also aggravate the degradation of coating. In this work, a novel semipermanent coating consisting of cationic Gemini surfactant 18-10-18 and nonionic surfactant Tween 20 was developed to separate inorganic anions in CE. This coating is easy to prepare and more stable than pure Gemini coating. The introduction of nonionic surfactant in the coating not only suppresses the reversed EOF but can also adjust the selectivity of separation. Good separations of six model anions were achieved, the separation efficiency was as high as 65040-169700 plates/m and the RSDs of the migration times were less than 0.5 and 2.5% for run-to-run and day-to-day assays, respectively. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.05-5.0 mM; the detection limits ranged from 20 to 50 μM. More importantly, no organic solvents are required in the background buffer to achieve the satisfactory separations. This guarantees the coating stability and makes the method greener than most of other methods for CE of inorganic anions.

  6. Interactions between wood and coatings with low organic solvent content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the knowledge on the fundamental interactions between low VOC-coatings and wood, in particular in relation to wood protection in exterior use. To avoid environmental damage and dangerous conditions in the workplace, low-VOC paints have gaine

  7. Interactions between wood and coatings with low organic solvent content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the knowledge on the fundamental interactions between low VOC-coatings and wood, in particular in relation to wood protection in exterior use. To avoid environmental damage and dangerous conditions in the workplace, low-VOC paints

  8. Interactions between wood and coatings with low organic solvent content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the knowledge on the fundamental interactions between low VOC-coatings and wood, in particular in relation to wood protection in exterior use. To avoid environmental damage and dangerous conditions in the workplace, low-VOC paints h

  9. [An investigation of HAP/organic polymer composite coatings prepared by electrochemical co-deposition technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haobing; Lin, Changjian; Leng, Yang

    2003-03-01

    An electrochemical co-deposition technique has been developed to prepare a hydroxyapatite (HAP)/organic polymer composite coatings on Ti surface as new biomaterial of hard tissue. The composite coating of organic polymer and calcium phosphate is formed by adding a water soluble polymer of the ethylene series to NH4H2PO4-Ca (NO3)2 solution when conducting an appropriate electrochemical co-deposition experiment. The XRD, SEM, XPS, SIMS and nano indent measurements were performed to characterize the morphology, composition, structure and surface stiffness of the composite coating. It was found that the morphology and surface hardness of the coatings showed a remarkable modification when introducing a minor polymer to HAP coating, and the bonding force between the coating and metal substrate was distinctly increased. The incorporation of minor organic polymer into the HAP compound at molecular level will improve the mechanical properties and morphology of the composite coatings, and this may be helpful to raising its bio-activity.

  10. Semipermanent capillary coatings in mixed organic-water solvents for CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diress, Abebaw G; Yassine, Mahmoud M; Lucy, Charles A

    2007-04-01

    This report describes the creation of semipermanent capillary coatings that are compatible with organic-water solvent systems in CE. The coatings are created by simply rinsing the fused-silica capillary with long double-chain cationic surfactants, such as dimethyl-ditetradecyl ammonium bromide (2C(14)DAB), dihexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (2C(16)DAB), and dimethyldioctadecyl ammonium bromide (2C(18)DAB). These surfactants generate semipermanent bilayer coatings on the capillary surface, which display a high degree of stability in buffers containing up to 60% v/v of organic solvents, such as methanol and ACN. The coating stability increases with increasing hydrophobicity of the surfactant, i.e., with increasing chain length. For instance, the EOF changes by only 1.2% in a 2C(18)DAB-coated capillary after 130 capillary volumes of rinsing with 60% v/v methanol containing buffer. The bilayer coatings allow separations to be performed without the need to regenerate the coating between runs or to maintain the EOF modifier in the run buffer. Rapid separations (organic solvent content is adjusted.

  11. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  12. DOD Initiatives to Rapidly Transition Advanced Coating and Surface Finishing Technologies for Military Turbine Engine Manufacture and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-21

    of PEWG Projects Involving Plating, Coating, and Surface Finishing • Advanced thermal spray coatings (HVOF) • Electrospark deposition • Laser...EWI, GEAE, P&W, Rolls-Royce FUNDING SOURCES RTOC STATUS OC-ALC request for FY06 Funding 3/21/2005 22 Other Technologies • Electrospark Deposition for...Aircraft Engines PEWG MANAGER Chuck Alford, Anteon Corp TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITY ADVANTAGES: Kinetic spray technologies deposit thick coatings with a

  13. Application of waterborne acrylic emulsions in coated controlled release fertilizer using reacted layer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yazhen Shen; Cong Zhao; Jianmin Zhou; Changwen Du

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne acrylic emulsions modified with organic siloxanes and aziridine crosslinker were synthesized and applied as coating of controlled release fertilizer. The free films were characterized and the nutrient release pro-files of the coated fertilizers were determined. The results show that methyl silicone oil and methylsilanolate so-dium could not improve water resistance performance and glass transition temperature Tg of coatings, while the firmness is enhanced. Aziridine crosslinker improves the water resistance performance, firmness and Tg. Incorpo-ration of methyl silicone oil and aziridine crosslinker gives an excellent aqueous acrylic emulsion for coated con-trol ed release fertilizer, with the 30-day cumulative nutrient release reduced to 16%and an estimated nutrient release duration over 190 days. Therefore, this waterborne coating is promising to meet the requirements for controlled release of nutrient and environmental protection.

  14. EVALUATION OF ZN-CR III-ORGANIC COATING BY ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Martins Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion control of electrogalvanized steel employing Cr VI based treatments is widely known and studied. However, researchers have been trying to find out alternatives to replace these salts once they must be banned in accord to environmental and industrial guidelines. Cr III – based conversion coatings have shown performance compatible to Cr VI – based treatments. In this work, EIS measurements are performed in NaCl 0,05 mol/L and Na2 SO4 0,1 mol/L, during the immersion time, to evaluate the corrosion resistance of electrogalvanized steel passivated with Cr III – based conversion treatment and painted with three different organic coatings. The organic coatings are characterized by their adherence. The results show a similar behavior for the three coatings and, despite a second constant time has been pointed by the EIS fitting, the R2 values indicate a low corrosion rate. The system Zn – Cr III – organic coating is compatible to the system Zn – Cr VI – organic coating, for the immersion period considered.

  15. Fluorescence microscopy techniques for quantitative evaluation of organic biocide distribution in antifouling paint coatings: application to model antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodes, L R; Dennington, S P; Schuppe, H; Wharton, J A; Bakker, M; Klijnstra, J W; Stokes, K R

    2012-01-01

    A test matrix of antifouling (AF) coatings including pMMA, an erodible binder and a novel trityl copolymer incorporating Cu₂O and a furan derivative (FD) natural product, were subjected to pontoon immersion and accelerated rotor tests. Fluorescence and optical microscopy techniques were applied to these coatings for quantification of organic biocide and pigment distribution. Total leaching of the biocide from the novel copolymer binder was observed within 6 months of rotor immersion, compared to 35% from the pMMA coating. In pontoon immersions, 61% of the additive was lost from the pMMA coating, and 53% from the erodible binder. Profiles of FD content in the binders revealed an accelerated loss of additive from the surface of the CDP resulting from rosin degradation, compared to even depletion from pMMA. In all samples, release of the biocide was inhibited beyond the Cu₂O front, corresponding to the leached layer in samples where Cu₂O release occurred.

  16. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Divya; Wu, Xinghua; Fu, Qitao; Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye; Kanhere, Pushkar D.; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Self-cleaning coatings with excellent water-repellence and good mechanical properties are in high demand. However, producing such coatings with resistance to mechanical abrasion and environmental weathering remains a key challenge. Mechanically robust coatings based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (Glymo) have been prepared using a sol-gel method. Emphasis is given to the addition of Glymo, an epoxy silane which creates an organic matrix that blends with the inorganic Sisbnd Osbnd Si matrix formed from the TEOS. The combination of the blended matrix produced coatings with good adhesion to substrates and improved mechanical properties. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) and silica fillers were introduced to increase the hydrophobicity of the coating. It was found that the water contact angle (CA) of these coatings increases from 115° to 164° upon decreasing filler size from 1-5 μm to 10-20 nm. The sliding angle (SA) for coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica is around 2°. UV weathering does not show significant effect on the properties of the coatings. Mechanical properties and performances including hardness, Young's modulus, coating adhesion and abrasion resistance were systematically analyzed. In the current work, a simple self-cleaning test, which measures the extent of dirt accumulation and subsequent removal by water spray, was performed. The coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica particles show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  17. Solution-Processed Nanowire Coating for Light Management in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsuboi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel light management approach based on solution-processed nanowire (NW coating for enhancing organic solar cell efficiency. A titanium dioxide (TiO2 NW dispersion was produced by electrospinning. The coatings with various coverage fractions were fabricated by a simple solution casting of a TiO2 NW dispersion. Reduced reflectivity was observed for the NW-coated glass slide. The bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with the NW coating showed improved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs due to their antireflection and light trapping effects in the active layer. In addition, the PCE of the cell with the NW coating was improved compared with that without the NW coating for incident angles above 70° (increased by a maximum of 51.6% at an incident angle of 85°. These results indicate that solution-processed NW coating is a promising light management approach easily scalable and applicable to a wide range of devices, including solar cells.

  18. Soot aggregate restructuring due to coatings of secondary organic aerosol derived from aromatic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Dutt, Ashneil; Charbonneau, André M; Olfert, Jason S; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2014-12-16

    Restructuring of monodisperse soot aggregates due to coatings of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of toluene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, and benzene was investigated in a series of photo-oxidation (smog) chamber experiments. Soot aggregates were generated by combustion of ethylene using a McKenna burner, treated by denuding, size-selected by a differential mobility analyzer, and injected into a smog chamber, where they were exposed to low vapor pressure products of aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation, which formed SOA coatings. Aggregate restructuring began once a threshold coating mass was reached, and the degree of the subsequent restructuring increased with mass growth factor. Although significantly compacted, fully processed aggregates were not spherical, with a mass-mobility exponent of 2.78, so additional SOA was required to fill indentations between collapsed branches of the restructured aggregates before the dynamic shape factor of coated particles approached 1. Trends in diameter growth factor, effective density, and dynamic shape factor with increasing mass growth factor indicate distinct stages in soot aggregate processing by SOA coatings. The final degree and coating mass dependence of soot restructuring were found to be the same for SOA coatings from all four aromatic precursors, indicating that the surface tensions of the SOA coatings are similar.

  19. BONDLENGTH ALTERNATION OF NANOPARTICLES Fe2O3 COATED WITH ORGANIC SURFACTANTS PROBED BY EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The nanoparticles γ-Fe2O3 coated with surfactants.DBS,ST and CTAB.repsectively.were synthesized by microemulsion method.The coated ferric oxides.which show enhanced nonlinear optical properties compared with their bulk counterpart.were probed by EXAFS in solution forms.The x=-ray absorption spectra for Fe K edge were measured at room temperature by help of synchrotron radiation light source.Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis shows that the coating layers of organic molecules interact with surface atoms of nanopartices,the Fe-O bond length was extended.

  20. High performance metal-organic-framework coatings obtained via thermal gradient synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, Felix; Henninger, Stefan K; Janiak, Christoph

    2012-10-09

    For many possible applications of metal-organic frameworks, a coating onto a metallic support capable of both superior heat and mass transfer is required. A heated substrate in contact with a chilled solution of metal salt and linker reproducibly yields polycrystalline, highly stable, thermally conductive MOF coatings at a growth rate of 50 μm h(-1), illustrated by the formation of Cu(3)(btc)(2) as an example.

  1. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  2. 浅谈路面透层、粘层施工工艺%Brief Discussion on Construction Technology of Prime Coat and Tack Coat in Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金涛

    2012-01-01

    Material quality requirement, construction technology, quality management and acceptance re- quirement of prime coat and tack coat in pavement are introduced.%介绍了路面透层及粘层的材料质量要求、施工工艺、质量管理和验收要求。

  3. 高温防腐涂料与热障防腐涂层技术的研究进展%Progress in Study on Technology of High Temperature Resistant and Thermal Barrier Anti-corrosion Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春华; 李克军; 李安学; 李春启; 左玉帮

    2011-01-01

    综述了国内外耐高温防腐有机、无机和有机-无机复合涂料和热障防腐涂层技术的研究与应用的新进展,介绍了有机硅树脂、有机氟树脂、无机硅酸盐基涂料、无机磷酸盐基涂料、陶瓷涂层和搪瓷涂层的发展现状和前景.%The progresses in application and study on technology of high temperature resistant anti-corrosion organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic composite coatings and thermal barrier anti-corrosion coatings are summarized. The development status and prospects of organic silicon resin, organic fluororesin, inorganic silicate based coating, inorganic phosphate based coating, ceramic and enamel coatings are introduced.

  4. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  5. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, M.; Masaki, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K.

    1996-04-10

    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  7. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomimetic organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings for titanium implants. In vitro and in vivo biological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, R; Sikirić, M Dutour; Lamolle, S; Ronold, H J; Lyngstadass, S P; Liefeith, K; Cuisinier, F; Füredi-Milhofer, H

    2010-12-01

    Recently described organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings of the chemical composition: (PLL/PGA)(10)CaP[(PLL/PGA)(5)CaP](4) (coating A) and (PLL/PGA)(10)CaP[(PLL/PGA)(5)CaP](4)(PLL/PGA)(5) (coating B), applied to chemically etched titanium plates, have been tested by extensive cell culture tests and in vivo biological experiments, with uncoated titanium plates serving as controls. Before testing, coated samples were stored for extended periods of time (from 2 weeks to 8 months) under dry, sterile conditions. Cells of the cell-lines MC3T3-E1 and/or SAOS-2 were used for the following cell culture tests: initial adhesion (4 h) and proliferation (up to 21 days), cell activity (XTT test), morphology, synthesis of collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase activity (all incubation up to 21 days). In addition, coating B was tested against uncoated control in a validated in vivo pull-out model in rabbit tibia. The results of both in vitro and in vivo experiments show excellent biological properties of chemically etched titanium which are even surpassed by surfaces covered with coating B. Thus, after 8 weeks of healing the implants coated with B were significantly better attached to the cortical bone of rabbit thibiae than uncoated titanium controls with more than twice the force needed to detach coated implants. However, coating A (top crystal layer) had an adverse effect on both cell proliferation and activity, which is explained by morphological observations, showing inhibited spreading of the cells on its rough surfaces. The results also show the remarkable stability of the coatings when shelved under dry and sterile conditions.

  9. Thermodynamic aspects of the coating formation through mechanochemical synthesis in vibration technology systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyn, S. U.; Lebedev, V. A.; Gorlenko, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of thermodynamic concepts of the process, we proposed an energy model that reflects the mechanochemical essence of coating forming in terms of vibration technology systems, which takes into account the contribution to the formation of the coating, the increase of unavailable energy due to the growth of entropy, the increase in the energy of elastic-plastic crystal lattice distortion as a result of the mechanical influence of working environment indenters, surface layer internal energy change which occurs as a result of chemical interaction of the contacting media. We proposed adhesion strength of the local volume modified through processing as a criterion of the energy condition of the formed coating. We established analytical dependence which helps to obtain the coating strength of the material required by operating conditions.

  10. The Technology and Properties of Digital Double Pulse Electrodepositing Ni-HA Composite Coating of Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG He-yan; WANG Zhou; SHI Gu-guizhi; FU Chuan-qi; CHEN Wei-rong; JIN Zhong-hong; LI Yan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the technology, the surface image, microstructure and ability of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics made on 1Crl8Ni9Ti substrate by SEM ,XRD and so on. The results shows that ( 1 ) the HA particles exit in substrate uniformly; (2) XRD result shows that there are HA peaks at 78. 023 ° ,43. 246°and 73. 120°differently; (3) The microhardnees of the composite coatings is increased with the rise of content of HA particles, and on the same conditions the microhardnees value is greater than that of common non-pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics. (4) The grain size of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics is much thinner than that of common D. C.

  11. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, S.; Funke, F.; Greger, G.U.; Bleier, A.; Morell, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  12. Design guidelines for use of adhesives and organic coatings in hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Licari, J. J.; Perkins, K. L.; Schramm, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the reliability of organic adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. The objectives were twofold: (1) to identify and investigate problem areas that could result from the use of organic adhesives and (2) to develop evaluation tests to quantify the extent to which these problems occur for commercially available adhesives. Efforts were focused on electrically conductive adhesives. Also, a study was made to evaluate selected organic coatings for contamination protection for hybrid microcircuits.

  13. Rear interface engineering of hybrid organic-silicon nanowire solar cells via blade coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Chang, Yu-Fan; Tsai, Pei-Ting; Chang, Jan-kai; Tseng, Wei-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Cheng; Hsiao, Chu-Yen; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Gou-Chung; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Yu, Peichen

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we investigate blade-coated organic interlayers at the rear surface of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics based on two small molecules: Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq(3)) and 1,3-bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl) benzene (OXD-7). In particular, soluble Alq(3) resulting in a uniform thin film with a root-mean-square roughness organic-silicon photovoltaics.

  14. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  15. Influence of organic coatings on pyrene ozonolysis at the air-aqueous interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elyse A; Donaldson, D J

    2012-01-12

    Glancing angle laser-induced fluorescence was used to investigate the effects of organic monolayer coatings on the ozonation kinetics of pyrene at the air-aqueous interface. Fluorescence spectra show that both 1-octanol and octanoic acid coatings give rise to similar decreased polarity at the interface relative to the uncoated surface and show a similar propensity of pyrene to partition to the interface. Ozonation kinetics follow a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, indicating a surface reaction. At high ozone concentrations, a monolayer coating of 1-octanol enhances the rate relative to the uncoated surface and a coating of octanoic acid decreases the rate. Pyrene fluorescence is most efficiently quenched by ozone in the presence of a 1-octanol coating, followed by the uncoated surface, and least efficiently quenched by ozone in the presence of octanoic acid. In agreement with earlier work, a significant photoenhancement of the ozonation is observed at the uncoated surface; however, no enhancement is observed with monolayer coatings of either organic. Quantum chemical calculations indicate a reasonable binding of ozone by the carboxylic acid group (in both its dissociated and undissociated forms). We suggest that the inhibition of the water surface reaction by a monolayer of octanoic acid is due to the sequestration of ozone by the carboxylic acid group.

  16. Web Technologies in Practice. The Integration of Web Technologies by Environmental Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Eimhjellen, Ivar Sognnæs

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a structuration model to explore the interaction between technology and organizations. Based on a case study of three environmental organizations in Norway and opposing visions of a single predetermined effect of web technology, it argues that the implications of web technologies within organizations are diverse and can strengthen existing organizational characteristics. With diverging organizational structures, norms, and culture, different interpretations, m...

  17. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  18. Lifetime prediction for organic coating under alternating hydrostatic pressure by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenliang; Meng, Fandi; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-01-01

    A concept for prediction of organic coatings, based on the alternating hydrostatic pressure (AHP) accelerated tests, has been presented. An AHP accelerated test with different pressure values has been employed to evaluate coating degradation. And a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) has been established to predict the service property and the service lifetime of coatings. The pressure value (P), immersion time (t) and service property (impedance modulus |Z|) are utilized as the parameters of the network. The average accuracies of the predicted service property and immersion time by the established network are 98.6% and 84.8%, respectively. The combination of accelerated test and prediction method by BP-ANN is promising to evaluate and predict coating property used in deep sea.

  19. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Bochsen, Louise; Salado-Jimena, José A

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) may induce storage lesion in platelet (PLT) concentrates. To investigate this, buffy coat PLTs (BCPs) in PLT additive solution (AS; SSP+) with or without Mirasol PRT (CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) were assessed by quality control tests and four-color flow...

  20. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  1. Coatings manufactured using magnetron sputtering technology to protect against infrared radiation for use in firefighter helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejdyś Marzena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of magnetron sputtering technology to produce coatings on selected elements of a firefighter’s helmet to protect against infrared radiation (PN-EN 171 standard. The scope of research includes testing the deposition produced via magnetron sputtering of metallic and ceramic coatings on plastics, which are used to manufacture the components comprising the personal protection equipment used by firefighters. The UV-VIS, NIR used to research the permeation coefficients and reflections for light and infrared light and the emission spectrometry with ICP-AES used for the quantitative analysis of elements in metallic and ceramic coatings. Microstructural and micro-analytical testing of the coatings were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Measurements of the chemical compositions were conducted using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The hardnesss of the coatings were tested using a indentation method, and the coating thicknesses were tested using a ellipsometry method.

  2. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  3. [Identification of organic solvents in the water of a freshly coated drinking-water reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrenbrock, F; Haberer, K

    1982-01-01

    Chloro-caoutschouc coatings on reservoirs made of concrete can release organic solvents to the drinking water for several month after applying. These solvents can be identified directly in the water by highly sensitive analytical methods (GC/MS). The concentrations verified distinctly exceed the maximum permissible concentration of 10 micrograms/l as suggested by the EEG for the parameter: "dissolved or emulsified hydrocarbons (after extraction by petroleum ether); mineral oils" (2). Protective chloro-caoutchouc coatings should therefore be tested for the release of organic substances to water according to the KTW-Recommendations of the German Federal Health Bureau (1). In future drinking water reservoirs should not be coated unless compelling reasons exist, such as to protect concrete against aggressive water.

  4. Comparison of different technologies for high-quality optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Francois

    1990-08-01

    Modern optical systems require still higher quality optical coatings. Conventional production techniques are not able to give such high quality layers. One of the main defaults comes from the relatively porous structure of the thin films; as a consequence the sensitiveness of the materials to the moisture gives noticeably unstable properties versus time. In this work, after a very short review of the different techniques nowaday used to perform high quality optical thin films, we will be especially interested in oxide layer production (Si02, Ta2O5, Ti02). To give a good comparison of the performances obtained with techniques such as TAD and ion plating we need extremely powerful characterization means: - In vacuo measurements of optical properties allowing the study of spontaneous water adsorption during air entrance; - Absorption measurement with photothermal deflection spectroscopy; - Scattering losses measurements and consequently determination of the grain size of the microstructure. Refractive index measurements, and optical anisotropy determined by guided mode study. Finally some views from electron microscopy justify the validity of the model used with our characterization techniques. To end, we will show the interest of ion plating technique when we are looking for very uniform deposition on large surfaces.

  5. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, G.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technolog

  6. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, G.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2017-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technolog

  7. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for organic semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    Organic materials have been given much attention due to their intriguing properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications combined with their low price and fairly straight-forward large-scale synthesis. p6P nanofibers can emit polarized light with a highly...... not interfere with the luminescence spectrum from the p6P but it is also not effective in stopping the bleaching. On the other hand, the use of a nonreactant and stable polymer (PMMA) as a direct contact layer on top of the organic nanofibers works as a protecting layer for avoiding modifications of the p6P...

  8. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Stefano; Castro-Hermosa, Sergio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating), as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  9. 77 FR 14324 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... Email: a-and-r-docket@epa.gov . Fax: (202) 566-9744. Mail: U.S. Postal Service, send comments to: EPA... Factors AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to amend the National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings final rule...

  10. The design and synthesis of hard and impermeable, yet flexible, conformal organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Asatekin, Ayse; Gleason, Karen K

    2012-07-17

    A new design paradigm for conformal, all-organic coatings that retain their flexibility and chemical functionality while displaying exceptional mechanical hardness and barrier properties is presented. Initiated chemical vapor deposition is used to synthesize a novel alternating copolymer thin film. Upon annealing, films display elastic moduli exceeding 20 GPa, excellent scratch resistance and flexibility, and very low oxygen permeability.

  11. Improvements in Boron Plate Coating Technology for Higher Efficiency Neutron Detection and Coincidence Counting Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This informal report presents the measurement data and information to document the performance of the advanced Precision Data Technology, Inc. (PDT) sealed cell boron-10 plate neutron detector that makes use of the advanced coating materials and procedures. In 2015, PDT changed the boron coating materials and application procedures to significantly increase the efficiency of their basic corrugated plate detector performance. A prototype sealed cell unit was supplied to LANL for testing and comparison with prior detector cells. Also, LANL had reference detector slabs from the original neutron collar (UNCL) and the new Antech UNCL with the removable 3He tubes. The comparison data is presented in this report.

  12. Reducing bleaching effects in organic nanofibers by coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter;

    Para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers emit polarized, blue light upon UV excitation with a peak wavelength of the emitted light of 425 nm [1] and a spatially anisotropic distribution of the emitted light [2]. These features could enable future (opto-)electronic applications [3], since, for...

  13. Color deviation controlling of phosphor conformal coating by advanced spray painting technology for white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wang, Simin; Lv, Zhicheng; Liu, Sheng

    2013-04-01

    An advanced phosphor conformal coating technology is proposed, good correlated color temperature (CCT) and chromaticity uniformity samples are fabricated through phosphor spray painting technology. Spray painting technology is also suitable for phosphor conformal coating of whole LED wafers. The samples of different CCTs are obtained through controlling the phosphor film thickness in the range of 6-80 μm; CCT variation of samples can be controlled in the range of ±200 K. The experimental Δuv reveals that the spray painting method can obtain a much smaller CCT variation (Δuv of 1.36e(-3)) than the conventional dispensing method (Δuv of 11.86e(-3)) when the light is emitted at angles from -90° to +90°, and chromaticity area uniformity is also improved significantly.

  14. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  15. Off-flavours in wines through indirect transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumi, M D; Lambri, M; De Faveri, D M

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the drying of coatings on the sensory characters of corks and wines. According to Italian National Standard Method 11021:2002, a small-scale chamber was used (1) to expose wines to the drying of coatings with both low and high VOCs, and (2) to expose corks to the same coatings. After exposure to the coatings, the corks were then placed in direct contact with wine. Different styles of white, red and rose wines were tested. In both directly exposed wines and in wines after contact with the exposed cork, the taste and smell off-flavour perception and intensity were assessed by a panel of eight experienced wine tasters using a five-point numerical scale according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods. The results showed that the sensory characters of wines, especially taste, were influenced by the VOC content of the coatings. The taste off-flavour perception was found to be higher than the smell in wines exposed to coatings with either high or low VOCs contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan analysis prove that: (1) panellist's answers were significantly different, (2) it was difficult to differentiate the off-flavour perception on the high-level scale, and (3) the panellist off-flavour perceptions versus wine style discriminated the wines into two groups (red and white/rose). For all the wine styles, Pearson's test showed no significant correlation between off-flavour perception levels and the main chemical characters of the wines. For the wines that were in direct contact with the exposed corks, the panellists detect the off-flavours according to the levels of VOCs in the coating and wine styles and they assessed the highest levels of alteration were to the taste.

  16. Effective Management of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) in DoD Organic and Inorganic Coatings Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Vinay V. Gadkari Battelle gadkariv@battelle.org 614-424-5751 Effective Management of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) in DoD Organic and Inorganic...Coatings Operations Enhancing worker safety by minimizing health risks in hexavalent chromium environment 1 11/19/2014 John T. Stropki Battelle ...ADDRESS(ES) Battelle ,505 King Avenue,Columbus,OH,43201 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  17. Integration of an organic photodetector onto a plastic optical fiber by means of spray coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Maddalena; Natali, Dario; Iacchetti, Antonio; Sampietro, Marco

    2013-08-21

    A working prototype of integrated fiber/receiver system for optical data transmission is realized. The prototype is made by directly depositing an organic photodetector onto a plastic optical fiber. For the deposition of the organic layers, spray coating is successfully exploited. Operation over four orders of magnitude range of light intensities as well as photoresponse to pulsed stimulation are demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  19. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars......, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing the emission...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...

  20. Membrane-Based Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Industry and Continuous Production of Polymer-Coated Crystals/Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyue; Sirkar, Kamalesh K; Jin, Chi; Singh, Dhananjay; Pfeffer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technologies are of increasing importance in a variety of separation and purification applications involving liquid phases and gaseous mixtures. Although the most widely used applications at this time are in water treatment including desalination, there are many applications in chemical, food, healthcare, paper and petrochemical industries. This brief review is concerned with existing and emerging applications of various membrane technologies in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industry. The goal of this review article is to identify important membrane processes and techniques which are being used or proposed to be used in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. How novel membrane processes can be useful for delivery of crystalline/particulate drugs is also of interest. Membrane separation technologies are extensively used in downstream processes for bio-pharmaceutical separation and purification operations via microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration. Also the new technique of membrane chromatography allows efficient purification of monoclonal antibodies. Membrane filtration techniques of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration are being combined with bioreactors and advanced oxidation processes to treat wastewaters from pharmaceutical plants. Nanofiltration with organic solvent-stable membranes can implement solvent exchange and catalyst recovery during organic solvent-based drug synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds/intermediates. Membranes in the form of hollow fibers can be conveniently used to implement crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds. The novel crystallization methods of solid hollow fiber cooling crystallizer (SHFCC) and porous hollow fiber anti-solvent crystallization (PHFAC) are being developed to provide efficient methods for continuous production of polymer-coated drug crystals in the area of drug delivery. This brief review provides a general introduction to various applications of membrane technologies in

  1. Integrating Information Technologies Into Large Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlich, Gretchen; Meyer, John M.; Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's product is aerospace research information. To this end, Langley uses information technology tools in three distinct ways. First, information technology tools are used in the production of information via computation, analysis, data collection and reduction. Second, information technology tools assist in streamlining business processes, particularly those that are primarily communication based. By applying these information tools to administrative activities, Langley spends fewer resources on managing itself and can allocate more resources for research. Third, Langley uses information technology tools to disseminate its aerospace research information, resulting in faster turn around time from the laboratory to the end-customer.

  2. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  3. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  4. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  5. Analysis of organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: Implications for the origin of Solar System organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George

    Analysis of organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: Implications for the origin of Solar System organic matter Chondritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), the most primitive samples of extraterrestrial material available for laboratory analysis [1], are unequilibrated aggregates of mostly submicron, anhydrous grains of a diverse mineralogy. They contain organic matter not produced by parent body aqueous processing [2], some carrying H and N isotopic anomalies consistent with molecular cloud or outer Solar System material [3]. Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) imaging at the C K-edge shows the individual grains in 10 micron aggregate CP IDPs are coated by a layer of carbonaceous material 100 nm thick. This structure implies a three-step formation sequence. First, individual grains condensed from the cooling nebular gas. Then complex, refractory organic molecules covered the surfaces of the grains either by deposition, formation in-situ, or a combination of both processes. Finally, the grains collided and stuck together forming the first dust-size material in the Solar System. Ultramicrotome sections, 70 to 100 nm thick were cut from several CP IDPs, embedded in elemental S to avoid exposure to C-based embedding media. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra were derived from image stacks obtained using a STXM. "Cluster analysis" was used to compare the C-XANES spectra from each of the pixels in an image stack and identify pixels exhibiting similar spectra. When applied to a CP IDP, cluster analysis identifies most carbonaceous grain coatings in a particle as having similar C-XANES spectra. Two processes are commonly suggested in the literature for production of organic grain coatings. The similarity in thickness and C-XANES spectra of the coatings on different minerals in the same IDP indicates the first, mineral specific catalysis, was not the process that produced these organic rims. Our results

  6. Organic matter induced mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles from water-saturated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyao; Yin, Ziyi; Chen, Fangmin; Hu, Jingjing; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-10-01

    Mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate: SDBS), amino acid derivative (N-acetylcysteine: NAC), and chelate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA) in water-saturated sand medium was explored based on carefully designed column tests. Exposure experiments monitoring the size evolution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs in organic solutions confirm the capacity of SDBS, NAC and EDTA to partly displace PVP. Single Pulse Column Experiment (SPCE) results show both the PVP polymer and the silver core controlled AgNP deposition while the effect of the PVP was dominant. Results of Co-injected Pulse Column Experiments (CPCEs) where AgNP and SDBS or NAC were co-injected into the column following a very short mixing (organic would mobilize irreversibly deposited particles from the uncoated sand, while surface charge modification by adsorbed NAC was identified as a potential mobilizing mechanism for AgNP from the iron-oxide-coated sand. Triple Pulse Column Experiment (TPCE) results confirm that such a charging effect of the adsorbed organic molecules may enable SDBS and NAC to mobilize AgNPs from the iron-oxide-coated sands. TPCE results with five distinct levels of SDBS indicate that concentration-stimulated change in the SDBS format from an individual to a micelle significantly increased the mobilizing efficiency and site blockage of SDBS. Although being an electrolyte, EDTA did not mobilize AgNPs, as the case with SDBS or NAC, as it dissolved the iron oxides which in turn prevented EDTA adsorption on sand. The findings have implications for better understanding the behavior of polymer-coated nanoparticles in organic-presented groundwater systems, i.e., detachment-associated uncertainty in exposure prediction of the nanomaterials.

  7. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  8. Reactivity of Zerovalent Metals in Aquatic Media: Effects of Organic Surface Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratnyek, Paul G.; Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Nurmi, James; Amonette, James E.; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chong M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Baer, Donald R.

    2011-09-02

    Granular, reactive zerovalent metals (ZVMs)—especially iron (ZVI)—form the basis for model systems that have been used in fundamental and applied studies of a wide variety of environmental processes. This has resulted in notable advances in many areas, including the kinetics and mechanisms of contaminant reduction reactions, theory of filtration and transport of colloids in porous media, and modeling of complex reactive-transport scenarios. Recent emphasis on nano-sized ZVI has created a new opportunity: to advance the understanding of how coatings of organic polyelectrolytes—like natural organic matter (NOM)—influence the reactivity of environmental surfaces. Depending on many factors, organic coatings can be activating or passivating with respect to redox reactions at particle-solution interfaces. In this study, we show the effects of organic coatings on nZVI vary with a number of factors including: (i) time (i.e., “aging” is evident not only in the structure and composition of the nZVI but also in the interactions between nZVI and NOM) and (ii) the type of organic matter (i.e., suspensions of nZVI are stabilized by NOM and the model polyelectrolyte carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), but NOM stimulates redox reactions involving nZVI while CMC inhibits them).

  9. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  10. Nanocrystalline ceria coatings on solid oxide fuel cell anodes: the role of organic surfactant pretreatments on coating microstructures and sulfur tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Chun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatments with organic surfactants, followed by the deposition of nanocrystalline ceria coatings from aqueous solution, were applied to anodes of solid oxide fuel cells. The cells were then operated in hydrogen/nitrogen fuel streams with H2S contents ranging from 0 to 500 ppm. Two surfactant treatments were studied: immersion in dodecanethiol, and a multi-step conversion of a siloxy-anchored alkyl bromide to a sulfonate functionality. The ceria coatings deposited after the thiol pretreatment, and on anodes with no pretreatment, were continuous and uniform, with thicknesses of 60–170 nm and 100–140 nm, respectively, and those cells exhibited better lifetime performance and sulfur tolerance compared to cells with untreated anodes and anodes with ceria coatings deposited after the sulfonate pretreatment. Possible explanations for the effects of the treatments on the structure of the coatings, and for the effects of the coatings on the performance of the cells, are discussed.

  11. Nanocrystalline ceria coatings on solid oxide fuel cell anodes: the role of organic surfactant pretreatments on coating microstructures and sulfur tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chieh-Chun; Tang, Ling; De Guire, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Treatments with organic surfactants, followed by the deposition of nanocrystalline ceria coatings from aqueous solution, were applied to anodes of solid oxide fuel cells. The cells were then operated in hydrogen/nitrogen fuel streams with H2S contents ranging from 0 to 500 ppm. Two surfactant treatments were studied: immersion in dodecanethiol, and a multi-step conversion of a siloxy-anchored alkyl bromide to a sulfonate functionality. The ceria coatings deposited after the thiol pretreatment, and on anodes with no pretreatment, were continuous and uniform, with thicknesses of 60-170 nm and 100-140 nm, respectively, and those cells exhibited better lifetime performance and sulfur tolerance compared to cells with untreated anodes and anodes with ceria coatings deposited after the sulfonate pretreatment. Possible explanations for the effects of the treatments on the structure of the coatings, and for the effects of the coatings on the performance of the cells, are discussed.

  12. Nanocrystalline ceria coatings on solid oxide fuel cell anodes: the role of organic surfactant pretreatments on coating microstructures and sulfur tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chieh-Chun; Tang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Summary Treatments with organic surfactants, followed by the deposition of nanocrystalline ceria coatings from aqueous solution, were applied to anodes of solid oxide fuel cells. The cells were then operated in hydrogen/nitrogen fuel streams with H2S contents ranging from 0 to 500 ppm. Two surfactant treatments were studied: immersion in dodecanethiol, and a multi-step conversion of a siloxy-anchored alkyl bromide to a sulfonate functionality. The ceria coatings deposited after the thiol pretreatment, and on anodes with no pretreatment, were continuous and uniform, with thicknesses of 60–170 nm and 100–140 nm, respectively, and those cells exhibited better lifetime performance and sulfur tolerance compared to cells with untreated anodes and anodes with ceria coatings deposited after the sulfonate pretreatment. Possible explanations for the effects of the treatments on the structure of the coatings, and for the effects of the coatings on the performance of the cells, are discussed. PMID:25383282

  13. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  14. Development of fi lm forming formulation and technology of polymeric fi lm coating on Indotril tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In previous researches we grounded expedience of «Indotril» tablets development; formulation and technology of "Indotril" tablet cores were developed. Received tablet cores should be covered by protective polymeric film with the purpose of unpleasant taste elimination, increase of tablets expiration date. Objective. The aim of our investigation was to develop the film forming composition and technology of polymeric film coating on «Indotril» tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer. Materials and Methods. As “Indotril” tablets cores should be covered by protective polymeric film we performed research designed to select efficient film forming solution. Thus modern filming agents were studied, besides such factors were investigated: concentration of film forming suspension, increase of tablet coat in mass, air temperature under gas distribution grid. Obtained tablets were checked according to pharmacopeia methods. Results and discussion. First we studied tablet compression force influence on main parameters of «Indotril» cores tablets: on crushing strength, abrasion in pseudo-fluidized layer unit and disintegration. Then for further investigation we chose «Indotril» cores tablets with crushing strength near 70 H, abrasion - up to 0,5% and disintegration time - not more than 10 minutes. We performed research to select film forming solution for covering “Indotril” tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer unit. As filming agents we used different samples of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC by Japan company Shin-Etsu Chemical Co and English company Colorcon. Water HPMC solutions were prepared which contained plasticizer (propylene glycol, pigment (titanium IV dioxide and dye (tartrazine. Coating process of “Indotril” tablets was performed in laboratory pseudo-fluidized layer unit with the air temperature 75ºC under gas distribution grid. Variance analysis of experimental data on quality of coat surface showed insignificance as

  15. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Wang; Qiang Ao; Xiaohong Tian; Jun Fan; Yujun Wei; Weijian Hou; Hao Tong; Shuling Bai

    2016-01-01

    Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especial...

  16. Adsorption and desorption of 85Sr and 137Cs on reference minerals, with and without inorganic and organic surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Staunton, Siobhán

    2008-05-01

    The adsorption properties of reference minerals may be considerably modified by the presence of the inorganic and organic coatings that are ubiquitous in soils. It is therefore important to assess the effect of such coatings to evaluate the relevance of adsorption studies on pure minerals. The adsorption of trace amounts of (85)Sr and (137)Cs has been studied in dilute suspensions for various minerals that are common components of soils: quartz, calcium carbonate, kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite. We studied the effect of coatings with either Fe or Al oxide with varying additions of soil-extracted humic or fulvic acid. Both adsorption and desorption were measured and data presented as distribution coefficients, Kd. No adsorption was detected on quartz and it was not possible to coat this surface. Adsorption on calcium carbonate was small and not influenced by coatings. Adsorption of Sr on the three clay minerals was very similar, enhanced by the Al-coating, but not affected by Fe and organic coatings. The presence of organic coatings decreased Cs adsorption on illite. Similar but smaller effects were seen on montmorillonite and kaolinite. Aluminum coating enhanced Cs adsorption on illite, whereas both inorganic coatings caused decreases in adsorption on montmorillonite, and there was no effect on kaolinite. Effects were not additive with mixed, organic-inorganic coatings. Adsorption of both Cs and Sr on all minerals was strongly irreversible, with Kd (desorption) being up to four-times greater than adsorption Kd. The ratio of desorption and adsorption Cs Kd values (an assessment of irreversibility) was inversely related to adsorption Kd. This is consistent with a decreasing contribution of high-affinity adsorption as adsorption increases, but may also reflect the partial loss of organic coatings during desorption.

  17. One-step surface selective modification of UV-curable hard coatings with photochemical metal organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-12-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid bi-layer film with a selective distribution of inorganic components was synthesized from a one-pot process of UV irradiation. A photochemical metal oxide precursor (Sr 2-ethylhexanoate) varying from 0 to 4 wt% was dispersed in UV-curable coating materials. Under UV exposure, the bi-layer started reacting simultaneously but at different rates due to differences in the two UV-condensable components' reactivity. The effects of the dispersed inorganic component on the surface morphology and mechanical properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. The reaction process and rates were studied from linkage change using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various UV exposure times (0-30 min). The elemental distribution and the interface on the coating layer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ar etching, revealing continuous and gradual composition changes in depth. The results showed that a flattened and surface-selectively hardened SrO containing the coating film could be obtained by this simple process. Consequently, a small ratio of photochemical metal oxide reinforced the organic hard coating film's mechanical properties through the formation of an effective SrO top layer.

  18. Processing, properties and applications of composites using powder-coated epoxy towpreg technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, T. D.; Osborne, P. P.; Thrasher, T. P.; Hartness, J. T.; Johnston, N. J.; Marchello, J. M.; Hugh, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Composite manufacturing using the current prepregging technology of impregnating liquid resin into three-dimensionally reinforced textile preforms can be a costly and difficult operation. Alternatively, using polymer in the solid form, grinding it into a powder, and then depositing it onto a carbon fiber tow prior to making a textile preform is a viable method for the production of complex textile shapes. The powder-coated towpreg yarn is stable, needs no refrigeration, contains no solvents and is easy to process into various woven and braided preforms for later consolidation into composite structures. NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program has provided an avenue for developing the technology by which advanced resins and their powder-coated preforms may be used in aircraft structures. Two-dimensional braiding and weaving studies using powder-coated towpreg have been conducted to determine the effect of resin content, towpreg size and twist on textile composite properties. Studies have been made to customize the towpreg to reduce friction and bulk factor. Processing parameters have been determined for three epoxy resin systems on eight-harness satin fabric, and on more advanced 3-D preform architectures for the downselected resin system. Processing effects and the resultant mechanical properties of these textile composites will be presented and compared.

  19. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S. [Wood Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Yano, K. [Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Uenokouen, Tokyo (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical Univ., Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, S. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [Kyoto National Museum, Higashiyama, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  20. Characterisation of Fe-oxide nanoparticles coated with humic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Roy, Maitreyee; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2013-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly popular for various applications including the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater; however, their mobility and reactivity in the subsurface environment are significantly affected by their tendency to aggregate. One solution to overcome this issue is to coat the nanoparticles with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The advantages of DOM over conventional surface modifiers are that DOM is naturally abundant in the environment, inexpensive, non-toxic and readily adsorbed onto the surface of metal oxide nanoparticles. In this study, humic acid (HA) and Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) were tested and compared as surface modifiers for Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs). The DOM-coated Fe2O3 NPs were characterised by various analytical methods including: flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stability of the coated NPs was then evaluated by assessing their aggregation and disaggregation behaviour over time. Results showed that both HA and SRNOM were rapidly and readily adsorbed on the surface of Fe2O3 NPs, providing electrosteric stabilisation over a wide range of pH. HPSEC results showed that the higher molecular weight components of DOM were preferentially adsorbed onto the surface of Fe2O3. As SRNOM consists of macromolecules with a higher molecular weight than HA, the measured size of the SRNOM-coated Fe2O3 NPs was 30% larger than the HA-coated Fe2O3 NPs. FTIR results indicated the occurrence of hydrogen bonding arising from electrostatic interaction between the DOM and Fe2O3 NPs. Finally, a stability study showed that after 14 days, small agglomerates and aggregates were formed. The HA-coated Fe2O3 NPs formed agglomerates which were easily disaggregated using a vortex mixer, with the coated NPs returning to their initial size. However, SRNOM-coated Fe2O3 NPs were only partially disaggregated

  1. U.S. EPA honors San Francisco Bay Area firm Hybrid Coating Technologies with Green Chemistry Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Hybrid Coating Technologies of Daly City, Calif. with a Presidential Green Chemistry Award for developing a safer, plant-based polyurethane for use on floors, furniture and in

  2. Technology and structure of nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J W; Mark, B

    1990-04-01

    Theory building and theory application in nursing administration enable the nurse executive to work more effectively at the managerial task. Alexander and Mark apply a model that allows for comparison and contrast between various nursing units based on the nature of their work as assessed on the variables of technology and structure. In this model, technology is assessed on three dimensions: instability, variability, and uncertainty; and structure is assessed as to vertical participation, horizontal participation, and formalization. Cases studies clarify the model and show its application.

  3. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  4. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Larsen, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest-host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  5. TiOxNy coatings grown by atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Francis; Duminica, Florin-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Titanium oxynitride coatings were deposited on various substrates by an original atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process using titanium tetra-iso-propoxide as titanium and oxygen precursors and hydrazine as a nitrogen source. The films composition was monitored by controlling the N2H4 mole fraction in the initial reactive gas phase. The variation of the N content in the films results in significant changes in morphological, structur...

  6. Lithographic deposition of patterned metal-organic framework coatings using a photobase generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K; Yu, Chung Jui; Long, Jeffrey R; Ameloot, Rob

    2014-05-26

    A photobase generator was used to induce metal-organic framework (MOF) nucleation upon UV irradiation. This method was further developed into a simple, one-step method for depositing patterned MOF films. Furthermore, the ability of our method to coat a single substrate with MOF films having different chemical compositions is illustrated. The method is an important step towards integrating MOF deposition with existing lithographic techniques and the incorporation of these materials into sensors and other electronic devices.

  7. Interactive Communication Technologies in Business Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.; Allbritton, Marcel M.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the distinctive aspects of the new interactive communication technologies (electronic mail over the Internet) in business communication and their implications. Discusses the growth of interactive communication, the concept of interactivity, physical distance and social presence, getting to critical mass, and flexibility and control of…

  8. Characterizations of microwave plasma CVD grown polycrystalline diamond coatings for advanced technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadesh Kumar Mallik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline diamond (PCD coatings ranging from few microns to several hundred microns thickness have been grown by 915 MHz microwave plasma reactor with 9000 W power. The coatings were deposited on 100 mm diameter silicon (Si substrate from few hours to several days of continuous runs. PCD coatings were made freestanding by wet chemical etching technique. The deposited PCDs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for physical characterization and compared with authors’ earlier work. Refractive index of 2.41 was obtained at 633 nm wavelength and a maximum of 6.6 W·cm-1K-1 value for thermal conductivity could be achieved with the grown coatings. The values are well above the existing non-diamond heat spreading substrates, which makes the grown PCDs as candidates for heat spreaders in different technological applications. High refractive index along with translucent nature of the white freestanding PCDs, make them potential candidate for optical windows.

  9. Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics: A Review of Their History, Structure, Properties, Coating Technologies and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaz, Noam; Metoki, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are widely used in the field of bone regeneration, both in orthopedics and in dentistry, due to their good biocompatibility, osseointegration and osteoconduction. The aim of this article is to review the history, structure, properties and clinical applications of these materials, whether they are in the form of bone cements, paste, scaffolds, or coatings. Major analytical techniques for characterization of CaPs, in vitro and in vivo tests, and the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international standards from CaP coatings on orthopedic and dental endosseous implants, are also summarized, along with the possible effect of sterilization on these materials. CaP coating technologies are summarized, with a focus on electrochemical processes. Theories on the formation of transient precursor phases in biomineralization, the dissolution and reprecipitation as bone of CaPs are discussed. A wide variety of CaPs are presented, from the individual phases to nano-CaP, biphasic and triphasic CaP formulations, composite CaP coatings and cements, functionally graded materials (FGMs), and antibacterial CaPs. We conclude by foreseeing the future of CaPs. PMID:28772697

  10. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo

    2016-10-31

    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  11. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diao, Ying

    2013-06-02

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of thin-film morphology. Here, we report an approach - termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE) - that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films. We designed a micropillar-patterned printing blade to induce recirculation in the ink for enhancing crystal growth, and engineered the curvature of the ink meniscus to control crystal nucleation. Using FLUENCE, we demonstrate the fast coating and patterning of millimetre-wide, centimetre-long, highly aligned single-crystalline organic semiconductor thin films. In particular, we fabricated thin films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene having non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains and an unprecedented average and maximum mobilities of 8.1±1.2 cm2 V-1 s -1 and 11 cm2 V-1 s-1. FLUENCE of organic semiconductors with non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Organic Coatings, Humidity and Aerosol Acidity on Multiphase Chemistry of Isoprene Epoxydiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Matthieu; Bell, David M.; Hansen, Anne-Maria Kaldal; Drozd, Greg T.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Imre, Dan; Surratt, Jason D.; Glasius, Marianne; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-06-07

    Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically-relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated by AP-derived SOA is strongly dependent on particle size and composition. IEPOX uptake occurred only when weight fraction of AP-derived SOA dropped below 50 %, effectively limiting IEPOX uptake to larger particles.

  13. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Giri, Gaurav; Xu, Jie; Kim, Do Hwan; Becerril, Hector A; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Lee, Tae Hoon; Xue, Gi; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-07-01

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of thin-film morphology. Here, we report an approach--termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE)--that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films. We designed a micropillar-patterned printing blade to induce recirculation in the ink for enhancing crystal growth, and engineered the curvature of the ink meniscus to control crystal nucleation. Using FLUENCE, we demonstrate the fast coating and patterning of millimetre-wide, centimetre-long, highly aligned single-crystalline organic semiconductor thin films. In particular, we fabricated thin films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene having non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains and an unprecedented average and maximum mobilities of 8.1±1.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). FLUENCE of organic semiconductors with non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics.

  14. Effect of Organic Coatings, Humidity and Aerosol Acidity on Multiphase Chemistry of Isoprene Epoxydiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Bell, David M; Hansen, Anne-Maria Kaldal; Drozd, Greg T; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Imre, Dan; Surratt, Jason D; Glasius, Marianne; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-06-07

    Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated with AP-derived SOA is lower compared to that of pure ABS particles, strongly dependent on particle composition, and therefore on particle size.

  15. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Giri, Gaurav; Xu, Jie; Kim, Do Hwan; Becerril, Hector A.; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Lee, Tae Hoon; Xue, Gi; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-07-01

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of thin-film morphology. Here, we report an approach—termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE)—that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films. We designed a micropillar-patterned printing blade to induce recirculation in the ink for enhancing crystal growth, and engineered the curvature of the ink meniscus to control crystal nucleation. Using FLUENCE, we demonstrate the fast coating and patterning of millimetre-wide, centimetre-long, highly aligned single-crystalline organic semiconductor thin films. In particular, we fabricated thin films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene having non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains and an unprecedented average and maximum mobilities of 8.1±1.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 11 cm2 V-1 s-1. FLUENCE of organic semiconductors with non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics.

  16. Patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystal field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sun, Huabin; Shi, Yi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fundamental building blocks for various state-of-the-art electronic devices. Solution-processed organic crystals are appreciable materials for these applications because they facilitate large-scale, low-cost fabrication of devices with high performance. Patterning organic crystal transistors into well-defined geometric features is necessary to develop these crystals into practical semiconductors. This review provides an update on recent development in patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystals and their applications in field-effect transistors. Typical demonstrations are discussed and examined. In particular, our latest research progress on the spin-coating technique from mixture solutions is presented as a promising method to efficiently produce large organic semiconducting crystals on various substrates for high-performance OFETs. This solution-based process also has other excellent advantages, such as phase separation for self-assembled interfaces via one-step spin-coating, self-flattening of rough interfaces, and in situ purification that eliminates the impurity influences. Furthermore, recommendations for future perspectives are presented, and key issues for further development are discussed.

  17. Patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystal field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs are fundamental building blocks for various state-of-the-art electronic devices. Solution-processed organic crystals are appreciable materials for these applications because they facilitate large-scale, low-cost fabrication of devices with high performance. Patterning organic crystal transistors into well-defined geometric features is necessary to develop these crystals into practical semiconductors. This review provides an update on recent development in patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystals and their applications in field-effect transistors. Typical demonstrations are discussed and examined. In particular, our latest research progress on the spin-coating technique from mixture solutions is presented as a promising method to efficiently produce large organic semiconducting crystals on various substrates for high-performance OFETs. This solution-based process also has other excellent advantages, such as phase separation for self-assembled interfaces via one-step spin-coating, self-flattening of rough interfaces, and in situ purification that eliminates the impurity influences. Furthermore, recommendations for future perspectives are presented, and key issues for further development are discussed.

  18. Technology of high-temperature organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobei, M.P.; Makin, R.S.; Kuprienko, V.A. [and others

    1993-12-31

    A wide range of studies were carried out in RIAR on the problems connected with the use of high-temperature organic coolant at nuclear power plants. The work performed and successful experience gained in persistent operation of the ARBUS reactor confirmed the inherent safety characteristics, high operational reliability, as well as improved safety of stations with similar reactors. A large scope of studies were carried out at the ARBUS pilot reactor and loop with the organic coolant of the MIR reactor and a wide range of problems were solved. The studies are described.

  19. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Xu, Guangqing, E-mail: gqxu1979@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yi, Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, JingWu [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm{sup 2}) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  20. Technology of high temperature organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makin, R.S.; Vorobei, M.P.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Starkov, V.A.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Checketkin, Y.V. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    Research has been performed on the problems related to the use of high temperature organic coolants in small and medium nuclear power plants. The work performed and also the experience of operating the ARBUS reactor confirmed the inherent safety features, reliability, and enhanced safety margins of the plants with this type of coolants. The advantages of this system and research highlights are presented.

  1. Automated System Organizations Under Spatial Grasp Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This mode of high-level system vision based on holistic and gestalt principles [6-8] rather than cooperating parts or agents [1] has psychological...M. Wertheimer, “ Gestalt Theory“, Erlangen. Berlin, 1925. [7] P. Sapaty, “ Gestalt -Based Ideology and Technology for Spatial Control of Distributed...Dynamic Systems”, International Gestalt Theory Congress, 16th Scientific Convention of the GTA, University of Osnabrück, Germany, March 26 - 29

  2. Preparation technology and anti-corrosion performances of black ceramic coatings formed by micro-arc oxidation on aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling; HAN Jing; YU Shengxue

    2006-01-01

    In order to prepare ornamental and anti-corrosive coating on aluminum alloys, preparation technology of black micro-arc ceramic coatings on Al alloys in silicate based electrolyte was studied.The influence of content of Na2WO4 and combination additive in solution on the performance of black ceramic coatings was studied; the anticorrosion performances of black ceramic coatings were evaluated through whole-immersion test and electrochemical method in 3.5% NaCl solution at different pH value; SEM and XRD were used to analyze the surface morphology and phase constitutes of the black ceramic coatings.Experimental results indicated that, without combination additives, with the increasing of Na2WO4 content in the electrolyte, ceramic coating became darker and thicker, but the color was not black; after adding combination additive, the coating turned to be black; the black ceramic coating was multi-hole form in surface.There was a small quantity of tungsten existing in the black ceramic coating beside α-Al2O3 phase and β-Al2O3 phase.And aluminum alloy with black ceramic coating exhibited excellent anti-corrosion property in acid, basic and neutral 3.5% NaCl solution.

  3. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  4. Production of Organic Grain Coatings by Surface-Mediated Reactions and the Consequences of This Process for Meteoritic Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2011-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO are exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these reactions. The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic material. Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  5. Study on the development of coating technology for UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet and the microstructural observation of the coated layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Song, Moon Sup; Cho, In Sik; Kim Yu Sin; Lim Young Kyun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    In order to enhance inherent safety of UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet and develop future nuclear fuel technology, a coating method for the preparation multi-layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide on the fuel was developed. Inner pyrolytic carbon layer and outer silicon layer were prepared by thermal decomposition of propane in a fluidized bed type CVD unit and silane in ECR PECVD, respectively. Combustion reaction between two layers resulted in forming silicon carbide layer. The morphology depended on the initial carbon shape. Phase identification and microstructural analysis of the combustion product with XRD, AES, SEM and TEM showed that final products of inner layer and outer layer were pyrolytic carbon with isotropic structure and fine crystalline {beta}-SiC, respectively. This coating process is very useful for the fabrication of coated UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel pellet an future nuclear fuel fabrication technology. (author). 45 refs., 47 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Solubility Characteristics and Slow-Release Mechanism of Nitrogen from Organic-Inorganic Compound Coated Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil incubation method was used to investigate the solubility characteristics and slow-release mechanism of organic-inorganic compound coated urea at temperature of 10, 20, and 30°C. The membrane microstructure with and without incubation was tested via scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Slow release of nitrogen (N from different inorganic minerals was analysed by the activation energy from the nutrient solubility system. The rate of nitrogen solubility increased with temperature increasing. The first-order reaction kinetic equation described the solubility process of coated urea. The rate constant k also increased with temperature increasing. Moreover, the SEM images showed that the microstructure of the coating layer changed into a flocculent structure and the number of tiny pores and holes on the membrane surface increased significantly with temperature increasing, which increased N solubility rate. The Arrhenius equation indicated that activation energy was closely related to k during the solubility process; the activation energy was reduced with k rising, which resulted in N solubility rate increasing. Overall, the N solubility rate of coated urea was affected by temperature.

  7. Spin Coated Nano Scale PMMA Films for Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, B. Chandar; Sathish, S.; Sengoden, R.

    Nano scale poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) films are prepared by spin coating the solution of PMMA on to p-Si substrate. The thickness of the films coated is measured by Ellipsometry. The SA-XRD spectrum of the as grown and annealed films indicated the amorphous nature. The SEM analysis revealed no pinholes, pits and dendritic features on the surface. Both as grown and annealed films indicated smooth surface and amorphous structure. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) behaviour of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with Al/PMMA/p-Si has been studied. The C-V behaviour carried out for various frequencies (f) ranging from 20 kHz to 1 MHz and for a bias voltage range of -20 V to +20 V. Both as grown and annealed films showed a small flat band voltage (VFB) shift towards the negative voltage. The small shift in the VFB observed may be due to charge traps and de-traps. The obtained C-V behaviour for as grown and annealed films indicated that as grown PMMA nano scale thin films do not have many defects such as voids and inhomogeneity etc. The observed C-V behavior, a very low shift in the flat band voltage (VFB 0); reasonably higher dielectric constant values; thermal stability up to 2800C; amorphous and smooth surface implies that nano scale thin PMMA film coated by spin coating could be used as an efficient dielectric layer in field effect organic thin film transistors (OTFTs).

  8. Progammed synthesis of magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes for organic pollutant adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yue; Zhang, Min, E-mail: congmingyang123@163.com; Xia, Peixiong; Wang, Linlin; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Xu, Jingli, E-mail: xujingli@sues.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis method and were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and VSM. The well-designed mesoporous magnetic nanotubes had a large specific area, a highly open mesoporous structure and high magnetization. Firstly, SiO{sub 2}-coated maghemite/CNTs nanoparticles (CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composites) were synthesized by the combination of high temperature decomposition process and an sol–gel method, in which the iron acetylacetonate as well as TEOS acted as the precursor for maghemite and SiO{sub 2}, respectively. The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composites revealed a core–shell structure, Then, CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} was obtained by extracting cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) via an ion-exchange procedure. The resulting composites show not only a magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, but also can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis, which can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature. - Highlights: • The surface of CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is hydrophilic, which facilitates the silica coating. • The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} was synthesized by a facile method. • The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant.

  9. Technology for the Organic Chemist: Three Exploratory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteb, John J.; McNulty, LuAnne M.; Magers, John; Morgan, Paul; Wilson, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to use computer-based technology is an essential skill set for students majoring in chemistry. This exercise details the introduction of appropriate uses for this technology in the organic chemistry series. The incorporation of chemically appropriate online resources (module 1), scientific databases (module 2), and the use of a…

  10. Three Essays on Information Technology Security Management in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Increasing complexity and sophistication of ever evolving information technologies has spurred unique and unprecedented challenges for organizations to protect their information assets. Companies suffer significant financial and reputational damage due to ineffective information technology security management, which has extensively been shown to…

  11. A decade of 3C technologies: insights into nuclear organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the development of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and the subsequent genomic variants thereof have enabled the analysis of nuclear organization at an unprecedented resolution and throughput. The technology relies on the original and, in hindsight, remarkably

  12. Three Essays on Information Technology Security Management in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Increasing complexity and sophistication of ever evolving information technologies has spurred unique and unprecedented challenges for organizations to protect their information assets. Companies suffer significant financial and reputational damage due to ineffective information technology security management, which has extensively been shown to…

  13. Pipeline walls hydrophobic properties study and their protective coatings used in trenchless technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of field and theoretical studies to determine the degree of hydrophobicity of the inner pipe walls in static and dynamic conditions are reported. The water drops spreading nature in contact with the horizontal and concave surface of different materials with the definition of contact angles is determined. The flow pattern formed when the critical mass of liquid miniflow is reached on an inclined surface in the form of an open trough was studied. The geometric parameters of the frontal and coaxial miniflow projections were determined, its dimensions and hydraulic characteristics were studied. The trial stand design for the protective coatings hydrophobic properties study was presented and described and method of evaluation of the pipeline work surfaces hydrophobic properties by applying the relative hydrophobicity ratio. Calculation formulas of the relative hydrophobicity ratio for work surfaces were presented. The relationships of hydrophobicity of various coatings used in the trenchless technologies to relative roughness coefficients were established.

  14. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  15. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODES OF MAGNETIC-ELECTRIC GRINDING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF GAS-THERMAL SPRAYED NI–CR–B–SI-COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; M. V. Niaroda; I. O. Sokorov; A. A. Barkun

    2009-01-01

    Influence of technological modes of magnetic-electric grinding on structural changes in a surface layer of gas-thermal sprayed coatings is investigated in the paper. The paper presents optimum modes of  coating roughing and finishing processes.

  17. High abrasion resistance coating materials from organic/inorganic hybrid materials produced by the sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A series of new high abrasion resistance coating materials have been prepared utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed by cohydrolyzing a metal alkoxide sol (e.g. silicon, aluminum, titanium, or zirconium metal alkoxide sol) with one or more bis(trialkoxysilane-containing) organic components or related functionalized species. These hybrid materials show optical clarity and improve the abrasion resistance of polymer substrates when applied as coatings and cured on such substrates.

  18. Introducing a Technological Change in a Public School Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.

    A segment of a longitudinal study of the changing management philosophy of a public school organization involves the introduction of a new technology--the use of an integrated information system--in an environment that was to have been prepared for change. The administrators and staff of the organization had participated in a feasibility study…

  19. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  20. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  1. Study on Organic Coating of CaC2 Surface%电石表面有机包覆技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱尚辉; 章黎; 钟文武

    2014-01-01

    通过正交实验研究了电石表面包覆的最佳工艺。选取包覆剂为温度20℃的食用菜籽油对电石进行20 min的包覆,得到了均匀致密的有机包覆膜并对其进行红外光谱分析,表明电石的有机包覆过程中发生了三个重要的过程:(1)电石与有机物的物理包覆;(2)有机物在空气中发生了氧化反应;(3)在较长时间作用下,氧化油脂与少许电石发生了反应。%The best technology of surface coating of calcium carbide was investigated through orthogonal test. Se-lecting coating agent temperature is 20℃ of edible rapeseed for 20min coating,it got uniform density organic pack-age labeling and analyzed by infrared spectrum. The surface of calcium carbide in the process of the organic coating has three important process:(1) The calcium carbide with organic physical coating;(2) The oxidation reaction of organic matter in the air happened;(3) Under the effect of a long time,the reaction of oxidated oil and a little cal-cium carbide happened.

  2. [The effect of technological parameters of wide-band laser cladding on microstructure and sinterability of gradient bioceramics composite coating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qibin; Zhu, Weidong; Zou, Longjiang; Zheng, Min; Dong, Chuang

    2005-12-01

    The gradient bioceramics coating was prepared on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And the effect of technological parameters of wide-band laser cladding on microstructure and sinterability of gradient bioceramics composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicated that in the circumstances of size of laser doze D and scanning velocity V being fixed, with the increasement of power P, the density of microstructure in bioceramics coating gradually degraded; with the increasement of power P, the pore rate of bioceramics gradually became high. While P = 2.3 KW, the bioceramics coating with dense structure and lower pore rate (5.11%) was obtained; while P = 2.9 KW, the bioceramics coating with disappointing density was formed and its pore rate was up to 21.32%. The microhardness of bioceramics coating demonstrated that while P = 2.3 KW, the largest value of microhardness of bioceramics coating was 1100 HV. Under the condition of our research work, the optimum technological parameters for preparing gradient bioceramics coating by wide-band laser cladding are: P = 2.3 KW, V = 145 mm/min, D = 16 mm x 2 mm.

  3. Technology of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis

    OpenAIRE

    Острога, Руслан Алексеевич; Юхименко, Николай Петрович; Михайловский, Яков Эммануилович; Литвиненко, Андрей Владимирович

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of producing granular fertilizers on an organic basis due to disposal of organic waste of poultry farms is proved. It is shown that such waste has a form of very liquid suspensions. Therefore, to minimize power consumption for their processing, granulation in the fluidized bed apparatus is the optimum technology of producing a granular product. Temperature conditions and operating parameters of organic suspension granulation process are experimentally determined. The existence...

  4. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  5. Management and Information Technology Challenges for the Modern Organization

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Information technology has come to play an important role in organizations over the last few decades. Though it began as an entity dealt with by specialists, IT has evolved to become an everyday tool with both operational and strategic impacts. Most modern organizations have adopted different forms of IT, and become dependent on their computer-based information systems and their peripherals for everyday operations. Information technology offers opportunities to increase efficiency, customer value, and competitiveness. Given the financial investment in IT required by organizations to remain com

  6. Technological Aspects of Forming the Surface Microrelief of Low-Wear Coatings after Electro-Diamond Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. G.; Yanpolskiy, V. V.; Rakhimyanov, K. Kh

    2016-04-01

    The results of electro-diamond grinding of coatings based on the WC25 powder material are presented in the paper. It is shown that after electro-diamond grinding of the WC25 coating, an obtained magnitude (Ra=2.02µm) of surface roughness doesn’t meet the qualifying standards to parts surface working in wear-out conditions. The forming of the obtained microrelief is probably connected to the features of electrochemical dissolution of the WC25 coating material in the electrolyte being used. Based on the polarization studies, it is revealed that the electrochemical dissolution character of the indicated coating in the water solution of 10%NaNO3 is determined by the dissolution character of cobalt (Co) component. The intensive cobalt (Co) dissolution during the electro-diamond grinding of the WC25 coating leads to the tungsten carbide chipping by the grinding disk particles that increases the roughness. One of the way to improve the surface quality of low-wear coatings after electro-diamond grinding is an introduction of an additional step in a technological process, carrying out with the switched off source of technological current. For realization of the process according to this scheme a technological dimension chain is made which takes into consideration the dissolution value of the most active coating composition element while the calculating of the operating dimensions of a detail.

  7. Nanocomposite coatings based on Ti-N-Cr/Ni-Cr-B-Si-Fe, gained by two technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Erdybayeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first results of manufacturing and investigations of a new type of nanocomposite protective coatings are presented. They were manufactured using a combination of two technologies: plasma-detonation coating deposition with the help of plasma jets and thin coating vacuum-arc deposition. We investigated structure, morphology, physical and mechanical properties of the coatings of 80-90 μm thickness, as well as defined the hardness, elastic Young modulus and their corrosion resistance in different media. Grain dimensions of the nanocomposite coatings on Ti-N-Cr base varied from 2.8 to 4 nm. The following phases and compounds formed as a result of plasma interaction with the thick coating surface were found in the coatings: Ti-N-Cr (200, (220, y-Ni3-Fe, a hexagonal Cr2-Ti, Fe3-Ni, (Fe, NiN and the following Ti-Ni compounds: Ti2Ni, Ni3Ti, Ni4Ti, etc. We also found that the nanocomposite coating microhardness increased to H = 31.6 ± 1.1 GPa. The Young elastic modulus was determined to be E = 319 ± 27 GPa – it was derived from the loading-unloading curves. The protective coating demonstrated the increased corrosion resistance in acidic and alkaline media in comparison with that of the stainless steel substrate.

  8. Ultrafast Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Ultrasonic Spray-Coating Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Gyu; Weerasinghe, Hashitha C; Min Kim, Kwang; Soo Kim, Jeong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-09-30

    This study investigates novel deposition techniques for the preparation of TiO2 electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These proposed new methods, namely pre-dye-coating and codeposition ultrasonic spraying, eliminate the conventional need for time-consuming processes such as dye soaking and high-temperature sintering. Power conversion efficiencies of over 4.0% were achieved with electrodes prepared on flexible polymer substrates using this new deposition technology and N719 dye as a sensitizer.

  9. Biomimetic mineralization of metal-organic frameworks as protective coatings for biomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Ricco, Raffaele; Doherty, Cara M.; Styles, Mark J.; Bell, Stephen; Kirby, Nigel; Mudie, Stephen; Haylock, David; Hill, Anita J.; Doonan, Christian J.; Falcaro, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing the robustness of functional biomacromolecules is a critical challenge in biotechnology, which if addressed would enhance their use in pharmaceuticals, chemical processing and biostorage. Here we report a novel method, inspired by natural biomineralization processes, which provides unprecedented protection of biomacromolecules by encapsulating them within a class of porous materials termed metal-organic frameworks. We show that proteins, enzymes and DNA rapidly induce the formation of protective metal-organic framework coatings under physiological conditions by concentrating the framework building blocks and facilitating crystallization around the biomacromolecules. The resulting biocomposite is stable under conditions that would normally decompose many biological macromolecules. For example, urease and horseradish peroxidase protected within a metal-organic framework shell are found to retain bioactivity after being treated at 80 °C and boiled in dimethylformamide (153 °C), respectively. This rapid, low-cost biomimetic mineralization process gives rise to new possibilities for the exploitation of biomacromolecules.

  10. Biomimetic mineralization of metal-organic frameworks as protective coatings for biomacromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Ricco, Raffaele; Doherty, Cara M; Styles, Mark J; Bell, Stephen; Kirby, Nigel; Mudie, Stephen; Haylock, David; Hill, Anita J; Doonan, Christian J; Falcaro, Paolo

    2015-06-04

    Enhancing the robustness of functional biomacromolecules is a critical challenge in biotechnology, which if addressed would enhance their use in pharmaceuticals, chemical processing and biostorage. Here we report a novel method, inspired by natural biomineralization processes, which provides unprecedented protection of biomacromolecules by encapsulating them within a class of porous materials termed metal-organic frameworks. We show that proteins, enzymes and DNA rapidly induce the formation of protective metal-organic framework coatings under physiological conditions by concentrating the framework building blocks and facilitating crystallization around the biomacromolecules. The resulting biocomposite is stable under conditions that would normally decompose many biological macromolecules. For example, urease and horseradish peroxidase protected within a metal-organic framework shell are found to retain bioactivity after being treated at 80 °C and boiled in dimethylformamide (153 °C), respectively. This rapid, low-cost biomimetic mineralization process gives rise to new possibilities for the exploitation of biomacromolecules.

  11. Research Update: Large-area deposition, coating, printing, and processing techniques for the upscaling of perovskite solar cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Razza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To bring perovskite solar cells to the industrial world, performance must be maintained at the photovoltaic module scale. Here we present large-area manufacturing and processing options applicable to large-area cells and modules. Printing and coating techniques, such as blade coating, slot-die coating, spray coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, and gravure printing (as alternatives to spin coating, as well as vacuum or vapor based deposition and laser patterning techniques are being developed for an effective scale-up of the technology. The latter also enables the manufacture of solar modules on flexible substrates, an option beneficial for many applications and for roll-to-roll production.

  12. High-Quality Hollow Closed-Pore Silica Antireflection Coatings Based on Styrene-Acrylate Emulsion @ Organic-Inorganic Silica Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaolong; Zhao, Haixin; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Kong, Depeng; Chen, Taojing; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-11

    Making use of a facile and low-cost way for the preparation of a hierarchically organized novel hollow closed-pore silica antireflective coating (CHAR) with tailored optical properties and a mechanical reliability is of great interest in the field of solar photovoltaic technology. The process mainly contains two aspects: (1) a styrene-acrylate emulsion @ organic-inorganic silica precursor (SA@OISP) core/shell hierarchical nanostructure, consisting of a sacrificial styrene-acrylate (SA) primary template, was fabricated using a sol-gel method; (2) the self-assembly of the nanostructures leads to SA@OISP nanospheres forming the high-quality hollow closed-pore silica antireflection coating (CHAR) by a dip-coating process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The resulting SA@OISP nanospheres have a mean diameter of 65.2 nm and contained a SA soft core with a mean diameter of approximately 54.8 nm and an organic-inorganic silica precursor (OISP) shell with a thickness of approximately 6-10 nm. Furthermore, the prepared CHAR film exhibited a high transmittance and good ruggedness. An average transmittance (TAV) of 97.64% was obtained, and the value is close to the ideal single-layered antireflection coating (98.09%) over a broad range of wavelengths (from 380 to 1100 nm). The CHAR film showed a stable TAV, with attenuation values of less than 0.8% and 0.43% after the abrasion test and the damp heat test, respectively. The conversion efficiency of the CHAR coating cover solar modules tends to be increased by 3.75%. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the CHAR film was considered as an essential component of the solar module and were expected to provide additional solar energy harvest under extreme outdoor climates.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc/Polypyrrole Nanotube as a Protective Pigment in Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Alias, Yatimah; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Yousefi, Ramin

    2013-07-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of zinc/polypyrrole nanotube (Zn/PPy) as a protective pigment in organic coatings. The PPy nanotube is synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization, and zinc nanoparticles are deposited onto the surface of the synthesized PPy nanotube in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction results confirm the existence of the nanotube morphology and the zinc nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization are performed on steel plates coated with polyvinyl butyral incorporated with the Zn/PPy nanotube. The results show that the existence of zinc can improve the protective properties of the pigment. The existence of zinc leads to a cathodic protection and the main product of zinc corrosion is the stale zinc hydroxide which can block the pores in the coating. In addition, the zinc nanoparticles can increase conductivity of the PPy nanotube leading to increasing nanotube's ability to form protective layers of metal oxides on the steel surface.

  14. Zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings for sensing of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L.; Viegas, D.; Santos, J. L.; Martins de Almeida, José Manuel Marques

    2016-04-01

    The detection of volatile organic compounds is accomplished with a sensing device based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin layer with self-temperature compensation. The ZnO coating structure was produced onto the cladding of the fiber by thermal oxidation of a metallic Zn thin film. The morphological characterization of ZnO thin films, grown at the same time on silicon substrates, was performed using X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope which shows very good agreement. LPFGs with 290 nm thick ZnO coating were fabricated and characterized for the detection of ethanol and hexane in vapor phase. For ethanol a sensitivity of 0.99 nm / g.m-3 was achieved when using the wavelength shift interrogation mode, while for hexane a much lower sensitivity of 0.003 nm / g.m-3 was measured, indicating a semi-selectivity of the sensor with a spectral resolution better than 3.2 g.m-3.

  15. Stability of Fe-oxide nanoparticles coated with natural organic matter under relevant environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekli, L; Phuntsho, S; Tijing, L D; Zhou, J L; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2014-01-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are increasingly released into the environment and thus research on their fate and behaviour in complex environmental samples is urgently needed. The fate of MNPs in the aquatic environment will mainly depend on the physico-chemical characteristics of the medium. The presence and concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) will play a significant role on the stability of MNPs by either decreasing or exacerbating the aggregation phenomenon. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of NOM concentration on the aggregation behaviour of manufactured Fe-oxide nanoparticles. Then, the stability of the coated nanoparticles was assessed under relevant environmental conditions. Flow field-flow fractionation, an emerging method which is gaining popularity in the field of nanotechnology, has been employed and results have been compared to another size-measurement technique to provide increased confidence in the outcomes. Results showed enhanced stability when the nanoparticles are coated with NOM, which was due to electrosteric stabilisation. However, the presence of divalent cations, even at low concentration (i.e. less than 1 mM) was found to induce aggregation of NOM-coated nanoparticles via bridging mechanisms between NOM and Ca(2+).

  16. Studies of chitosan/organic acid/Eudragit RS/RL-coated system for colonic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karanjit; Kim, Kwonho

    2009-01-21

    Prednisolone (PDS) beads were coated sequentially with (i) innermost hydrophobic layer of Eudragit RS/RL, (ii) middle drug release-triggering layer of chitosan, organic acid and Eudragit RS/RL, and (iii) outermost enteric coating layer. Continuous dissolution studies were carried out in artificial gastric fluid (pH 1.2), followed by intestinal fluid (pH 6.8), and finally in colonic fluid (pH 4 and 6) with and without beta-glucosidase. While drug release was prevented in the gastric and small-intestinal fluids, a continuous release was observed in the colonic fluid. Succinic acid provided the fastest rate of release in the colonic fluid compared to citric, tartaric or malic acid. A combined mechanism of drug release is proposed, which considers the swelling of chitosan and Eudragit RS/RL in the presence of succinic acid possibly via electrostatic interaction between the amine groups of chitosan/quaternary ammonium groups of Eudragit RS/RL and the carboxyl groups of succinic acid in aqueous medium. The results of plasma pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats showed that the developed system provided a significant delay (T(max) 9.3 h) in the absorption profile of PDS compared with simple enteric-coated (T(max) 4 h) or powder (T(max) 1 h) formulation that was taken as proof for the colon-targeted delivery.

  17. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    Cobalt oxide films were grown by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (PI-MOCVD) using Co(acac)(3) (acac=acetylacetonate) precursor dissolved in toluene. The structure, morphology and growth rate of the layers deposited on silicon substrates were studied as a function...... of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects...

  18. Demonstration/Validation of Low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-25

    22350-3605 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...were not monitored sufficiently to determine a precise time for acceptable stripping for each panel. 61 Figure 32 -- Chemical Strippability...COATINGS ~~ .a a two CCll’llP008nt cam~ toclC08l The componen\\5 when properly mi.-d and re<!uced will dllonlzed warer may be.,..~ applied lo ~ ptepanld

  19. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  20. The effect of chromium coating in RP technology for airfoil manufacturing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Daneshmand; C Aghanajafi; A Ahmadi Nadooshan

    2010-10-01

    Most wind tunnel models are fabricated of all metal components using computerized numerical control (CNC) milling machines. Fabrication of metal wind tunnel models is very expensive and time consuming. The models can require months to manufacture and are often made by small high technology companies that specialize in wind tunnel model manufacture. Using rapid prototype manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This study was done by fused deposition modelling and their ability to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel model configuration constructed using FDM and FDM with chromium coating for subsonic wind tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid prototyping model constructed of FDM technologies using polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Results from this study show relatively good agreement among the three models and rapid prototyping method with chromium coating does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics which produced satisfactory results.

  1. Carbon nanotubes noncovalently functionalized by an organic-inorganic hybrid: new building blocks for constructing superhydrophobic conductive coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mao; Qi, Ji; Zhou, Zhi; Liao, Zhangjie; Zhu, Zhongming; Guo, Honglei

    2010-08-17

    A facile method for constructing superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings is presented. Pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are first noncovalently (wrapped) modified by an organic-inorganic hybrid of an amphiphilic copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride and silica with the existence of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (a silane coupling agent). The modified MWNTs were mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanol, air sprayed, coated with a fluoroalkylsilane, and then heat treated to obtain the superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a micrometer- and nanometer-scale hierarchical structure similar to that of lotus leaves; therefore, they show both high water contact angles (>160 degrees) and low sliding angles (coatings also exhibit good transmittance and greatly improved conductivities. This method is convenient, inexpensive, and easy to scale up. Moreover, it does not require any chemical modification of the MWNTs or use any harsh chemicals.

  2. NATO Conference on Work, Organizations, and Technological Change

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the Symposium entitled, "Work, Organizations and Technological Change" which was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany, 14-19 June 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the Special Panel on Systems Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. In proposing this meeting the Symposium Directors built upon several preceding NATO conferences in the general area of personnel systems, manpower modelling, and organization. The most recent NATO Conference, entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design," was held in Stresa, Italy in 1977. That meeting was organized to foster research on the interrelationships between programmatic approaches to personnel planning within organizations and behavioral science approachs to organization design. From that context of corporate planning the total internal organizational perspective was the MACRO view, and the selection, assignment, care and feeding of the people was the MICRO view. Conceptually, this meant that an integrated appr...

  3. Estimating attachment of nano- and submicrometer-particles coated with organic macromolecules in porous media: development of an empirical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Song, Jee Eun; Cisneros, Charlotte M; Schoenfelder, Daniel P; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2010-06-15

    Assessing the environmental transport and fate of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) and potential exposure risks requires models for predicting attachment of NPs coated with organic macromolecules in porous media. The objective of this study was to determine the properties of coated nanoparticles that control their attachment behavior. Deposition data for a variety of nanoparticles with different types of anionic organic coatings, including natural organic matter (NOM)-coated latex and hematite nanoparticles, and poly(styrenesulfonate)-, carboxymethylcellulose-, and polyaspartate-coated hematite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (80 data points), were used to develop an empirical correlation between measurable NP properties and their sticking coefficient (alpha) under a variety of electrolyte conditions and flow velocities. Available semiempirical correlations used to predict the attachment efficiency of electrostatically stabilized (uncoated) NPs overestimate the attachment efficiency of nanoparticles coated with NOM or synthetic polyelectrolytes because the correlations neglect electrosteric repulsions and the decreased friction afforded by such coatings that can inhibit attachment to surfaces. Adding a dimensionless parameter (N(LEK)) representing steric repulsions and the decreased friction force afforded by adsorbed NOM or anionic polyelectrolytes in the correlation significantly improves the correlation. This establishes the importance of including the adsorbed NOM- or polyelectrolyte layer properties for estimating the attachment efficiency of NPs in the environment. The form of N(LEK) suggests that limiting unintended transport and exposure to NPs could be achieved by using coatings with the smallest adsorbed mass and polymer density, shortest extended layer thickness, and largest molecular weight that would still afford the desired functionality of the coating.

  4. The Adoption of Grid Computing Technology by Organizations: A Quantitative Study Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Emmanuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in grid technology have enabled some organizations to harness enormous computational power on demand. However, the prediction of widespread adoption of the grid technology has not materialized despite the obvious grid advantages. This situation has encouraged intense efforts to close the research gap in the grid adoption process. In this…

  5. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

    OpenAIRE

    Andre F. S. Guedes; Vilmar P. Guedes; Simone Tartari; Mônica L. Souza; Idaulo J. Cunha

    2014-01-01

    The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED), using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Optical Parameters (OP) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition,...

  6. Hybrid Photonic Cavity with Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds with High Immunity to Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jifang; Wang, Xuerui; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yuxiang; Lin, Tong; Fu, Dongliang; Ting, Lennon Lee Yao; Gu, Yuandong; Zhao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level is one of the most challenging tasks for miniature gas sensors because of the high requirement on sensitivity and the possible interference from moisture. Herein, for the first time, we present a novel platform based on a hybrid photonic cavity with metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings for VOCs detection. We have fabricated a compact gas sensor with detection limitation ranging from 29 to 99 ppb for various VOCs including styrene, toluene, benzene, propylene and methanol. Compared to the photonic cavity without coating, the MOF-coated solution exhibits a sensitivity enhancement factor up to 1000. The present results have demonstrated great potential of MOF-coated photonic resonators in miniaturized gas sensing applications.

  7. Wetting properties of model interphases coated with defined organic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woche, Susanne K.; Goebel, Marc-O.; Guggenberger, Georg; Tunega, Daniel; Bachmann, Joerg

    2013-04-01

    Surface properties of soil particles are of particular interest regarding transport of water and sorption of solutes, especially hazardous xenobiotic species. Wetting properties (e.g. determined by contact angle, CA), governed by the functional groups exposed, are crucial to understand sorption processes in water repellent soils as well as for the geometry of water films sustaining microbial processes on the pore scale. Natural soil particle surfaces are characterized by a wide variety of mineralogical and chemical compounds. Their composition is almost impossible to identify in full. Hence, in order to get a better understanding about surface properties, an option is the usage of defined model surfaces, whereas the created surface should be comparable to natural soil interphases. We exposed smooth glass surfaces to different silane compounds, resulting in a coating covalently bound to the surface and exhibiting defined organic functional groups towards the pore space. The wetting properties as evaluated by CA and the surface free energy (SFE), calculated according to the Acid-Base Theory, were found to be a function of the specific functional group. Specifically, the treated surfaces showed a large variation of CA and SFE as function of chain length and polarity of the organic functional group. The study of wetting properties was accompanied by XPS analysis for selective detection of chemical compounds of the interphase. As the reaction mechanism of the coating process is known, the resulting interphase structure can be modeled based on energetic considerations. A next step is to use same coatings for the defined modification of the pore surfaces of porous media to study transport and sorption processes in complex three phase systems.

  8. Effect of structure and deposition technology on tribological properties of DLC coatings alloyed with VIA group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrushchov, M.; Levin, I.; Marchenko, E.; Avdyukhina, V.; Petrzhik, M.

    2016-07-01

    The results of a comprehensive research on atomic structure, phase composition, micromechanical and tribological characteristics of alloyed DLC coatings have been presented. The coatings have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in acetylene-nitrogen gas mixtures of different compositions (a-C:H:Cr), by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in atmospheres of silicone-organic precursor gases (a-C:H:Mo:Si), and by nonreactive magnetron sputtering of a composite target (a-C:H:W).

  9. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  10. Cryo ultra-low-angle microtomy for XPS-depth profiling of organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greunz, T; Strauß, B; Schausberger, S E; Heise, B; Jachs, B; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ar(+) ion sputtering is usually used for depth profiling. However, for such samples as organic coatings, this is not feasible because of degradation. Also, measurement of a depth profile on a conventionally prepared cross-section is not possible if, for example, sample thickness is below the smallest available measurement spot size of the XPS system. In our approach we used a rotary microtome to cut samples under a shallow tilting angle of 0.5° to obtain an extended cross-section suitable for XPS investigations. We also used liquid nitrogen cooling to ensure an exposed area of higher quality: topography measurements with a novel optical 3D microscope and by atomic force microscopy revealed the linearity of the inclined sections. With our cryo ultra-low-angle microtomy (cryo-ULAM) preparation technique we were able to determine, by XPS, elemental and chemical gradients within a 25 μm thick polyester-based organic coating deposited on steel. The gradients were related to, for example, depletion of the crosslinking agent in the sub-surface region. Complementary reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements performed on the cryo-ULAM sections also support the findings obtained from the XPS depth profiles.

  11. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Lumholdt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  12. Optical Waveguiding Organic Nanorods Coated with Reversibly Switchable Fe(II Spin Transition Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratim Basak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual functional nanohybrid object combining photonic and magnetic properties was successfully prepared through a “bottom-up” self-assembly approach. In this method, spin transition Fe(II coordination nanoparticles and optical wave guiding organic nanorods were generated in situ and successfully integrated together in a single pot through self-assembly. The Fe(II nanoparticles coated on organic nanorods (nanohybrids display temperature dependent reversible spin transition (Paramagnetic; diamagnetic; behavior. The nano-hybrids show efficient optical wave guiding behavior, which demonstrates the future possibility to perform light induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST experiments on a single spin transition nanoparticle level. These photonic and magnetic “nanohybrids” offer promising option to externally manipulate spin state of the spin transition nanoparticles using temperature as well as remote laser light.

  13. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ND–FE–B MAGNETS VIA PHOPHATIZATION, SILANIZATION AND ELECTROSTATIC SPRAYING WITH ORGANIC RESIN COMPOSITE COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    XIA DING; JINGJIE LI; MUSEN LI; SHENGSONG GE; XIUCHUN WANG; KAIHONG DING; SHENGLI CUI; YONGCONG SUN

    2014-01-01

    Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets possess excellent properties. However, they are highly sensitive to the attack of corrosive environment. The aim of this work is to improve the corrosion resistance of the magnets by phosphatization, silanization, and electrostatic spraying with organic resin composite coatings. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) tests showed that uniform phosphate conversion coatings and spray layers were formed on the surfa...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP) HIGH TRANSFER EFFICIENCE SPRAY EQUIPMENT--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies and report this objective information, thus, accelerating the entrance of these new technologies into the marketplace. V...

  15. Development of a Convergent Spray Technologies(tm) Spray Process for a Solventless Sprayable Coating, MCC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anil K.; Meeks, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of Convergent Spray Technologies (TM) Spray Process to the development and successful implementation of Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) as a primary Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). This paper discusses the environmental and process benefits of the MCC-1 technology, shows the systematic steps taken in developing the technology, including statistical sensitivity studies of about 35 variables. Based on the process and post-flight successes on the SRB, it will be seen that the technology is "field-proven". Application of this technology to other aerospace and commercial programs is summarized to illustrate the wide range of possibilities.

  16. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  17. Teamwork in Modern Organizations: Implications for Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Maymon, Tsipora; Harel, Gedaliahu

    1999-01-01

    Examines characteristics of teamwork in modern organizations and workplaces in order to extrapolate the means for transferring teamwork skills to technology education. Discusses teamwork in education, team development, communication skills, interpersonal skills, team decision making, role assignment and leadership, and evaluation of team…

  18. Teamwork in Modern Organizations: Implications for Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Maymon, Tsipora; Harel, Gedaliahu

    1999-01-01

    Examines characteristics of teamwork in modern organizations and workplaces in order to extrapolate the means for transferring teamwork skills to technology education. Discusses teamwork in education, team development, communication skills, interpersonal skills, team decision making, role assignment and leadership, and evaluation of team…

  19. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  20. Surface Hydrophilicity and Functional Group-Driven Iron(III) Hydroxide Nucleation on Organic-Coated Substrates in Aqueous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J.; Lee, B.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Homogeneous and heterogeneous iron hydroxide nanoparticle nucleation can occur continuously in both natural and complex aqueous systems. Iron oxide nanoparticles can act as sinks and/or carriers for heavy metal contaminants; therefore, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors affecting their formation. Organic coatings are ubiquitous in aqueous environments where they can exist on mineral surfaces (e.g., biofilm), as nanoparticle surface coatings (e.g., natural organic matter), or be introduced as coagulants in water treatment systems. These surface coatings could influence the formation of iron oxide nanoparticles and thus, the mobility of aqueous contaminants. Therefore, to better understand the fate and transport of contaminants in complex aqueous environments, we need more accurate information about mechanisms governing heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation and growth of iron(III) hydroxide nanoparticles in the presence of organic surface coatings. In this work, we used a unique measurement technique allowing for simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and grazing incidence (GISAXS) analysis to monitor nanoparticle nucleation in solution and at substrate surfaces. Clean quartz, and polyaspartate- and alginate-coated substrates were chosen as model substrates to represent mineral coatings, engineered organic coatings and natural organic coatings. Polyaspartate was determined to be the most negatively charged substrate and quartz to be the least negatively charged substrate; however, after 2 h of reaction, the total nanoparticle volume calculations—determined from GISAXS—indicate that precipitation of positively-charged iron(III) hydroxide nanoparticles is 10 times higher on the quartz substrate than on the polyaspartate substrate. This implies that electrostatics do not govern iron(III) hydroxide nucleation. Furthermore, homogeneous nucleation approximately 250 μm above the substrate surface was highest in the presence of the

  1. Antifouling technology-past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    . In addition, the most common booster biocides used to replace TBT-containing compounds are listed and described. It must be stressed that there is still a lack of knowledge of their potential environmental side effects. The current interest in providing innovative antifouling technologies based on an improved...... obstacles that need to be overcome for the success of this research are analysed. The potential development of broad-spectrum efficient coatings based on natural antifoulants is far from commercialisation. However, exploitation of a weakening of biofouling adhesion by means of the non-stick and fouling......-release concepts is at a rather advanced stage of development. The main advantages and drawbacks of these systems are presented along with a brief introduction to their scientific basis. Finally, other alternatives, which may eventually give rise to an efficient and environmentally benign antifouling system...

  2. Improvement of MEAs for direct-methanol fuel cells by tuned layer preparation and coating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, A.; Rosenthal, G.; Kunz, U.; Hoffmann, U. [Institute for Chemical Process Engineering, Technical University of Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 17, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Large scale production of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for fuel cells requires a fabrication technology, which is not only based on electrochemical phenomena but also takes into account aspects of materials processing and conversion. For the fabrication of MEAs for DMFC a production sequence consisting of wet ball-milling, wet spray coating and calendering was developed at the ICVT Clausthal. This has a proven ability for the preparation of diffusion backings and catalyst layers with high reproducibility. To improve MEA performance, investigations concerning the influence of layer fabrication and composition are made with respect to the resulting morphology of the structures. Intermediates and MEAs are evaluated by conductivity measurements, determination of permeability values and current density-voltage characteristics supported by SEM and optical microscopy. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 真空镀膜制备太阳能热吸收涂层%Preparation of solar heat absorption coatings by vacuum coating technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    眭凌杰; 尚心德

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了选择性太阳能热吸收涂层的制备方法及发展状况,重点描述了真空镀膜在金属卷材上制备选择性太阳能热吸收涂层。该涂层用在平板太阳能集热器上,促进了太阳能集热器由单一的真空玻璃管型向金属平板型的转变。%This article introduces the preparation method and development state of the selective solar heat absorption coatings, mainly describes the selective solar heat absorption coatings preparation on the metal coil material by vacuum coating technology. The coatings are used on the flat-plate solar collectors, to promote the solar absorber type transfer from single vacuum glass tube to metal flat-plate.

  5. Fluorescence microscopy techniques for quantitative evaluation of organic biocide distribution in antifouling paint coatings: Application to model antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodes, L.R.; Dennington, S.P.; Schuppe, H.; Wharton, J.A.; Bakker, M.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Stokes, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    A test matrix of antifouling (AF) coatings including pMMA, an erodible binder and a novel trityl copolymer incorporating Cu 2O and a furan derivative (FD) natural product, were subjected to pontoon immersion and accelerated rotor tests. Fluorescence and optical microscopy techniques were applied to

  6. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  7. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  8. Composting-derived organic coating on biochar enhances its affinity to nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Joseph, Stephen; Conte, Pellegrino; Albu, Mihaela; Obst, Martin; Borch, Thomas; Orsetti, Silvia; Subdiaga, Edisson; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    energy loss spectroscopy - STEM-EELS, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy STXM) revealed the formation of a nano-porous organic coating on co-composted biochar. This coating alters the interaction of biochar with water as evidenced by proton fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance (1H FFC NMR) relaxometry and might explain its distinct characteristics. Our findings offer a roadmap for future research to design sustainable slow-release nitrogen fertilizers based on biochar to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. Further microscopic studies are necessary to understand the preconditions of the formation of organic coatings on biochar on a holistic basis to design biochar post-production treatments.

  9. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  10. Organic coatings as corrosion protection in low-temperature boilers; Organische Beschichtungen als Korrosionsschutz in Niedertemperatur-Heizkesseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, M. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1995-03-15

    The feasibility of organic coatings as corrosion protection of low temperature boilers was investigated by laboratory and practical tests. Apart from good mechanical properties the coatings should also have a good stability against aggressive, sour corrosives and and a low permeability to water vapour. A two-component epoxy resin and various thermally hardening phenol resins were chosen as test coatings. The coating systems were analysed by measuring the coating thickness, the adhesion, the water permeability, the absence of porosity and the temperature resistance. The mechanical resistance was measured by abrasion and impact resistance. The corrosion resistance was tested by standardized laboratory tests: the atmospheric exposure in saturated water vapour with and without presence of sulphur dioxide and the salt-spray testing with sodium chloride. The chemical resistance against various concentrated sulphuric and hydrochloric acids was tested by immersion experiments. All examined systems had good to very good physical properties. They are thermally resistant to 150{sup o}C. The thermally hardening up to phenol resins had a much better chemical resistance than the two-component epoxy resin. The most promising coating system was applied to the heat exchange surfaces of a boiler and then tested in a continuous low temperature test of three months according to DIN 4702. The coating was not damaged and proved to be resistant to these conditions. (author) figs., tabs., 1 ref.

  11. Inorganic/organic hybrid microcapsules: melamine formaldehyde-coated Laponite-based Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark; Olland, Birte; Armes, Steven P; Verstraete, Pierre; Smets, Johan

    2015-12-15

    A facile synthesis route to novel inorganic/organic hybrid microcapsules is reported. Laponite nanoparticles are surface-modified via electrostatic adsorption of Magnafloc, an amine-based polyelectrolyte allowing the formation of stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. Hybrid microcapsules can be subsequently prepared by coating these Pickering emulsion precursors with dense melamine formaldehyde (MF) shells. Employing a water-soluble polymeric stabiliser, poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) leads to stable hybrid microcapsules that survive an alcohol challenge and the ultrahigh vacuum conditions required for SEM studies. Unfortunately, the presence of this copolymer also leads to secondary nucleation of excess MF latex particles in the aqueous continuous phase. However, since the Magnafloc is utilised at submonolayer coverage when coating the Laponite particles, the nascent cationic MF nanoparticles can deposit onto anionic surface sites on the Laponite, which removes the requirement for the poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) component. Following this electrostatic adsorption, the secondary amine groups on the Magnafloc chains can react with the MF, leading to highly robust cross-linked MF shells. The absence of the copolymer leads to minimal secondary nucleation of MF latex particles, ensuring more efficient deposition at the surface of the emulsion droplets. However, the MF shells appear to become more brittle, as SEM studies reveal cracking on addition of ethanol.

  12. Fabrication of electrically bistable organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films by temperature controlled spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghang; Zhang, Jianchi; Fu, Zongyuan; Weng, Junhui; Chen, Weibo; Ding, Shijin; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2015-03-25

    Organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films attracted much attention due to their electrical bistability and rectification properties and thereof the potential in resistive memory devices. During film deposition from the blend solution, spinodal decomposition induced phase separation, resulting in discrete semiconducting phase whose electrical property could be modulated by the continuous ferroelectric phase. However, blend films processed by common spin coating method showed extremely rough surfaces, even comparable to the film thickness, which caused large electrical leakage and thus compromised the resistive switching performance. To improve film roughness and thus increase the productivity of these resistive devices, we developed temperature controlled spin coating technique to carefully adjust the phase separation process. Here we reported our experimental results from the blend films of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) and semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). We conducted a series of experiments at various deposition temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 °C. The resulting films were characterized by AFM, SEM, and VPFM to determine their structure and roughness. Film roughness first decreased and then increased with the increase of deposition temperature. Electrical performance was also characterized and obviously improved insulating property was obtained from the films deposited between 50 and 70 °C. By temperature control during film deposition, it is convenient to efficiently fabricate ferroelectric/semiconducting blend films with good electrical bistability.

  13. Synchrotron DUV luminescence micro-imaging to identify and map historical organic coatings on wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echard, Jean-Philippe; Thoury, Mathieu; Berrie, Barbara H; Séverin-Fabiani, Tatiana; Vichi, Alessandra; Didier, Marie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-08-07

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoluminescence (PL) microimaging is an emerging approach to characterise materials from historical artefacts (see M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. H. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme and L. Bertrand, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 1737-1745). Here we further assess the potential of the method to access a deeper understanding of multi-layered varnishes coating wooden violins and lutes. Cross-section micro samples from important 16(th)- to 18(th)-century instruments were investigated using synchrotron PL microimaging and microspectroscopy. Excitation was performed in the DUV and the near ultraviolet (NUV) regions, and emission recorded from the DUV to the visible region, at a submicrometric spatial resolution. Intercomparison of microspectroscopy and microimaging was made possible by radiometrically correcting PL spectra both in excitation and emission. Based on an optimised selection of emission and excitation bands, the specific PL features of the organic binding materials allowed a vastly enhanced discrimination between collagen-based sizing layers and oil/resin-based layers compared to epiluminescence microscopy. PL therefore appears to be a very promising analytical tool to provide new insights into the diversity of surface coating techniques used by instrument-makers. More generally, our results demonstrate the potential of synchrotron PL for studying complex heterogeneous materials beyond the core application of the technique to life sciences.

  14. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  15. Progammed synthesis of magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes for organic pollutant adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yue; Zhang, Min; Xia, Peixiong; Wang, Linlin; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Xu, Jingli

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis method and were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, N2 adsorption-desorption and VSM. The well-designed mesoporous magnetic nanotubes had a large specific area, a highly open mesoporous structure and high magnetization. Firstly, SiO2-coated maghemite/CNTs nanoparticles (CNTs/Fe3O4@SiO2 composites) were synthesized by the combination of high temperature decomposition process and an sol-gel method, in which the iron acetylacetonate as well as TEOS acted as the precursor for maghemite and SiO2, respectively. The CNTs/Fe3O4@SiO2 composites revealed a core-shell structure, Then, CNTs/Fe3O4@mSiO2 was obtained by extracting cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) via an ion-exchange procedure. The resulting composites show not only a magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, but also can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature.

  16. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  17. Technology Innovation Of Organic Waste Decomposition In Providing Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prawirodigdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations in Indonesia indicated that an inactive ovary was a chronically reproduction problem in ruminants. There was a tendency that nutrition deficiency inhibited ovulation, oestrus occurrence, and conception in ruminants. Obviously, there is a correlation between sufficient nutrient consumption and reproduction performance of such animals. Thus, application of the production/reproduction technology innovation for improving ruminant’s productivity in the villages needs to be supported by the availability of sufficient feed. Whilst, there is a competition among ruminants in fulfilling feed requirement. On the other hand, there are large amounts of organic waste of food and plantation estate industries which are potential for non-traditional feedstuffs. The examples of such organic wastes are: 4,817,630 ton dry matter (DM of cacao pod, 314,042.51 ton DM of coffee pulp and hulls, and 29,700,000 ton DM of palm frond, leaves and trunks. Unfortunately, such materials contain anti-nutritive substance. Nevertheless, technology innovation for decomposing organic waste is available and its validity has been proven to be satisfactory and appropriate. Regarding the limitation of feedstuffs, introduction of technology innovation for organic waste decomposition to provide feed for improving livestock productivity is promising to be applied.

  18. Sustained release tablet of theophylline by hot melt wax coating technology

    OpenAIRE

    Padsalgi Amol; Bidkar Sanjay; Jadhav Vijay; Sheladiya Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Coating is one of the effective method used for sustaining the release of dosage form. There are various hydrophilic and hydrophilic polymers which are use to sustain the drug release. Waxes are one of the material which can be use to coat the drug in order to control the release. Coating with waxes can be achieved by dissolving it in suitable solvent or by hot melt wax coating. Hot melt coating technique defined as the application of fine layer of coating material in molten state over the su...

  19. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  20. Ground-based investigation of atomic oxygen effects on naked Ag and Ag with protective organic coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 严川伟; 屈庆; 孙刚; 童靖宇; 曹楚南

    2002-01-01

    Protective behavior of organic coatings of alkyd, epoxy, urethane and siloxane applied to silver solar cell interconnects and erosion of Ag were investigated by exposure experiments to ground simulation atomic oxygen (AO). Evaluations of their protective properties were made through assessing their mass change characteristics, chemical and physical changes to AO attack. The specimens after exposure were analyzed with SEM/EDAX and XPS. The results indicated that the silver is heavily etched, some coatings such as epoxy, alkyd, urethane are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides and the morphology of coatings changed. It is evident that siloxane coatings have excellent properties for anti-AO attack. The erosion product consists of silicon dioxide layer of compact texture and is left on the surface to provide adequate protection from further attack by the energetic AO.

  1. Using polyacrylate-coated SPME fibers to quantify sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J-H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Jonker, Michiel T O; Hermens, Joop L M

    2013-05-07

    A passive sampling method using polyacrylate-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers was applied to determine sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The tested contaminants included pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, hormones, and pesticides and represented neutral, anionic, and cationic structures. Prior to the passive sampler application, sorption of the chemicals to the fibers was characterized. This was needed in order to accurately translate concentrations measured in fibers to freely dissolved aqueous concentrations during the sorption tests with DOC. Sorption isotherms of neutral compounds to the fiber were linear, whereas isotherms of basic chemicals covered a nonlinear and a linear range. Sorption of acidic and basic compounds to the fiber was pH-dependent and was dominated by sorption of the neutral sorbate species. Fiber- and DOC-water partition coefficients of neutral compounds were both linearly related to octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow). The results of this study show that polyacrylate fibers can be used to quantify sorption to DOC of neutral and ionic contaminants, having multiple functional groups and spanning a wide hydrophobicity range (log Kow = 2.5-7.5).

  2. Basic principles of information technology organization in health care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J A

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of information technology (IT) organization within health sciences centers. The paper considers the placement of the leader of the IT effort within the health sciences administrative structure and the organization of the IT unit. A case study of the University of Missouri-Columbia Health Sciences Center demonstrates how a role-based organizational model for IT support can be effective for determining the boundary between centralized and decentralized organizations. The conclusions are that the IT leader needs to be positioned with other institutional leaders who are making strategic decisions, and that the internal IT structure needs to be a role-based hybrid of centralized and decentralized units. The IT leader needs to understand the mission of the organization and actively use change-management techniques.

  3. The impact of organic coatings on light scattering by sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2011-08-01

    Light scattering by airborne particles plays a major role in visibility degradation and climate change. The composition and structure of particles in air can be complex, so that predictions of light scattering a priori have significant uncertainties. We report here studies of light scattering by NaCl, a model for airborne salt particles from the ocean and alkaline lakes, with and without an organic coating formed from the low volatility products of the reaction of α-pinene with ozone at room temperature at 1 atm in air. Light scattering at 450, 550 and 700 nm was measured using an integrating nephelometer on particles whose size distribution was independently determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For comparison, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) of a known size and dioctylphthalate (DOP) particles generated with a narrow size distribution were also studied. The measured values were compared to those calculated using Mie theory. Although excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found for the PSL and DOP particles, there were large discrepancies for a polydisperse NaCl sample. These were traced to errors in the size distribution measurements. Despite the use of 85Kr neutralizers, the Boltzmann charge equilibrium distribution assumption used to derive particle size distributions from SMPS data was shown not to be valid, leading to an overestimate of the concentration of larger particles and their contribution to light scattering. Correcting for this, the combination of experiments and theory show that as salt takes up low volatility organics in the atmosphere and the geometric mean diameter increases, the effect on light scattering may be reasonably approximated from the change in size distribution under conditions where the organic coating is small relative to the core size. However, for a given particle diameter, light scattering decreases as the relative contribution of the organic component increases. Thus, light scattering by

  4. Capillary Column Coated With Heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-octyl)-β-cyclodextrin Using Sol-gel Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xia GE; Ruo Nong FU; Rong Ji DAI; Li Wen LIU; Mei Ling QI

    2004-01-01

    Heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-octyl)-β-cyclodextrin was coated onto the fused silica capillary by sol-gel technology.Column efficiency and column selectivity were studied. The results indicated that high ability of separation was acquired. Positional isomers of aromatic compounds were well separated.

  5. Synthesis of copper nanostructures on silica-based particles for antimicrobial organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palza, Humberto; Delgado, Katherine; Curotto, Nicolás

    2015-12-01

    Sol-gel based silica nanoparticles of 100 nm were used to interact with copper ions from the dissolution of CuCl2 allowing the synthesis of paratacamite (Cu2(OH)3Cl) nanocrystals of around 20 nm. The method produced well dispersed copper nanostructures directly supported on the surface of the SiO2 particles and was generalized by using a natural zeolite microparticle as support with similar results. These hybrid Cu based nanoparticles released copper ions when immersed in water explaining their antimicrobial behavior against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as measured by the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC). Noteworthy, when these nanostructured particles were mixed with an organic coating the resulting film eliminated until a 99% of both bacteria at concentrations as low as 0.01 wt%.

  6. A Solvent-Free Hot-Pressing Method for Preparing Metal-Organic-Framework Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifa; Li, Siqing; Pei, Xiaokun; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Zhang, Shenghan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Haiwei; Han, Ruodan; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with their well-defined pores and rich structural diversity and functionality, have drawn a great deal of attention from across the scientific community. However, industrial applications are hampered by their intrinsic fragility and poor processability. Stable and resilient MOF devices with tunable flexibility are highly desirable. Herein, we present a solvent- and binder-free approach for producing stable MOF coatings by a unique hot-pressing (HoP) method, in which temperature and pressure are applied simultaneously to facilitate the rapid growth of MOF nanocrystals onto desired substrates. This strategy was proven to be applicable to carboxylate-based, imidazolate-based, and mixed-metal MOFs. We further successfully obtained superhydrophobic and "Janus" MOF films through layer-by-layer pressing. This HoP method can be scaled up in the form of roll-to-roll production and may push MOFs into unexplored industrial applications.

  7. The Evolution of Organellar Coat Complexes and Organization of the Eukaryotic Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Michael P; Field, Mark C

    2017-06-20

    Eukaryotic cells possess a remarkably diverse range of organelles that provide compartmentalization for distinct cellular functions and are likely responsible for the remarkable success of these organisms. The origins and subsequent elaboration of these compartments represent a key aspect in the transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular forms. The protein machinery required to build, maintain, and define many membrane-bound compartments is encoded by several paralog families, including small GTPases, coiled-bundle proteins, and proteins with β-propeller and α-solenoid secondary structures. Together these proteins provide the membrane coats and control systems to structure and coordinate the endomembrane system. Mechanistically and evolutionarily, they unite not only secretory and endocytic organelles but also the flagellum and nucleus. The ancient origins for these families have been revealed by recent findings, providing new perspectives on the deep evolutionary processes and relationships that underlie eukaryotic cell structure.

  8. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP) High Transfer Efficiency Spray Equipment--Generic Verification Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies across all media and report this objective information to the states, ...

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and applications of electroactive polymeric nanostructures for organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Abhijit Jagnnath

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) such as polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) are being explored intensively in the scientific community. Nanostructures of EAPs have low dimensions and high surface area enabling them to be considered for various useful applications. These applications are in several fields including corrosion inhibition, capacitors, artificial muscles, solar cells, polymer light emitting diodes, and energy storage devices. Nanostructures of EAPs have been synthesized in different morphologies such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanospheres, and nanocapsules. This variety in morphology is traditionally achieved using soft templates, such as surfactant micelles, or hard templates, such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). Templates provide stability and groundwork from which the polymer can grow, but the templates add undesirable expense to the process and can change the properties of the nanoparticles by integrating its own properties. In this study a template free method is introduced to synthesize EAP nanostructures of PPy and PANI utilizing ozone oxidation. The simple techniques involve ozone exposure to the monomer solution to produce aqueous dispersions of EAP nanostructures. The synthesized nanostructures exhibit uniform morphology, low particle size distribution, and stability against agglomeration. Ozone oxidation is further explored for the synthesis of silver-PPy (Ag-PPy) core-shell nanospheres (CSNs). Coatings containing PPy nanospheres were formulated to study the corrosion inhibition efficiency of PPy nanospheres. Investigation of the coatings using electrochemical techniques revealed that the PPy nanospheres may provide corrosion inhibition against filiform corrosion by oxygen scavenging mechanism. Finally, organic corrosion inhibitors were incorporated in PPy to develop efficient corrosion inhibiting systems, by using the synergistic effects from PPy and organic corrosion inhibitors.

  10. Collective Influence on Information Technology in Virtual Organizations-Emancipatory Management of Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2000-01-01

    This contribution addresses the question of how to create an agency for emancipatory management of technology. Unions are suggested as a collective actor, since steps towards democratization and micro emancipation have few chances if they rely on management practitioners alone. Instead, unions......, shop stewards and employees should acquire and demand elements of emancipatory management of technology on the basis of collective power rather than waiting for managers to change their praxis. The article looks at union activities related to virtual organizations in manufacturing companies...... pursue in becoming a collective actor in the development of ICT and organizations....

  11. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Kathryn L. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  12. Path dependence in technologies and organizations: a concise guide

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldi, C Carolina; Dosi, G; Paraskevopoulou, E

    2011-01-01

    The note on which an entry for the Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management will draw offers a beginner's guide to path dependency in technologies and organizations. We address the very meaning of the concept and its centrality in various aspects of economic analysis. We outline the various levels of the ecomic system in which it is observable, its sources, concequences and different formal representations of path dependent processes.

  13. Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cuiling; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Qian; Ren, Juan; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide; Xue, Desheng

    2008-12-01

    A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS) which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.

  14. Synthesis of Organic Dye-Impregnated Silica Shell-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by a New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Desheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new method for preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated by organic dye-doped silica shell was developed in this article. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with dye-impregnated silica shell by the hydrolysis of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HTMOS which produced a hydrophobic core for the entrapment of organic dye molecules. Then, the particles were coated with a hydrophilic shell by the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, which enabled water dispersal of the resulting nanoparticles. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and vibration sample magnetometer. All the characterization results proved the final samples possessed magnetic and fluorescent properties simultaneously. And this new multifunctional nanomaterial possessed high photostability and minimal dye leakage.

  15. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Coatings for Biofouling Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    biofouling program contractors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS antifouling; coatings; block copolymers; IR nanoscale imaging ; biocides 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...diagnostics and drug delivery. In our scanned probe microscopy studies on collaborator coatings and marine organisms, we have provided teamwork . We have...Studies of Organisms on model fouiants: • H. elegans studies 3. Testing of other contractor materials 4. Imaging technology. We applied our organic

  16. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top ele

  17. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top ele

  18. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top

  19. Quantifying "Softness" of Organic Coatings on Gold Nanoparticles Using Correlated Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diroll, Benjamin T; Weigandt, Katie M; Jishkariani, Davit; Cargnello, Matteo; Murphy, Ryan J; Hough, Lawrence A; Murray, Christopher B; Donnio, Bertrand

    2015-12-09

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering provide powerful tools to selectively characterize the inorganic and organic components of hybrid nanomaterials. Using hydrophobic gold nanoparticles coated with several commercial and dendritic thiols, the size of the organic layer on the gold particles is shown to increase from 1.2 to 4.1 nm. A comparison between solid-state diffraction from self-assembled lattices of nanoparticles and the solution data from neutron scattering suggests that engineering softness/deformability in nanoparticle coatings is less straightforward than simply increasing the organic size. The "dendritic effect" in which higher generations yield increasingly compact molecules explains changes in the deformability of organic ligand shells.

  20. Are metal-organic frameworks able to provide a new generation of solid-phase microextraction coatings? - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pacheco-Fernández, Idaira; Pasán, Jorge; Pino, Verónica

    2016-10-05

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a powerful technique commonly used in sample preparation for extraction/preconcentration of analytes from a wide variety of samples. Among the trends in improving SPME applications, current investigations are focused on the development of novel coatings able to improve the extraction efficiency, sensitivity, and thermal and mechanical stability, within other properties, of current commercial SPME fibers. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) merit to be highlighted as promising sorbent materials in SPME schemes. MOFs are porous hybrid materials composed by metal ions and organic linkers, presenting the highest surface areas known, with ease synthesis and high tuneability, together with adequate chemical and thermal stability. For MOF based-SPME fibers, it results important to pretreat adequately the SPME supports to ensure the correct formation of the MOF onto the fiber or the attachment MOF-support. This, in turn, will increase the final stability of the fiber while generating uniform coatings. This review provides a critical overview of the current state of the use of MOFs as SPME coatings, not only highlighting the advantages of these materials versus commercial SPME coatings in terms of stability, selectivity, and sensitivity; but also insightfully describing the current methods to obtain reproducible MOF-based SPME coatings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Production of Organic-Inorganic Compound Film-Coated Urea and the Characteristics of Its Nutrient Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-tao; WANG Yao-sheng; SONG Hao-wen; HAN Yan-yu; YU Na; ZHANG Yu-ling; DANG Xiu-li; HUANG Yi; ZHANG Yu-long

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of natural macromolecular compound on the characteristics of nutrient release in the membrane materials of organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea was discussed,and the optimal concentrations for better nutrient release was proposed.The characteristics of nutrient release of film-coated urea were evaluated by soil column leaching experiment.Organic-inorganic compound film-coated urea showed good characteristics of nutrient release,which could be well simulated by Logistic curve.The two parameters in this curve,a and r,can be used to present nutrient release of film-coated urea,and followed the order of B > C > A and C < B < A,respectively,indicating that the release was stronger with the increasing concentration of natural maeromolecular compound in the membrane,which implied better controllability of nutrient release.The concentration of 5% of natural macromolecular compound showed better characteristic of nutrient release and can be utilized as a membrane material combined with inorganic mineral powders to develop film-coated slow-release fertilizer.

  2. Effect of organic additives on characteristics of carbon-coated LiCoPO4 synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyoshi, Yuta; Miyamoto, Shohei; Noda, Yusaku; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-coated LiCoPO4 particles are synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal process using three different organic additives (carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC), glucose, and ascorbic acid). The effect of the organic additives on particle size, morphology, nature of carbon coating, and electrochemical property of the resulting LiCoPO4 is investigated. CMC plays important roles to decrease the particle size and form well-covered carbon coating on the surface. Carbon-coated LiCoPO4 prepared using CMC delivers higher initial discharge capacity of 135 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C, and shows superior rate capability and cyclic performance than the other samples. The improved electrochemical characteristics are attributed to not only the fine particle which allows facile electronic and ionic transport, but also the high coverage of carbon coating which improves the electrical conductivity and prevents the irreversible reactions of the charged LiCoPO4 with electrolyte.

  3. Polyimide Dielectric Layer on Filaments for Organic Field Effect Transistors: Choice of Solvent, Solution Composition and Dip-Coating Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s research, smart textiles is an established topic in both electronics and the textile fields. The concept of producing microelectronics directly on a textile substrate is not a mere idea anymore and several research institutes are working on its realisation. Microelectronics like organic field effect transistor (OFET can be manufactured with a layered architecture. The production techniques used for this purpose can also be applied on textile substrates. Besides gate, active and contact layers, the isolating or dielectric layer is of high importance in the OFET architecture. Therefore, generating a high quality dielectric layer that is of low roughness and insulating at the same time is one of the fundamental requirements in building microelectronics on textile surfaces. To evaluate its potential, we have studied polyimide as a dielectric layer, dip-coated onto copper-coated polyester filaments. Accordingly, the copper-coated polyester filament was dip-coated from a polyimide solution with two different solvents, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylformaldehyde. A variety of dip-coating speeds, solution concentrations and solvent-solute combinations have been tested. Their effect on the quality of the layer was analysed through microscopy, leak current measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Polyimide dip-coating with polyimide resin dissolved in NMP at a concentration of 15w% in combination with a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min led to the best results in electrical insulation and roughness. By optimising the dielectric layer’s properties, the way is paved for applying the subsequent semi-conductive layer. In further research, we will be working with the organic semiconductor material TIPS-Pentacene

  4. Spray deposition of organic electroluminescent coatings for application in flexible light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic electroluminescent (EL films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinatoaluminum (Alq3 mixed with polystyrene (PS binder were produced by spray deposition. The influence of the substrate temperature on the layer’s morphology and uniformity was investigated. The deposition conditions were optimized and simple flexible light-emitting devices consisting of indium-tin oxide/Alq3:PS/aluminum were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET foil to demonstrate the advantages of the sprayed organic coatings. Same structure was produced by thermal evaporation of Alq3 film as a reference. The influence of the deposition method on the film roughness and contact resistance at the electrode interfaces for both types of structures was estimated. The results were related to the devices’ efficiency. It was found that the samples with sprayed films turn on at 4 V, which is 2 V lower in comparison to the device with thermal evaporated Alq3. The current through the sprayed device is six times higher as well (17 mA vs. 2.8 mA at 6.5 V, which can be ascribed to the lower contact resistance at the EL film/electrode interfaces. This is due to the lower surface roughness of the pulverized layers.

  5. A metal organic framework-polyaniline nanocomposite as a fiber coating for solid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Habib; Javanmardi, Hasan; Abbasi, Alireza; Banihashemi, Solmaz

    2016-01-29

    A metal organic framework-polyaniline (MOF/PANI) nanocomposite was electrodeposited on a stainless steel wire and used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The electropolymerization process was carried out under a constant deposition potential and applied to the corresponding aqueous electrolyte containing aniline and MOF particles. The employment of MOFs with their large and small cages and 3-D structures in synthesizing a nanocomposite was assumed to be efficient constitutes to induce more non-smooth and porous structures, approved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Three different MOFs were incorporated to synthesize the desired nanocomposites and the preliminary experiments showed that all of them, particularly the one containing MOF2, have higher extraction performances in compared with PANI. The applicability of the new fiber coating was examined by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some chlorobenzenes (CBs) from aqueous samples. Influencing parameters on the synthesize and extraction processes including the electrodeposition voltage and its duration time, the weight ratio of PANI and MOF, the ionic strength, desorption temperature and time, and extraction time and temperature were optimized. The developed method was validated by analyzing the spiked distilled water and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Under optimum condition, the relative standard deviation (RSD%) values for a double distilled water spiked with the selected CBs at 20ngL(-1) were 5-8% (n=3) and the detection limits were below 0.2ngL(-1). The linear dynamic range (LDR) of the method was in the concentration range of 0.5-1000ngL(-1) (R(2)>0.9994). The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was found to be in the range of 4-7%. Eventually, various real-water samples were analyzed by the MOF/PANI-based HS-SPME and GC-MS and the relative recovery values were found to be in the range of 92-98%.

  6. Characterization of polymer coated glass as a passive air sampler for persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Tom; Farrar, Nick J; Shoeib, Mahiba; Jones, Kevin C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-06-01

    The use of thin-film polymer-coated glass surfaces or POGs as passive air samplers was investigated during an uptake experiment in an indoor environment with high levels of gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). POGs consisted of a micron thick layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) coated onto glass cylinders. The uptake was initially linear with time and governed by the air-side mass transfer coefficient and surface area of the sampler. This was followed by a curvilinear region and finally a constant phase when equilibrium was established between air and EVA. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of the POGs allowed rapid equilibrium with gas-phase PCBs; equilibration times were on the order of hours for the low molecular weight congeners. The equilibrium concentration was dependent on the EVA-air partition coefficient, K(EVA-A), which was shown to be very well correlated to the octanol-air partition coefficient, K(OA). When POGs of varying thickness were equilibrated with air, the amount of PCB accumulated increased with increasing thickness of the EVA, indicating that uptake was by absorption into the entire polymer matrix. A wind field of 4 m s(-1) resulted in an increased uptake rate by a factor of approximately six compared to uptake in relatively still air. This wind speed effect was diminished, however, when POGs were housed in deployment chambers consisting of inverted stainless steel bowls. Relationships based on the air-side mass transfer coefficient and K(EVA-A) were developed for PCBs that describe the entire uptake profile and allow air concentrations to be determined from the amount of chemical accumulated in the POG. It is believed that these relationships are also valid when POGs are used to detect other classes of persistent organic pollutants.

  7. New Electronic Technology Applied in Flexible Organic Optical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new organic materials, nanostructured, for developing technology based on organic devices, have been the main focus of the scientific community. In recent years, the first polymeric electronics products have entered the market (organic semiconductor materials and there are some electrochromic devices among them that have been called smart windows, once they control the passage of light or heat through a closed environment as an ordinary window. The main functional aspect of electrochromic devices, when being used in architectural and automotive industry, is to control the passage of light and temperature with thermal and visual comfort. These devices can be flexible and very thin, not containing heavy metals, and formed by layers of organic material deposited in several architectures. In this study, the electro-deposition of organic materials in the Polyaniline, PANI case, which provide stability in optical and electrical parameters, was utilized with the means of developing prototypes of organic electrochromic devices. These materials were characterized by: ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy absorption (UV-Vis, measurement of thickness (MT and electrical measurements (EM. This study aims to establish the relationship between the thickness of the active layer and the value of the electrical resistivity of the layer deposited through an electro-deposition technique. The experimental results enabled the equating of the electrical resistivity related to the thickness of the deposited layer. The linear fit of these results has expressed the thickness of the conducting layer, α, and the lowest value of the electrical resistivity, β, associated with the gap between the valence band and the conduction band. Thus, the results have demonstrated that, when the layer of organic material is completely conductive, we may obtain the thickness of the organic material deposited on the substrate.

  8. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories.

  9. Droplet infiltration dynamics and soil wettability related to soil organic matter of soil aggregate coatings and interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fér Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organo-mineral coatings of soil aggregates, cracks, and biopores control sorption and macropore-matrix exchange during preferential flow, in particular in the clay-illuvial Bt-horizon of Luvisols. The soil organic matter (SOM composition has been hypothesized to explain temporal changes in the hydraulic properties of aggregate surfaces. The objective of this research was to find relations between the temporal change in wettability, in terms of droplet infiltration dynamics, and the SOM composition of coated and uncoated aggregate surfaces. We used 20 to 40 mm sized soil aggregates from the Bt2 horizon of a Haplic Luvisol from loess that were (i coated, (ii not coated (both intact, and (iii aggregates from which coatings were removed (cut. The SOM composition of the aggregate surfaces was characterized by infrared spectroscopy in the diffuse reflection mode (DRIFT. A potential wettability index (PWI was calculated from the ratio of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups in SOM. The water drop penetration times (WDPT and contact angles (CA during droplet infiltration experiments were determined on dry and moist aggregate samples of the three types. The decrease in the CA with time was described using the power function (CA(t = at−b. For dry aggregates, the WDPT values were larger for coated as compared to uncoated regions on the aggregate surfaces, and increased with increasing PWI value (R2 = 0.75. The a parameter was significantly related to the WDPT (R2 = 0.84 and to the PWI (R2 = 0.64. The relations between the b parameter and the WDPT (R2 = 0.61 and the PWI (R2 = 0.53 were also significant. The WDPT values of wet soil aggregates were higher than those of dry aggregates due to high water contents, which limited the droplet infiltration potential. At the wet aggregate surfaces, the WDPT values increased with the PWI of the SOM (R2 = 0.64. In contrast to dry samples, no significant relationships were found between parameters a or b

  10. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  11. In situ UV-visible absorption during spin-coating of organic semiconductors: A new probe for organic electronics and photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is the most commonly used technique for the lab-scale production of solution processed organic electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. Spin-coating produces the most efficient solution-processed organic solar cells and has been the preferred approach for rapid screening and optimization of new organic semiconductors and formulations for electronic and optoelectronic applications, both in academia and in industrial research facilities. In this article we demonstrate, for the first time, a spin-coating experiment monitored in situ by time resolved UV-visible absorption, the most commonly used, simplest, most direct and robust optical diagnostic tool used in organic electronics. In the first part, we successfully monitor the solution-to-solid phase transformation and thin film formation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the de facto reference conjugated polymer in organic electronics and photovoltaics. We do so in two scenarios which differ by the degree of polymer aggregation in solution, prior to spin-coating. We find that a higher degree of aggregation in the starting solution results in small but measurable differences in the solid state, which translate into significant improvements in the charge carrier mobility of organic field-effect transistors (OFET). In the second part, we monitor the formation of a bulk heterojunction photoactive layer based on a P3HT-fullerene blend. We find that the spin-coating conditions that lead to slower kinetics of thin film formation favour a higher degree of polymer aggregation in the solid state and increased conjugation length along the polymer backbone. Using this insight, we devise an experiment in which the spin-coating process is interrupted prematurely, i.e., after liquid ejection is completed and before the film has started to form, so as to dramatically slow the thin film formation kinetics, while maintaining the same thickness and uniformity. These changes yield substantial improvements to the

  12. Formulating food protein-stabilized indomethacin nanosuspensions into pellets by fluid-bed coating technology: physical characterization, redispersibility, and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei He,1,2 Yi Lu,1 Jianping Qi,1 Lingyun Chen,3 Lifang Yin,2 Wei Wu1 1School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education and PLA, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology. Methods: Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, ß-lactoglobulin as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated. Results: The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much

  13. Research on Using Natural Coating Materials on the Storage Life of Mango Fruit cv. Nam Dok Mai and Technology Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee MUANGDECH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the suitable type and concentration of 3 natural coating materials, namely, Aloe vera gel, chitosan and carnaubar wax, on postharvest storage life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Nam Dok Mai. The experiment was divided into 3 treatments to compare the 3 types of coating materials and each appropriate concentration, to find the appropriate combination treatment, and to evaluate the benefit of this technology. The objectives of this research were to compare different concentrations and study the type of natural coating materials. At 20 % Aloe vera jelly, 1 % chitosan and 4 % carnaubar wax gave the longest storage life with good quality at 12 days at a storage temperature of 25 °C and 75±5 % relative humidity (p ≤ 0.05. Further investigation was done by using these optimal concentrations alone or in combination under 2 different conditions, 25 °C with 75±5 % relative humidity and 13 °C with 90±5 % relative humidity. It was found that coating with combination of 20 % Aloe vera jelly and 1 % chitosan gave the best result in alleviating the formation of brown spot and extended the storage life up to 12 days as well as slowing down the weight loss, changes in peel and pulp color, firmness, texture, quality such as concentrate by titratable acidity, total soluble solids and respiratory rate significantly compared to control and other treatment (p ≤ 0.05. The use of the coating materials did not alter the quality of the fruit when ripe. Technology dissemination to farmers and exporters was performed by using the training manuals created by the author. The results of the pre-test and after training post-test showed that farmers and exporters increased their knowledge, attitudes, awareness and skills in the use of the natural coating materials for prolonging storage life of mangos.

  14. The corrosion protection of AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy by leaching of lithium-containing salts from organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Peter; Liu, Yanwen; Zhou, Xiaorong; Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Lyon, Stuart B; van der Ven, Leendert G J; Mol, Arjan J M C; Terryn, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    Lithium carbonate and lithium oxalate were incorporated as leachable corrosion inhibitors in model organic coatings for the protection of AA2024-T3. The coated samples were artificially damaged with a scribe. It was found that the lithium-salts are able to leach from the organic coating and form a protective layer in the scribe on AA2024-T3 under neutral salt spray conditions. The present paper shows the first observation and analysis of these corrosion protective layers, generated from lithium-salt loaded organic coatings. The scribed areas were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy before and after neutral salt spray exposure (ASTM-B117). The protective layers typically consist of three different layered regions, including a relatively dense layer near the alloy substrate, a porous middle layer and a flake-shaped outer layer, with lithium uniformly distributed throughout all three layers. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry surface roughness measurements demonstrate that the formation of the layer occurs rapidly and, therefore provides an effective inhibition mechanism. Based on the observation of this work, a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these protective layers.

  15. Investigation of coatings of natural organic matter on silver nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Melanie; Ivleva, Natalia P; Klitzke, Sondra; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The widespread use of engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) leads to a growing risk for an unintended release into the environment. Despite the good characterization of EINP in regard to their function scale and the application areas, there is still a gap of knowledge concerning their behaviour in the different environmental compartments. Due to their high surface to volume ratio, surface properties and existence or development of a coating are of high importance for their stability and transport behaviour. However, analytical methods to investigate organic coatings on nanoparticles in aqueous media are scarce. We used Raman microspectroscopy in combination with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to investigate humic acid coatings on silver nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions and in real world samples. This setup is more challenging than previous mechanistic studies using SERS to characterize the humic acids in tailored settings where only one type of organic matter is present and the concentrations of the nanoparticles can be easily adjusted to the experimental needs. SERS offers the unique opportunity to work with little sample preparation directly with liquid samples, thus significantly reducing artefacts. SERS spectra of different natural organic matter brought into contact with silver nanoparticles indicate humic acid in close proximity to the nanoparticles. This coating was also present after several washing steps by centrifugation and resuspension in deionized water and after an increase in ionic strength.

  16. Influence of Vacuum Organic Contaminations on Laser-Induced Damage of 1064 nm Anti-Reflective Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yun; LIU Shi-Jie; HE Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yuan-An; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of vacuum organic contaminations on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings. Anti-reflective (AR) coatings at 1064nm made by Ta2O5/SiO2 are deposited by the ion beam sputtering method. The LIDTs of AR coatings are measured in vacuum and in atmosphere, respectively. It is exhibited that contaminations in vacuum are easily to be absorbed onto optical surface because of lower pressure,and they become origins of damage, resulting in the decrease of LIDT from 24.5 J/cm2 in air to 15.7J/cm2 in vacuum. The LIDT of coatings in vacuum has is slightly changed compared with the value in atmosphere after the organic contaminations are wiped off. These results indicate that organic contaminations are the main reason of the LIDT decrease in vacuum. Additionally, damage morphologies have distinct changes from vacuum to atmosphere because of the differences between the residual stress and thermal decomposability of filmy materials.

  17. The pH-dependent photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with different organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, David; Deschaume, Olivier; Coutiño-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Locquet, Jean-Pierre; Hofkens, Johan; Van Bael, Margriet J; Bartic, Carmen

    2015-01-26

    The photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is known to be sensitive to the solution pH. In this work we investigate the role played by the organic coating in determining the pH-dependent PL. We compare two types of CdSe/ZnS QDs equipped with different organic coatings, namely dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA)-capped QDs and phospholipid micelle-encapsulated QDs. Both QD types have their PL intensity quenched at acidic pH values, but they differ in terms of the reversibility of the quenching process. For DHLA-capped QDs, the quenching is nearly irreversible, with a small reversible component visible only on short time scales. For phospholipid micelle-encapsulated QDs the quenching is notably almost fully reversible. We suggest that the surface passivation by the organic ligands is reversible for the micelle-encapsulated QDs. Additionally, both coatings display pH-dependent spectral shifts. These shifts can be explained by a combination of irreversible processes, such as photo-oxidation and acid etching, and reversible charging of the QD surface, leading to the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), the extent of each effect being coating-dependent. At high ionic strengths, the aggregation of QDs also leads to a spectral (red) shift, which is attributable to the QCSE and/or electronic energy transfer.

  18. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  19. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings on ferritic steels by CVD-FBR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F.J. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: fjperez@quim.ucm.es; Hierro, M.P. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trilleros, J.A. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carpintero, M.C. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, L. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bolivar, F.J. [Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    The use of chemical vapor deposition by fluidized bed reactors (CVD-FBR) offers some advantages in comparison to other coating techniques such as pack cementation, because it allows coating deposition at lower temperatures than pack cementation and at atmospheric pressure without affecting the mechanical properties of material due to heat treatments of the bulk during coating process. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings have been obtained on two different ferritics steels (P-91 and P-92). The coatings were analyzed using several techniques like SEM/EDX and XRD. The results indicated that both coatings were form by Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} intermetallic compound, and in the co-deposition the Si was incorporated to the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} structure in small amounts.

  20. Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandstrom, Andreas; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C;

    2012-01-01

    The grand vision of manufacturing large-area emissive devices with low-cost roll-to-roll coating methods, akin to how newspapers are produced, appeared with the emergence of the organic light-emitting diode about 20 years ago. Today, small organic light-emitting diode displays are commercially...... available in smartphones, but the promise of a continuous ambient fabrication has unfortunately not materialized yet, as organic light-emitting diodes invariably depend on the use of one or more time-and energy-consuming process steps under vacuum. Here we report an all-solution-based fabrication...... of an alternative emissive device, a light-emitting electrochemical cell, using a slot-die roll-coating apparatus. The fabricated flexible sheets exhibit bidirectional and uniform light emission, and feature a fault-tolerant >1-mu m-thick active material that is doped in situ during operation. It is notable...

  1. Technology, Preparation and Properties of the Cast Glass-Coated Magnetic Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei A. Baranov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of cast amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires have been reviewed considering their potential application. Microwires were produced from Co Fe Mn Cr Cu B and Si using the Taylor–Ulitovsky method. Technological aspects of the Taylor–Ulitovsky method for fabrication of glass-coated microwire with different structure are analyzed. Magnetic microwires demonstrate a large variety of magnetic behaviors, which is important for sensing applications. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic core, for Co-, Fe- and Ni-based composition, the microwires’ properties are very different. The geometrical characteristics (diameter of metallic core and thickness of the glass of the microwire depend on the physical properties of a metallic composition and of glass and the parameters of the heating inductor and the speed of obtaining a microwire. The diameter of metallic core in these microwires can range from 0.5 to 70 μm, and their thickness of the glass can vary from 1 to 50 μm.

  2. High Sensitivity Refractometer Based on TiO₂-Coated Adiabatic Tapered Optical Fiber via ALD Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-08-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO₂ nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO₂ nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO₂ on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373-1.3500. Due to TiO₂'s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field.

  3. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  4. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yansheng [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tu, Rong, E-mail: turong@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  5. Results-Based Organization Design for Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McPhee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Faced with considerable uncertainty, entrepreneurs would benefit from clearly defined objectives, a plan to achieve these objectives (including a reasonable expectation that this plan will work, as well as a means to measure progress and make requisite course corrections. In this article, the author combines the benefits of results-based management with the benefits of organization design to describe a practical approach that technology entrepreneurs can use to design their organizations so that they deliver desired outcomes. This approach links insights from theory and practice, builds logical connections between entrepreneurial activities and desired outcomes, and measures progress toward those outcomes. This approach also provides a mechanism for entrepreneurs to make continual adjustments and improvements to their design and direction in response to data, customer and stakeholder feedback, and changes in their business environment.

  6. Assessing the performance of health technology assessment organizations: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Louise; Farand, Lambert; Mondou, Isabelle; Sicotte, Claude; Battista, Renaldo

    2008-01-01

    In light of growing demands for public accountability, the broadening scope of health technology assessment organizations (HTAOs) activities and their increasing role in decision-making underscore the importance for them to demonstrate their performance. Based on Parson's social action theory, we propose a conceptual model that includes four functions an organization needs to balance to perform well: (i) goal attainment, (ii) production, (iii) adaptation to the environment, and (iv) culture and values maintenance. From a review of the HTA literature, we identify specific dimensions pertaining to the four functions and show how they relate to performance. We compare our model with evaluations reported in the scientific and gray literature to confirm its capacity to accommodate various evaluation designs, contexts of evaluation, and organizational models and perspectives. Our findings reveal the dimensions of performance most often assessed and other important ones that, hitherto, remain unexplored. The model provides a flexible and theoretically grounded tool to assess the performance of HTAOs.

  7. Nanoparticle-coated organic-inorganic microparticles: experimental design and gastrointestinal tolerance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Carlos R. Beck

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the spray-drying parameters and the type of nanoparticles (nanocapsules or nanospheres on the characteristics of nanoparticle-coated diclofenac-loaded microparticles were investigated by using a factorial design 3². Gastrointestinal tolerance following oral administration in rats was evaluated. Formulations were selected considering the best yields, the best encapsulation efficiencies and the lowest water contents, presenting surfaces completely coated by nanostructures and a decrease in the surface areas in relation to the uncoated core. In vitro drug release demonstrated the influence of the nanoparticle-coating on the dissolution profiles of diclofenac. Nanocapsule-coated microparticles presented a protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

  8. Nanoparticle-coated organic-inorganic microparticles: experimental design and gastrointestinal tolerance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Ruy Carlos R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the spray-drying parameters and the type of nanoparticles (nanocapsules or nanospheres on the characteristics of nanoparticle-coated diclofenac-loaded microparticles were investigated by using a factorial design 3². Gastrointestinal tolerance following oral administration in rats was evaluated. Formulations were selected considering the best yields, the best encapsulation efficiencies and the lowest water contents, presenting surfaces completely coated by nanostructures and a decrease in the surface areas in relation to the uncoated core. In vitro drug release demonstrated the influence of the nanoparticle-coating on the dissolution profiles of diclofenac. Nanocapsule-coated microparticles presented a protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

  9. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  11. Correlation to Predict Collision Efficiency of Natural Organic Matter (NOM)- and Polymer- coated Nanoparticles in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, G. V.; Phenrat, T.; Cisneros, C. M.; Schoenfelder, D. P.; Fagerlund, F.; Kim, H.; Illangasekare, T.; Tilton, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The fate of manufactured nanoparticles released to the environment is of great interest due to their increasing use in consumer products and their potential risk to the environment and human health. Manufactured nanomaterials typically have a polymeric surface coating to provide specific functionality, or will adsorb natural organic matter (NOM) once released into the environment. Adsorbed polymer and NOM can provide electrosteic repulsions that enhance the migration of nanoparticles in porous media. Semi-empirical correlations to predict the collision efficiency of electrostatically stabilized (uncoated) colloids are available, however, they are not applicable to nanomaterials coated with polymeric or NOM layers. We present a semi- empirical correlation to predict the collision efficiency of NOM and polymer-coated nanomaterials in saturated porous media. The adsorbed mass and adsorbed layer properties (including thickness) are determined and particle breakthrough curves are generated for a number of particle and coating types. Regression analysis is then used to develop a semi-empirical correlation that includes a parameter (NLEK) representing electrosteric repulsions afforded by adsorbed NOM or polymer. The correlation appears robust over a range of four particle and four coating types and should be a valuable tool for predicting the relative mobility of different manufactured and natural nanomaterials based on a few measurable properties.

  12. Beeswax-Colophony Blend: A Novel Green Organic Coating for Protection of Steel Drinking Water Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdikheibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax-colophony blend is mainly used as a sealant mixture for preservation applications. The beeswax itself, however, has had a long way in history taking part in conservation processes including mummification. In this research, this blend was used as a protective coating for drinking water distribution tanks. Initially, a layer with 400 μm thickness was applied on a sand blasted mild steel plate. The long-term electrochemical behavior of the coating was investigated by open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical microbiological characteristics of the coating, microbial and chemical examinations were performed on drinking water samples that had been in contact with the coating. Furthermore, its behavior in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR in a wastewater treatment plant was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Regarding the consistency of experimental results, it was concluded that this proposed recyclable blend could be considered as a novel green organic coating and also a good corrosion barrier even in aggressive environments.

  13. Metal Oxide Assisted Preparation of Core-Shell Beads with Dense Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Enhanced Extraction of Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Mateo; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Gonzalez, Veronica; Maya, Fernando; Parra, Jose B; Cerdà, Victor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-08-08

    Dense and homogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings on functional bead surfaces are easily prepared by using intermediate sacrificial metal oxide coatings containing the metal precursor of the MOF. Polystyrene (PS) beads are coated with a ZnO layer to give ZnO@PS core-shell beads. The ZnO@PS beads are reactive in the presence of 2-methylimidazole to transform part of the ZnO coating into a porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) external shell positioned above the internal ZnO precursor shell. The obtained ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads can be easily packed in column format for flow-through applications, such as the solid-phase extraction of trace priority-listed environmental pollutants. The prepared material shows an excellent permeance to flow when packed as a column to give high enrichment factors, facile regeneration, and excellent reusability for the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A. It also shows an outstanding performance for the simultaneous enrichment of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol), facilitating their analysis when present at very low levels (coatings.

  14. Research status of dry coating technologies on solid dosage forms%固体制剂干法包衣工艺的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔明曦; 李可欣; 陈大为

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the recent progress of dry coating technologies on dosage forms. Methods The processes and principles of several dry coating methods included heat dry coating,electrostatic dry powder coating,plasticizer dry powder coating,and plasticizer electrostatic dry powder coating were discussed in the paper. Results The developed dry powder coating technologies are capable of eliminating the water in the coating process. Conclusions Dry coating technologies are promising to be applied in the pharmaceutical industrial manufacture.%目的 对近年来国内外固体制剂的非溶剂包衣工艺进行介绍.方法 通过查阅文献,综述了目前比较常用的几种包衣方式,包括静电干粉包衣、增塑剂干法包衣、增塑剂静电干粉包衣、热溶包衣、压制包衣和光固化包衣,以及各种包衣工艺的原理、过程与特点.结果 干法包衣工艺可以避免水性或有机溶剂的使用.结论 干法包衣工艺具有很大潜力,可用于固体制剂包衣的工业化生产.

  15. 纯有机亲水铝箔涂覆材料的制备研究%Development of pure organic hydrophilic coating used for aluminum foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董劲; 陈志明

    2011-01-01

    The preparation approach of organic hydrophilic coating used for aluminum foil was described.The experimental data showed that the preparation approach of hydrophilic resin was improved when the mass ratio of polyether prepolymer to polyurethane prepolymer was 1∶1, polyether prepolymer was added into reactor for polymerization and ratio of sodium ethylenesulphonate in monomers was increased.The blending and coating technologies were studied.The results showed that when mass ratio of hydrophilic resin to non-ionic surfactant tween-60 was 8 ~ 10, pH value of the coating was between 6 and 6.5, aluminum foil was pretreated with benzene degreasing and being soaked in lye, baking temperature was 250 ℃ , the coating has excellent long-term hydrophilicity.%介绍了一种纯有机亲水铝箔涂料的制备及研究.对亲水树脂的制备方法进行了改进,并通过实验确定:聚醚预聚体与聚氨酯预聚体投料质量比为1:1;聚合时聚醚预聚体宜加于釜底;应增大乙烯基磺酸钠单体的加入比例.研究了亲水涂料的调配及涂装工艺,确定亲水树脂与表面活性剂吐温-60的质量比在8~10、涂料的pH值在6~6.5,铝箔经汽油漂洗、碱液浸泡脱脂预处理,成膜温度在250℃时,涂膜持续亲水性能优异.

  16. Effective Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution by Organic Acid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Liang, Yuyan; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Wu, Kesheng; Wei, Hua; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0.4 Tesla) at pH 5.0 aqueous solution. The TC adsorption process on the UA-MNPs followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacities increased from 86.96 mg g(-1) to 222.2 mg g(-1) with the increase in temperature from 288 K to 318 K. The kinetics of adsorption fits pseudo-second-order model perfectly with a rate constant, 5.946 g mg(-1) min(-1) at 298 K. The positive values of the enthalpy (AH) and the negative value of the free energy (AG) indicated an endothermic and spontaneous adsorption process of TC on the UA-MNPs. Moreover, the UA-MNPs possessed excellent ability to adsorb the other three major types of TC antibiotics, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline.

  17. Influence of organic surface coatings on the sorption of anticonvulsants on mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Cwiertny, David M

    2013-10-01

    Here, we explore the role that sorption to mineral surfaces plays in the fate of two commonly encountered effluent-derived pharmaceuticals, the anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine. Adsorption isotherms and pH-edge experiments are consistent with electrostatics governing anticonvulsant uptake on metal oxides typically found in soil and aquifer material (e.g., Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti). Appreciable, albeit limited, adsorption was observed only for phenytoin, which is anionic above pH 8.3, on the iron oxides hematite and ferrihydrite. Adsorption increased substantially in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants, species also commonly encountered in wastewater effluent. For carbamazepine, we propose the enhanced uptake results entirely from hydrophobic interactions with apolar tails of surfactant surface coatings. For phenytoin, adsorption also arises from the ability of surfactants to alter the net charge of the mineral surface and thereby further enhance favorable electrostatic interactions with its anionic form. Collectively, our results demonstrate that although pristine mineral surfaces are likely not major sinks for phenytoin and carbamazepine in the environment, their alteration with organic matter, particularly surfactants, can considerably increase their ability to retain these emerging pollutants in subsurface systems.

  18. Molecular modeling of interactions between heavy crude oil and the soil organic matter coated quartz surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guozhong; Zhu, Xinzhe; Ji, Haoqing; Chen, Daoyi

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was applied to evaluate the mobility, diffusivity and partitioning of SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, asphaltenes) fractions of heavy crude oil on soil organic matter (SOM) coated quartz surface. Four types of SOM were investigated including Leonardite humic acid, Temple-Northeastern-Birmingham humic acid, Chelsea soil humic acid and Suwannee river fulvic acid. The SOM aggregation at oil-quartz interface decreased the adsorption of SARA on the quartz surface by 13-83%. Although the SOM tended to promote asphaltenes aggregation, the overall mobility of SARA was significantly greater on SOM-quartz complex than on pure quartz. Particularly, the diffusion coefficient of asphaltenes and resins increased by up to one-order of magnitude after SOM addition. The SOM increased the overall oil adsorption capacity but also mobilized SARA by driving them from the viscous oil phase and rigid quartz to the elastic SOM. This highlighted the potential of SOM addition for increasing the bioavailability of heavy crude oil without necessarily increasing the environmental risks. The MD simulation was demonstrated to be helpful for interpreting the role of SOM and the host oil phase for the adsorption and partitioning of SARA molecules, which is the key for developing more realistic remediation appraisal for heavy crude oil in soils.

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-09

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance.

  20. Determining the chemical activity of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil using polymer coated vials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson Jan-Åke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds, the concentrations are less indicative of potential exposure and distribution than are the associated chemical activities, fugacities and freely dissolved concentrations. The latter can be measured by diffusive sampling into thin layers of polymer, as in, for example, solid phase micro-extraction. Such measurements require equilibrium partitioning of analytes into the polymer while ensuring that the sample is not depleted. We introduce the validation of these requirements based on parallel sampling into polymer layers of different thicknesses. Results Equilibrium sampling devices were made by coating glass vials internally with 3–12 μm thick layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. These were filled with slurries of a polluted soil and gently agitated for 5 days. The concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the PDMS were measured. Validation confirmed fulfilment of the equilibrium sampling requirements and high measurement precision. Finally, chemical activities of the PAHs in the soil were determined from their concentrations and activity coefficients in the PDMS. Conclusion PAHs' thermodynamic activities in a soil test material were determined via a method of uptake into PDMS. This can be used to assess chemical exposure and predict diffusion and partitioning processes.

  1. Evolutionarily Cooperative Stable of Science & Technology Alliance Under Self-organized Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    The cooperative evolutionary stability under self-organised organization is discussed in this paper.The differences between the objects studied by cooperative game theory and the ones studied by cooperative game in science & technology alliance are analyzed.The mutant probability of agent's utility under endogenous technical factor condition is analyzed.By clarifying the connotation of Pareto-dominate institution in cooperative game,the efficient and feasible managerial definition of Pareto-dominate Institution in science & technology alliance is presented.The evolutionarily cooperative game for the agent in Pareto-dominate institution is explained.And then the necessary condition of cooperative evolutionary stabilization based on multi-agent utility's dynamic equilibrium is put forward.Finally,the model of alliance's utility's dynamic equilibrium under self-organization is established.

  2. Technological Innovation Management and its Role in Performance of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the main benefits of technological innovation in organizations and how it should be managed to ensure economic efficiency. The current level of social and economic evolution was possible only through active involvement of individuals and organizations in the innovative process. Adoption of appropriate policies and strategies at institutional, national and international level has significant impact on both the innovation process and innovation results. At company level, involvement in an innovative process depends on the financial and human resources and on the availability and interest of management and employees. The main motivating factor in adoption of technological innovation is, most often, obtaining financial benefits. This reflects itself either as a direct increase in profits, or by obtaining competitive advantage which leads, in the long run, to profits increase and achieving a favorable position on the market. Should not be neglected other motivating factors of innovation, such as compliance with environmental standards, ensuring a secure position on the market with opportunities for further expansion, reducing the cost of raw materials and / or production process, improving company image, attitude and achievements of partners in the field (competitors, suppliers, customers etc. Managers need to carefully analyze these factors and decide the manner and degree of involvement in an innovative process.

  3. Film coated tablets (ColoPulse technology) for targeted delivery in the lower intestinal tract: influence of the core composition on release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Baltink, Jan H; Woesthuis, Ellen M; Stellaard, Frans; Kosterink, Jos G W; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2012-01-01

    The design of a film coating technology which allows a tablet to deliver the drug in the ileocolonic segment would offer new treatment possibilities. The objective is to develop a platform technology that is suitable for a broad range of drug compounds. We developed a coated tablet with a delayed, pulsatile release profile based on a pH-sensitive coating technology (ColoPulse). The production process was validated, and the effect of core composition on the in vitro release and water uptake investigated. The release profile of the standard tablet core composition, based on the use of cellulose as a filler, was independent of the coat thickness in a range of 9.0-13.2 mg/cm(2). The release profile of a coated tablet was strongly influenced when cellulose was partly replaced by the model substance glucose (loss of sigmoidal release), citric acid (stabilization), sodium bicarbonate (destabilization) or sodium benzoate (destabilization). The film coating takes up water when below the pH-threshold. However, this did not cause early disintegration of the coating. The ColoPulse technology is successfully applied on tablets. The in vitro release characteristics of the coated tablets are influenced by the composition of the core.

  4. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODES OF MAGNETIC-ELECTRIC GRINDING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF GAS-THERMAL SPRAYED NI–CR–B–SI-COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of technological modes of magnetic-electric grinding on structural changes in a surface layer of gas-thermal sprayed coatings is investigated in the paper. The paper presents optimum modes of  coating roughing and finishing processes.

  5. TECHNOLOGY OF COATINGS ON THE BASE OF TITANIUM CARBIDE BY MEANS OF ELECTRO-SPARK PROCESSING OF THE DETAILS WITH SVS-REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Reut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the new economical technology of coatings on the base of titanium carbide by means of electro-spark processing of the details with SVS-reagents. The structures, phase and chemical compositions, micro-hardness, wear resistance of coatings are determined.

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart D of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), Content Limits for Architectural Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Antenna coatings 530 4.4 Anti-fouling coatings 450 3.8 Anti-graffiti coatings 600 5.0 Bituminous coatings... coatings 400 3.3 Flow coatings 650 5.4 Form release compounds 450 3.8 Graphic arts coatings (sign paints...

  7. Spin-Coating Technology of the Cover Layer for Digital Video Recording-Blue Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Hideki; Usami, Mamoru; Ushida, Tomoki; Hayashida, Naoki; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Kato, Tatsuya; Shingai, Hiroshi; Utsunomiya, Hajime

    2002-06-01

    We have achieved the cover layer thickness distribution of 100± 1.5 μm on a disc by improving the spin-coating method and developing an original spin-coating machine. The small skew of the disc is achieved by using a newly developed UV-curable resin.

  8. Use of gemini surfactants as semipermanent capillary coatings in aqueous-organic solvents for capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Li, Yanqing; Yao, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method for CE separation of inorganic anions based on the use of gemini surfactants as capillary coatings in mixed aqueous-organic solvents. The semipermanent gemini surfactant coatings were facilely prepared by rinsing the capillary with 18-s-18 solutions; they can keep be stable during the electrophoretic runs without surfactants in buffer. The coatings showed a good tolerance of methanol (MeOH) or ACN, e.g. at pH 8.0 and with 40% v/v MeOH or ACN, the EOF magnitude after 60 min of continuous electrokinetic rinsing only decreased by 2.9 or 6.0%, respectively. The coatings were successfully applied to the separation of inorganic anions. Adding organic solvents in buffer can effectively improve the resolution and efficiencies; however, it remarkably prolonged the analysis time due to the suppression of EOF. Interestingly, varying the spacer length of the gemini surfactants can also modulate (improve) the resolution but without any sacrifice of analysis time. This benefit was resulted from the unique chemical structures of gemini surfactants because it introduced a new variable, i.e. the spacer length, to the separation mechanism.

  9. 77 FR 14279 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., and their associated RFs and Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers, based on petitions received by... corresponding Chemical Abstract Service numbers and reactivity factors to Table 2A of the aerosol coatings rule... action adds compounds to Table 2 of the aerosol coatings rule, and corresponding Chemical...

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic acid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the efficacy of antimicrobial coatings on inactivation of Salmonella on the surface of tomato stem scars, which was inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella (S. Montevideo. S. Newport. S. Saintpaul, and S. Typhimurium) and coated with acid-chitosan solutions. The ...

  11. Fabrication of advanced organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings for biomedical applications by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xin

    Novel electrodeposition strategies have been developed for the fabrication of thick adherent zirconia ceramic and composite coatings for biomedical applications. The new method is based on the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of polyelectrolyte additives combined with the cathodic precipitation of zirconia. The method enables the room-temperature electrosynthesis of crystalline zirconia nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Adherent crack-free coatings up to several microns thick were obtained. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Obtained results pave the way for electrodeposition of other ceramic-polymer composites. Novel advanced nanocomposite coatings based on bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HA) have been developed for the surface modification of orthopaedic and dental implant metals. HA nanopartic1es prepared by a chemical precipitation method were used for the fabrication of novel HA-chitosan nanocomposite coatings. The use of chitosan enables room-temperature fabrication of the composite coatings. The problems related to the sintering of HA can be avoided. A new electrodeposition strategy, based on the EPD of HA nanoparticles and electrochemical deposition of chitosan macromolecules, has been developed. The method enabled the formation of dense, adherent and uniform coatings of various thicknesses in the range of up to 60 mum. Bioactive composite coatings containing 40.9-89.8 wt% HA were obtained. The deposit composition and microstructure can be tailored by varying the chitosan and HA concentrations in the deposition bath. A mathematical model describing the formation of the HA-chitosan composite deposit has been developed. X-ray studies revealed preferred orientation of HA nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. Obtained coatings provide corrosion protection of the substrates and can be utilized for the fabrication of

  12. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols with nano silica particles and organoalkoxysilanes for transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films using sol-gel reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Moonkyong; Park, Hoyyul; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa; Chung, Ildoo

    2010-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized from nano silica particles dispersed in water and from organoalkoxysilanes, using the sol-gel reaction. This work focuses on the effects of the three multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) to form a transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating film. The stability of the hybrid sol was evaluated as a function of the reaction time for 10 d through the variation of the viscosity. The viscosity of the silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS sol was slightly increased for 10 d. The multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes formed dense silica networks through hydrolysis and condensation reaction, which enhanced the thermal resistance of the coating films. No thermal degradation of the silica/DMDMS sample occurred up to 600 degrees C, and none of the silica/MTMS and silica/TMOS samples occurred either up to 700 degrees C. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols were coated on the glass substrate using a spin-coating procedure. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols formed flat coating films without cracks. The transmittance of the hybrid sol coating films using MTMS and DMDMS was shown to be over 90%. The transmittance of the silica/TMOS sol coating film reacted for 10 d abruptly decreased due to faster gelation. The silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS hybrid sols formed smooth coating films while the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film markedly increased when the hybrid sol reacted for 10 d. The increase of the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film can be attributed to the degradation of the stability of the hybrid sol and to the loss of transmittance of the coating film. It was confirmed in this study that the use of organic-inorganic hybrid sol can yield transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films.

  13. Improved Morphology of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) Thin Films for All-Electrospray-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yingjie Liao; Takeshi Fukuda; Norihiko Kamata

    2016-01-01

    Spray coating technique has been established as a promising substitute for the traditional coating methods in the fabrication of organic devices in many reports recently. Control of film morphology at the microscopic scale is critical if spray-coated devices are to achieve high performance. Here we investigate electrospray deposition protocols for the fabrication of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films with a single additive system under ambient condi...

  14. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  15. Organ-on-a-Chip Technology for Reproducing Multiorgan Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-09-25

    In the drug development process, the accurate prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity is important in order to reduce the cost, labor, and effort involved. For this purpose, conventional 2D cell culture models are used in the early phase of drug development. However, the differences between the in vitro and the in vivo systems have caused the failure of drugs in the later phase of the drug-development process. Therefore, there is a need for a novel in vitro model system that can provide accurate information for evaluating the drug efficacy and toxicity through a closer recapitulation of the in vivo system. Recently, the idea of using microtechnology for mimicking the microscale tissue environment has become widespread, leading to the development of "organ-on-a-chip." Furthermore, the system is further developed for realizing a multiorgan model for mimicking interactions between multiple organs. These advancements are still ongoing and are aimed at ultimately developing "body-on-a-chip" or "human-on-a-chip" devices for predicting the response of the whole body. This review summarizes recently developed organ-on-a-chip technologies, and their applications for reproducing multiorgan functions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior of Galvanized Steel Treated with Conventional Conversion Coatings and a Chromate-Free Organic Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Hernandez-Alvarado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional weight loss tests and both DC and AC electrochemical techniques were used to study if an organic inhibitor containing an alkanolamine salt of a polycarboxylic acid can substitute toxic coatings as chromating and certain phosphating procedures in the protection of galvanized steel. The electrolyte used was a 0.5 M aerated NaCl solution. All tests gave concordant results, indicating that the chromate-free organic inhibitor does protect galvanized steel in this environment, even though the provided protection was less than that of the chromate conversion coating. It was observed that, after a moderate initial attack, the corrosion rate diminishes due to the appearance and growth of passivating corrosion products layers, mainly constituted by zinc hydroxychloride (Zn5(OH8CI2⋅H2O and two varieties of zinc hydroxide, among other crystalline compounds.

  17. Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Chou, Kang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is currently the most widely used solution processing method in organic electronics. Here, we report, for the first time, a direct investigation of the formation process of the small-molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene during spin-coating in the context of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) application. The solution thinning and thin film formation were monitored in situ by optical reflectometry and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, respectively, both of which were performed during spin-coating. We find that OSC thin film formation is akin to a quenching process, marked by a deposition rate of ∼100 nm s-1, nearly three orders of magnitude faster than drop-casting. This is then followed by a more gradual crystallization and healing step which depends upon the spinning speed. We associate this to further crystallization and healing of defects by residency of the residual solvent trapped inside the kinetically trapped film. The residency time of the trapped solvent is extended to several seconds by slowing the rotational speed of the substrate and is credited with improving the carrier mobility by nearly two orders of magnitude. Based on this insight, we deliberately slow down the solvent evaporation further and increase the carrier mobility by an additional order of magnitude. These results demonstrate how spin-coating conditions can be used as a handle over the crystallinity of organic semiconductors otherwise quenched during initial formation only to recrystallize and heal during extended interaction with the trapped solvent. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Inactivation of salmonella on tomato stem scars by edible chitosan and organic Acid coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, T; Gurtler, J B

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial coatings for inactivation of Salmonella on the surface of tomato stem scars. Scars were inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella (serovars Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Typhimurium) and coated with acid-chitosan solutions. The chitosan coating with three acids (3A plus chitosan), the chitosan coating with one acid, and the three-acid solution without chitosan reduced the populations of Salmonella by 6.0, 3.6, and 5.3 log CFU per stem scar, respectively. Addition of allyl isothiocyanate (10 μl/ml) to the 3A plus chitosan coating did not significantly increase (P > 0.05) the antimicrobial efficacy. Although the populations of Salmonella in the controls (ca. 7.5 log CFU per stem scar) did not change significantly throughout the 14-day storage period at 10° C, Salmonella cells were reduced to undetectable levels (coating after two days of storage, and no growth was observed for the remaining storage period. Results from this study demonstrate that coatings of acid plus chitosan provide an alternative antimicrobial intervention for decontamination of tomatoes.

  19. Burial effects of organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of particle-borne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toward ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lee, A K Y; McWhinney, R D; Abbatt, J P D

    2012-07-05

    With an aerosol flow tube coupled to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), room temperature (296 ± 3 K) kinetics studies have been performed on the reaction of gas-phase ozone with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adsorbed in submonolayer amounts to dry ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Three organic substances, i.e., bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (BES, liquid), phenylsiloxane oil (PSO, liquid), and eicosane (EC, solid), were used to coat BaP-AS particles to investigate the effects of such organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of PAHs toward ozone. All the reactions of particle-borne BaP with excess ozone exhibit pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of BaP loss, and reactions with a liquid organic coating proceed by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. Liquid organic coatings did not significantly affect the kinetics, consistent with the ability of reactants to rapidly diffuse through the organic coating. In contrast, the heterogeneous reactivity of BaP was reduced substantially by a thin (4-8 nm), solid EC coating and entirely suppressed by thick (10-80 nm) coatings, presumably because of slow diffusion through the organic layer. Although the heterogeneous reactivity of surface-bound PAHs is extremely rapid in the atmosphere, this work is the first to experimentally demonstrate a mechanism by which the lifetime of PAHs may be significantly prolonged, permitting them to undergo long-range transport to remote locations.

  20. Advances in microreaction technology for portable fuel cell applications: Wall coating of thin catalytic films in microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Bersano, Jaime Cristian

    This research has focused on the need to coat microreactor systems composed of channels in the micron size range of 100 to 1000 mum. The experimental procedures and learning are outlined in terms of slurry and surface preparation requirements which are detailed in the experimental section. This system is motivated and applied to micro methanol steam reformers. Thus, a detailed discussion on the driving motivation is given in the introduction. The low temperatures required for steam-reforming of methanol ˜ 493°K (220°C) make it possible to utilize the reformate as a feed to the fuel cell anode. The group of catalysts that shows the highest activity for methanol steam reforming (SR) at low temperature has composition of CuO/ZnO/Al 2O3, which is also the catalyst used for methanol synthesis. Steam reforming of methanol is a highly endothermic process. Conventional reactor configurations, such as a packed bed reactor, operate in a heat transfer limited mode for this reaction. Using catalyst in packed bed form for portable devices is also not convenient due to high pressure drop and possible channeling of gases in addition to poor heat transfer. A wall-coated catalyst represents a superior geometry since it provides lower pressure drop and ease of manufacturing. Due to their small size, microreactors are especially suited for endothermic reactions whose reactivity depends on the rate of heat input. A brief review on microreaction technology is given with a comprehensive survey for catalyst integration into microreactors for catalytic heterogeneous gas phase reactions. The strength of this research is the model that was developed to coat the interior of micron sized capillaries with coats of CuO/ZnO/Al2O 3 slurries as thick as 25 mum in the dry state. The details of the model are given in terms Taylor's theory and Rayleigh's theory. A model is presented that can predict the coat thickness based on experimental conditions The model combines Taylor's experimental work

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Alternative Organic HAP Content Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Content Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations As specified in §§ 63.5701... percent. 2. Production resin operations Nonatomized (nonspray) 35 percent. 3. Pigmented gel...

  2. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  3. 汽车用水性涂料的特征及其涂装技术%The Characteristics of Waterborne Coatings for Automobile and Its Painting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡春; 李文刚

    2012-01-01

    The significant of waterborne for coating process, the difficulties of waterborne coating caused by the characteristics of water, the key process condition of waterborne coating, the factors restricting the development of waterborne coatings and their status were introduced. Pointed out that we should vigorously develop waterborne coatings and coating technology%介绍了涂装工艺水性化的意义,水的特征给水性涂装带来的难点,水性涂装的关键工艺条件,制约水性涂料发展的因素及其现状。指出应大力发展水性涂料及其涂装技术。

  4. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na+ concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest the importance

  5. Corrosion Protection of Nd-Fe Magnets via Phophatization, Silanization and Electrostatic Spraying with Organic Resin Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xia; Li, Jingjie; Li, Musen; Ge, Shengsong; Wang, Xiuchun; Ding, Kaihong; Cui, Shengli; Sun, Yongcong

    2014-09-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets possess excellent properties. However, they are highly sensitive to the attack of corrosive environment. The aim of this work is to improve the corrosion resistance of the magnets by phosphatization, silanization, and electrostatic spraying with organic resin composite coatings. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) tests showed that uniform phosphate conversion coatings and spray layers were formed on the surface of the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Neutral salt spray tests exhibited that, after treated by either phosphating, silanization or electrostatic spraying, the protectiveness of Nd-Fe-B alloys was apparently increased. And corrosion performance of magnets treated with silane only was slightly inferior to those of phosphatized ones. However, significant improvement in corrosion protection was achieved after two-step treatments, i.e. by top-coating spray layer with phosphate or silane films underneath. Grid test indicated that the phosphate and silane coating were strongly attached to the substrate while silane film was slightly weaker than the phosphate-treated ones. Magnetic property analysis revealed phosphatization, silanization, and electrostatic spraying caused decrease in magnetism, but silanization had the relatively smaller effect.

  6. Information technology strategy and alignment issues in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveroth, Einar; Fryk, Pontus; Rapp, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) plays a key role in public health care management because it could improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers and practitioners repeatedly contend that a health care organization's information systems strategy should be aligned with its objectives and strategies, a notion commonly known as IT alignment. Actor-related IT alignment issues in health care institutions were explored in this study. More specifically, it explores the possibility of moving beyond the current IT alignment perspective and, in so doing, explores whether IT alignment-as currently conceptualized in the dominant body of research-is sufficient for attaining improved quality, efficiency, and patient care in health care organizations. The findings are based on a qualitative and longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data were gathered over the 2005-2011 period from interviews, a focus group, observations, and archival material. The data suggest recurrent misalignments between IT strategy and organizational strategy and operations due to the failure to deconstruct the IT artifact and to the existence of various levels of IT maturity. A more complex picture of IT alignment in health care that goes beyond the current perspective is being offered by this study. It argues that the previously common way of handling IT as a single artifact and applying one IT strategy to the entire organizational system is obsolete. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The article suggests that considerable benefits can be gained by assessing IT maturity and its impact on IT alignment. The article also shows that there are different kinds of IT in medical care that requires diverse decisions, investments, prioritizations, and implementation approaches.

  7. Improved Morphology of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:Poly(styrenesulfonate Thin Films for All-Electrospray-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray coating technique has been established as a promising substitute for the traditional coating methods in the fabrication of organic devices in many reports recently. Control of film morphology at the microscopic scale is critical if spray-coated devices are to achieve high performance. Here we investigate electrospray deposition protocols for the fabrication of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS thin films with a single additive system under ambient conditions at room temperature. Critical deposition parameters including solution composition, applied voltage, and relative humidity are discussed systematically. Optimized process for preparing homogenous PEDOT:PSS thin films is applied to all-electrospray-coated organic photovoltaic cells and contributes to a power conversion efficiency comparable to that of the corresponding all-spin-coated device.

  8. PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COATINGS CONTAINING PIGMENTS WITH SURFACE MODIFIED WITH A LAYER OF ZnFe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nechvílová

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is focussed on the properties of organic coatings containing pigments whose surface was chemically coated with zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4 layer. Four silicate types with different particle shapes were selected as the cores: diatomite, talc, kaolin and wollastonite. The untreated particles exhibit a barrier effect. The aim of this project was to apply the surface treatment approach with a view to enhancing not only the model paint films’ anticorrosion properties but also their resistance to physico- mechanical tests pursuant to ISO standards (cupping, bending, impact, adhesion. Other parameters examined included: particle size and morphology, density of the modified pigment, oil consumption, pH, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the paint film. A solvent-based epoxy-ester resin was used as the binder and also served as the reference material. The pigment volume concentration (PVC was 1% and 10%. During the last stage of the experiment, the paint films were exposed to a corrosive environment stimulating seaside conditions or conditions roads treated with rock salt. The accelerated cyclic corrosion test in a neutral salt mist atmosphere was conducted for 864 hours. The results served to ascertain a suitable environment for organic coatings.

  9. Single-step fabrication of nanolamellar structured oxide ceramic coatings by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eils, Nadine K; Mechnich, Peter; Keune, Hartmut; Wahl, Georg; Klages, Claus-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oxide ceramic coatings in the system Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2 were fabricated in laboratory scale by using a MOCVD unit. A hot wall reactor was used along with different precursor feeding systems. Most experiments were carried out by using powder flash evaporation including a screw feeder for precursor powder delivery. For comparison, further samples were fabricated by using band flash evaporation and continuous evaporation from a crucible. Oxygen was used in all cases as reactant gas. Aluminium-tris-2,4-pentanedione (Al(acac)3), yttrium-tris-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione (Y(thd)3) and zirconium-tetrakis-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione (Zr(thd)4) were applied as metal-organic precursors because of their similar vaporization behaviour under the given conditions. The coating stoichiometry was varied from pure alumina to complex ternary compositions in the system Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2. Both kinds of ternary coatings fabricated by using flash evaporation methods show a nanolamellar microstructure in the as deposited state. Heat treating experiments at 1200 degrees C for up to 5 days enhance the lamellar character of the coating deposited by using powder flash evaporation. The lamellar microstructure is due to alternating YSZ enriched layers and YAG enriched layers in this state. However, the coating fabricated by using band flash evaporation shows a dense interpenetrating network of YSZ and YAG after heat treating instead of a lamellar microstructure observed in the as deposited state.

  10. Zn-Al-Mg-RE涂层与有机涂层协同性的研究%Synergy effect between Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating and organic coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付东兴; 徐滨士; 张晓囡; 杨中元

    2009-01-01

    A set of anticorrosion organic coatings was applied on a Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating forming a new long term anti-corrosion multi-layer coating,and the metallic coating was prepared by high velocity arc spraying technology(HVAS).The organic coatings were also applied on a HVAF Al coating and Q235 steel substrate.After the coatings were immersed in 5wt% NaCl solution for 212 days at room temperature,the microstructure of corrosion products in micro-pores were observed with SEM.During micro-pores appearing,the synergy effect between the metallic coatings and the organic coatings in corrosive environment was investigated by EIS.The results indicate that the microstructure of corrosion products in the micro-pores of the Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating system is compacted.The Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating has the best synergy effect with the organic coatings.%采用高速电弧喷涂技术在Q235钢表面制备Zn-Al-Mg-RE涂层后涂装海洋防腐有机涂层,构建一种新型的长效防腐复合涂层.同时,在Q235钢基体和高速电弧喷涂Al涂层表面涂装该有机涂层作为对比试样,观察了在5wt%NaCl溶液中常温浸泡212天后各体系微观孔隙处腐蚀产物的微观结构,用电化学交流阻抗谱技术研究了微观孔隙形成过程中金属涂层与有机涂层之间的协同性.结果表明,Zn-Al-Mg-RE涂层体系微观孔隙中形成的腐蚀产物微观结构致密;Zn-Al-Mg-RE涂层与该有机涂层具有最好的协同性.

  11. On the use, characterization and performance of silane coupling agents between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooij, W. J.; Zhang, B. C.; Conners, K. D.; Hörnström, S.-E.

    1996-01-01

    Examples are given of the use of organofunctional silane coupling agents for promoting bonding between organic coatings and metallic or ceramic (i.e. oxide) substrates. The orientation of the silane molecules and the type of bonding with the metal oxide can be determined successfully by Time-of-Flight SIMS. Oriented films of aminosilanes are demonstrated to be unstable in air. A prerinse with an inorganic silicate is introduced as a suitable method for masking the ubiquitous carbonaceous contamination at the metal surface, thus promoting the proper orientation and covalent bonding. Some practical applications are described, such as the pretreatment of Galvalume■ surfaces as a replacement of existing chromate treatments in coil coating applications. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is shown to be a powerful tool for studying the performance of the silane treatment under a paint.

  12. Preparation and characterization of metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr)-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijun; Liu, Shuqin; Han, Zhubing; Jiang, Ruifen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Fang; Zeng, Feng; Su, Chengyong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received great attention as novel sorbents due to their fascinating structures and intriguing potential applications in various fields. In this work, a MIL-101(Cr)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by a simple direct coating method and applied to the determination of volatile compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene and o-xylene) and semi-volatile compounds (PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from water samples. The extraction and desorption conditions of headspace SPME (HS-SPME) were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the established methods exhibited excellent extraction performance. Good precision (recoveries obtained with the spiked river water samples were in the range of 80.0-113% and 84.8-106% for BTEX and PAHs, respectively, which demonstrated the applicability of the self-made fiber.

  13. Large-area bi-component processing of organic semiconductors by spray deposition and spin coating with orthogonal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treossi, Emanuele; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, Bologna (Italy); Feng, Xinliang; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Samori, Paolo [Universite Louis Pasteur, Nanochemistry Laboratory, ISIS-CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Micrometre-thick uniform layers of a polymeric semiconductor (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) have been fabricated from solution by spray deposition making use of a commercial airbrush. Multi-scale characterization by optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of smooth layers featuring reproducible patterns of spatially correlated micron-sized holes. This morphology was found to be uniform over the whole sample surface, on millimetre scale. On this micro-patterned P3HT layer an orthogonal solvent (i.e. a solvent which does not dissolve the P3HT) has been employed to deposit either by spin coating or by drop casting a second organic semiconductor. While spin-coated films exhibited nano-crystals of an alkylated perylene tetracarboxy diimide (PDI) preferentially grown into the micro-fabricated holes, drop-cast films displayed crystalline PDI fibres adsorbed on the patterned surface in random positions. (orig.)

  14. Large-area bi-component processing of organic semiconductors by spray deposition and spin coating with orthogonal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treossi, Emanuele; Liscio, Andrea; Feng, Xinliang; Palermo, Vincenzo; Müllen, Klaus; Samorì, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    Micrometre-thick uniform layers of a polymeric semiconductor (poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) have been fabricated from solution by spray deposition making use of a commercial airbrush. Multi-scale characterization by optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of smooth layers featuring reproducible patterns of spatially correlated micron-sized holes. This morphology was found to be uniform over the whole sample surface, on millimetre scale. On this micro-patterned P3HT layer an orthogonal solvent (i.e. a solvent which does not dissolve the P3HT) has been employed to deposit either by spin coating or by drop casting a second organic semiconductor. While spin-coated films exhibited nano-crystals of an alkylated perylene tetracarboxy diimide (PDI) preferentially grown into the micro-fabricated holes, drop-cast films displayed crystalline PDI fibres adsorbed on the patterned surface in random positions.

  15. Investigation of the cut-edge corrosion of organically-coated galvanized steel after accelerated atmospheric corrosion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Yıldız

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cut edge corrosion of organically coated (epoxy, polyurethane and polyester galvanized steel was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Measurements were performed on specimens that had been tested in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test. The samples were subjected to 10 s fogging and 1 h awaiting cycles in an exposure cabinet (120 and 180 days with artificial acid rain solution. According to the investigation, the coatings were damaged from the cut edge into the sheet, this distance was about 0.8 cm. These defects were more pronounced at after 180 days in proportion to after 120 days.

  16. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  17. Some recent trends in research and technology of advanced thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U.; Leyens, Ch.; Fritscher, K.; Peters, M.; Saruhan-Brings, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR, Institute of Mateirals Research, Koln (Germany); Lavigne, O.; Dorvaux, J.M.; Poulain, M.; Mevrel, R.; Caliez, M. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. of Metallic Materials and Processing, 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts temperature gradients of the order of 100 to 150 deg. C can be achieved. Today, state-of-the-art TBCs, typically consisting of an yttria-stabilised zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which, in turn, requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. Presently, TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapour deposition are favoured for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R and D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. (authors)

  18. Experience and perspectives of application of gasdynamic coatings in space technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The given work deals with the results of the research carried out by the "Salute" DB of the Khrunichev State research-and-production space center concerning the development of special equipment and improvement of the technique of the "cold" gasdynamic method of application of coating for the accomplishment of several specific tasks: (1) development of the technique of application of a fireproof heat-radiating coating to screens made from stainless steel with coefficient of thermal radiation ε≥0.7; (2) development of technique of sealing ("curing") of microleaks on the weld joints of the propellant tanks made of aluminum alloys; (3) study of the opportunity of sealing of joints of parts made from heterogeneous materials; (4) development of process for copper and nickel coating application for aluminium heat exchangers soldering.

  19. Experience and perspectives of application of gasdynamic coatings in space technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bakhvalov; Yu.; O.; Polovtsev; V.; A.; Mikheev; V.; I.

    2005-01-01

    The given work deals with the results of the research carried out by the "Salute" DB of the Khrunichev State research-and-production space center concerning the development of special equipment and improvement of the technique of the "cold" gasdynamic method of application of coating for the accomplishment of several specific tasks: (1) development of the technique of application of a fireproof heat-radiating coating to screens made from stainless steel with coefficient of thermal radiation ε≥0.7; (2) development of technique of sealing ("curing") of microleaks on the weld joints of the propellant tanks made of aluminum alloys; (3) study of the opportunity of sealing of joints of parts made from heterogeneous materials; (4) development of process for copper and nickel coating application for aluminium heat exchangers soldering.……

  20. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  1. Germania-based, sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for capillary microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Kulkarni, Sameer; Alhooshani, Khalid; Malik, Abdul

    2007-12-15

    Germania-based, sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were developed for capillary microextraction and gas chromatography (GC). Being an isostructural analogue of SiO2, GeO2 is compatible with the silica network. Because of this similarity, germania-based materials possess great potential for being used in the areas of chromatographic separation and sample preparation. These possibilities, however, remain practically unexplored. To our knowledge, this is the first instance that a germania-based hybrid sol-gel material is used as a sorbent in analytical sample preparation or chromatographic separation. Tetramethoxygermane was used as a precursor to create a sol-gel network via hydrolytic polycondensation reactions performed within a fused-silica capillary. The growing sol-gel germania network was simultaneously reacted with an organic ligand that contained sol-gel-active sites in its chemical structure. Three different sol-gel-active ligands were used: (a) hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane), (b) hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane), and (c) 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Sol-gel germania-coated capillaries of desired polarity and extraction selectivity were prepared by using an appropriately selected sol-gel-active ligand in the sol solution. These capillaries were further used to extract trace concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, and free fatty acids from aqueous samples. The extracted solutes were further analyzed by GC-FID. The new germania-based coatings showed excellent stability under harsh operation conditions involving extreme pH values, high temperatures, and aggressive solvents. Our preliminary results also indicate that sol-gel hybrid germania coatings have the potential to offer great analytical performance as GC stationary phases.

  2. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina with linearly organized pores

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj Pratap; P Mandal; S Anantha Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    Anodization of aluminium surfaces containing linearly oriented scratches leads to the formation of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) with the nanopores arranged preferentially along the scratch marks. NAA, when coated with a thin gold film, support plasmonic resonances. Dark-field spectroscopy revealed that gold-coated NAA with such linearly arranged pores shows a polarization-dependent scattering, that is larger when the incident light is polarized parallel to the scratch direction than when polarized perpendicular to the scratch direction. Fluorescence studies from rhodamine-6G (R6G) molecules dissolved in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and deposited on these NAA templates showed that fluorescence can be strongly enhanced with the bare NAA due to multiple light scattering in the NAA, while fluorescence from the molecules deposited on gold-coated NAA is strongly quenched due to the strong plasmonic coupling.

  3. UV-curable nanocasting technique to prepare bioinspired superhydrophobic organic-inorganic composite anticorrosion coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV-curing technique was used to develop advanced anticorrosive coatings made of a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/silica composite (PSC with bioinspired Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces. First of all, a transparent soft template with negative patterns of xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf can be fabricated by thermally curing the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS pre-polymer in molds at 60°C for 4 h, followed by detaching PDMS template from the surface of natural leaf. PSC coatings with biomimetic structures can be prepared by performing the UV-radiation process upon casting UV-curable precursor with photo-initiator onto cold-rolled steel (CRS electrode under PDMS template. Subsequently, UV-radiation process was carried out by using light source with light intensity of 100 mW/cm2 with exposing wavelength of 365 nm. Surface morphologies of the as-synthesized hydrophobic PMMA (HP and superhydrophobic PSC (SPSC coatings showed a large number of micro-scaled mastoids, each decorated with many nano-scaled wrinkles that were systematically investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The contact angles of water droplets on the sample surfaces can be increased from ~81 and 103° on PMMA and PSC surfaces to ~148 and 163° on HP and SPSC surfaces, respectively. The SPSC coating was found to provide an advanced corrosion protection effect on CRS electrodes compared to that of neat PMMA, PSC, and HP coatings based on a series of electrochemical corrosion measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl electrolyte. Enhanced corrosion protection of SPSC coatings on CRS electrodes can be illustrated by that the silica nanoparticles on the small papillary hills of the bioinspired structure of the surface further increased the surface roughness, making the surface exhibit superior superhydrophobic, and thus leading to much better anticorrosion performance.

  4. Colloidal stability of CeO2 nanoparticles coated with either natural organic matter or organic polymers under various hydrochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pabst, Silke; Klitzke, Sondra

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide marked for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing and concerns on the environmental fate- and toxicity of ENPs are rising. Understanding the transport of ENPs within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for exposition modeling, risk assessment and ultimately the protection of drinking water resources. The transport of ENPs is strongly influenced by the surface properties and aggregation behavior of the particles, which is strongly controlled by synthetic and natural organic coatings. Both, surface properties and aggregation characteristics are also key properties for the industrial application of ENPs, which leads to the development and commercialization of an increasing number of surface-functionalized ENPs. These include metals and oxides such as Cerium dioxide (CeO2) with various organic coatings. Therefore, we investigate CeO2 ENPs with different surface coatings such as weakly anionic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or strongly anionic poly acrylic acid (PAA) with respect to their colloidal stability in aqueous matrix under various hydrochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength) and their transport behavior in sand filter columns. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) with CeO2 ENPs and its effect on surface charge (zeta potential), colloidal stability and transport. While uncoated CeO2 ENPs aggregate at pH > 4 in aqueous matrix, our results show that PAA and PVA surface coatings as well as NOM sorbed to CeO2-NP surfaces can stabilize CeO2 ENPs under neutral and alkaline pH conditions in 1 mM KCl solution. Under slightly acidic conditions, differences between the three particle types were observed. PVA can stabilize particle suspensions in presence of 1 mM KCl at pH > 4.3, PAA at pH >4.0 and NOM at >3.2. While the presence of KCl did not influence particle size of NOM-CeO2 ENPs, CaCl2 at >2 mM lead to aggregation. Further results on the influence of KCl

  5. [Organization and technology in the grocery store sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetti, Edy

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, grocery stores develop an annual turnover of 92 billion of , (data referred to 2013) and have 28.232 stores spread over a commercial area of 17.224.000 m2. The business involved are 252, linked with 30 important distribution leader companies. The total workforce is about 280.000 people. The grocery stores structure is composed by suppliers and producers warehouses and different kinds of stores (hypermarkets, supermarkets, shops and discounts). In the stores, the technological progress concerns fundamentally back-office operations; the improvement of information and computer science is the main renewal source. Other tasks as receiving goods and stocking shelves are still executed without specific inovations. In terms of organization, we observed a strong increase of part-time workers, the development of atypical contract and thie inclination to contract the easiest jobs (for example, stocking shelves). Also the warehouses often use to sub-contract the picking tasks. The increase of on-line shopping, also concerning the groceries, represents the most relevant evolution in tire near future.

  6. Zeolite thin film-coated spherical end-face fiber sensors for detection of trace organic vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiangping; Zhao, Chun Liu; Yang, Jingyi; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2016-04-01

    A novel zeolite thin film-coated spherical end face fiber sensor for detection of trace organic vapors was experimentally demonstrated. The spherical end-face was fabricated by electrical arc discharge on the end face of a standard single-mode fiber. The proposed sensor comprise of the fiber's spherical end-face covered with a layer of zeolite thin film. The zeolite film and spherical end face constituted an arc-shaped inline Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity, which improves the interference performance. The trace chemical vapor concentration was measured by monitoring the shift of F-P interference wavelength which induced by the organic vapor molecular adsorption of the zeolite film. The proposed trace organic vapors sensor performed with the enhanced sensitivity 0.91 nm/ppm with the range from 0 to 70 ppm.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of organic and inorganic zinc-rich coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢德明; 王建明; 胡吉明; 张鉴清

    2003-01-01

    Performance comparisons between organic and inorganic zinc-rich paints (ZRPs) were carried out. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to assess the corrosion prevention performance of the ZRP coatings. The results show that during the cathodic protection period the potentials of the epoxy systems are less negative than those of the silicate system. For the zinc-rich ethyl silicate paints, the initial values of the resistance through the binder and the charge transfer resistance associated with zinc dissolution are several orders of magnitude lower than those of the organic zinc paints, while the initial values of the capacitance due to the binder layer between Zn dust and the double layer capacitance for zinc dissolution are several orders of magnitude higher than those of the organic zinc paints. Furthermore, the deterioration with time of capability of the zinc particles in the paint to provide cathodic protection to the steel was interpreted.

  8. Advanced Coating Technology for Enhanced Performance of Microchannel Plates for UV Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal we propose to apply a highly conformal coating of ZnO and AlN or a double layer of GaN to the surface and internal pore walls of...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, HVLP COATING EQUIPMENT, SHARPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLATINUM 2012 HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of the verification test of the Sharpe Platinum 2013 high-volume, low-pressure gravity-feed spray gun, hereafter referred to as the Sharpe Platinum, which is designed for use in automotive refinishing. The test coating chosen by Sharpe Manufacturi...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, HVLP COATING EQUIPMENT, SHARPE MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLATINUM 2012 HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of the verification test of the Sharpe Platinum 2013 high-volume, low-pressure gravity-feed spray gun, hereafter referred to as the Sharpe Platinum, which is designed for use in automotive refinishing. The test coating chosen by Sharpe Manufacturi...

  11. Pipeline walls hydrophobic properties study and their protective coatings used in trenchless technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orlov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    ... miniflow is reached on an inclined surface in the form of an open trough was studied. The geometric parameters of the frontal and coaxial miniflow projections were determined, its dimensions and hydraulic characteristics were studied. The trial stand design for the protective coatings hydrophobic properties study was presented and described and method of eval...

  12. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (base

  13. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (base

  14. Organic transistors fabricated by contact coating at liquid-solid interface for nano-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A contact coating method is developed to cover the nano-channels with 100 nm or 200 nm diameter and 400 nm depth with a poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP. In such coating the nano-channels faces downwards and its vertical position is controlled by a motor. The surface is first lowered to be in immediate contact with the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY water solution with concentration from 1 to 5 wt%, then pulled at the speed of 0.004 to 0.4 mm/s. By tuning the pulling speed and concentration we can realize conformal, filled, top-only, as well as floating film morphology. For a reproducible liquid detachment from the solid, the sample has a small tilt angle of 3 degree. Contact coating is used to cover the Al grid base of the vertical space-charge-limited transistor with PVPY. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT as the semiconductor. The transistor breakdown voltage is raised due to base coverage achieved by contact coating.

  15. Chemically Selective Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Array for Detection of Volatile Organic Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuszewicz, T.V.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Martin, S.J.; Osbourn, G.C. Bartholomew, J.W.; Schneider, T.W.; Spates, J.J.

    1998-11-04

    Liquid flow cells have been fabricated to prepare an array of QCMS operating simultaneously for detection and identification of VOCS in water. TWO signals, a tlequency response and a damping voltage response, were obtained per resonator. A blank QCM was used as a reference to account for changes in liquid density and viscosity. Nine different polymer coatings applied using a spin coat technique have been examined for VOC response under liquid flow conditions. A matrix of three classes of VOCS were examined for each coating with four chemicals in each class. The three classes of VOCS are polar, nonpolar and chlorinated. A pattern recognition technique, called visually empirical region of influence (VERI), was used to cluster the responses in n-dimensional space. Chemicals within a class varying by only one methyl group (e.g., toluene and xylene) are easily discriminated using only two different coatings with three different QCM responses. All chemicak were easily separated and detected with a total of 5 films and 6 responses with >99% accuracy.

  16. Natural organic UV-absorbent coatings based on cellulose and lignin: designed effects on spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumyan, Arayik; Foulon, Laurence; Chabbert, Brigitte; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique

    2012-12-10

    Novel nanocomposite coatings composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and lignin (either synthetic or fractionated from spruce and corn stalks) were prepared without chemical modification or functionalization (via covalent attachment) of one of the two biopolymers. The spectroscopic properties of these coatings were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. When using the appropriate weight ratio of CNC/lignin (R), these nanocomposite systems exhibited high-performance optical properties, high transmittance in the visible spectrum, and high blocking in the UV spectrum. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrated that these coatings were smooth and homogeneous, with visible dispersed lignin nodules in a cellulosic matrix. It was also demonstrated that the introduction of nanoparticles into the medium increases the weight ratio and the CNC-specific surface area, which allows better dispersion of the lignin molecules throughout the solid film. Consequently, the larger molecular expansion of these aromatic polymers on the surface of the cellulosic nanoparticles dislocates the π-π aromatic aggregates, which increases the extinction coefficient and decreases the transmittance in the UV region. These nanocomposite coatings were optically transparent at visible wavelengths.

  17. Chemically selective coated quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) array for detection of volatile organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Spates, James J.; Bohuszewicz, Teresa V.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Bartholomew, John W.

    1998-12-01

    Liquid flow cells have been fabricated to prepare an array of QCMs operating simultaneously for detection and identification of VOCs in water. Two signals, a frequency response and a damping voltage response, were obtained per resonator. A blank QCM was used as a reference to account for changes in liquid density and viscosity. Nine different polymer coatings applied using a spin coat technique have been examined for VOC response under liquid flow conditions. A matrix of three classes of VOCs were examined for each coating with four chemicals in each class. The three classes of VOCs are polar, nonpolar and chlorinated. A pattern recognition technique, called visually empirical region of influence, was used to cluster the responses in n- dimensional space. Chemicals within a class varying by only one methyl group (e.g., toluene and xylene) are easily discriminated using only two different coatings with three different QCM responses. All chemicals were easily separated and detected with a total of 5 films and 6 responses with >99% accuracy.

  18. Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R; Broer, Dirk J

    2015-03-31

    In this work we propose randomly ordered polydomain nematic liquid crystal polymer networks to reversibly generate notable jagged relief patterns at a polymer coating surface by light illumination. The domain size is controlled by the addition of traces of partly insoluble fluorinated acrylate. The photoresponse of the coating is induced by a small amount of copolymerized azobenzene monomers. Upon exposure to UV light, azobenzene undergoes trans to cis isomerization, resulting in a change in molecular order and packing within each domain. The extent of this effect and its directionality depends on the domain orientation. Localized to domain level, this morphological change forms large 3D spikes at the surface with a modulation amplitude of more than 20% of the initial thickness. The process is reversible; the surface topographical patterns erase within 10 s by stopping the light exposure. A finite element model is applied to simulate the surface topography changes of the polydomain coating. The simulations describe the formation of the topographic features in terms of light absorption and isomerization process as a function of the director orientation. The random director distribution leads to surface structures which were found to be in close agreement with the ones measured by interference microscopy. The effect of domain size on surface roughness and depth modulation was explored and related to the internal mechanical constraints. The use of nematic liquid crystal polydomains confined in a polymer network largely simplifies the fabrication of smart coatings with a prominent triggered topographic response.

  19. Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Danqing; Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose randomly ordered polydomain nematic liquid crystal polymer networks to reversibly generate notable jagged relief patterns at a polymer coating surface by light illumination. The domain size is controlled by the addition of traces of partly insoluble fluorinated acrylate. The

  20. Cytotoxicity of organic surface coating agents used for nanoparticles synthesis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Newton, Brandon; Lewis, Eybriunna; Fu, Peter P; Kafoury, Ramzi; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2015-06-01

    Impact on health by nanomaterials has become a public concern with the great advances of nanomaterials for various applications. Surface coating agents are an integral part of nanoparticles, but not enough attention has been paid during toxicity tests of nanoparticles. As a result, there are inconsistent toxicity results for certain nanomaterials. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity of eleven commonly used surface coating agents in two cell lines, human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and lung fibroblast (CRL-1490) cells, at surface coating agent concentrations of 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM. Two exposure time points, 2 h and 24 h, were employed for the study. Six of the eleven surface coating agents are cytotoxic, especially those surfactants with long aliphatic chains, both cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, oleylamine, tetraoctylammonium bromide, and hexadecylamine) and anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate). In addition, exposure time and the use of different cell lines also affect the cytotoxicity results. Therefore, factors such as cell lines used and exposure times must be considered when conducting toxicity tests or comparing cytotoxicity results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Danqing; Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose randomly ordered polydomain nematic liquid crystal polymer networks to reversibly generate notable jagged relief patterns at a polymer coating surface by light illumination. The domain size is controlled by the addition of traces of partly insoluble fluorinated acrylate. The

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  3. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible organic solar cells: comparison of fullerene and fullerene-free systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Kuan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Lin, Yuze

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of low-bandgap polymer donor PTB7-TH and nonfullerene small molecule acceptor IEIC were fabricated via a roll-coating process under ambient atmosphere. Both an indium tin oxide (ITO)-free substrate and a flexible ITO substrate were employed...... in these inverted OSCs. OSCs with flexible ITO and ITO-free substrates exhibited power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.26% and 1.79%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference devices based on fullerene acceptors under the same conditions. This is the first example for all roll...

  4. Single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conductive films fabricated by reductive dissolution and spray coating for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Arias, Ana Claudia, E-mail: acarias@eecs.berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Catheline, Amélie [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Linde Nanomaterials, Linde LLC, 1970 Diamond Street, San Marcos, California 92078 (United States); Ligsay, Kathleen; Kim, Kee-Chan; Fogden, Siân [Linde Nanomaterials, Linde LLC, 1970 Diamond Street, San Marcos, California 92078 (United States); Chen, Zhihua [Polyera Corporation, 8045 Lamon Avenue, Skokie, Illinois 60077 (United States); Facchetti, Antonio [Polyera Corporation, 8045 Lamon Avenue, Skokie, Illinois 60077 (United States); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-22

    Solutions of unbundled and unbroken single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared using a reductive dissolution process. Transparent conductive films spray-coated from these solutions show a nearly twofold improvement in the ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorptivity versus those deposited from conventional aqueous dispersions, due to substantial de-aggregation and sizable nanotube lengths. These transparent electrodes have been utilized to fabricate P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 2.3%, comparable to those of solar cells using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

  5. Possibilities of the Technology of Additive Production for Making Complex-Shape Parts and Depositing Functional Coatings from Metallic Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. N.; Tarasova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aspects of terminology, definitions and classification in the technology of additive production are considered. The principal possibility of fabrication of complex-shape parts from a refractory cobalt alloy by the method of selective laser melting and deposition of hard and wear-resistant coatings from Ti and SiC powders by coaxial laser surfacing is shown. The technological possibility of microlaser surfacing with lateral resolution about 100 μm in the production of parts from aluminum alloys is considered. The mechanisms of formation of structure in the studied alloys typical for selective laser melting, laser surfacing and microlaser surfacing are determined. The physical and mechanical properties of the alloys are investigated.

  6. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  7. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  8. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  9. Microstructure and wear resistance of Ti-Cu-N composite coating prepared via laser cladding/laser nitriding technology on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuling; Cao, Shiyin; Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Chuan; Qin, Gaowu

    2017-07-01

    Ti-Cu-N coatings with three different Cu contents on Ti-6Al-4V alloy (TC4) were obtained via laser cladding together with laser nitriding (LC/LN) technology. Phase constituents, microstructure, microhardness, and wear resistance of the coatings were investigated. The evolution of the coefficients of friction for the three coatings was measured under dry sliding conditions as a function of the revolutions until the coating failure. The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of TiN, CuTi3 and some TiO6 phases dispersed in the matrix. A good metallurgical bonding between the coating and substrate has been successfully obtained. The prepared Ti-Cu-N composite coatings almost doubly enhance the microhardness of the TC4 alloy and reduce the friction down to 1/4-1/2 of the TC4 alloy, and thus significantly improve the wear resistance. The coefficient of friction depends on the Cu content in the coating.

  10. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  11. Materials and Coatings for Extreme Performances: Investigations, Applications, Ecologically Safe Technologies for Their Production and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-16

    In conditions of impact of high temperature oxidizing medium, plasma coatings based on refractory oxides of zirconium , hafnium as well as their...and time of contact are increase. Zirconium is very chemically active element. That is why it reduces almost all oxides . Due to difference...work deals with processes of production of nanosized molybdenum carbide powders by reducing oxides both in the presence of solid carbon and in

  12. Qualification of Coatings for Launch Facilities and Ground Support Equipment Through the NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion protection at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is a high priority item. The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs.

  13. Reduced bleaching in organic nanofibers by bilayer polymer/oxide coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2010-01-01

    , and tunability through synthetic chemistry. Phenylene-based molecules such as para-hexaphenylene (p6P) are of particular interest due to their ability to self-assemble into elongated, nanoscale, crystalline aggregates or ‘nanofibers’ [1]. Such nanofibers can emit polarized light with a highly anisotropic....... These treatments caused a reduction of the bleaching reaction but in addition, the nanofiber luminescence spectrum was significantly altered. It was observed that some polymer coatings (P(TFE-PDD), and PMMA) do not interfere with the luminescence spectrum from the p6P but are not effective in stopping...... the bleaching. Bilayer coatings with first a polymer material, which should work as a protection layer to avoid modifications of the p6P luminescence spectrum, and second an oxide layer used as oxygen blocker were tested and it was found that a particular bilayer polymer/oxide combination results...

  14. Recent progress in optical coating technology: low-voltage ion plating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Karl H.

    1990-08-01

    After fairly extensive discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of low energy and high energy ion beam bombardment of a growing film, we review briefly a number of experimental results obtained with various samples made with low voltage reactive ion plating deposition. The availability of a state-of-the-art high vacuum coating machine specifically equipped for this process is the foundation for a major leap toward achieving near-perfect optical coatings. The high density of ion plated thin films makes them impermeable to water vapor and corrosive solutions. This has been demonstrated with protected aluminum mirrors, polarizers, and infrared anti-reflection coatings. An indication of the high packing density is the substantially higher refractive index than that of comparable layers deposited with either conventional electron beam evaporation or ion assisted deposition. The spectral transmittance of multilayer stacks of oxide thin films is lower than expected from theoretical predictions which assume absorption-free dielectrics. The observed absorption is primarily of an interface nature rather than a volume effect and occurs predominantly in combinations of Ti02 and Si02 thin films.

  15. Plasma technology for creation of protective and decorative coatings for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, Oleg; Volokitin, Gennady; Skripnikova, Nelli; Shekhovtsov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    An experimental setup is developed to create a protective and decorative coating on the surface of building materials. Experimental study is conducted to create a protective coating using low-temperature plasma. The properties of the surface before and after the plasma treatment are investigated. At the increase of the plasma generator power (56-75 kW) the rate of the vitreous coating formation is significantly reduced, and the destruction of hydrous calcium silicates occurs at a lower depth (0.5-2.0 mm). In this case, the adhesive strength increases up to 2.34 MPa. At the increase of the exposure time at 56 kW (0.045 m/s melting rate) plasma generation power, the melt formation is observed not only at the surface but at depth of 0.7 mm and deeper. Also, a deep degradation of the material occurs and the adhesive strength decreases. The optimal heat flux density of plasma generator was established at 1.8-2.6 . 106 W/m2, which allows the achievement of the uniform layer formation on the wood surface that preserves its natural pattern visible.

  16. Layered double hydroxides as containers of inhibitors in organic coatings for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, To Thi Xuan; Truc, Trinh Anh; Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Pébère, Nadine; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The present work focuses on the use of layered double hydroxides (LDH) as containers for corrosion inhibitors in an epoxy coating. 2-Benzothiazolylthio-succinic acid (BTSA), used as corrosion inhibitor, was intercalated by co-precipitation in magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides. The obtained LDH-BTSA was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. BTSA release from LDH-BTSA in NaCl solutions was investigated by U...

  17. Production development of organic nonflammable spacecraft potting, encapsulating and conformal coating compounds. Volume 4: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    The necessity of having nonflammable versions of potting and encapsulating compounds and conformal coatings for space vehicles is discussed. The formulation, EPOCAST 87517 A/B, was found to have the best balance of thermal, electrical, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of those evaluated. The requirements which this formulation did not meet are listed, and other formulations which were evaluated are summarized. Recommendations for improving EPOCAST 87517 A/B are included.

  18. The selective flow of volatile organic compounds in conductive polymer-coated microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Hooshyar Zare, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Many gaseous markers of critical biological, physicochemical, or industrial occurrences are masked by the cross-sensitivity of the sensors to the other active components present at higher concentrations. Here, we report the strongly selective diffusion and drift of contaminant molecules in air-filled conductive polymer-coated microfluidic channels for the first time. Monitoring the passage of different target molecules through microchannels coated with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) revealed that contaminants such as hexane, benzene, and CO pass through the channel unaffected by the coating while methanol, ethanol, and partly acetone are blocked. The observations are explained with reference to the selective interactions between the conductive polymer surface and target gas molecules amplified by the large wall/volume ratio in microchannels. The accumulated quantitative data point at the hydrogen bonding as the mechanism of wall adsorption; dipole-dipole interactions are relatively insignificant. The presented model facilitates a better understanding of how the conductive polymer-based chemical sensors operate.

  19. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  20. Predicting Cloud Computing Technology Adoption by Organizations: An Empirical Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekufu, ThankGod K.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are finding it difficult in today's economy to implement the vast information technology infrastructure required to effectively conduct their business operations. Despite the fact that some of these organizations are leveraging on the computational powers and the cost-saving benefits of computing on the Internet cloud, others…

  1. The catalytic activity of the iron-coated pumice particles used as heterogeneous catalysts in the oxidation of natural organic matter by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Alper; Karaarslan, Mihrican; Kılıç, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters was investigated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron-coated pumice particles in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation process (HCOP). Removal of trihalomethane (THM) precursors, which is formed THM by the reacts with chloride, was performed with the hydroxyl radicals. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. The studies were carried out in two sections: (1) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in pure water with iron-coated pumice and (2) oxidation of THM Precursor (NOM) by hydrogen peroxide with iron-coated pumice. The monitored parameters in this study include dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethanes formation potential. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. Results show that the oxidation of NOM and remaining NOM with H2O2 is improved by the addition of iron-coated pumice particles which activate the H2O2 molecule, leading to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like process.

  2. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  3. Predicting the optimal process window for the coating of single-crystalline organic films with mobilities exceeding 7 cm2/Vs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on single crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors have seen considerable development in the recent years. The most successful method for the fabrication of single crystalline films are solution-based meniscus guided coating techniques such as dip-coating, solution shearing or zone casting. These upscalable methods enable rapid and efficient film formation without additional processing steps. The single-crystalline film quality is strongly dependent on solvent choice, substrate temperature and coating speed. So far, however, process optimization has been conducted by trial and error methods, involving, for example, the variation of coating speeds over several orders of magnitude. Through a systematic study of solvent phase change dynamics in the meniscus region, we develop a theoretical framework that links the optimal coating speed to the solvent choice and the substrate temperature. In this way, we can accurately predict an optimal processing window, enabling fast process optimization. Our approach is verified through systematic OTFT fabrication based on films grown with different semiconductors, solvents and substrate temperatures. The use of best predicted coating speeds delivers state of the art devices. In the case of C8BTBT, OTFTs show well-behaved characteristics with mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and onset voltages close to 0 V. Our approach also explains well optimal recipes published in the literature. This route considerably accelerates parameter screening for all meniscus guided coating techniques and unveils the physics of single crystalline film formation.

  4. Roll coated large area ITO- and vacuum-free all organic solar cells from diketopyrrolopyrrole based non-fullerene acceptors with molecular geometry effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbaek; Zhang, Fei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate three diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based small molecular non-fullerene acceptors, namely Ph(DPP)3, Ph(DPP)2, and PhDMe(DPP)2, focusing on molecular geometry effects on the frontier orbital level, light absorption, molecular configuration, electron mobility, thin film...... morphology, and photovoltaic performance of both spin-coated ITO based and roll coated large area, ITO- and vacuum-free organic solar cells (OSCs). For spin-coated devices based on P3HT as the donor polymer the solar cells gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the following order for (P3HT:PhDMe(DPP)2...

  5. Mesoporous carbon-zirconium oxide nanocomposite derived from carbonized metal organic framework: A coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mehrafza, Narges

    2016-08-19

    In this paper, a mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a stainless steel wire for the first time and used as the solid-phase microextraction coating. The fiber was synthesized with the direct carbonization of a Zr-based metal organic framework. With the utilization of the metal organic framework as the precursor, no additional carbon source was used for the synthesis of the mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite coating. The fiber was applied for the determination of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylenes) in different water samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Such important experimental factors as synthesis time and temperature, salt concentration, equilibrium and extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time and desorption temperature were studied and optimized. Good linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-200μgL(-1) and detection limits in the range of 0.05-0.56μgL(-1) was achieved for BTEX compounds. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.5-4.8% and 4.9-6.7%, respectively. The prepared fiber showed high capability for the analysis of BTEX compounds in different water and wastewater samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 93-107%.

  6. Carbon-coated rutile titanium dioxide derived from titanium-metal organic framework with enhanced sodium storage behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guoqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chao; Huang, Zhaodong; Li, Simin; Liao, Hanxiao; Wang, Jufeng; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-09-01

    Carbon-coated rutile titanium dioxide (CRT) was fabricated through an in-situ pyrolysis of titanium-based metal organic framework (Ti8O8(OH)4[O2CC6H4CO2]6) crystals. Benefiting from the Tisbnd Osbnd C skeleton structure of titanium-based metal organic framework, the CRT possesses abundant channels and micro/mesopores with the diameters ranging from 1.06 to 4.14 nm, shows larger specific surface area (245 m2 g-1) and better electronic conductivity compared with pure titanium dioxide (12.8 m2 g-1). When applied as anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the CRT electrode exhibits a high cycling performance with a reversible capacity of ∼175 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C-rate after 200 cycles, and obtains an excellent rate capability of ∼70 mAh g-1 after 2000 cycles even at a specific current of 3360 mA g-1(20 C-rate). The outstanding rate capability can be attributed to the carbon-coated structure, which may effectively prevent aggregation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles, accelerate the mass transfer of Na+ and speed up the charge transfer rate. Considering these advantages of this particular framework structure, the CRT can serve as an alternative anode material for the industrial application of SIBs.

  7. CD-R, DVD-R. Function and coating technique of organic dye film; CD-R, DVD-R. Yuki shikisomaku no yakuwari to tofu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, S. [TDK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes the function and coating technique of recording layer (organic dye film) of CD-R and DVD-R. The organic dye film is between the substrate and reflective film. When laser with an intensity in response to the information signal is irradiated to the organic dye film, the dye is decomposed and its reflectance is changed, to record the information. The recording characteristics are affected mainly by the composition of dye and thickness of the film. For the organic dye, safety and solubility in solvent are required from the viewpoint of the process, and optical constants, thermal properties, high-temperature/high-humidity resistance properties and optical resistance properties are required from the viewpoint of recording characteristics. The organic dye is classified into the cyanine dye, phthalocyanine dye and azo dye. The process of disk production consists of the substrate forming, due spin coating, reflective film spattering, UV protective layer coating, and disk pasting. For the spin coating, the dye solution is dropped on the substrate rotating at the low speed, and is uniformly coated by accelerating the rotation to remove the excess dye solution from the disk. Thickness of the film can be controlled by the rotating speed and its acceleration. Control of the dye film thickness is a significant control item of characteristics. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  9. Non-destructive detection of corrosion applied to steel and galvanized steel coated with organic paints by the pulsed phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, A.; Giese, V. [BMW AG, Munich (Germany); Virtanen, S. [Department of Materials Science, WW4-LKO, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schroettner, H. [Centre for Electron Microscopy Graz (ZFE), Graz (Austria); Spiessberger, C. [Edevis GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Organic coatings in the automobile industry have to resist corrosion and mechanical damage from stone chipping. Currently, no tool is established in industrial non-destructive applications for analyzing the damage of stone-impacts and the following corrosion after accelerated corrosion tests. Measurement methods such as the scanning Kelvin probe can analyze the corrosion progress in a detailed manner, but with a long measurement time. The pulsed phase thermography (PPT) is a non-destructive tool to analyze inhomogeneities and defects in materials, with a huge field of applications existing. The present work shows advances in using the PPT to detect propagation of corrosion under coatings. Physical principles of the mechanism of the corrosion detection under coatings are described. Results of measurements of organic coatings on carbon steel as well as of organic coated galvanized steel show the corrosion propagation. Influencing factors to the measurement such as the thickness of the coatings are investigated, but no significant effect on the quality of the analysis was found. The corrosion progress can be monitored by the PPT fast and reliably. The achieved results correlate with the theoretical basis and the test results after surface characterization and destructive analysis of samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Academic Technology in Higher Education: Organizing for Better Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nworie, John

    2007-01-01

    The field of instructional technology has continued to evolve since its inception in the early 1900s. Academic technology units in higher education have witnessed tremendous change in the last one and a half decades. The changes have led to reorganizations, realignments, adoption of innovative administrative structures, increased demands for…

  11. Technology or Process First? A Call for Mediation Between ESM and BPM Approaches in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    2011-01-01

    between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...... and technology factors in organizations. Theoretical implications call for a design-oriented view of technology and process alignment....

  12. Organizing the Technology Leadership Function for Universities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ray L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the organization of leadership in the technology area will greatly affect universities' ability to strategically leverage digital tools to have a positive impact on the institution. Offers lessons learned about technology implementation and leadership from years of consulting work, then presents a model of technology leadership…

  13. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  14. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  15. Coating of pumps; coating af pumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Hans; Moritzen, J.; Thoegersen, Jeanette

    2005-11-15

    Coating of pumps is a quite new activity. For many years pipes and containers have been coated inside in order to avoid corrosion, but the technology has only been used inside pumps for the last ten years. The technology comes from USA and is originally developed in the space technology industry as an exceptionally durable and corrosion constant coating. The project is a further development of results found in a previous R and D project in which measurements were performed before and after coating two different installations. Both installations showed large efficiency improvements. This project supplements the theory behind losses in pumps with measurements on more pumps. (BA)

  16. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Aminoddin, E-mail: Ahaji@iaubir.ac.ir [Department of Textile Engineering, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah [Department of Textile and Leather, Faculty of Chemistry and Petrochemical Engineering, Standard Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH{sub 2}-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH{sub 2}-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH{sub 2}-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH{sub 2}-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH{sub 2}-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼−18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH{sub 2}-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  17. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Aminoddin; Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah; Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH2-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH2-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH2-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH2-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼-18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH2-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  18. Study of Technology of Stripping Nickel Coating on NdFeB Permanent Magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Houzeng; Li Guohua; Jiang Longfa; Lin Guanjie

    2004-01-01

    The influences of category and density of reagents, temperature and the value of pH in the solution of stripping the nickel coating on NdFeB permanent magnet on the stripping result were studied systematically.The practical formular contains mainly the oxidant m-O2NC6H4SO3Na, the complex reagent ( NaOOCCH2 ) 2N( CH2 ) 2N( CH2COOH)2,the reagent of retarding corrosion KF and the calatyze RL-3 was obtained.

  19. Joint DoD Demonstration And Validation Of Magnesium-Rich Primer Coating Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Anodized Preparation (per MIL-A-8625, Type IC) NAWC-AD Procedure: Panels were placed in titanium racks and immersed in Turco 4215 NCLT cleaner at...120 °F for 5 minutes. They were rinsed twice with hot tap water and then immersed in Turco SmutGo NC deoxidizer at ambient temperature for 60...Conversion Coating (CCC) Preparation (per MIL-PRF-81706, Type I) NAWC-AD Procedure: Panels were placed in titanium racks and immersed in Turco 4215 NCLT

  20. EVALUATION OF ZN-CR III-ORGANIC COATING BY ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Martins Queiroz; Cecília Inês Elsner; Célia Regina Tomachuk; Alejandro Ramón Di Sarli; Isolda Costa

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion control of electrogalvanized steel employing Cr VI based treatments is widely known and studied. However, researchers have been trying to find out alternatives to replace these salts once they must be banned in accord to environmental and industrial guidelines. Cr III – based conversion coatings have shown performance compatible to Cr VI – based treatments. In this work, EIS measurements are performed in NaCl 0,05 mol/L and Na2 SO4 0,1 mol/L, during the immersion ...

  1. Progress in Long Life Thermal Barrier Coatings Technologies%长寿命热障涂层技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世兴; 刘新基; 汪瑞军

    2012-01-01

    随着高性能航空发动机对长寿命热障涂层需求的增加,提高热障涂层寿命已成为研究重点。本文从粘结层成分及结构设计和陶瓷层制备技术方面介绍了长寿命热障涂层研究进展,最后展望了未来低成本、长寿命热障涂层制备技术的研究方向及研究重点。%With high performance gas turbine engine increased demand for long life thermal barrier coatings, the research interest was focused on improvement thermal barrier coatings life. In this paper, the development and research statues of bond coat composition,structure design and top coat deposition technology for long life thermal barrier coatings was introduced. The research direction and focus of long life thermal barrier coatings deposited by low cost technologies was also anticipated.

  2. Textile Technologies and Tissue Engineering: A Path Toward Organ Weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-06

    Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important roles in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted.

  3. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  4. Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Corazza, Michael; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    The inter-comparability of ageing of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies in dark is addressed. Four primary factors that affect the reproducibility of the ageing rate determination and inter-comparison are discussed: production/encapsulation of the samples, current–voltage (IV) characterizati...

  5. Improving Mechanical Properties of Thermoset Biocomposites by Fiber Coating or Organic Oil Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc T. Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different thermoset biocomposite systems are experimented in this study with the hope to improve their mechanical properties. Fiberglass and hemp, in form of fabrics, are used to reinforce the thermoset polymer matrix, which includes a traditional epoxy resin and a linseed oil-based bioresin (UVL. The fiber/polymer matrix interface is modified using two different approaches: adding a plant-based oil (pine or linseed to the polymer matrix or coating the fibers with 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES prior to integrating them into the polymer matrix. Epoxy resin is cured using an amine-based initiator, whereas UVL resin is cured under ultraviolet light. Results show that hemp fibers with APTES prime coat used in either epoxy or UVL matrix exhibit some potential improvements in the composite’s mechanical properties including tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ductility. It is also found that adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with fiberglass mostly improves the material’s modulus of elasticity while maintaining its tensile strength and ductility. However, adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with hemp doubles the material’s ductility while slightly reducing its tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

  6. The Influence of Social Networking Technology in an Engineering Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepaske, Derrick Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Computer facilitated Social Networking (SN) is becoming more prevalent in our society, both in our personal and professional lives. As its use grows, there is a desire to determine how it will impact an organization. If it can positively impact an organization then it is an initiative that could be embraced and leveraged for any number of business…

  7. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  8. The Influence of Social Networking Technology in an Engineering Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepaske, Derrick Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Computer facilitated Social Networking (SN) is becoming more prevalent in our society, both in our personal and professional lives. As its use grows, there is a desire to determine how it will impact an organization. If it can positively impact an organization then it is an initiative that could be embraced and leveraged for any number of business…

  9. Do Accounting Students Have Realistic Expectations of Information Technology Usage in Nonprofit Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Karen M.; Kleen, Betty A.; Shell, L. Wayne

    Not-for-profit organizations employ 11% of all U.S. workers; these organizations are often the recipients of hand-me-down hardware and software. This study investigates accounting students expectations of the information technology available to and used by not-for-profit organizations. In this descriptive study, based on two different surveys,…

  10. Organization of career-oriented educational environment for future teachers of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikonova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors view the various directions of work of the chair of technology and methods of teaching technology of Perm State Social and Pedagogic University, aimed at creating professionalized environment for future teachers of technology. The work includes network communication in the process of study disciplines, quasiprofessional activities, organization of creative and research work of students, methodical maintenance of technological education in the region

  11. The Uneven Diffusion of Collaborative Technology in a Large Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarulaitis, Gasparas

    This paper investigates the large-scale diffusion of a collaborative technology in a range of different business contexts. The empirical data used in the article were obtained from a longitudinal (2007-2009) case study of a global oil and gas company (OGC). Our study reports on ongoing efforts to deploy an inte grated collaborative system that uses Microsoft SharePoint (MSP) technology. We assess MSP as a configurational technology and analyze the diffusion of a metadata standard developed in-house, which forms an embedded component of MSP. We focus on two different organizational contexts, namely research and development (R&D) and oil and gas production (OGP), and illustrate the key differences between the ways in which configurational technology is managed and used in these contexts, which results in an uneven diffusion. In contrast with previous studies, we unravel the organizational and technological complexity involved, and thus empirically illustrate the flexibility of large-scale technology and show how the trajectories of the various components are influenced by multiple modes of ordering.

  12. CONDITIONS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE TRANSITION TO BASIC TECHNOLOGIES OF A NEW TECHNOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Bourov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With due account for the coming new (VI-th world technological structure, future creation of new types of industrial production is both possible and necessary. Economic environment conditions favorable for such development are designated. In reference to Russian technological environment particulars, self-developing economic-technological microenvironment of a new quality level should be created in zones where controlled «technological chains» function. Possibilities of creation of the VI-th technological structure level basic technologies are shown for industrial and household waste processing techniques as an example.

  13. Advanced Multifunctional Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    and UV durability of then current chrome free TT-P-2756 SPTC • Leverage APC technology into SPTC • Coating uses same fluoropolyurethane technology...as APC currently used on C-17 • Leverage recent advances in chrome free corrosion inhibitor technology • State of the art chrome free corrosion...coat exposed metal Aluminum Base Metal Original Finish System Aged APC Topcoat Conversion Coat Chromic Acid Anodize Aluminum Cladding Original Primer

  14. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  15. Numerical simulation of flow boiling for organic fluid with high saturation temperature in vertical porous coated tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Dong, E-mail: dyang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Pan Jie; Wu Yanhua; Chen Tingkuan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhou, Chenn Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 46323 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling in vertical porous tubes. > The model assumes that the nucleate boiling plays an important role. > The present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. > The results indicate the nucleate boiling contribution decreases from 50% to 15%. - Abstract: A semi-analytical model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer inside vertical porous coated tubes. The model assumes that the forced convection and nucleate boiling coexist together in the annular flow regime. Conservations of mass, momentum, and energy are used to solve for the liquid film thickness and temperature. The heat flux due to nucleate boiling consists of those inside and outside micro-tunnels. To close the equations, a detailed analysis of various forces acting on the bubble is presented to predict its mean departure diameter. The active nucleation site density of porous layer is determined from the pool boiling correlation by introducing suppression factor. The flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of organic fluid (cumene) with high saturation temperature in a vertical flame-spraying porous coated tube are studied numerically. It is shown that the present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. The numerical results also indicate that the nucleate boiling contribution to the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases from 50% to 15% with vapor quality increasing from 0.1 to 0.5.

  16. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  17. Fabrication of metal organic framework materials using a layer-by-layer spin coating approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-17

    Embodiments describe a method of depositing an MOF, including depositing a metal solution onto a substrate, spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the metal solution, depositing an organic ligand solution onto the substrate and spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the organic ligand solution and form a MOF layer.

  18. Topical report to Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the interfacial coatings for ceramic-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-09

    This report summarizes the task conducted to examine various activities on interface development for ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) intended for high-temperature applications. While several articles have been published on the subject of CMC interfaces, the purpose of this report is to describe the various ongoing efforts on interface concepts, material selection, and issues related to processing methods employed for developing interface coatings. The most exciting and new development in the field is the discovery of monazite as a potential interface material for mullite- and alumina-based composites. Monazite offers two critical properties to the CMC system; a weakly bonded layer due to its non-wetting behavior and chemical compatibility with both alumina and mullite up to very high temperatures (> 1,600 C). A description of the Department of Energy-related activities and some thoughts on processing issues, interface testing, and effects of processing on fiber strength are given.

  19. The wear, deterioration and transformation phenomena of abradable coating BN-SiAl-bounding organic element, caused by the friction between the blades and the turbine casing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounazef, M.; Guessasma, S. [Laboratory of Studies and Research on Materials, Process and Surfaces, Belfort-Montbeliard University (France); Ait Saadi, B. [Physical Materials Laboratory, Oran-University (Algeria)

    2004-11-01

    In modern design of gas turbines, the use of abradable materials for the coating seal of engines is widespread. Indeed, in order to increase efficiency of gas turbines, clearances between rotating blades and the casing should be as small as possible. Therefore, the blades scrape this BN-SiAl seal to form a minimum gap. The aim of this work is to investigate the behaviour of a particular abradable material, the BN-SiAl-bounding organic element, during interreaction with the blades under experimental conditions of operating the rotor blade. For this purpose, we use a Sulzer Metco abradability test. Tests are made with different incursion speeds of blade within the coating seal as well as linear blade velocities. The obtained results are shown in the form of graphs describing how the transfer of coating wear occurs and the different effects are observed on the coating surface.

  20. The Economics of New Health Technologies Incentives, Organization, and Financing

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana