WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies indium bumps

  1. Development of indium bumping technology through AZ9260 resist electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiuping; Xu, Gaowei; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Le

    2010-01-01

    Indium bumping is very critical technology in the application of high-density interconnection between a FPA (focal plane array) and a Si ROIC (read-out integrated circuit) by flip-chip bonding. In this paper, the indium BGA (ball grid array) chips are prepared with an electroplating method on the Si substrate. With such a method, the first difficulty arises in removing the seed layer. Two ways, including IBE (ion beam etching) and lift-off, are adopted to overcome it. The results show that the lift-off process is effective but not IBE. During the reflow process, many indium bumps fall off the substrate. Two ways are tried to solve this problem: one is to optimize the reflow profile and the other is to thicken the wetting layer. The results show that these two ways can effectively improve such status. The barrier effects of the UBM (under bump metallization) for indium, which are Ti/Pt (300 Å/200 Å) and Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that both of them can be used in application of integration of the FPA and ROIC. Reliability of indium bumps with these two kinds of UBM is evaluated by the shear test. The results show that their shear strength has a significant increase after reflow. For the indium bump with UBM of Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), IMC (intermetallic compounds) at the interface of Au–In can strengthen the indium bump but may change the plasticity of indium.

  2. Development of indium bumping technology through AZ9260 resist electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuping; Xu, Gaowei; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Le

    2010-05-01

    Indium bumping is very critical technology in the application of high-density interconnection between a FPA (focal plane array) and a Si ROIC (read-out integrated circuit) by flip-chip bonding. In this paper, the indium BGA (ball grid array) chips are prepared with an electroplating method on the Si substrate. With such a method, the first difficulty arises in removing the seed layer. Two ways, including IBE (ion beam etching) and lift-off, are adopted to overcome it. The results show that the lift-off process is effective but not IBE. During the reflow process, many indium bumps fall off the substrate. Two ways are tried to solve this problem: one is to optimize the reflow profile and the other is to thicken the wetting layer. The results show that these two ways can effectively improve such status. The barrier effects of the UBM (under bump metallization) for indium, which are Ti/Pt (300 Å/200 Å) and Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), are also investigated. Experimental results indicate that both of them can be used in application of integration of the FPA and ROIC. Reliability of indium bumps with these two kinds of UBM is evaluated by the shear test. The results show that their shear strength has a significant increase after reflow. For the indium bump with UBM of Ti/Pt/Au/Ep Au (300 Å/200 Å/1000 Å/4 µm), IMC (intermetallic compounds) at the interface of Au-In can strengthen the indium bump but may change the plasticity of indium.

  3. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  4. Optimization of Indium Bump Morphology for Improved Flip Chip Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Dickie, Matthew R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    Flip-chip hybridization, also known as bump bonding, is a packaging technique for microelectronic devices that directly connects an active element or detector to a substrate readout face-to-face, eliminating the need for wire bonding. In order to make conductive links between the two parts, a solder material is used between the bond pads on each side. Solder bumps, composed of indium metal, are typically deposited by thermal evaporation onto the active regions of the device and substrate. While indium bump technology has been a part of the electronic interconnect process field for many years and has been extensively employed in the infrared imager industry, obtaining a reliable, high-yield process for high-density patterns of bumps can be quite difficult. Under the right conditions, a moderate hydrogen plasma exposure can raise the temperature of the indium bump to the point where it can flow. This flow can result in a desirable shape where indium will efficiently wet the metal contact pad to provide good electrical contact to the underlying readout or imager circuit. However, it is extremely important to carefully control this process as the intensity of the hydrogen plasma treatment dramatically affects the indium bump morphology. To ensure the fine-tuning of this reflow process, it is necessary to have realtime feedback on the status of the bumps. With an appropriately placed viewport in a plasma chamber, one can image a small field (a square of approximately 5 millimeters on each side) of the bumps (10-20 microns in size) during the hydrogen plasma reflow process. By monitoring the shape of the bumps in real time using a video camera mounted to a telescoping 12 magnifying zoom lens and associated optical elements, an engineer can precisely determine when the reflow of the bumps has occurred, and can shut off the plasma before evaporation or de-wetting takes place.

  5. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  6. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  7. Indium-bump-free antimonide superlattice membrane detectors on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri, M., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu; Klein, B.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Dahiya, V.; Cavallo, F. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Myers, S. [SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Krishna, S., E-mail: mzamiri@chtm.unm.edu, E-mail: skrishna@chtm.unm.edu [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); SKINfrared, LLC, Lobo Venture Lab, 801 University Blvd., Suite 10, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2016-02-29

    We present an approach to realize antimonide superlattices on silicon substrates without using conventional Indium-bump hybridization. In this approach, PIN superlattices are grown on top of a 60 nm Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}Sb sacrificial layer on a GaSb host substrate. Following the growth, the individual pixels are transferred using our epitaxial-lift off technique, which consists of a wet-etch to undercut the pixels followed by a dry-stamp process to transfer the pixels to a silicon substrate prepared with a gold layer. Structural and optical characterization of the transferred pixels was done using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The interface between the transferred pixels and the new substrate was abrupt, and no significant degradation in the optical quality was observed. An Indium-bump-free membrane detector was then fabricated using this approach. Spectral response measurements provided a 100% cut-off wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K. The performance of the membrane detector was compared to a control detector on the as-grown substrate. The membrane detector was limited by surface leakage current. The proposed approach could pave the way for wafer-level integration of photonic detectors on silicon substrates, which could dramatically reduce the cost of these detectors.

  8. Bump Bonding Using Metal-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Bump bonding hybridization techniques use arrays of indium bumps to electrically and mechanically join two chips together. Surface-tension issues limit bump sizes to roughly as wide as they are high. Pitches are limited to 50 microns with bumps only 8-14 microns high on each wafer. A new process uses oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a metal (indium) in a wicking process using capillary actions to increase the aspect ratio and pitch density of the connections for bump bonding hybridizations. It merges the properties of the CNTs and the metal bumps, providing enhanced material performance parameters. By merging the bumps with narrow and long CNTs oriented in the vertical direction, higher aspect ratios can be obtained if the metal can be made to wick. Possible aspect ratios increase from 1:1 to 20:1 for most applications, and to 100:1 for some applications. Possible pitch density increases of a factor of 10 are possible. Standard capillary theory would not normally allow indium or most other metals to be drawn into the oriented CNTs, because they are non-wetting. However, capillary action can be induced through the ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. This hybridization of two technologies (indium bumps and CNTs) may also provide for some additional benefits such as improved thermal management and possible current density increases.

  9. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  10. Speed Bumps on the Road to Sustainability - Energy Technology and Geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Taylor, P.; Van Der Linde, C.; Buchner, B.; Ramsay, W.C.; Lipponen, J.; Meier, A.; Berkeley, L.; Di Paola-Galloni, J.L.; Jaureguy-Naudin, M.; Charpin, J.M.; Segar, Ch.; Zaleski, P.; Lesourne, J.; Pires Santos, A.; Menard, D.; Neuhoff, K.; Oettinger, G.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given at the 2011 issue of the annual Conference of the Ifri (French Institute of International Relations) Energy Program: 1 - An Energy revolution under way (Peter Taylor, Head of the Energy Technology Division, International Energy Agency); 2 - A look back at Cancun: 'top down' versus 'bottom up' (Barbara Buchner, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Venice office; 3 - CCS: Still in the Starting Blocks? (Juho Lipponen, Head of CCS Unit, International Energy Agency); 4 - Energy Efficiency: Does Anyone Care? (Alan Meier, Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); 5 - The Transport Sector: Anything Goes? (Jean-Luc di Paola-Galloni, Corporate Vice-President, Sustainable Development and External Affairs, Valeo Group); 6 - The Mediterranean Ring: Power or Politics? (Jean-Michel Charpin, Inspecteur General des Finances); 7 - Iran gas and Iraq oil (Chris Segar, Regional Analyst/Middle East and North Africa, International Energy Agency); 8 - Nuclear Power: New Players, New Game, New Rules (Pierre Zaleski, General delegate for the Center of Geopolitics of Energy and Raw Materials, Universite Paris-Dauphine); 9 - The Grid: a Generic Speed Bump (Antonio Pires Santos, Energy and Utilities Industry Leader, Southwest Europe, IBM); 10 - Intellectual Property Rights/Technology transfer (Dominique Menard, Partner, Hogan Lovells (Paris) LLP); 11 - Energy Markets: Conducive to Sustainability (Karsten Neuhoff, Director of the CPI - Climate Policy Initiative - Berlin office, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin)

  11. Eyelid bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It appears as a red, swollen bump that looks like a pimple. It is often tender to the touch. Causes A stye is caused by a blockage of one of the oil glands in the eyelids. This allows bacteria to grow inside the blocked gland. Styes are ...

  12. Development of X-ray microcalorimeters based on SOI technology and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, V. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: virginie.szeflinski@cea.fr; Aliane, A.; De Moro, F. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, J-L. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnese, P.; Gasse, A.; Ribot, H. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Gremion, E.; De La Broise, X.; Navick, X.F. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' electronique, detecteur et informatique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-21

    We are developing an X-ray spectro-imaging detector at cryogenic temperature (<100 mK) for next space generation missions, using silicon technology. Each pixel of this array detector is made of a tantalum absorber bonded by indium bump hybridization, to an implanted and high-temperature diffused silicon thermistor. The thermo-mechanical link, provided by the indium bump hybridization, is being improved in terms of thermal capacitance. We present the state of development and experimental results on this new generation of X-ray microcalorimeters.

  13. A flip chip process based on electroplated solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J.; Salmi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Compared to wire bonding and TAB, flip chip technology using solder joints offers the highest pin count and packaging density and superior electrical performance. The chips are mounted upside down on the substrate, which can be made of silicon, ceramic, glass or - in some cases - even PCB. The extra processing steps required for chips are the deposition of a suitable thin film metal layer(s) on the standard Al pad and the formation of bumps. Also, the development of new fine line substrate technologies is required to utilize the full potential of the technology. In our bumping process, bump deposition is done by electroplating, which was chosen for its simplicity and economy. Sputter deposited molybdenum and copper are used as thin film layers between the aluminum pads and the solder bumps. A reason for this choice is that the metals can be selectively etched after bumping using the bumps as a mask, thus circumventing the need for a separate mask for etching the thin film metals. The bumps are electroplated from a binary Pb-Sn bath using a thick liquid photoresist. An extensively modified commercial flip chip bonder is used for alignment and bonding. Heat assisted tack bonding is used to attach the chips to the substrate, and final reflow joining is done without flux in a vacuum furnace.

  14. HANFORD WASTE TANK BUMP ACCIDENT & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2005-02-22

    Postulated physical scenarios leading to tank bumps were examined. A combination of a substantial supernatant layer depth, supernatant temperatures close to saturation, and high sludge temperatures are required for a tank bump to occur. Scenarios postulated at various times for sludge layers lacking substantial supernatant, such as superheat within the layer and fumarole formation leading to a bump were ruled out.

  15. Intelligent Smartphone based system for detecting speed bumps and reducing car speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraghmi Yousef-Awwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although speed bumps are used to force drivers reduce car speed for avoiding accidents, these bumps may cause car crash or accident when drivers do not notice them. Studies have proposed different methods to detect bumps and alert drivers. However, these methods have limitations and require modifications to enable accurate detection. Also these methods did not propose speed reduction approaches. Therefore, in this research, we propose a method that utilizes smartphone microelectronic mechanical technology for speed bump detection. The system uses the gravity sensor to detect the vertical vibration of cars passes over bumps and the GPS to determine the position of the bump. To give accurate detection results, data are collected from crowd, stored and processed on the cloud. The system also contains a speed reduction unit which is attached to the brake pedal and reduces the speed if a bump is detected. A small scale experiment showed that the system detected the position and the height of bumps with a very small error. The system also reduced the speed of cars at the moment they hit the bumps to a point that does not cause any harm to cars or passengers.

  16. Germanium and indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Kimball, Bryn E.; Tolcin, Amy C.; Guberman, David E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Germanium and indium are two important elements used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays. Germanium and indium are treated together in this chapter because they have similar technological uses and because both are recovered as byproducts, mainly from copper and zinc sulfides.The world’s total production of germanium in 2011 was estimated to be 118 metric tons. This total comprised germanium recovered from zinc concentrates, from fly ash residues from coal burning, and from recycled material. Worldwide, primary germanium was recovered in Canada from zinc concentrates shipped from the United States; in China from zinc residues and coal from multiple sources in China and elsewhere; in Finland from zinc concentrates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and in Russia from coal.World production of indium metal was estimated to be about 723 metric tons in 2011; more than one-half of the total was produced in China. Other leading producers included Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. These five countries accounted for nearly 95 percent of primary indium production.Deposit types that contain significant amounts of germanium include volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits (including Irish-type zinc-lead deposits), Kipushi-type zinc-lead-copper replacement bodies in carbonate rocks, and coal deposits.More than one-half of the byproduct indium in the world is produced in southern China from VMS and SEDEX deposits, and much of the remainder is produced from zinc concentrates from MVT deposits. The Laochang deposit in Yunnan Province, China, and the VMS deposits of the Murchison greenstone belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa, provide excellent examples of indium-enriched deposits. The SEDEX deposits at Bainiuchang, China (located in

  17. Using active thermography and modified SVM for intelligent diagnosis of solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wei, Li; Nie, Lei; Su, Lei; Lu, Xiangning

    2015-09-01

    Solder bump technology has been used extensively in microelectronic packaging. But defect inspection becomes increasingly difficult due to the decrease of solder bumps in dimension and pitch. To overcome the shortages of traditional methods, we have developed an intelligent system using the active thermography for defects inspection of the solder bumps. A modified support vector machine (M-SVM) was investigated to solve the problem of small sample size in solder bumps classification. The chip SFA1 and SFA2 were chosen as the test vehicles. Captured thermal images were preprocessed using the improved wiener filter and moving average technique to remove the peak noise. The principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm was then adopted to reconstruct the thermal image, in which the hot spots were segmented. The statistical features corresponding to every solder bump were extracted and input into the M-SVM for solder bumps classification. The defective bumps w distinguished from the good bumps, which proves that the intelligent system using the modified SVM is effective for defects inspection in microelectronic packages.

  18. Condensation on slippery asymmetric bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Grinthal, Alison; He, Neil; Fox, David; Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach—based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants—that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle’s bumpy surface geometry in promoting condensation, and using theoretical modelling, we show how to maximize vapour diffusion fluxat the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing the radius of curvature and cross-sectional shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope, analogous to cactus spines, directly couples facilitated droplet growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free-energy profile that drives the droplet down the slope before its growth rate can decrease. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher-plant-inspired nanocoating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion on the way down. Bumps that are rationally designed to integrate these mechanisms are able to grow and transport large droplets even against gravity and overcome the effect of an unfavourable temperature gradient. We further observe an unprecedented sixfold-higher exponent of growth rate, faster onset, higher steady-state turnover rate, and a greater volume of water collected compared to other surfaces. We envision that this fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be

  19. Recent advances in understanding the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical-memory research. Although described as a single period from which there are more memories, a recent m...... stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved.......The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical-memory research. Although described as a single period from which there are more memories, a recent...... the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and temporal location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories...

  20. Low-cost bump-bonding processes for high energy physics pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069357; Blank, Thomas; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area will be required at reasonable costs. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of five production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin (15 μm) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to 30 μm without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bump metallization. The sh...

  1. Bump masses for BL Her stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    The masses of classical Cepheids can be determined by using the phase of the Hertzsprung bump on the light or velocity curve, Cox-Stewart opacities, and nonlinear pulsation theory. The fact that these bump masses are some 60% lower than the evolutionary masses raises some questions about this approach. In support of our method, we calculate the light curve for BL Her, a population II Cepheid, with an observed bump on the declining portion of its light curve. The nonlinear hydrodynamic model we use (Davis and Davison - 1978) resolves the light curve by dynamic zoning and allows us the opportunity to make a direct comparison of the calculated light curve to the observations, using a prescribed mass, luminosity and effective temperature. The parameters for BL Her are from a linear model (Hodson, Cox, and King - 1982) that has nearly the correct period (1./sup d/2) and the correct period ratio from resonance theory (π 2 /π 0 = 0.53) for a bump to appear on the declining portion of the light curve as observed. These parameters are: M = 0.55 M, L = 95.0 L, and T/sub eff/ = 6500 K. This mass is near the evolutionary mass as described by Schwartzschild and Haerm (1970). The model results agree well with the observations and the color-T/sub eff/ relation has the same slope as that observed for RR Lyrae stars by the Oke, Giver and Searle (1965) relationship

  2. Say No to Speed Bumps!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Sian

    2010-01-01

    No matter how cutting edge (and nicely funded) one's library is, there is always something cooler and more efficient on the horizon. Granted, not all new technology may be necessary in the library. But chances are one is going to want to get something--RFID (radio frequency identification), text reference, downloadable content, gaming,…

  3. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised...... by spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying...

  4. Single bumps in a 2-population homogenized neuronal network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodina, Karina; Oleynik, Anna; Wyller, John

    2018-05-01

    We investigate existence and stability of single bumps in a homogenized 2-population neural field model, when the firing rate functions are given by the Heaviside function. The model is derived by means of the two-scale convergence technique of Nguetseng in the case of periodic microvariation in the connectivity functions. The connectivity functions are periodically modulated in both the synaptic footprint and in the spatial scale. The bump solutions are constructed by using a pinning function technique for the case where the solutions are independent of the local variable. In the weakly modulated case the generic picture consists of two bumps (one narrow and one broad bump) for each admissible set of threshold values for firing. In addition, a new threshold value regime for existence of bumps is detected. Beyond the weakly modulated regime the number of bumps depends sensitively on the degree of heterogeneity. For the latter case we present a configuration consisting of three coexisting bumps. The linear stability of the bumps is studied by means of the spectral properties of a Fredholm integral operator, block diagonalization of this operator and the Fourier decomposition method. In the weakly modulated regime, one of the bumps is unstable for all relative inhibition times, while the other one is stable for small and moderate values of this parameter. The latter bump becomes unstable as the relative inhibition time exceeds a certain threshold. In the case of the three coexisting bumps detected in the regime of finite degree of heterogeneity, we have at least one stable bump (and maximum two stable bumps) for small and moderate values of the relative inhibition time.

  5. Load Express Analysis of the Car Running Against the Bumps in the Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baryshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many fields of technology when calculating the strength there are options available to choose design cases and loads in compliance with different operating conditions. In the automotive industry there are no such standards yet. This is due to both a variety of operating conditions, and a complexity of calculating the actual loads.K. Ert`s article is considered to be a pioneering work in this regard. There the author makes a hypothesis of the linear dependence of torque acting on the car, and of the height of bumps in the road. All formulas were obtained for vehicles with the leaf spring suspensions. An appearing entire class of new cars made it necessary to generalize the experience.This paper proposes an engineering method for calculating the vertical loads acting on the car when bumping in the road. We derive general formulas to calculate the height of the road bumps (irregularities on the way of a running car with various types of suspension. A dump truck BELAZ with various types nonlinear of suspension has been used to test the obtained formulas. The results analysis has shown that under equal conditions a car with dependent rear suspension will bear the lower loads than its prototype with a different type of suspension.The paper presents the relationships between the hights of bumps, which cause an equivalent load when different wheels bump against them. It shows a relation between the loads acting on the car when bumping against the same road irregularity by different wheels. The practical significance of the equations is the possibility to calculate loads in various cases in the road using the one-test results. A comparative results analysis of analytical calculation of loads and numerical experiments is based on the nonlinear model of the vehicle.The proposed method is an effective tool for the rapid analysis of loads in the design and fine-tuning the car.

  6. The Availability of Indium: The Present, Medium Term, and Long Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanc, Martin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Eggert, Roderick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Redlinger, Michael [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Demand for indium is likely to increase if the growth in deployment of the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and III-V thin-film photovoltaic technologies accelerates. There are concerns about indium supply constraints since it is relatively rare element in the earth's crust and because it is produced exclusively as a byproduct.

  7. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-02-01

    The reminiscence bump-the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life-is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations of the reminiscence bump and suggest that the cultural life script forms an overarching organizational principle for autobiographical memories and future representations across the life span.

  8. ICHEP 2016: to b(ump) or not to b(ump)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This week I’m in Chicago for the 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics, ICHEP 2016, hosted this year by the US particle physics community. While it became clear at the conference that the famous 750 GeV bump has flatlined, there’s been a wealth of physics from CERN and around the world.   Everyone in their heart felt that the bump would turn out to be no more than a statistical fluctuation, while secretly hoping that it would be something new. Even the designer of the ICHEP 2016 logo cleverly hid a bump with a subtle question mark in the Chicago skyline – appropriately enough in Anish Kapoor’s mysterious ‘Cloud Gate’ sculpture. That question mark has now been resolved. Kapoor’s sculpture returns to being just that, and the search for new physics goes on albeit further constrained as theorists revealed in the 400+ papers in the wake of the bump discussion. The highlight from CERN was undoubtedly the spectacular pe...

  9. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  10. Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects

  11. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  12. A fundamental experimental approach for optimal design of speed bumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lav, A Hakan; Bilgin, Ertugrul; Lav, A Hilmi

    2017-06-02

    Speed bumps and humps are utilized as means of calming traffic and controlling vehicular speed. Needless to say, bumps and humps of large dimensions in length and width force drivers to significantly reduce their driving speeds so as to avoid significant vehicle vertical acceleration. It is thus that this experimental study was conducted with the aim of determining a speed bump design that performs optimally when leading drivers to reduce the speed of their vehicles to safe levels. The first step of the investigation starts off by considering the following question: "What is the optimal design of a speed bump that will - at the same time - reduce the velocity of an incoming vehicle significantly and to a speed that resulting vertical acceleration does not jeopardize road safety? The experiment has been designed to study the dependent variables and collect data in order to propose an optimal design for a speed bump. To achieve this, a scaled model of 1:6 to real life was created to simulate the interaction between a car wheel and a speed bump. During the course of the experiment, a wheel was accelerated down an inclined plane onto a horizontal plane of motion where it was allowed to collide with a speed bump. The speed of the wheel and the vertical acceleration at the speed bump were captured by means of a Vernier Motion Detector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution......Abstract The reminiscence bump—the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life—is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way...... showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations...

  14. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  15. Quality of scintillating fibres after hot bump shrinking

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Joram, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the diameter of fibre bumps by a hot drawing tool requires to run the fibre through the hot tool over its full length, bearing the risk of a degradation of the fibre performance. In this study we demonstrated that the hot bump shrinking method has no visible effect on the optical attenuation length, the light yield following ionising radiation, the diameter, the mechanical stability and the integrity of the cladding. For the latter, even a small positive impact was observed.

  16. Looking Down Under for a Circular Economy of Indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tim T; Ciacci, Luca; Mudd, Gavin Mark; Reck, Barbara K; Northey, Stephen Alan

    2018-02-20

    Indium is a specialty metal crucial for modern technology, yet it is potentially critical due to its byproduct status in mining. Measures to reduce its criticality typically focus on improving its recycling efficiency at end-of-life. This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources ("stocks") for Australia through a dynamic material-flow analysis. It is based on detailed assessments of indium mineral resources hosted in lead-zinc and copper deposits, respective mining activities from 1844 to 2013, and the trade of indium-containing products from 1988 to 2015. The results show that Australia's indium stocks are substantial, estimated at 46.2 kt in mineral resources and an additional 14.7 kt in mine wastes. Australian mineral resources alone could meet global demand (∼0.8 kt/year) for more than five decades. Discarded material from post-consumer products, instead, is negligible (43 t). This suggests that the resilience of Australia's indium supply can best be increased through efficiency gains in mining (such as introducing domestic indium refining capacity) rather than at the end of the product life. These findings likely also apply to other specialty metals, such as gallium or germanium, and other resource-dominated countries. Finally, the results illustrate that national circular economy strategies can differ substantially.

  17. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  18. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Diego; Werner, Florian; Schwarz, Torsten; Cañero Infante, Ingrid; Fleming, Yves; Valle, Nathalie; Spindler, Conrad; Vacchieri, Erica; Rey, Germain; Guennou, Mael; Bouttemy, Muriel; Manjón, Alba Garzón; Peral Alonso, Inmaculada; Melchiorre, Michele; El Adib, Brahime; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk; Dale, Phillip J; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2018-02-26

    Copper indium gallium diselenide-based technology provides the most efficient solar energy conversion among all thin-film photovoltaic devices. This is possible due to engineered gallium depth gradients and alkali extrinsic doping. Sodium is well known to impede interdiffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films, thus influencing the gallium depth distribution. Here, however, sodium is shown to have the opposite effect in monocrystalline gallium-free CuInSe 2 grown on GaAs substrates. Gallium in-diffusion from the substrates is enhanced when sodium is incorporated into the film, leading to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and Cu(In,Ga) 3 Se 5 phase formation. These results show that sodium does not decrease per se indium and gallium interdiffusion. Instead, it is suggested that sodium promotes indium and gallium intragrain diffusion, while it hinders intergrain diffusion by segregating at grain boundaries. The deeper understanding of dopant-mediated atomic diffusion mechanisms should lead to more effective chemical and electrical passivation strategies, and more efficient solar cells.

  20. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analisa Struktur Dan Material Speed Bump Dengan Bahan Concrete Foam Untuk Penggerak Tenaga Listrik

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya, Saputra

    2017-01-01

    120401016 Pembuatan dari bentuk profil speed bump yang tidak sesuai dapat membahayakan pengguna jalan yang melintas. Penelitian ini berfokus pada pembuatan profil speed bump dari material concrete foam diperkuat serat TKKS agar diperoleh desain stuktur speed bump yang lebih baik dan lebih aman sesuai standar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis kelemahan dan ketangguhan struktur speed bump dari bahan concrete foam diperkuat Serat Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) yang ...

  2. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-06-20

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks.

  3. Do You Hear a Bump or a Hole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experiment whose goal is to assess the role of temporal aspects in sonically simulating the act of walking on a bump or a hole. In particular, we investigate whether the timing between heel and toe and the timing between footsteps affects the perception of ...

  4. The pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing technology and electroless Cu metallic patterns on indium-doped tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Yi [Medical Device Section, Medical Devices and Opto-Electronics Equipment Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsai-Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Nian, Yan-Yu [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China); Wang, Min-Wen, E-mail: mwwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method to fabricate copper pattern on an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate is described. This method involves ink-jet printing of a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate/Pd nanoparticle (CTS-g-PVAc-Pd) based ink on an untreated ITO plate to create the catalytic sites, onto which copper is subsequently deposited by an electroless plating method. To prepare the CTS-g-PVAc-Pd nanoparticles, a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate (CTS-g-PVAc) copolymer is utilized to self-reduce Pd nanoparticles. The pH-sensitive CTS chains function as stabilizing agent for noble metal nanoparticles in acidic ink solution. On the other hand, CTS-g-PVAc copolymers convert to hydrophilic CTS-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) via alkali hydrolysis during the electroless copper plating. Therefore, the copper film with dramatically enhanced adhesion is formed on the surface of ITO glass without special pretreatment step before electroless deposition of copper film. Our results show that this process yields copper line with width down to 60 μm and ITO plated with the copper coating has good electrical conductivity, with an electrical resistivity of about 5.4 μΩ cm. - Highlights: • Chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate copolymer provides reducing environment for Pd nanoparticles. • pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing. • Patterning Pd catalyst for the electroless deposition of copper patterns. • Method to fabricate copper patterns on In-doped tin oxide substrates. • Ink-jet printing can be directly and easily applied to fabricate metal patterns.

  5. Structural integrity of power generating speed bumps made of concrete foam composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, B.; Muttaqin, M.; Hastrino, D.; Sebayang, A.; Basuki, W. S.; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper concrete foam composite speed bumps were designed to generate electrical power by utilizing the movements of commuting vehicles on highways, streets, parking gates, and drive-thru station of fast food restaurants. The speed bumps were subjected to loadings generated by vehicles pass over the power generating mechanical system. In this paper, we mainly focus our discussion on the structural integrity of the speed bumps and discuss the electrical power generating speed bumps in another paper. One aspect of structural integrity is its ability to support designed loads without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs. The concrete foam composites were used for the speed bumps; the reinforcement materials are selected from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. In this study, the speed bump materials and structure were subjected to various tests to obtain its physical and mechanical properties. To analyze the structure stability of the speed bumps some models were produced and tested in our speed bump test station. We also conduct a FEM-based computer simulation to analyze stress responses of the speed bump structures. It was found that speed bump type 1 significantly reduced the radial voltage. In addition, the speed bump is equipped with a steel casing is also suitable for use as a component component in generating electrical energy.

  6. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-01-01

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network

  7. Bump formation in a binary attractor neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroutchev, Kostadin; Korutcheva, Elka

    2006-02-01

    The conditions for the formation of local bumps in the activity of binary attractor neural networks with spatially dependent connectivity are investigated. We show that these formations are observed when asymmetry between the activity during the retrieval and learning is imposed. An analytical approximation for the order parameters is derived. The corresponding phase diagram shows a relatively large and stable region where this effect is observed, although critical storage and information capacities drastically decrease inside that region. We demonstrate that the stability of the network, when starting from the bump formation, is larger than the stability when starting even from the whole pattern. Finally, we show a very good agreement between the analytical results and the simulations performed for different topologies of the network.

  8. The AGB bump: a calibrator for core mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossini Diego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of convection in stars affects many aspects of their evolution and remains one of the key-open questions in stellar modelling. In particular, the size of the mixed core in core-He-burning low-mass stars is still uncertain and impacts the lifetime of this evolutionary phase and, e.g., the C/O profile in white dwarfs. One of the known observables related to the Horizontal Branch (HB and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB evolution is the AGB bump. Its luminosity depends on the position in mass of the helium-burning shell at its first ignition, that is affected by the extension of the central mixed region. In this preliminary work we show how various assumptions on near-core mixing and on the thermal stratification in the overshooting region affect the luminosity of the AGB bump, as well as the period spacing of gravity modes in core-He-burning models.

  9. Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya-Padilla, Jose M; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; López-Monteagudo, F E; Alonso-González, O; Moreno-Báez, Arturo; Martínez-Torteya, Antonio; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Arceo-Olague, Jose G; Luna-García, Huizilopoztli; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi

    2018-02-03

    Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps). This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system.

  10. Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Celaya-Padilla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps. This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system.

  11. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A review of the world market of indium (Economy of indium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the current state of the world and Russian markets of indium and indium-containing products was made based on the publications of the last years. Main fields of indium application are given, in particular, its using for neutron absorbing regulating rods in nuclear reactors. The second γ-radiation resulted from neutron absorption allows using indium as a neutron detector. Indium market stabilization is expected due to supply from China and South Korea [ru

  13. Aqueous-based thick photoresist removal for bumping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C.; Brewer, Alex J.; Law, Alman; Pettit, Jared M.

    2015-03-01

    Cleaning processes account for over 25% of processing in microelectronic manufacturing [1], suggesting electronics to be one of the most chemical intensive markets in commerce. Industry roadmaps exist to reduce chemical exposure, usage, and waste [2]. Companies are encouraged to create a safer working environment, or green factory, and ultimately become certified similar to LEED in the building industry [3]. A significant step in this direction is the integration of aqueous-based photoresist (PR) strippers which eliminate regulatory risks and cut costs by over 50%. One of the largest organic solvent usages is based upon thick PR removal during bumping processes [4-6]. Using market projections and the benefits of recycling, it is estimated that over 1,000 metric tons (mt) of residuals originating from bumping processes are incinerated or sent to a landfill. Aqueous-based stripping would eliminate this disposal while also reducing the daily risks to workers and added permitting costs. Positive-tone PR dissolves in aqueous strippers while negative-tone systems are lifted-off from the substrate, bumps, pillars, and redistribution layers (RDL). While the wafers are further processed and rinsed, the lifted-off PR is pumped from the tank, collected onto a filter, and periodically back-flushed to the trash. The PR solids become a non-hazardous plastic waste while the liquids are mixed with the developer stream, neutralized, filtered, and in most cases, disposed to the sewer. Regardless of PR thickness, removal processes may be tuned to perform in <15min, performing at rates nearly 10X faster than solvents with higher bath lives. A balanced formula is safe for metals, dielectrics, and may be customized to any fab.

  14. Effectiveness of Emittance Bumps in the NLC and US Cold LC Main Linear Accelerators (LCC-0138)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2004-05-13

    We report on a series of studies on the effectiveness of closed orbit bumps in the linacs of the NLC and the USColdLC. In the first study, emittance dilutions of a pure-wakefield or pure-dispersion character are introduced in each linac, and a set of emittance bumps is tested to determine the most effective bump location in the linac, and the net effectiveness. In the second study, a more realistic set of dilutions are introduced and the wakefield bumps used in the first study are applied.

  15. Analysis of Power Generating Speed Bumps Made of Concrete Foam Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, B.; Muttaqin, M.; Hastrino, D.; Sebayang, A.; Basuki, W. S.; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the analysis of speed bump made of concrete foam composite which is used to generate electrical power. Speed bumps are designed to decelerate the speed of vehicles before passing through toll gates, public areas, or any other safety purposes. In Indonesia a speed bump should be designed in the accordance with KM Menhub 3 year 1994. In this research, the speed bump was manufactured with dimensions and geometry comply to the regulation mentioned above. Concrete foam composite speed bumps were used due to its light weight and relatively strong to receive vertical forces from the tyres of vehicles passing over the bumps. The reinforcement materials are processed from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. The materials were subjected to various tests to obtain its physical and mechanical properties. To analyze the structure stability of the speed bumps some models were analyzed using a FEM-based numerical softwares. It was obtained that the speed bumps coupled with polymeric composite bar (3 inches in diameter) are significantly reduce the radial stresses. In addition, the speed bumps equipped with polymeric composite casing or steel casing are also suitable for use as part of system components in producing electrical energy.

  16. Preventing Construct Subsidence Following Cervical Corpectomy: The Bump-stop Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kenneth Aaron; Griffith, Matthew; Mottern, Edward T; Gloystein, David M; Devine, John G

    2018-02-01

    Cervical corpectomy is a viable technique for the treatment of multilevel cervical spine pathology. Despite multiple advances in both surgical technique and implant technology, the rate of construct subsidence can range from 6% for single-level procedures to 71% for multilevel procedures. In this technical note, we describe a novel technique, the bump-stop technique, for cervical corpectomy. The technique positions the superior and inferior screw holes such that the vertebral bodies bisect them. This allows for fixation in the dense cortical bone of the endplate while providing a buttress to corpectomy cage subsidence. We then discuss a retrospective case review of 24 consecutive patients, who were treated using this approach, demonstrating a lower than previously reported cage subsidence rate.

  17. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error.

  18. Evaluating the solution from MrBUMP and BALBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, Ronan M.; Long, Fei; Fazio, Vincent J.; Winn, Martyn D.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Vagin, Alexei A.

    2011-01-01

    The automated pipelines for molecular replacement MrBUMP and BALBES are reviewed, with an emphasis on understanding their output. Conclusions are drawn from their performance in extensive trials. Molecular replacement is one of the key methods used to solve the problem of determining the phases of structure factors in protein structure solution from X-ray image diffraction data. Its success rate has been steadily improving with the development of improved software methods and the increasing number of structures available in the PDB for use as search models. Despite this, in cases where there is low sequence identity between the target-structure sequence and that of its set of possible homologues it can be a difficult and time-consuming chore to isolate and prepare the best search model for molecular replacement. MrBUMP and BALBES are two recent developments from CCP4 that have been designed to automate and speed up the process of determining and preparing the best search models and putting them through molecular replacement. Their intention is to provide the user with a broad set of results using many search models and to highlight the best of these for further processing. An overview of both programs is presented along with a description of how best to use them, citing case studies and the results of large-scale testing of the software

  19. Shrinking of bumps by drawing scintillating fibres through a hot conical tool

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues Cavalcante, Ana Barbara; Gavardi, Laura; Joram, Christian; Kristic, Robert; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb SciFi tracker will be based on scintillating fibres with a nominal diameter of 250 $\\mu$m. A small length fraction of these fibres shows millimetre-scale fluctuations of the diameter, also known as bumps and necks. In particular, bumps exceeding a diameter of about 350 $\\mu$m are problematic as they can distort the winding pattern of the fibre mats over more extended regions. We present a method to reduce the diameter of large bumps to a diameter of 350 $\\mu$m by locally heating and pulling the fibre through a conical tool. The method has been proven to work for bumps up to 450 – 500 $\\mu$m diameter. Larger bumps need to be treated manually by a cut-and-glue technique which relies on UV-curing instant glue. The bump shrinking and cut-and-glue processes were integrated in a fibre diameter scanner at CERN. The central scanning and bump shrinking of all fibres is expected to minimise bump related issues at the four mat winding centres of the SciFi project.

  20. The peaks of life: The differential temporal locations of the reminiscence bump across disparate cueing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has generally been assessed through either (1) the cue word method, or (2) several related methods which we refer to under the umbrella of the important memories method. Here we provide a review of the literature demonstrating that the temporal location of the bump varies...

  1. Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of indium-antimony alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, Ya.I.; Goryacheva, V.I.; Gejderikh, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Method of electromotive forces is used to obtain thermodynamic parameters of reaction of In x Sb (1-x) phase formation from liquid indium and solid indium mono-antimonide. For alloy compositions with x=0.75-0.55 liquidus coordinates on phase diagram are determined. Nonmonotonous dependence of partial entropy and enthalpy of indium on composition of liquid alloys, that is connected with ordering, is detected. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Uji Coba Dan Analisa Struktur Speed Bump Bahan Concrete Foam Diperkuat Batang Polymeric Foam Yang Digunakan Untuk Pembangkit Daya Listrik

    OpenAIRE

    Darmadi, Herry

    2017-01-01

    147015004 Incorrect speed bump profile shapes can harm road users passing by. This study focuses on making speed bump profiles of concrete foam materials and polymeric foam reinforced TKKS fibers in order to obtain better and safer standard bump structure designs according to standard. The objectives of this study were to analyze the weakness and toughness of the speed bump structure of concrete foam and polymeric foam reinforced Fibers of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) subjected to free fall i...

  4. MrBUMP: an automated pipeline for molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M; Winn, Martyn D

    2008-01-01

    A novel automation pipeline for macromolecular structure solution by molecular replacement is described. There is a special emphasis on the discovery and preparation of a large number of search models, all of which can be passed to the core molecular-replacement programs. For routine molecular-replacement problems, the pipeline automates what a crystallographer might do and its value is simply one of convenience. For more difficult cases, the pipeline aims to discover the particular template structure and model edits required to produce a viable search model and may succeed in finding an efficacious combination that would be missed otherwise. An overview of MrBUMP is given and some recent additions to its functionality are highlighted.

  5. Study of indium nitride and indium oxynitride band gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sparvoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the study of the optical band gap of indium oxynitride (InNO and indium nitride (InN deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering. InNO shows multi-functionality in electrical and photonic applications, transparency in visible range, wide band gap, high resistivity and low leakage current. The deposition processes were performed in a magnetron sputtering system using a four-inches pure In (99.999% target and nitrogen and oxygen as plasma gases. The pressure was kept constant at 1.33 Pa and the RF power (13.56 MHz constant at 250 W. Three-inches diameter silicon wafer with 370 micrometer thickness and resistivity in the range of 10 ohm-centimeter was used as substrate. The thin films were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR reflectance, photoluminescence (PL and Hall Effect. The band gap was obtained from Tauc analysis of the reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The band gap was evaluated for both films: for InNO the value was 2.48 eV and for InN, 1.52 eV. The relative quantities obtained from RBS spectra analysis in InNO sample are 48% O, 12% N, 40% In and in InN sample are 8% O, 65% N, 27% In.

  6. Evaluated neutronic file for indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.; Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Howerton, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental indium is documented. This file, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format, and contains all neutron-induced processes necessary for the vast majority of neutronic applications. In addition, an evaluation of the 115 In(n,n') 116m In dosimetry reaction is presented as a separate file. Attention is given in quantitative values, with corresponding uncertainty information. These files have been submitted for consideration as a part of the ENDF/B-VI national evaluated-file system. 144 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Growth and characterization of indium doped silicon single crystals at industrial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haringer, Stephan; Giannattasio, Armando; Alt, Hans Christian; Scala, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Indium is becoming one of the most important dopant species for silicon crystals used in photovoltaics. In this work we have investigated the behavior of indium in silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski pulling process. The experiments were performed by growing 200 mm crystals, which is a standard diameter for large volume production, thus the data reported here are of technological interest for the large scale production of indium doped p-type silicon. The indium segregation coefficient and the evaporation rate from the silicon melt have been calculated to be 5 × 10-4 ± 3% and 1.6 × 10-4 cm·s-1, respectively. In contrast to previous works the indium was introduced in liquid phase and the efficiency was compared with that deduced by other authors, using different methods. In addition, the percentage of electrically active indium at different dopant concentrations is calculated and compared with the carrier concentration at room temperature, measured by four-point bulk method.

  8. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  9. Comparison of Off-Line IR Bump and Action-Angle Kick Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wei, Jie

    2005-01-01

    The interaction region bump (IR bump) nonlinear correction method has been used for the sextupole and octupole field error on-line corrections in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Some differences were found for the sextupole and octupole corrector strengths between the on-line IR bump correction and the predictions from the action-angle kick minimization. In this report we compare the corrector strengths from these two methods based on the RHIC Blue ring lattice with the IR nonlinear modeling. The comparison confirms the differences between resulting corrector strengths. And the reason for the differences is found and discussed. It is followed by a further discussion of the operational IR bump applications to the octupole, and skew sextupole and skew quadrupole field error corrections.

  10. Ship Sensor Observations for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National...

  11. Two-Dimensional Bumps in Piecewise Smooth Neural Fields with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze radially symmetric bumps in a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth neural field model with synaptic depression. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Synaptic depression dynamically reduces the strength of synaptic weights in response to increases in activity. We show that in the case of a Mexican hat weight distribution, sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a stationary bump solution that would be stable in the absence of depression. Numerically it is found that the resulting instability leads to the formation of a traveling spot. The local stability of a bump is determined by solutions to a system of pseudolinear equations that take into account the sign of perturbations around the circular bump boundary. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Ship Track for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  13. Intergenerational transmission of the reminiscence bump and biographical conflict knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R

    2012-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigated intergenerational transmission of life stories in two groups of young adults: a conflict group and a nonconflict group. Only participants in the conflict group had parents who lived through violent political upheaval. All participants recalled and dated 10 important events from one of their parents' lives. There were three main findings. First, both groups produced sets of events that displayed a reminiscence bump related to the parent's estimated age at the time of the event. Second, the majority of the events in both groups were transitions that were perceived to have exerted a significant psychological and material impact on a parent's life. Third, in the conflict group, 25% of recalled events were conflict related. This finding indicates that historical conflict knowledge is passed from one generation to the next and that it is understood to have had a personally relevant, life-altering effect. Moreover, the findings suggest that transitional impact and perceived importance help determine which events children will remember from a parent's life.

  14. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  16. Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Baldomero

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use. United...

  17. Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Bidraha; Sadeh, Saeid; Green, Jennifer C; Müller, Jens

    2014-02-17

    Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes ([1]FCPs) and [1.1]ferrocenophanes ([1.1]FCPs) were synthesized from dilithioferrocene species and indium dichlorides. The reaction of Li2fc⋅tmeda (fc = (H4C5)2Fe) and (Mamx)InCl2 (Mamx = 6-(Me2NCH2)-2,4-tBu2C6H2) gave a mixture of the [1]FCP (Mamx)Infc (4(1)), the [1.1]FCP [(Mamx)Infc]2 (4(2)), and oligomers [(Mamx)Infc]n (4(n)). In a similar reaction, employing the enantiomerically pure, planar-chiral (Sp,Sp)-1,1'-dibromo-2,2'-diisopropylferrocene (1) as a precursor for the dilithioferrocene derivative Li2fc(iPr2), equipped with two iPr groups in the α position, gave the inda[1]ferrocenophane 5(1) [(Mamx)Infc(iPr2)] selectively. Species 5(1) underwent ring-opening polymerization to give the polymer 5(n). The reaction between Li2fc(iPr2) and Ar'InCl2 (Ar' = 2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4) gave an inseparable mixture of the [1]FCP Ar'Infc(iPr2) (6(1)) and the [1.1]FCP [Ar'Infc(iPr2)]2 (6(2)). Hydrogenolysis reactions (BP86/TZ2P) of the four inda[1]ferrocenophanes revealed that the structurally most distorted species (5(1)) is also the most strained [1]FCP. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stability of bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with nonlinear adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-06-01

    We study the linear stability of stationary bumps in piecewise smooth neural fields with local negative feedback in the form of synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation. The continuum dynamics is described in terms of a nonlocal integrodifferential equation, in which the integral kernel represents the spatial distribution of synaptic weights between populations of neurons whose mean firing rate is taken to be a Heaviside function of local activity. Discontinuities in the adaptation variable associated with a bump solution means that bump stability cannot be analyzed by constructing the Evans function for a network with a sigmoidal gain function and then taking the high-gain limit. In the case of synaptic depression, we show that linear stability can be formulated in terms of solutions to a system of pseudo-linear equations. We thus establish that sufficiently strong synaptic depression can destabilize a bump that is stable in the absence of depression. These instabilities are dominated by shift perturbations that evolve into traveling pulses. In the case of spike frequency adaptation, we show that for a wide class of perturbations the activity and adaptation variables decouple in the linear regime, thus allowing us to explicitly determine stability in terms of the spectrum of a smooth linear operator. We find that bumps are always unstable with respect to this class of perturbations, and destabilization of a bump can result in either a traveling pulse or a spatially localized breather. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of wettability and topological features of Namib beetle inspired bumps on dropwise condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shakeel; Tang, Hui; Yao, Haimin

    2017-11-01

    The Stenocara beetle lives in arid desert environment where the only available source of water is fog droplets. The beetle contains many hydrophobic/hydrophilic bumps on its back. Water collection occurs on the hydrophilic patches. Once the droplet reaches the critical volume, it sheds down due to gravity. Although a number of studies on condensation and water collection on beetle inspired structures have been reported in literature, most of them were on micro/nano scale textures. However, in nature the beetle bumps are in millimeter scale. At this scale the role of topological features and gravity becomes crucial for early droplet shedding. Therefore, in this work we numerically investigated the effects of bump shape, wettability contrast, surface slope and hydrophilic patch to total area ratio on droplet shedding volume and time. A three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based numerical framework was used for the simulations. Compared with bumps of other shapes such a cube or a circular cylinder, faster droplet shedding was obtained over a hemispherical bump. Furthermore, it was found that larger hydrophilic patch to total area ratio for the hemispherical bump significantly increased the droplet shedding time.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  1. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  2. Pain over speed bumps in diagnosis of acute appendicitis: diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Helen F; D'Souza, Nigel; Karim, Diallah; Stevens, Richard J; Huang, Andrew; Harnden, Anthony

    2012-12-14

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of pain on travelling over speed bumps for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Prospective questionnaire based diagnostic accuracy study. Secondary care surgical assessment unit at a district general hospital in the UK. 101 patients aged 17-76 years referred to the on-call surgical team for assessment of possible appendicitis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for pain over speed bumps in diagnosing appendicitis, with histological diagnosis of appendicitis as the reference standard. The analysis included 64 participants who had travelled over speed bumps on their journey to hospital. Of these, 34 had a confirmed histological diagnosis of appendicitis, 33 of whom reported increased pain over speed bumps. The sensitivity was 97% (95% confidence interval 85% to 100%), and the specificity was 30% (15% to 49%). The positive predictive value was 61% (47% to 74%), and the negative predictive value was 90% (56% to 100%). The likelihood ratios were 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8) for a positive test result and 0.1 (0.0 to 0.7) for a negative result. Speed bumps had a better sensitivity and negative likelihood ratio than did other clinical features assessed, including migration of pain and rebound tenderness. Presence of pain while travelling over speed bumps was associated with an increased likelihood of acute appendicitis. As a diagnostic variable, it compared favourably with other features commonly used in clinical assessment. Asking about speed bumps may contribute to clinical assessment and could be useful in telephone assessment of patients.

  3. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  4. Investigation of Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype photo detectors for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Delsante, M L; Arnau-Izquierdo, G

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). LHCb is one of the dedicated LHC experiments, allowing high energy proton-proton collisions to be exploited. This paper presents the results of the metallurgic studies carried out on Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype vacuum photo detectors under development for LHCb, and in particular for the ring imaging Cherenkov-hybrid photo diode (RICH-HPD) project. These detectors encapsulate, in a vacuum tube, an assembly made of two silicon chips bonded together by a matrix of solder bumps. Each bump lies on a suitable system of under-bump metallic layers ensuring mechanical and electrical transition between the chip pad and the solder alloy. During manufacturing of the detector, bump-bonded (BB) assemblies are exposed to severe heat cycles up to 400 degree C inducing, in the present fabrication process, a clear degradation of electrical connectivity. Several investigations such as microstructural observati...

  5. Recovery of galium and indium from liquid crystal displays and CIGS photovailtaic modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisselink, R.; Steeghs, W.; Brouwer, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The increasing amount of electronics, such as consumer products and green technologies (e.g. solar PV cells) increases the demand of metals such as indium and gallium. This increasing demand together with the dependency on import of these metals drive research on recycling of waste

  6. The Best Location for Speed Bump Installation Using Experimental Design Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khademi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Speed bumps, as traffic calming devices, have been extensively used to reduce traffic speed on local streets. This study represents a unique application of experimental design methodology where the effects of some controllable factors in determining the best location for installing speed bumps before stop points (e.g. entry gates, road junctions were investigated. Through Classical Design of Experiments (DOE, the optimum location of the speed bump was obtained based on the graphical plots of the significant effects. The speed at the stop point was treated as the response and minimum speed is desirable. Design-Expert® software was used to evaluate and analyze the results obtained. The suggested mathematical model effectively explains the performance indicators within the ranges of the factors. The car speed is the most significant factor that affects the distance-time in comparison with other factors, which provides secondary contributions.

  7. Beam Based Calibration of Slow Orbit Bump in the NSLS Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.; Shaftan, T.; Rose, J.

    2009-05-04

    The orbit bumps in NSLS booster are used to move the beam orbit within 2mm of the extraction septum aperture on a time scale of millisecond at extraction in order to reduce the requirement on the amplitude of the fast extraction kicker. This may cause charge losses since before extraction, the beam stays on the distorted orbit for thousands of revolutions. In order to find the optimal orbit bump setpoint, which brings the maximum distortion at the extraction position and minimum distortions everywhere else, we developed an extraction model and performed an experiment to validate it. Afterwards, the model was applied to optimize the extraction process.

  8. Aging treatment characteristics of solder bump joint for high reliability optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Seob; Yu, Chung-Hee; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2004-01-01

    The joint strength and fracture surfaces of Sn-37 mass% Pb and Au stud bumps for photo diode packages after isothermal aging testing were studied experimentally. Al/Au stud bumps and Cu/Sn-37 mass% Pb solders were adopted, and aged for up to 900 h to analyze the effect of intermetallic compound (IMC). The joint strength decreased with aging time. The diffraction patterns of Cu 6 Sn 5 , scallop-shaped IMCs, and planar-shaped Cu 3 Sn were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formation of Kirkendall voids and the growth of IMCs at the solder were found to be a possible mechanism for joint strength reduction

  9. The indium-oxygen system, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillen, A.J. van

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is divided into three sections: 1) a survey of the literature concerning the indiumoxygen system, 2) the adsorption of oxygen at pure and partially oxidized indium surfaces in the temperature range 20-180degC, and 3) the oxidation of indium at temperatures above 180degC. The oxygen uptake is determined volumetrically and gravimetrically. The influence of the melting point is considered and the results are compared with data from the literature. The oxide layer is amorphous at lower temperatures but above 350degC, crystallisation of In 2 O 3 takes place

  10. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Neilson, W.; Anderson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  11. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the extant literature on the reminiscence bump for public events (the finding that public events are generally remembered best by those in adolescence or early adulthood at the time of their occurrence), with the aim of identifying (i) whether this bump in fact represents...

  12. CO2laser-induced bump formation and growth on polystyrene for multi-depth soft lithography molds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2012-10-19

    This paper reports the process of creating bumps on the surface of polystyrene (PS) induced by a CO2laser at low powers. The paper also outlines the procedure for growing bumps induced by multiple laser scans on the aforementioned bumps. These bumps result from the net volume gain of the laser heat-affected zone on the PS rather than from a deposition process, and the expansion of the heat-affected zone on PS was verified by measuring the hardness change using nanoindentation. The bumps have a much smoother surface than microchannels fabricated with laser cutting; depending on the laser power, they have heights ranging from hundreds of nanometers to 42m. The laser scanning speed and scan times along with this technique offer a fast and low-cost alternative for fabricating molds for multi-depth PDMS microfluidic devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of indium-implanted silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer-Krasinski, C.; Morinville, W. R.

    2004-06-01

    Indium is a key element in the formation of well, channel, and halo profiles in semiconductor fabrication. Indium has the advantage of being a large atom with a small projected range, creating a steeper implant profile than the boron implant used in the past [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, ITT, 2002]. Typically, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to provide implant profiles; however, when a set of indium-implanted samples were analyzed on the Cameca IMS-6F, non-repeatability of the implant profile was observed in the samples that had not received an oxide spacer prior to implantation. This non-repeatability was not observed when the same samples were analyzed on the Perkin-Elmer 6300 quadrupole secondary ion mass spectrometer. Several reasons for this were hypothesized: (1) an amorphous layer was being created due to the large size of the indium atom; (2) increased damage and surface roughening occurred on the samples that did not receive an oxide layer prior to implantation; (3) Gibbsian segregation similar to that of Cu in SiO 2 was being observed [Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Wiley, New York, 1989, p. 2.2-1]; and (4) sample heating was changing the thermodynamic properties of the samples. To explore these possibilities, two sets of indium-implanted samples—with and without spacer oxide—were analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface roughness and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for differences in amorphization. SIMS analysis was also conducted on both types of dynamic SIMS instruments to develop an analytical protocol for determining the indium implant profile. Repeatable results, consistent with analysis on the quadrupole SIMS, were obtained by utilizing the cold finger on the Cameca 6F.

  14. Decomposing the sales promotion bump accounting for cross-category effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Selva, Josefa Parreno; Wittink, Dick R.; Dijk, Albertus Alard van

    Extant research on the decomposition of unit sales bumps due to price promotions considers these effects only within a single product category. This article introduces a framework that accommodates specific cross-category effects. Empirical results based on daily data measured at the item/SKU level

  15. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  16. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  17. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  18. Thermopower of dilute alloys of indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoeffer, A.W.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a new theory of electron-diffusion thermopower is discussed. A figure of merit for this ''Nielsen--Taylor'' theory in various metals is established, and it indicates that the effect should be largest in lead, indium, thallium, and aluminum, in that order. Previous investigations have been carried out for lead and aluminum. The thermopower of indium (or any metal) changes when impurity scattering centers are introduced into it. This change in the thermopower as a function of temperature is analyzed in terms of the Nielsen--Taylor theory and in terms of the competing process known as ''phonon drag.'' Definite conclusions as to the validity of the new theory are hampered by the complex nature of this phonon drag, but the experimental data is consistent with the Nielsen--Taylor theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  19. Neutron Imaging with Timepix Coupled Lithium Indium Diselenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The material lithium indium diselenide, a single crystal neutron sensitive semiconductor, has demonstrated its capabilities as a high resolution imaging device. The sensor was prepared with a 55 μ m pitch array of gold contacts, designed to couple with the Timepix imaging ASIC. The resulting device was tested at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, demonstrating a response to cold neutrons when enriched in 95% 6 Li. The imaging system performed a series of experiments resulting in a <200 μ m resolution limit with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI Siemens star mask and a feature resolution of 34 μ m with a knife-edge test. Furthermore, the system was able to resolve the University of Tennessee logo inscribed into a 3D printed 1 cm 3 plastic block. This technology marks the application of high resolution neutron imaging using a direct readout semiconductor.

  20. Radioassay process using an indium-8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There is disclosed an in vivo radioassay process in which a radioactive chelate of indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline is introduced into a warmblooded animal having an inflammatory reaction in an area in which the chelate would not accumulate to the same extent if the inflammation were not present. The chelate gathers in the inflamed area, for instance, in a body abscess and its location is determined by radio surveying the body by an external imaging technique. (author)

  1. Preparation of trialkylindium by alkylation of metallic indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.V.; Danov, S.M.; Sakhipov, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation results on production of trialkyl indium by alkylation of metallic indium are presented. In contradistinction to the known techniques for the production of trialkyls on indium by alkylation it is suggested to separate the synthesis into two steps. At the first step indium is alkylated by alkylhalide to alkyl indium halide, and at the second alkylation is carried out using. Grignard reagent. The techniques for preparation of trimethyl- and triethylindium, developed on the bases of this scheme, are noted for good reproducibility, allow to preclude, agglomeration of indium during the synthesis, as well as to reduce the consumption coefficients, and amounts, of the introduced starting reagents, i.e. magnesium and alkylhalide. Refs. 16

  2. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22518

  3. Solvent extraction of indium (III) with alizarin into 1-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, S.D.; Turel, Z.R.

    1995-01-01

    The reagent alizarin has been used for the extraction of indium (III) into 1-octanol. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient value of indium (III) has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of metal to reagent, determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction and slope ratio was found to be in the ratio of 1:3. Separation factor for a number of elements in the extraction of indium (III) has been evaluated. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales- (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of themultibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the...

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of the 2006 multibeam bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of...

  9. Bump på vejen mod den førerløse fremtid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Ingeniørerne er ikke i tvivl. Vi står på tærsklen til en tid, hvor mennesker ikke længere er nødvendige bag rattet. Men før vi når så langt, er der en række bump, vi skal have løst. Det er nemlig langt fra uden farer at overlade al kontrollen til maskinerne....

  10. Combined isovalent alloying gallium arsenide with bismuth and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, V.V.; Zushinskaya, O.V.; Novikov, S.V.; Savel'ev, I.G.; Chaldyshev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity and the Hall effect at 77 and 300K of gallium arsenide epitaxial films grown from the melted solution with bismuth and indium additions at 77 and 300K. Different mechanisms of bismuth and indium effect on the ensamble of defects and background addition in gallium arsenide, are established. Bismuth effect is conditioned by the change of liquid phase properties, and indium effect is conditioned by the processes taking place in a crystal. The experimental results have shown that the mutual alloying of gallium arsenide with indium and bismuth in the process of liquid-phase epitaxy ensures high electrophysical film properties

  11. Gaps and bumps in the political history of the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Tréguer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, there has been a growing scholarly attention given to “digital rights contention”, that is political conflicts related to the expansion or restriction of civil and political rights exerted through, or affected by, digital communications technologies. Yet, when we turn to history to inform contemporary debates and mobilisations, what we often find are single-sided narratives that have achieved iconic status, studies focusing on a handful of over-quoted contentious episodes and generally over-representing North America, or scattered accounts that have so far escaped the notice of internet researchers. How can we explain these gaps in internet histories? How can we go about overcoming them to build a more fine-grained understanding of past socio-legal struggles around human rights in the context of media and communications? This essay calls for advancing the political history of the internet in order to empower scholars, activists and citizens alike as they address current (and future controversies around internet politics.

  12. Growth and shape of indium islands on molybdenum at micro-roughened spots created by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Schramm, H.-P.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Krüger, J.; Boeck, T.

    2017-10-01

    Indium islands on molybdenum coated glass can be grown in ordered arrays by surface structuring using a femtosecond laser. The effect of varying the molybdenum coated glass substrate temperature and the indium deposition rate on island areal density, volume and geometry is investigated and evaluated in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. The joined impact of growth conditions and spacing of the femtosecond laser structured spots on the arrangement and morphology of indium islands is demonstrated. The results yield a deeper understanding of the island growth and its precise adjustment to industrial requirements, which is indispensable for a technological application of such structures at a high throughput, for instance as precursors for the preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro concentrator solar cells.

  13. Effects of PCB Pad Metal Finishes on the Cu-Pillar/Sn-Ag Micro Bump Joint Reliability of Chip-on-Board (COB) Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoon; Lee, Seyong; Shin, Ji-won; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2016-06-01

    While solder bumps have been used as the bump structure to form the interconnection during the last few decades, the continuing scaling down of devices has led to a change in the bump structure to Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bumps. Cu-pillar/Sn-Ag micro-bump interconnections differ from conventional solder bump interconnections in terms of their assembly processing and reliability. A thermo-compression bonding method with pre-applied b-stage non-conductive films has been adopted to form solder joints between Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps and printed circuit board vehicles, using various pad metal finishes. As a result, various interfacial inter-metallic compounds (IMCs) reactions and stress concentrations occur at the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps joints. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pad metal finishes on the structural reliability of fine pitch Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bumps flip chip packaging. In this study, four different pad surface finishes (Thin Ni ENEPIG, OSP, ENEPIG, ENIG) were evaluated in terms of their interconnection reliability by thermal cycle (T/C) test up to 2000 cycles at temperatures ranging from -55°C to 125°C and high-temperature storage test up to 1000 h at 150°C. The contact resistances of the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump showed significant differences after the T/C reliability test in the following order: thin Ni ENEPIG > OSP > ENEPIG where the thin Ni ENEPIG pad metal finish provided the best Cu pillar/Sn-Ag micro bump interconnection in terms of bump joint reliability. Various IMCs formed between the bump joint areas can account for the main failure mechanism.

  14. Indium antimonide nanowires arrays for promising thermoelectric converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorokh G. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors have theoretically substantiated the possibility to create promising thermoelectric converters based on quantum wires. The calculations have shown that the use of quantum wires with lateral dimensions smaller than quantum confinement values and high concentration and mobility of electrons, can lead to a substantial cooling of one of the contacts up to tens of degrees and to the heating of the other. The technological methods of manufacturing of indium antimonide nanowires arrays with high aspect ratio of the nanowire diameters to their length in the modified nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes were developed and tested. The microstructure and composition of the formed nanostructures were investigated. The electron microscopy allowed establishing that within each pore nanowires are formed with diameters of 35 nm and a length of 35 microns (equal to the matrix thickness. The electron probe x-ray microanalysis has shown that the atomic ratio of indium and antimony in the semiconductor nanostructures amounted to 38,26% and 61,74%, respectively. The current-voltage measurement between the upper and lower contacts of Cu/InSb/Cu structure (1 mm2 has shown that at 2.82 V negative voltage at the emitter contact, current density is 129,8 A/cм2, and the collector contact is heated up to 75 degrees during 150 sec. Thus, the experimental results confirmed the theoretical findings that the quantum wire systems can be used to create thermoelectric devices, which can be widely applied in electronics, in particular, for cooling integrated circuits (processors, thermal controlling of the electrical circuits by changing voltage value.

  15. The theory of the anti-bouncer of dynamic bumping on the plough at forced oscillations of the framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Tarverdyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work the problem of the use of the external revolting factors is considered which arise from fluctuation of traction resistance of between each other pair-connected yoke and the hulls of the plow, within 27÷98%, with average coefficient of unevenness 3÷5 as power source for irrevocable performance of technological process with due quality.For execution of the principal condition of support of normal operation of the conjugate casing - supports of identity of parameters of their oscillations and congestion avoidance and deviation prefir-trees of admissible amplitude in the case of accidental collision with a hindrance, on the middle of a balance the shock-absorber of dynamic shock is provided.The solution of the task of optimization of parameters of the shock-absorber is based on value of admissible maximum amplitude of oscillations of the slave housing is made in three versions: plough share edge meeting with a motionless obstacle; case meeting with a mobile obstacle; operation of the fluctuating case in non-uniform, on specific resistance, soil conditions with unevenness coefficient to δ=2,9. After the analysis of results of the theory of calculation for three options is established: rigidity, C″ springs of an udarogasitel should be calculated by option at which the difference of resistance of forward and back cases is maximum. Keywords: Plough, Framework, Oscillation, Anti-bouncer, Bumping, Dynamics

  16. The 1600 Å Emission Bump in Protoplanetary Disks: A Spectral Signature of H{sub 2}O Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-92190, Meudon (France)

    2017-08-01

    The FUV continuum spectrum of many accreting pre-main sequence stars, Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), does not continue smoothly from the well-studied Balmer continuum emission in the NUV, suggesting that additional processes contribute to the short-wavelength emission in these objects. The most notable spectral feature in the FUV continuum of some CTTSs is a broad emission approximately centered at 1600 Å, which has been referred to as the “1600 Å Bump.” The origin of this feature remains unclear. In an effort to better understand the molecular properties of planet-forming disks and the UV spectral properties of accreting protostars, we have assembled archival FUV spectra of 37 disk-hosting systems observed by the Hubble Space Telescope -Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Clear 1600 Å Bump emission is observed above the smooth, underlying 1100–1800 Å continuum spectrum in 19/37 Classical T Tauri disks in the HST -COS sample, with the detection rate in transition disks (8/8) being much higher than that in primordial or non-transition sources (11/29). We describe a spectral deconvolution analysis to separate the Bump (spanning 1490–1690 Å) from the underlying FUV continuum, finding an average Bump luminosity L (Bump) ≈ 7 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1}. Parameterizing the Bump with a combination of Gaussian and polynomial components, we find that the 1600 Å Bump is characterized by a peak wavelength λ {sub o} = 1598.6 ± 3.3 Å, with FWHM = 35.8 ± 19.1 Å. Contrary to previous studies, we find that this feature is inconsistent with models of H{sub 2} excited by electron -impact. We show that this Bump makes up between 5%–50% of the total FUV continuum emission in the 1490–1690 Å band and emits roughly 10%–80% of the total fluorescent H{sub 2} luminosity for stars with well-defined Bump features. Energetically, this suggests that the carrier of the 1600 Å Bump emission is powered by Ly α photons. We argue that the most likely mechanism

  17. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. Variation of structural, electrical and optical properties of the films with zinc acetate concentration and indium concentration in the solution are investigated. XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) crystal plane with ...

  18. Growth and characterization of indium antimonide and gallium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indium antimonide and gallium antimonide were synthesized from the respective component elements using an indigenously fabricated synthesis unit. Bulk crystals of indium antimonide and gallium antimonide were grown using both the vertical and horizontal Bridgman techniques. Effect of ampoule shapes and diameters ...

  19. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, A.H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ahmartin@demet.ufmg.br

    2007-04-15

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm{sup 3} sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite{sup R} IRC748. (author)

  20. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  1. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick, E-mail: erickreyes@itm.edu.co; Gómez-Cardona, Nelson D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840 Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ingeniería, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, A.A. 54954 Medellín (Colombia); Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Torres, Pedro [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840 Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  2. Small lead and indium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Hjemsted, K.; Schmidt, B.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Johansen, A.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports implantation of lead or indium into aluminum results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moire fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantation at elevated temperatures lead to formation of large precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantation above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusion. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighboring inclusion in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment

  3. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. XX. The ultraviolet extinction bump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Interstellar extinction curves over the wavelength region 1800--3600 A are presented for 36 stars. The stars have E (B-V) in the range 0.03 to 0.55, and are mostly confined to the brighter OB associations distributed along the plane of the Galaxy. Every extinction curve exhibits a broad extinction bump peaking near 2175 A (4.6 μ -1 ). The position of the peak and the profile of the feature appear remarkably constant among the sample of stars. With only a few exceptions, E (lambda)-3320, a measure of the strength of the feature, correlates very well with E (B-V), implying that the bump has an interstellar rather than a circumstellar origin. The observation that the bump position and shape are constant, or very nearly constant, places severe restrictions on the grain geometrical parameters if the feature is to be explained by classical scattering theory employing bulk optical constants. In fact, the restrictions are so severe that an alternate explanation seems to be required unless the dust grains that exist in widely separated regions of space and under very different physical conditions have nearly identical size and shape distributions. Three extinction curves that extend to 1100 A are also presented. These curves show the same general extinction characteristics reported earlier. The curve for 22 Sco provides another example of a star that is []physically associated with nebulosity and that also has abnormally low far-ultraviolet extinction. We have searched the extinction curves for fine structure such as abrupt slope changes or new diffuse interstellar features. Unfortunately, there is no convincing evidence for such structure over the interval 1800--3600 A. (auth)

  4. Limit cycle behaviour of the bump-on-tail and ion-acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the bump-on-tail and current-driven ion-acoustic instability is considered. The eigenmodes have discrete k because of finite periodic boundary conditions. Increasing a critical parameter (the number density and the electron drift velocity respectively) above its neutral stable value by a small fractional amount Δ 2 , one mode becomes unstable. The nonlinear dynamics of the unstable mode is determined by means of the multiple time scale method. Usually, limit cycle behaviour is found. A short comparison with quasi-linear theory is given, and the results are compared with experiment. (Auth.)

  5. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  6. Investigation of turbulent boundary layer flow over 2D bump using highly resolved large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  7. Phages recognizing the Indium Nitride semiconductor surface via their peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Briot, Olivier; Ruffenach, Sandra; Moret, Matthieu; Gergely, Csilla

    2011-02-01

    Considerable advances in materials science are expected via the use of selected or designed peptides to recognize material, control their growth, or to assemble them into elaborate novel devices. Identifying specific peptides for a number of technologically useful materials has been the challenge of many research groups in recent years. This can be accomplished by using affinity-based bio-panning methods such as phage display technologies. In this work, a combinatorial library including billions of clones of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage was used to select peptides that could recognize improved indium nitride (InN) semiconductor (SC) material. Several rounds of biopanning were necessary to select the phage with the higher affinity from the low variant library. The DNA of this specific phage was extracted and sequenced to set up the related specific adherent peptide. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to demonstrate the real affinity of a selected phage for the InN surface. Due to the possibility of its functionalization with biomolecules and its important physical properties, InN is a promising candidate for developing affinity-based optical and electrical biosensors and/or for biomimetic applications. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Biomimetic Water-Collecting Fabric with Light-Induced Superhydrophilic Bumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Wang, Xiaowen; Lai, Chuilin; Hu, Huawen; Kong, Yeeyee; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-02-10

    To develop an efficient water-collecting surface that integrates both fast water-capturing and easy drainage properties is of high current interest for addressing global water issues. In this work, a superhydrophobic surface was fabricated on cotton fabric via manipulation of both the surface roughness and surface energy. This was followed by a subsequent spray coating of TiO2 nanosol that created light-induced superhydrophilic bumps with a unique raised structure as a result of the interfacial tension of the TiO2 nanosol sprayed on the superhydrophobic fiber surface. These raised TiO2 bumps induce both a wettability gradient and a shape gradient, synergistically accelerating water coalescence and water collection. The in-depth study revealed that the quantity and the distribution of the TiO2 had a significant impact on the final water collection efficiency. This inexpensive and facilely fabricated fabric biomimicks the desert beetle's back and spider silk, which are capable of fog harvesting without additional energy consumption.

  9. Seeing the Unseen: MIR Spectroscopic Constraints on Quasar Big Blue Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Hines, Dean; Leighly, Karen; Ogle, Patrick; Richards, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    The IRS on Spitzer offers an exciting opportunity for detailed, mid-infrared spectroscopy of z~2 quasars for the first time. This epoch, sampling the peak of the quasar luminosity evolution, is particularly important for understanding the nature of quasar activity in the most massive galaxies. We aim to use this powerful tool to constrain the shape and power of the far-ultraviolet through soft-X-ray ionizing continuum of luminous quasars. Though these so-called `big blue bumps' dominate the power of quasar spectral energy distributions, they are largely unobservable as a result of hydrogen opacity in the Universe. However, we can determine the properties of the big blue bump by studying emission lines from ions in the coronal line region that emit in the mid-infrared and are created by those same energetic and elusive photons. We propose deep, high quality IRS observations of 5 luminous quasars with a range of HeII emission properties to investigate the mid-infrared spectral region in depth and constrain the shape of the ionizing continuum in each quasar. In addition, these high S/N spectra will provide templates for interpreting lower resolution, lower S/N IRS spectra.

  10. Transonic buffet control research with two types of shock control bump based on RAE2822 airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun TIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current research shows that the traditional shock control bump (SCB can weaken the intensity of shock and better the transonic buffet performance. The author finds that when SCB is placed downstream of the shock, it can decrease the adverse pressure gradient. This may prevent the shock foot separation bubble to merge with the trailing edge separation and finally improve the buffet performance. Based on RAE2822 airfoil, two types of SCB are designed according to the two different mechanisms. By using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS methods to analyze the properties of RAE2822 airfoil with and without SCB, the results show that the downstream SCB can better the buffet performance under a wide range of freestream Mach number and the steady aerodynamics characteristic is similar to that of RAE2822 airfoil. The traditional SCB can only weaken the intensity of the shock under the design condition. Under the off-design conditions, the SCB does not do much to or even worsen the buffet performance. Indeed, the use of backward bump can flatten the leeward side of the airfoil, and this is similar to the mechanism that supercritical airfoil can weaken the recompression of shock wave.

  11. Indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Cioffi, R.P.; Tofani, A.; Sciuto, R.; Fontana, M.; Carapella, C.M.; Crecco, M.

    1995-01-01

    Scintigraphy with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide has recently been proposed for the imaging of CNS neoplasms expressing somatostatin receptors. While meningiomas are imaged with high sensitivity, neurinomas do not take up octreotide owing to the lack of somatostatin receptors. Neurofibromatosis is a relatively uncommon disorder in which meningiomas and neurinomas often occur in the same patient. Differential diagnosis between these two tumours by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be difficult. This study reports on 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy in four patients with neurofibromatosis. 111 In-octreotide scintigraphy was shown to be very helpful in the in vivo differential diagnosis: all four meningiomas showed intense tracer uptake, while all 15 neurinomas were negative (P 111 In-octreotide is a useful diagnostic procedure in neurofibromatosis, complementing standard neuroradiological imaging procedures. (orig.)

  12. Life-span retrieval of public events: Reminiscence bump for high-impact events, recency for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcan, Ali I; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Mutlutürk, Aysu; Aktan Erciyes, Aslı

    2017-10-01

    Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events. We found a robust bump corresponding to the third decade of life for the happiest and the most important positive but not for the saddest and most important negative personal events. For the most important public events, a bump emerged only for the two most frequently mentioned events. Distributions of public events cued with emotions were marked by recency. These results point to potential differences in retrieval of important personal and public events. While the life-script framework well accounts for the findings regarding important personal events, a chronologically retroactive search seem to guide retrieval of public events. Reminiscence bump observed for the two public events suggest that age-at-event affects recall of public events to the degree that the events are high-impact ones that dominate nation's collective memory. Results provide further evidence that the bump is not unitary and points to importance of event type and memory elicitation method with regard to competing explanations of the phenomenon.

  13. Applying robust design to study the effects of stratigraphic characteristics on brittle failure and bump potential in a coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Larson, Mark K; Lawson, Heather E

    2018-01-01

    Bumps and other types of dynamic failure have been a persistent, worldwide problem in the underground coal mining industry, spanning decades. For example, in just five states in the U.S. from 1983 to 2014, there were 388 reportable bumps. Despite significant advances in mine design tools and mining practices, these events continue to occur. Many conditions have been associated with bump potential, such as the presence of stiff units in the local geology. The effect of a stiff sandstone unit on the potential for coal bumps depends on the location of the stiff unit in the stratigraphic column, the relative stiffness and strength of other structural members, and stress concentrations caused by mining. This study describes the results of a robust design to consider the impact of different lithologic risk factors impacting dynamic failure risk. Because the inherent variability of stratigraphic characteristics in sedimentary formations, such as thickness, engineering material properties, and location, is significant and the number of influential parameters in determining a parametric study is large, it is impractical to consider every simulation case by varying each parameter individually. Therefore, to save time and honor the statistical distributions of the parameters, it is necessary to develop a robust design to collect sufficient sample data and develop a statistical analysis method to draw accurate conclusions from the collected data. In this study, orthogonal arrays, which were developed using the robust design, are used to define the combination of the (a) thickness of a stiff sandstone inserted on the top and bottom of a coal seam in a massive shale mine roof and floor, (b) location of the stiff sandstone inserted on the top and bottom of the coal seam, and (c) material properties of the stiff sandstone and contacts as interfaces using the 3-dimensional numerical model, FLAC3D. After completion of the numerical experiments, statistical and multivariate analysis

  14. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described.

  15. Indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Heresbach, D.; Darnault, P.; Bretagne, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reports our experience since 1963 concerning 111-indium labeled autologous granulocytes scanning in the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases and in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (authors). 94 refs., 3 figs

  16. Gallium (III) and indium (III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described.

  17. Amperometric titration of indium with edta solution in propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Khadeev, V.A.; Kostylev, V.S.; Khadeeva, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been chosen for titration of indium with EDTA solution in anhydrous propanol and its mixtures with some aprotic solvents using amperometric and point detection. A procedure is suggested of determining indium microcontents in the presence of large amounts of other elements. The procedure is based on its extraction preseparation followed by direct titration in the extract with a standard EDTA solution [ru

  18. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    solution of zinc acetate. To achieve indium doping, indium trichloride (InCl3) was added to the solution. The In/Zn ratio was varied from zero to 1⋅6 at.%. The resulting solu- tion was sprayed onto heated substrates held at 723 ± 5 K. The upper limit for dopant concentration was fixed at. 1⋅6 at.%. Compressed air was used ...

  19. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-30

    To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV 1 -to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m 3 . In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option.

  20. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL ...

  1. Misuse of speed-bumps on two-lane main rural roads. A generalized practice in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderas Volcanes, R.J.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.

    2016-07-01

    Settlements of uncontrolled population on side of road in Venezuela originate the excessive use of traffic speed reducers to mitigate accidents. Misuse of these speed control devices generate problem of functionality in the two-lane main rural roads which requires to be studied to demonstrate its effect on the capacity and level of service. Although other factors may occur (i.e, environmental problems and health), the disproportionate use of speed-bumps worsens circulation quality by increase of travel time as most sensitive parameter. Where this effect not can be reversed it should be made efforts to mitigate speed using another traffic-calming device. The studied stretches are selected according to particular characteristics such as: urban settlement, isolated speed-bump and its installation in series, including case without speed-bumps which guarantees the proper contrast. Video cameras to detect the travel time of vehicles are used in each road section, it allow the measures of other parameters. The travel time distribution with or without speed-bumps and probability distribution that characterizes vehicle movement in each stretch allows the simulation and modeling with the ARENA software. Travel time allows obtain the speed which, together with the volume of traffic, determines the level of service according to the Highway Capacity Manual criterion. The economic cost of substitute measures versus travel time is evaluated and may be useful in decision-making or implementation of better policies by transport governmental institutions. (Author)

  2. A novel fully covered double-bump stent for staple line leaks after bariatric surgery: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, Thomas C. C.; Houben, Gerardus P. M.; Groenen, Marcel J. M.; van der Linde, Klaas; van de Laar, Arnold W. J. M.; Emous, Marloes; Fockens, Paul; Voermans, Rogier P.

    2018-01-01

    Staple line leakage after bariatric surgery can be treated by endoscopic placement of a self-expandable stent. The success rate of stent placement is generally high, but migration is a frequent adverse event that hampers successful treatment. The Niti-S Beta stent is a fully covered double-bump

  3. Design and Experimental Development of a Pneumatic Stiffness Adjustable Foot System for Biped Robots Adaptable to Bumps on the Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking on rough terrains still remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for biped robots because the unevenness on the ground can easily disrupt the walking stability. This paper proposes a novel foot system with passively adjustable stiffness for biped robots which is adaptable to small-sized bumps on the ground. The robotic foot is developed by attaching eight pneumatic variable stiffness units to the sole separately and symmetrically. Each variable stiffness unit mainly consists of a pneumatic bladder and a mechanical reversing valve. When walking on rough ground, the pneumatic bladders in contact with bumps are compressed, and the corresponding reversing valves are triggered to expel out the air, enabling the pneumatic bladders to adapt to the bumps with low stiffness; while the other pneumatic bladders remain rigid and maintain stable contact with the ground, providing support to the biped robot. The performances of the proposed foot system, including the variable stiffness mechanism, the adaptability on the bumps of different heights, and the application on a biped robot prototype are demonstrated by various experiments.

  4. Temporal distribution of autobiographical memory: uncovering the reminiscence bump in Japanese young and middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawasaki, Y.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Inoue, T.

    2011-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the effect that people recall more personal events from their teenage period than from adjacent lifetime periods. The effect is generally found in studies that divide the results of participants, who were at least 40 years old, into age bins of 10 years. In this study, the

  5. Contributions to a fifth-order model equation for steady capillary-gravity waves over a bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the solutions, h(x) , of a nonlinear model equation for steady capillary-gravity waves on an ideal fluid flow over a compact or non-compact bump with the Bond number, a nondimensional surface tension coefficient, close to its critical value 1/3 and the Froude number, a nondimensional wave speed, close to 1. There are nine cases to be discussed according to the eigenvalues of the linearized model equation. First, we study the stability of zero solution which will confirm that the solutions of the model equation will remain bounded when the waves pass the compact bump, [x1,x2] , if it is stable and dhn/dxn| x=x2,n=0,1,2,3 , are sufficiently close to zero solution. Next, we show that there exist periodic solutions, symmetric and unsymmetric solitary wave solutions, bounded solutions and asymptotic solutions in all nine cases with a compact bump. We also show there exist explicit exact solutions for all cases with a special non-compact bump. Finally we carry out numerical computations to verify the theoretical results discussed cussed above.

  6. Nonuniqueness and multi-bump solutions in parabolic problems with the p-Laplacian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Jiří; Girg, Petr; Kotrla, Lukáš; Takáč, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the weak and strong comparison principles for degenerate parabolic partial differential equations with the p-Laplace operator Δp is investigated for p > 2. This problem is reduced to the comparison of the trivial solution (≡0, by hypothesis) with a nontrivial nonnegative solution u (x , t). The problem is closely related also to the question of uniqueness of a nonnegative solution via the weak comparison principle. In this article, realistic counterexamples to the uniqueness of a nonnegative solution, the weak comparison principle, and the strong maximum principle are constructed with a nonsmooth reaction function that satisfies neither a Lipschitz nor an Osgood standard ;uniqueness; condition. Nonnegative multi-bump solutions with spatially disconnected compact supports and zero initial data are constructed between sub- and supersolutions that have supports of the same type.

  7. Solderjet bumping technique used to manufacture a compact and robust green solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, P.; Burkhardt, T.; Hornaff, M.; Kousar, S.; Burkhardt, D.; Beckert, E.; Gilaberte, M.; Guilhot, D.; Montes, D.; Galan, M.; Ferrando, S.; Laudisio, M.; Belenguer, T.; Ibarmia, S.; Gallego, P.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-06-01

    Solder-joining using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glasses, ceramics and optical crystals due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. The Solderjet Bumping technique is used to assemble a miniaturized laser resonator in order to obtain higher robustness, wider thermal conductivity performance, higher vacuum and radiation compatibility, and better heat and long term stability compared with identical glued devices. The resulting assembled compact and robust green diode-pumped solid-state laser is part of the future Raman Laser Spectrometer designed for the Exomars European Space Agency (ESA) space mission 2018.

  8. Ultrathin films of homeotropically aligned columnar liquid crystals on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, E.; Grelet, E.; Brettes, P.; Bock, H.; Saadaoui, H.; Cisse, L.; Destruel, P.; Gherardi, N.; Seguy, I.

    2008-01-01

    We report the achievement of very thin films (thickness of about 50nm) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystal in homeotropic (columns normal to the interface) orientation on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The face-on alignment of the discotic compound has been obtained by thermal annealing without any intermediate coating between the mesophase and the ITO substrate. Such a columnar mesophase alignment is thus shown on a substrate of technological interest in open supported thin film reaching the thickness range suitable for organic photovoltaic devices.

  9. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Discovered in 1863, indium is nowadays a strategic scarce metal used both in classical technologic fields (like low melting-temperature alloys and solders) and in innovative nano-technologies to produce "high-tech devices" by means of new materials, namely liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the recently introduced transparent flexible thin-films manufactured with ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors (IAOS). Indium is a typical chalcophile element, seldom forming specific minerals and occurring mainly dispersed within polymetallic sulphides, particularly with excess metal ions [1]. The average content of indium in the Earth's crust is very low but a further increase in its demand is still expected in the next years, thus focusing a special interest in uncovering new exploitation sites through promising polymetallic sulphide ores - e.g., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) [2] - and in improving recycling technologies. Indium recovery stands mostly on zinc extraction from sphalerite, the natural cubic sulphide which is the prototype of so-called "tetrahedral sulphides" where metal ions fill half of the available tetrahedral sites within the cubic closest packing of sulphur anions where the double of unfilled interstices are available for further in-filling. It is worth remarking that such packing array is particularly suitable for accommodating polymetallic cations by filling closely located interstitial sites [3] as happens in excess-metal tetrahedral sulphides - e.g. bornite, ideally Cu5FeS4, recognized as an In-carrying mineral [4]. Studying the tendency towards In-In interactions able of leading to the formation of polycations would efficiently contribute to understand indium crystal chemistry and the metal binding state in natural chalcogenides. Accordingly, an X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) study at In L3-edge was undertaken using the instrumental set-up of ID21 beamline at the ESRF (European Synchrotron

  10. Bump evolution driven by the x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov effect in plastic inertial confinement fusion Ablators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loomis Eric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of hydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of inertial confinement fusion capsules (ICF due to ablator and fuel non-uniformities are a primary concern for the ICF program. Recently, observed jetting and parasitic mix into the fuel were attributed to isolated defects on the outer surface of the capsule. Strategies for mitigation of these defects exist, however, they require reduced uncertainties in Equation of State (EOS models prior to invoking them. In light of this, we have begun a campaign to measure the growth of isolated defects (bumps due to x-ray ablation Richtmyer-Meshkov in plastic ablators to validate these models. Experiments used hohlraums with radiation temperatures near 70 eV driven by 15 beams from the Omega laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY, which sent a ∼1.25Mbar shock into a planar CH target placed over one laser entrance hole. Targets consisted of 2-D arrays of quasi-gaussian bumps (10 microns tall, 34 microns FWHM deposited on the surface facing into the hohlraum. On-axis radiography with a saran (Cl Heα − 2.76keV backlighter was used to measure bump evolution prior to shock breakout. Shock speed measurements were also performed to determine target conditions. Simulations using the LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 models required the simulated laser power be turned down to 80 and 88%, respectively to match observed shock speeds. Both LEOS 5310 and SESAME 7592 simulations agreed with measured bump areal densities out to 6 ns where ablative RM oscillations were observed in previous laser-driven experiments, but did not occur in the x-ray driven case. The QEOS model, conversely, over predicted shock speeds and under predicted areal density in the bump.

  11. Subnanometer Thin β-Indium Sulfide Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shinjita; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan

    2012-12-20

    Nanosheets are a peculiar kind of nanomaterials that are grown two-dimensionally over a micrometer in length and a few nanometers in thickness. Wide varieties of inorganic semiconductor nanosheets are already reported, but controlling the crystal growth and tuning their thickness within few atomic layers have not been yet explored. We investigate here the parameters that determine the thickness and the formation mechanism of subnanometer thin (two atomic layers) cubic indium sulfide (In2S3) nanosheets. Using appropriate reaction condition, the growth kinetics is monitored by controlling the decomposition rate of the single source precursor of In2S3 as a function of nucleation temperature. The variation in the thickness of the nanosheets along the polar [111] direction has been correlated with the rate of evolved H2S gas, which in turn depends on the rate of the precursor decomposition. In addition, it has been observed that the thickness of the In2S3 nanosheets is related to the nucleation temperature.

  12. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  13. Thermal expansion and volumetric changes during indium phosphide melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Davletov, K.; Nashel'skij, A.Ya.; Mamedov, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurements of a thermal expansion were summed up at various temperatures as a diagram in coordinates (Δ 1/1) approximately F(t). It was shown that an appreciable deviation of the relationship (Δ1/1) approximately f(t) from the linear law corresponded to a temperature of 500-550 deg C. It was noted that the said deviation was related to an appreciable thermal decomposition of indium phosphide as temperature increased. The strength of the inter-atomic bond of indium phosphide was calculated. Investigated were the volumetric changes of indium phosphide on melting. The resultant data were analyzed with the aid of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

  14. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  15. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  16. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO for production of transparent conductive films (TCO in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as good performance as the industrial state-of-the-art technology based on ITO are widely studied. However, the environmental impact of new layers remains unknown. Hence, this paper studies the environmental effect of ITO replacement by zinc oxide (ZnO by means life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The analysis enables to quantify the environmental impact over the entire period of life cycle of products—during manufacturing, use phase and waste generation. The analysis was based on experimental data for deposition process. Further, analysis of different impact categories was performed in order to determine specific environmental effects related to technology change. What results from the analysis, is that ZnO is a robust alternative material for ITO replacement regarding environmental load and energy efficiency of deposition process which is also crucial for sustainable TCO layer production.

  17. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra; Barecka, Magda; Zbiciński, Ireneusz

    2017-10-01

    Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO) for production of transparent conductive films (TCO) in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as good performance as the industrial state-of-the-art technology based on ITO are widely studied. However, the environmental impact of new layers remains unknown. Hence, this paper studies the environmental effect of ITO replacement by zinc oxide (ZnO) by means life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The analysis enables to quantify the environmental impact over the entire period of life cycle of products—during manufacturing, use phase and waste generation. The analysis was based on experimental data for deposition process. Further, analysis of different impact categories was performed in order to determine specific environmental effects related to technology change. What results from the analysis, is that ZnO is a robust alternative material for ITO replacement regarding environmental load and energy efficiency of deposition process which is also crucial for sustainable TCO layer production.

  18. Transient response of superconducting indium microbridges to supercritical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, D.J.; Tinkham, M.; Davidson, A.; Faris, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting sampling circuits have been used to investigate the transient response of long indium microbridges to current pulses in excess of their critical currents. For the first time, the rising-edge kinetic inductance spike and the nonzero minimum voltage have been observed, as well as the delay time until the normal state appears. These results are in reasonable agreement with a detailed theoretical model of the experiment and yield an estimate of 140 ps for tau/sub E/, the inelastic scattering time, in indium

  19. Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Toptygina, G.M.; Soklakova, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions was studied, using methods of potentiometry, isothermal solubility and physicochemical computer simulating. The Gibb's energy value for crystal indium trihydroxide formation was calculated on the basis of experimental data on In(OH) 3 solubility. The value obtained was used for estimating equilibrium composition of InCl 3 -HCl-CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system at a temperature of 25 deg C and carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.05 to 1 at

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  1. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Nancy Foster - (2006), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Backscatter, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 50m Multibeam Bathymetry, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Little Hales - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight, derived from...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Slope, Charleston Bump - Deep Coral Priority Areas - R/V Maurice Ewing - (1997), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the backscatter intensity of the Charleston Bump off of the South Atlantic Bight,...

  8. A Tale of Two Mysteries in Interstellar Astrophysics: The 2175 Å Extinction Bump and Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, F. Y.; Li, Aigen; Zhong, J. X.

    2011-06-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are ubiquitous absorption spectral features arising from the tenuous material in the space between stars—the interstellar medium (ISM). Since their first detection nearly nine decades ago, over 400 DIBs have been observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range in both the Milky Way and external galaxies, both nearby and distant. However, the identity of the species responsible for these bands remains as one of the most enigmatic mysteries in astrophysics. An equally mysterious interstellar spectral signature is the 2175 Å extinction bump, the strongest absorption feature observed in the ISM. Its carrier also remains unclear since its first detection 46 years ago. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have long been proposed as a candidate for DIBs as their electronic transitions occur in the wavelength range where DIBs are often found. In recent years, the 2175 Å extinction bump is also often attributed to the π-π* transition in PAHs. If PAHs are indeed responsible for both the 2175 Å extinction feature and DIBs, their strengths may correlate. We perform an extensive literature search for lines of sight for which both the 2175 Å extinction feature and DIBs have been measured. Unfortunately, we found no correlation between the strength of the 2175 Å feature and the equivalent widths of the strongest DIBs. A possible explanation might be that DIBs are produced by small free gas-phase PAH molecules and ions, while the 2175 Å bump is mainly from large PAHs or PAH clusters in condensed phase so that there is no tight correlation between DIBs and the 2175 Å bump.

  9. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kashiyama, Kazumi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Suwa, Yudai [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-11-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼10{sup 4} s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  10. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  11. Effect of rotation bump on removal torque of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansukh, Odontuya; Jeong, Jong-Wha; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2013-12-01

    This study is designed to evaluate the mechanical stability of orthodontic mini-implants with vertical grooves in rabbits. This study was done from March 2011 to February 2012 in Dental Research Institute of Seoul National University. Thirty-two mini-implants in the control group and 32 in the rotation bump (RB) group were inserted in the tibias of 16 rabbits and were removed after two weeks and four weeks, respectively. The maximum insertion torque (MIT), maximum removal torque (MRT), torque ratio (TR) of MRT to MIT and removal angular momentum (RAM) were all measured at the time of removal. There were no significant differences between the two groups in MIT and MRT at two weeks or four weeks. However, TR and RAM at four weeks in the RB group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). TR of the RB group was significantly increased at four weeks (P<0.05). In both groups, RAM at four weeks was significantly higher than at two weeks (P<0.05). These results suggest that RB of the mini-implant could provide resistance to the removal rotation, although it did not increase the MRT.

  12. Geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles with bump-on-tail distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haijun; Wang, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is analytically investigated by adopting the bump-on-tail distribution for energetic particles (EPs), which is created by the fact that the charge exchange time (τcx ) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τsl ). The dispersion relation is derived in the use of gyro-kinetic equations. Due to the finite ratio of the critical energy and the initial energy of EPs, defined as τc , the dispersion relation is numerically evaluated and the effect of finite τc is examined. Following relative simulation and experimental work, we specifically considered two cases: τsl/τcx = 3.4 and τsl/τcx = 20.4 . The pitch angle is shown to significantly enhance the growth rate and meanwhile, the real frequency is dramatically decreased with increasing pitch angle. The excitation of high-frequency EGAM is found, and this is consistent with both the experiment and the simulation. The number density effect of energetic particles, represented by \

  13. Localized radial bumps of a neural field equation on the Euclidean plane and the Poincaré disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Grégory; Rankin, James; J B Lloyd, David

    2013-01-01

    We analyse radially symmetric localized bump solutions of an integro-differential neural field equation posed in Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. The connectivity function and the nonlinear firing rate function are chosen such that radial spatial dynamics can be considered. Using integral transforms, we derive a partial differential equation for the neural field equation in both geometries and then prove the existence of small amplitude radially symmetric spots bifurcating from the trivial state. Numerical continuation is then used to path follow the spots and their bifurcations away from onset in parameter space. It is found that the radial bumps in Euclidean geometry are linearly stable in a larger parameter region than bumps in the hyperbolic geometry. We also find and path follow localized structures that bifurcate from branches of radially symmetric solutions with D 6 -symmetry and D 8 -symmetry in the Euclidean and hyperbolic cases, respectively. Finally, we discuss the applications of our results in the context of neural field models of short term memory and edges and textures selectivity in a hypercolumn of the visual cortex. (paper)

  14. Blue Supergiant Model for Ultra-long Gamma-Ray Burst with Superluminous-supernova-like Bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai; Nakamura, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ~30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ~104 s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ~20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  15. Solvent extraction atomic absorption determination of indium in minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Samchuk, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    A method of the atomic-absorption determination of indium in minerals and rocks after extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone of an indium complex with N-cinnamoylphenylhydroxylamine (CAPHA) has been developed. The characteristic indium concentration in the dispersion of the extract into the acetylene-air flame is 0.08 mcg/ml. The indium-CAPHA complex is extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone practically completely at pH 3.5-7.6, Ksub(ex)=10sup(-0.92). Consideration is given to the effect of organic solvents on the absorption of indium

  16. Small Magellanic Cloud Ultraviolet Dust Extinction: A Focused Study of Four Sightlines Near a Molecular Cloud with Variable 2175 A bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl

    2015-10-01

    We propose to obtain low-resolution STIS spectra covering the entire ultraviolet for four stars in the SMC to measure their UV extinction curves and HI columns. The SMC is the critical galaxy in which to study the strong 2175 A extinction bump as the this galaxy shows sightlines with and without this feature. This proposal will increase the number of sightlines in the SMC with high quality extinction curves showing a obvious 2175 A bump from one to three. The sightlines proposed here were previously observed by Maiz Apellaniz & Rubio (2012) at very low resolution in the mid-UV using STIS slitless prism observations in a 25x25 region centered on a known molecular cloud. They found two sightlines to having obvious 2175 A bumps and two sightlines with very weak to absent bumps. New observations are needed to improve the details of the mid-UV extinction curve (e.g. 2175 A bump centroid), measure the far-UV extinction curve, and measure the HI columns. We will combine these four new high quality extinction curves with the existing 16 SMC curves and use this enhanced sample to study environmental factors that influence the presence of the 2175 A bump (e.g., gas-to-dust ratio, PAH grain mass fraction, & radiation field).

  17. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  18. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of five-coordinated indium amidinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, Yasaman

    2016-07-29

    The focus of this work is synthesis, characterization and exploring the reactivity of new indium amidinate compounds of the type R{sub 2}InX (R = R''NCR'NR''; R' = Ph, R'' = SiMe{sub 3}, iPr, dipp; X = Br, Cl) with the coordination number of five and R{sub 3}In (R = Me{sub 3}SiNCPhNSiMe{sub 3}) with the coordination number of six. By using amidinates as chelating ligands the electron deficiency of indium atom will be resolved. Additionally, by using different substituents the study of the different synthesized indium amidinates has become possible. The selected method for the synthesis allows the carbodiimides to react with organolithium compounds to get the corresponding lithium amidinates. Afterwards the resulting lithium amidinates take part in transmetalation reactions with InBr{sub 3} and InCl{sub 3}. The study of the reactivity of indium amidinate complexes including nucleophilic reactions as well as their reduction were also examined. Beside crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis has been applied to characterize the compounds.

  20. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  1. (111)Indium Labelling of Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Sigvardt, Maibritt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether (111)Indium-labelled recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for localization of bleeding sources. DTPA-conjugated rFVIIa was radiolabelled with (111)In chloride. In vitro binding efficiency of (111)In-DTPA-rFVIIa to F1A2...

  2. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this research, indium oxide nanostructure undoped and doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. Various parameters such as dopant concentration and deposition tem- peratures were studied. Structural properties of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and ...

  3. Characterization of molybdenum-doped indium oxide thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this research, indium oxide nanostructure undoped and doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. Various parameters such as dopant concentration and deposition temperatures were studied. Structural properties of these films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning ...

  4. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    As the indium tin oxide (ITO) is an advanced ceramic material with many electronic and optical applications due to its high electrical conductivity and transparency .... Caulton K G and Hubert-Pfalzgraf L G 1990 Chem. Rev. 90. 969. Denoy M D and Pradeep B 1997 Bull. Mater. Sci. 20 1029. Gehman B L, Jonson S, Rudolf T, ...

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte accumulation in intramuscular injection sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, L.C.; Dolgin, C.; Kabnick, L.S.; Filippone, A.

    1986-01-01

    We report four cases of indium-111 leukocyte concentration in previous intramuscular injection sites. Three patterns were observed: (1) small, discrete, and round; (2) linear; (3) irregular and large. The scintigraphic appearance did not necessarily correlate with the number of injections that the patient had received. (orig.)

  6. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, T.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work is a systematic study of quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium-phosphide substrate by means of various spectroscopic and electronic measurement methods in order to understand the physical and technological processes. This enables a concise definition of strategies in order to realize next generation devices in this material system and to gain overall progress in the research field of quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by analytical and numerical simulations. The samples, grown by collaboration partners, were characterized using differential transmission and fast Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on the latter one. Therefore, samples both in wedged waveguide geometry and samples with gold coated mesa structures have been processed. A large part of the discussion is dedicated to the current voltage characteristic of the devices, due to its large importance for device optimization, i.e. the reduction of the dark current plays a crucial role in the research field of high temperature infrared photon-detection. Further, results of photoluminescence measurements, performed by collaboration partners, have been used in order to attain a more complete picture of the samples' electronic band structure and in order to obtain complementary information with respect to other measurement methods applied within the experimental work and the simulation of the structures. In agreement to the simulations, a photocurrent response was observed at 6 and at 12 μm up to a temperature of 80 K, depending on the samples' design. The principle of parameter scaling was applied to the samples, in order to assign physical effects either to details in the samples' design or to technological quality aspects, i.e. the doping level and the thickness of the capping layer was varied. In addition to that a quantum well was introduced within a series of samples in order to

  7. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  8. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  9. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  11. Optimization of bump and blowing to control the flow through a transonic compressor blade cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, K.; Khatibirad, S.

    2018-03-01

    Shock control bump (SCB) and blowing are two flow control methods, used here to improve the aerodynamic performance of transonic compressors. Both methods are applied to a NASA rotor 67 blade section and are optimized to minimize the total pressure loss. A continuous adjoint algorithm is used for multi-point optimization of a SCB to improve the aerodynamic performance of the rotor blade section, for a range of operational conditions around its design point. A multi-point and two single-point optimizations are performed in the design and off-design conditions. It is shown that the single-point optimized shapes have the best performance for their respective operating conditions, but the multi-point one has an overall better performance over the whole operating range. An analysis is given regarding how similarly both single- and multi-point optimized SCBs change the wave structure between blade sections resulting in a more favorable flow pattern. Interactions of the SCB with the boundary layer and the wave structure, and its effects on the separation regions are also studied. We have also introduced the concept of blowing for control of shock wave and boundary-layer interaction. A geometrical model is introduced, and the geometrical and physical parameters of blowing are optimized at the design point. The performance improvements of blowing are compared with the SCB. The physical interactions of SCB with the boundary layer and the shock wave are analyzed. The effects of SCB on the wave structure in the flow domain outside the boundary-layer region are investigated. It is shown that the effects of the blowing mechanism are very similar to the SCB.

  12. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  13. Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED.

  14. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami

    2011-07-07

    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical

  15. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  16. Thermodynamic study of the binary system copper-indium. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T.; Kehiaian, H.V.; Castanet, R.

    1977-01-01

    The electrochemical cell with solid electrolytes -Mo/In(l),In 2 O 3 (s)/ZrO 2 , CaO/air, Pt/Pt, air/CaO, ZrO 2 /In-Cu(l), In 2 O 3 (s)/Mo+ was used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Cu-In alloys at nine concentrations in the temperature range from 1020 to 1389 K. The procedure was checked by determining the enthalpy of formation of indium oxide In 2 O 3 . Combining the present results with those obtained by direct calorimetry, thermodynamically consistent values were proposed for the free energy, entropy, enthalpy and heat capacity of liquid Cu-In alloys. (Auth.)

  17. A new modal-based approach for modelling the bump foil structure in the simultaneous solution of foil-air bearing rotor dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, M. F.; Bonello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recently-proposed techniques for the simultaneous solution of foil-air bearing (FAB) rotor dynamic problems have been limited to a simple bump foil model in which the individual bumps were modelled as independent spring-damper (ISD) subsystems. The present paper addresses this limitation by introducing a modal model of the bump foil structure into the simultaneous solution scheme. The dynamics of the corrugated bump foil structure are first studied using the finite element (FE) technique. This study is experimentally validated using a purpose-made corrugated foil structure. Based on the findings of this study, it is proposed that the dynamics of the full foil structure, including bump interaction and foil inertia, can be represented by a modal model comprising a limited number of modes. This full foil structure modal model (FFSMM) is then adapted into the rotordynamic FAB problem solution scheme, instead of the ISD model. Preliminary results using the FFSMM under static and unbalance excitation conditions are proven to be reliable by comparison against the corresponding ISD foil model results and by cross-correlating different methods for computing the deflection of the full foil structure. The rotor-bearing model is also validated against experimental and theoretical results in the literature.

  18. Organo-gallium and indium complexes with dithiolate and oxo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With 1,1-dithiolate ligands both classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium, [M(S ∩ S)3], [RM(S ∩ S)2] and [R2M(S ∩ S)] (where R = Me or Et; M = Ga or In; S ∩ S = RCS2, ROCS2, R2NCS2 and (RO)2PS2) have been isolated. Reactions of internally functionalised oxo ligands with R3MR ⋅ OEt2 ...

  19. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.

  20. Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Salehi, A. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Aliyu, Y.H. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Bunce, R.W. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Diskett, D. [Applied Physics and Electro-optics Group, Cranfield University RMCS, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    The effects of proton damage on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were investigated by electrical and optical techniques. ITO layers were found to be highly resistant to proton damage for fluences up to 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. For fluences greater than 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} the resistivity rises rapidly with a corresponding degradation of the transmittance. ((orig.))

  1. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  2. Light forces on an indium atonic beam; Lichtkraefte auf einen Indiumatomstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied.

  3. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  4. Indium doped niobium phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Anfimova, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Indium doped niobium phosphates were prepared from precursors of trivalent indium oxide, pentavalent niobium oxide and phosphoric acid. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, impedance spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found...... that the indium doping promoted formation of the cubic Nb2P4O15 phase instead of the monoclinic Nb5P7O30 phase in the pristine niobium phosphates and enhanced the preservation of OH functional groups in the phosphates. The preserved OH functionalities in the phosphates after the heat treatment at 650 °C...... contributed to the anhydrous proton conductivity. The Nb0.9In0.1 phosphate exhibited a proton conductivity of five times higher than that of the un-doped analog at 250 °C. The conductivity was stabilized at a level of above 0.02 S cm−1 under dry atmosphere at 250 °C during the stability evaluation for 3 days....

  5. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  6. Annealing of defects in indium antimonide after ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatyrev, V.A.; Kachurin, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Indium antimonide electric properties are investigated after ion bombardment of different mass (with energy of 60 and 300 keV) and isochrone annealing in the 20-450 deg C temperature range. It is shown that 100-150 deg C n- type stable layers are formed after proton irradiation at room temperature only. Indium antimonide exposure by average mass ions under the same conditions and also by helium ions of 300 keV energy brings to p-type layer formation with high hole concentration. Subsequent heating at the temperature over 150 deg C results in electron conductivity of irradiated layers. Electron volume density and mobility efficiency reaches 10 18 cm -3 and 10 4 cm 2 /Vs respectively. N-type formed layers are stable up to 350 deg C allowing its usage for n-p transition formation admitting thermal treatment. Analysis is given of defect behaviour peculiarities depending upon the irradiation and annealing conditions. Hole conductivity in irradiated indium antimonide is supposed to be stipulated by regions of disorder, while electron conductivity - by relatively simpler disorders

  7. Average formation number n-barOH of colloid-type indium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanowicz, T.; Szent-Kirallyine Gajda, J.

    1983-01-01

    Indium perchlorate in perchloric acid solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution to various pH values. Indium hydroxide colloid was removed by ultracentrifugation and supernatant solution was titrated with base to neutral pH. The two-stage titration data were used to calculate the formation number of indium hydroxide colloid, which was found to equal n-bar OH = 2.8. (author)

  8. Research on the effect of alkali roasting of copper dross on leaching rate of indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafang, Liu; Fan, Xingxiang; Shi, Yifeng; Yang, Kunbin

    2017-11-01

    The byproduct copper dross produced during refining crude lead was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which showed that copper dross mainly contained lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, sulfur and a small amount of indium and silver etc. The mineralogical phase change of oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide was analyzed with the help of XRD and SEM. The effects of water leaching, ratio of sodium hydroxide, roasting time, and roasting temperature on leaching rate of indium were investigated mainly. The experimental results showed that phase of lead metal and sulfides of lead, copper and zinc disappeared after oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide, new phase of oxides of lead, copper, zinc and sodium salt of arsenic and antimony appeared. Water leaching could remove arsenic, and acid leaching residue obtained was then leached with acid. The leaching rate of indium was higher 6.98% compared with alkali roasting of copper dross-acid leaching. It showed that removing arsenic by water leaching and acid leaching could increase the leaching rate of indium and be beneficial to reducing subsequent acid consumption of extracting indium by acid leaching. The roasting temperature had a significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and leaching rate of indium increased with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature ranged from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased significantly with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature rose from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased by 60.29%. The amount of sodium hydroxide had an significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and the leaching of indium increased with the increase of the amount of sodium hydroxide, and the leaching rate of indium was obviously higher than that of copper dross blank roasting and acid leaching.

  9. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  10. Facile Fabrication of Highly Stretchable Nanocrack Indium Film Using Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cancan; Yu, Mei; Wang, Chong; Yu, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    Stretchable electronics, such as stretchable displays and bioeletrictrical interfaces, require stretchable electrical conductors which can be stretched by large strain repeatedly. In this work, highly stretchable indium films were successfully deposited on PDMS substrates using magnetron sputtering. Stretchable indium films can sustain as much as 180% mechanical strain while maintaining great electrical conductivity. Compared to popular gold films, indium films have much better stretchability, light permeability and lower melting point, which can be widely used in bioelectronics.

  11. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  12. Structural characterization of sputtered indium oxide films deposited at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotovy, I., E-mail: ivan.hotovy@stuba.s [Department of Microelectronics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Pezoldt, J. [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Kadlecikova, M. [Department of Microelectronics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kups, T.; Spiess, L. [FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, TU Ilmeau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Breza, J. [Department of Microelectronics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Sakalauskas, E.; Goldhahn, R. [FG Exprimentalphysik I, Institut fuer Physik, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Rehacek, V. [Department of Microelectronics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-06-01

    Structural evolution of indium oxide thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering and annealing in a reducing atmosphere were investigated. The as deposited indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films showed a dominating randomly oriented nanocrystalline structure of cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The grain size decreased with increasing oxygen concentration in the plasma. Annealing in reducing atmospheres (vacuum, nitrogen and argon), besides improving the crystallinity, led to a partial cubic to rhombohedral phase transition in the indium oxide films. Annealing improved the optical properties of the indium oxide film and shifted the absorption edge to higher energies.

  13. Growths of indium gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wei-Che [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan, E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    InGaN nanowires (NWs) were grown on Si(100) at 700 °C using Au catalyst in a plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor. As the indium vapor pressure was low around 16 mPa during the growths, only the curved GaN NWs could be grown containing indium impurities. By increasing the indium vapor pressure to 53 mPa during the growths, InGaN NWs were transformed to less curved NWs with a broad distribution of NW diameters from 20 to 90 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence of InGaN NWs grown at a high indium vapor pressure showed a broad emission peak at 417 nm, corresponding to an average of 14.5% indium composition in the NWs, with a large full-width at half maximum of 77 nm. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of InGaN NWs showed that the growth orientation was along [100] for the low indium vapor pressure growths and was transformed to along [001] for the high indium vapor pressure growths. - Highlights: • High-quality single-crystalline InGaN nanowires were synthesized. • The indium content of InGaN nanowires grown at 700 °C did not exceed 15%. • A small amount of indium added into the nanowires induced stacking faults.

  14. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics...... of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined ‘most important’ autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution...... of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61–70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump...

  15. A novel fully covered double-bump stent for staple line leaks after bariatric surgery: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlage, Thomas C C; Houben, Gerardus P M; Groenen, Marcel J M; van der Linde, Klaas; van de Laar, Arnold W J M; Emous, Marloes; Fockens, Paul; Voermans, Rogier P

    2018-01-17

    Staple line leakage after bariatric surgery can be treated by endoscopic placement of a self-expandable stent. The success rate of stent placement is generally high, but migration is a frequent adverse event that hampers successful treatment. The Niti-S Beta stent is a fully covered double-bump stent that was specifically designed to prevent migration. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse event rate of the Niti-S Beta stent. A retrospective study was performed in three high-volume bariatric centers. All consecutive patients between 2009 and 2016 who underwent placement of a Beta stent for staple line leakage were included. Primary outcome was resolution of the leakage; secondary outcome was the adverse event rate including migration. Thirty-eight patients were included. Twenty-five (66%) had resolution of the leakage. Success rate was higher in patients who were treated with implantation of a Beta stent as initial treatment (100%) than in patients who were treated with a stent after revisional surgery had failed (55%, p = 0.013). Migration occurred in 12 patients (32%). There were two severe adverse events requiring surgical intervention, including a bleeding from an aorto-esophageal fistula. The success rate and the migration rate of the Beta stent seem comparable to other stents in this retrospective study. Despite the novel double-bump structure of the stent, the migration rate does not seem to be decreased.

  16. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel quadsensor flip-chipped with FE-I4 readout ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.; Hanagaki, K.; Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Nagai, R.; Saito, S.; Sugibayashi, K.; Hirose, M.; Jinnouchi, O.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Hara, K.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed flip-chip modules applicable to the pixel detector for the HL-LHC. New radiation-tolerant n + -in-p planar pixel sensors of a size of four FE-I4 application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are laid out in a 6-in wafer. Variation in readout connection for the pixels at the boundary of ASICs is implemented in the design of quadsensors. Bump bonding technology is developed for four ASICs onto one quadsensor. Both sensors and ASICs are thinned to 150 μm before bump bonding, and are held flat with vacuum chucks. Using lead-free SnAg solder bumps, we encounter deficiency with large areas of disconnected bumps after thermal stress treatment, including irradiation. Surface oxidation of the solder bumps is identified as a critical source of this deficiency after bump bonding trials, using SnAg bumps with solder flux, indium bumps, and SnAg bumps with a newly-introduced hydrogen-reflow process. With hydrogen-reflow, we establish flux-less bump bonding technology with SnAg bumps, appropriate for mass production of the flip-chip modules with thin sensors and thin ASICs.

  17. Investigating Phase Transform Behavior in Indium Selenide Based RAM and Its Validation as a Memory Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sourav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase transform properties of Indium Selenide (In2Se3 based Random Access Memory (RAM have been explored in this paper. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM is an attractive solid-state nonvolatile memory that possesses potential to meet various current technology demands of memory design. Already reported PCRAM models are mainly based upon Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GST materials as their prime constituents. However, PCRAM using GST material lacks some important memory attributes required for memory elements such as larger resistance margin between the highly resistive amorphous and highly conductive crystalline states in phase change materials. This paper investigates various electrical and compositional properties of the Indium Selenide (In2Se3 material and also draws comparison with its counterpart mainly focusing on phase transform properties. To achieve this goal, a SPICE model of In2Se3 based PCRAM model has been reported in this work. The reported model has been also validated to act as a memory cell by associating it with a read/write circuit proposed in this work. Simulation results demonstrate impressive retentivity and low power consumption by requiring a set pulse of 208 μA for a duration of 100 μs to set the PCRAM in crystalline state. Similarly, a reset pulse of 11.7 μA for a duration of 20 ns can set the PCRAM in amorphous state. Modeling of In2Se3 based PCRAM has been done in Verilog-A and simulation results have been extensively verified using SPICE simulator.

  18. 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    * 3D integration: Opportunities and trends* e-CUBES: Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)* Package design including thermo-mechanical modeling* Technology development* Sensor packaging concept* Gold stud bump bonding* Device characterization and testing* Summary and outlook 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

  19. Design and Optimization of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by Daniel B. Katzman September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Sherif Michael Second...for public release; distribution is unlimited DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENIDE THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Daniel B...7 A. SOLAR CELL PHYSICS

  20. Organo-gallium and indium complexes with dithiolate and oxo ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    istry of gallium and indium compounds with 1,1- dithiolate and oxo ligands in the last few years. Salient features of this investigation are described here. 2. Results and discussion. 2.1 1,1-Dithiolato-complexes. Both classical and organometallic complexes of gal- lium and indium with 1,1-dithiolate ligands (dithio- phosphate ...

  1. Optical and photocatalytic properties of indium phosphide nanoneedles and nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yanlong; Yu, Cuiyan; Xu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    , and Ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the InP nanoneedles and nanotubes possessed a pronounced blue shift in contrast to the bulk counterpart, which was ascribed to the crystalline defects effect. Moreover, the InP nanotubes exhibited......Large scale indium phosphide (InP) nanoneedles and nanotubes were synthesized through a facile solvothermal reaction. The morphology and microstructure of the samples were analyzed by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy...

  2. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Thakur, M.L.; Arnot, R.N.; Lavender, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods. (author)

  3. Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko

    1991-01-01

    In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)

  4. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  5. Effect of solvent nature on behaviour of microelements during indium extraction from bromide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A.B.; Zolotov, Yu.A.; Karabash, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of trace amounts (10sup(-4)-10sup(-5) mol/l) of Zn, Sb 3 , Cd, and Tl 3 has been studied during indium (10sup(-3)-1.2 mol/l) extraction from 5 mol HBr with oxygen-containing solvents of various classes, namely, ethers, esters, alcohols, ketones, and nitrocompounds. Extraction of indium itself has also been studied. When extracting agents with a low dielectric constants (DC) are used, co-extraction of microimpurities is observed; the use of the solvents with high DC or high basicity inhibits extraction of microelements with indium. The change of distribution coefficients of microelements with a change of indium concentration in the extract is of the same manner as that of the distribution coefficient of indium itself

  6. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of indium-filled InxRh4Sb12 skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilertsen, James; Li Jun; Rouvimov, Sergei; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Indium-filled In x Rh 4 Sb 12 was synthesized. Principal thermoelectric properties were measured at elevated temperatures, thermal conductivity reduction was less than predicted. Display Omitted Highlights: → We synthesized the indium-filled Rh 4 Sb 12 skutterudite. → We measured the principal thermoelectric properties at elevated temperatures. → Indium filling of the Rh 4 Sb 12 skutterudite produces a reduction in thermal conductivity, while also producing a large bipolar thermal diffusion contribution to the total thermal conductivity. → Indium filling of the Rh 4 Sb 12 skutterudites does not produce a large reduction in thermal conductivity, counter to what has been predicted. - Abstract: This study reports the synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline indium-filled In x Rh 4 Sb 12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) skutterudites. The structural response to indium filling was monitored by whole pattern fitting of the powder X-ray diffraction data. Indium occupation of the oversized void-sites was verified by its unusually large thermal displacement parameter. The indium solubility limit approached 0.15. The principal thermoelectric properties were measured from 300 to 600 K. All samples are semiconducting. Indium void-site occupation reduced the lattice thermal conductivity of In 0.15 Rh 4 Sb 12 30% at 300 K; however, the effect was subverted at elevated temperatures due to a coincident increase in bipolar thermal diffusion. The high-temperature thermoelectric figure of merits (ZT's) are low compared to the isostructural indium-filled In x Co 4 Sb 12 skutterudites due to a striking sign change in the Seebeck coefficients at 400 K and relatively high thermal conductivities.

  8. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshimura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  9. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert F; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Hock, Adam S; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 225 °C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low-temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150 °C, while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225 °C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  10. Oxygen-Free Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Hock, Adam S.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 200°C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150°C while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 ohm-cm for films deposited at 225°C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 1018 cm-3 and mobilities of order 1 cm2/(V*s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225°C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  11. Placental localization by scanning with indium 113m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Wook; Choe, Yong Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    The application of radioactive tracers for placental localization has been introduced as the worthwhile diagnostic method in placenta previa. Recently {sup 113m}In has been applied as the broad spectrum agent for the visualization of various organs. The advantage of {sup 113m}In are a short half-life with 1.7 hours and no beta particle emission. During the period from May 1970 to August 1971, the placental scanning with {sup 113m}In was carried out at Yonsei Medical Center on 19 cases of Korean pregnant females who had painless vaginal bleeding with suspicious placenta previa or other placental lesions, clinically. Followings are the results of placental scanning with Indium-113m. 1) Eight cases out of 19 cases were suggested as placenta previa and the remaining 11 cases were turned out to be normal placental location. 2) Among these 8 case of positive scanning, placenta previa totalis was 6 cases, placental previa partialis was 1 case and placenta previa marginalis was also 1 case. 3) Among 11 cases of normal placental localization, right side placenta was 7 cases and left side, 4 cases. The placental scanning with Indium-113m is thought to be one of the simple, safe and rapid method with high accuracy for clinical diagnosis of the placenta previa and placental localization.

  12. Drivers and Constraints of Critical Materials Recycling: The Case of Indium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Ylä-Mella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw material criticality studies are receiving increasing attention because an increasing number of elements of great economic importance, performing essential functions face high supply risks. Scarcity of key materials is a potential barrier to large-scale deployment of sustainable energy and clean-tech technologies as resorting to several critical materials. As physical scarcity and geopolitical issues may present a barrier to the supply of critical metals, recycling is regarded as a possible solution to substitute primary resources for securing the long-term supply of critical metals. In this paper, the main drivers and constraints for critical materials recycling are analyzed from literature, considering indium as a case study of critical materials. This literature review shows that waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE could be a future source of critical metals; however, the reduction of dissipation of critical materials should have much higher priority. It is put forward that more attention should be paid to sustainable management of critical materials, especially improved practices at the waste management stage. This calls for not only more efficient WEEE recycling technologies, but also revising priorities in recycling strategies.

  13. Recovery of indium ions by nanoscale zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen; Su, Yiming [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China); Wen, Zhipan [Wuhan Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei, E-mail: zhouxuefei@tongji.edu.cn; Dai, Chaomeng, E-mail: daichaomeng@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China)

    2017-03-15

    Indium and its compounds have plenty of industrial applications and high demand. Therefore, indium recovery from various industrial effluents is necessary. It was sequestered by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) whose size mainly ranged from 50 to 70 nm. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm, influence of pH, and ionic strength were thoroughly investigated. The reaction process was well fitted to a pseudo second-order model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of In(III) was 390 mg In(III)/g nZVI similar to 385 mg In(III)/g nZVI at 298 K calculated by Langmuir model. The mole ratio of Fe(II) released to In(III) immobilized was 3:2, which implied a special chemical process of co-precipitation combined Fe(OH){sub 2} with In(OH){sub 3}. Transmission electron microscopy with an energy-disperse X-ray (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize surface morphology, corrosion products, and valence state of indium precipitate formed on nanoparticles. The structural evolution changed from core-shell structure of iron oxide to sheet structure of co-precipitation, to sphere structure that hydroxide gradually dissolved as the pH decreased, and to cavity structures for the pH continually decreased. Furthermore, below pH 4.7, the In(III) enrichment was inhibited for the limited capacity of co-precipitation. Also, it was found that Ca{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have more negative influence on In(III) recovery compared with Na{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Therefore, the In(III) recovery can be described by a mechanism which consists of adsorption, co-precipitation, and reduction and was over 78% even after 3 cycles. The results confirmed that it was applicable to employ nZVI for In(III) immobilization.

  14. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-07-23

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at {lambda}{sub {omega}} = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5{+-}3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 {+-} 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, {lambda}-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two

  15. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at λ ω = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5±3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 ± 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, Λ-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two-color spectroscopy experiment

  16. Improved Routes Towards Solution Deposition of Indium Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    deposited films were found to crystallise as tetragonal P- In2S3 , no evidence for incorporation of hydroxy-indium species was found by XPS measurements...INTRODUCTION The III-VI semiconductor indium sulfide ( In2S3 ) has been the focus of much attention during the past two decades, primarily due to its...sensitized solar cells [2]. Indium sulfide is an n-type semiconductor that exists in three forms, viz. a defect cubic structure (x- In2S3 under ambient

  17. Optical and micro-structural characterizations of MBE grown indium gallium nitride polar quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison between indium rich (27%) InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) and their underlying wetting layer (WL) is performed by means of optical and structural characterizations. With increasing temperature, micro-photoluminescence (μPL) study reveals the superior ability of QDs to prevent carrier thermalization to nearby traps compared to the two dimensional WL. Thus, explaining the higher internal quantum efficiency of the QD nanostructure compared to the higher dimensional WL. Structural characterization (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) reveal an increase in the QD indium content over the WL indium content which is due to strain induced drifts. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. False positive indium-111 white blood cell scan in a closed clavicle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.J.; Gordon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Aggressive treatment of the multiply injured patient often requires early fixation of many fractures, some of which may be open. Often, patients develop postoperative fevers requiring a thorough workup to rule out infection. Recently, indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) imaging has become a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of acute infection. The patient described had a simple, closed clavicle fracture with markedly increased activity on an indium-111 WBC scan obtained for fever workup. This subsequently proved to be a normal, healing, noninfected fracture by other diagnostic techniques. Noninfected, simple closed fractures should be added to the list of causes for a false-positive indium-111 WBC scan

  19. Indium(III)-catalyzed synthesis of N-substituted pyrroles under solvent-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiu-Xi; Liu, Miao-Chang; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Ding, Jin-Chang; Wu, Hua-Yue

    2008-01-01

    A variety of N-substituted pyrroles have been synthesized by reacting γ-diketones (R¹C(O)CH2CH2C(O)R²: R¹, R² = Me, Ph) with amines (RNH2: R=Alkyl, Aryl, TsNH) or diamines (1,6-diaminohexane and 1,2-diaminoethane) in the presence of indium tribromide, indium trichloride or indium trifluoromethanesulfonate at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. The experiment protocol features simple operations, and the products are isolated in high to excellent yields (81-98%). Vários pirróis N...

  20. Indium determination by spectral overlappings of lines in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.J.; Huicque, L. d'; Garcia Vior, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A molybdenum hollow-cathode lamp filled with neon can be used to determine indium. Characteristic concentration for this element is 4.5 mg/L in the 325 nm spectral region for the Mo(I) 325.621 nm line. In addition, values of 0.4 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L are obtained with the Mo(I) 410.215 nm and Ne(I) 451.151 nm lines, respectively. These spectral overlappings allow the determination of indium in silver-cadmium-indium alloys. (Author) [es

  1. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  2. AC surface photovoltage of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (US). Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Advanced Studies Laboratories

    2012-06-15

    Surface photovoltage is used to study the dynamics of photogenerated carriers which are transported through a highly interconnected three-dimensional network of indium phosphide nanowires. Through the nanowire network charge transport is possible over distances far in excess of the nanowire lengths. Surface photovoltage was measured within a region 10.5-14.5 mm from the focus of the illumination, which was chopped at a range of frequencies from 15 Hz to 30 kHz. Carrier dynamics were modeled by approximating the nanowire network as a thin film, then fitted to experiment suggesting diffusion of electrons and holes at approximately 75% of the bulk value in InP but with significantly reduced built-in fields, presumably due to screening by nanowire surfaces. (orig.)

  3. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  4. Amorphous Hafnium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (α-HfIZO thin film transistors (TFTs. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. We could modulate the In, Hf, and Zn components by changing the co-sputtering power. Additionally, the chemical composition of α-HfIZO had a significant effect on reliability, hysteresis, field-effect mobility (μFE, carrier concentration, and subthreshold swing (S of the device. Our results indicated that we could successfully and easily fabricate α-HfIZO TFTs with excellent performance by the co-sputtering process. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO TFTs were fabricated with an on/off current ratio of ~106, higher mobility, and a subthreshold slope as steep as 0.55 V/dec.

  5. Multiple carrier transport in N-face indium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblmueller, Gregor; Gallinat, Chad S.; Speck, James S.; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Nener, Brett D.; Parish, Giacinta; Fehlberg, Tamara B.

    2008-01-01

    We present temperature (20-300 K) dependent multi-carrier measurements of electron species in N-face indium nitride. N-face InN samples were grown to different thicknesses (500-2000 nm) via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-face SiC substrates. Surface and bulk electron transport properties were extracted using a quantitative mobility spectrum analysis. Mobility of both bulk and surface electron species increase with film thickness. The temperature dependence of the mobility of both species differs to that of In-polar samples studied previously, while the mobility of surface electrons is more than twice that of In-polar samples with only a slight corresponding reduction in sheet concentration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Preparation of Indium Pentetate Complex (111 In-DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Farshidfar, G.R.; Najafi, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is no organometallic compound of Indium know to exist naturally in the human body. However, a number of compounds prepared with 111 In have been evaluated for localization studies. The useful radioactive decay characteristics and the suitable chemical properties of the metal ion have drawn attention of many investigators resulting in the preparation of numerous 111 In labeled compounds for potential medical applications. One of them is 111 In-DTPA complex that is used for cerebral spinal fluid studies. In the present study, DTPA has been chelated with 111 In by employing various methods and then tested for its stability in vitro during storage and in human plasma. Three methods for the preparation of 11 1In-DTPA were used. In every method, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were determined by chromatography systems

  7. Infrared absorption spectra of selenate compounds of indium (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Kadoshnikova, N.V.; Tananaev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Obtained and discussed are infrared absorption spectra (400-4000 cm -1 ) of the following indium selenates: In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x5H 2 O, In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x9H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x6H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O (M=NH 4 , K, Rb), CsIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O, Na 3 In(SeO 4 ) 3 x7H 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb, Cs), M 2 InOH(SeO 4 ) 2 xyH 2 O (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb) and K 2 InOD(SeO 4 ) 2 xyD 2 O

  8. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  9. Polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, G.A.; Dzhurka, G.F.; Kozhushko, G.M.; Kravtsova, K.F.; Magda, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets without preliminary separation of elements was developed. Mercury-dropping electrode was used as an indicator, and saturated calomel electrode was used as an auxiliary electrode. A recording of reduction currents was performed in the potential interval from -0.25 up to 1.15 V at potential sweep speed of 200 mV/min. Optimum conditions of sample acidic decomposition and polarography were presented. A solution of ethylene diamine (0.5 M), of ammonia (0.25 M) and of potassium chloride (0.05 M) served as a background electrolyte. The suggested technique allows one to determine component contents in tablets with a satisfactory accuracy. A period of one tablet analysis constitutes 1.5 h

  10. Indium antimonide crystal defects formed by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitovskij, N.A.; Dolgolenko, A.P.; Mashovets, T.V.; Oganesyan, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown, that indium antimonide irradiation with fast neutrons of reactor results in the formation of disorded regions with a mean radius of approximately 130 A surrounded with space charge regions forming barriers for main carriers. But the found values of defect cluster depolarization coefficient (Lsub(x)sup(n)=0.18 and Lsub(x)sup(p)=0.29) show, that the clusters have marked conductivity for main charge carriers. The found position of the Fermi level in the disorded regions Esub(F)=Esub(c)-0.085 eV does not depend on the impurity type and its concentration in an initial material. The disorded regions play the main part in charge carrier scattering at low temperatures and markedly contribute to the change of mobility at 80 K. It is found, that irradiation temperature change in the range from 77 to 300 K does not effect practically on the disorded region parameters

  11. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  12. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  13. A microporous indium-organic framework with high capacity and selectivity for CO2 or organosulfurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Fei; Kang, Yao; Li, Tie-Hu; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-14

    Presented here is a multifunctional microporous indium-organic framework material with doubly linked MIL-88D structure, which exhibits high surface area, excellent CO(2)/N(2) adsorption selectivity, good hydrogen storage ability and notable desulfurization behavior.

  14. Evaluation of indium-111 colloid for radionuclide imaging of the abdominal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieras, F.; Hamilton, R.F.; Grissom, M.P.; Kiepffer, R.F.; Vandergrift, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of indium-111 colloid for imaging the para-aortic lymph nodes in animals is described and preliminary results obtained in human subjects. Serial lymphatic scintigraphy performed in beagle dogs following bilateral pedal subcutaneous injections of indium-111 colloid revealed good para-aortic lymph node visualization. A normal migration pattern of indium-111 colloid was also observed in human subjects following subcutaneous injection in the feet; there was clear visualization of the ileo-inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes. Organ distribution studies for indium-111 colloid were performed in rats following unilateral pedal subcutaneous injection in rats; these results were used for calculating radiation dose estimates to various organs. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using 111 In-colloid clinically for abdominal lymphatic scintiography for the use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled colloids results in lower radiation doses. (U.K.)

  15. New compounds of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakis-Sulikowska, D.; Kaluzna-Czaplinska, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present work was to obtain complexes of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine and examine some of their physico-chemical properties (solubility, molar conductivity in methanol, IR spectra and thermal analysis)

  16. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  17. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus

  18. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  19. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  20. Calibration of differential scanning calorimeters: A comparison between indium and diphenylacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charsley, E.L.; Laye, P.G.; Markham, H.M.; Le Goff, T.

    2010-01-01

    The close proximity in melting temperature of the LGC Limited DSC standards indium and diphenylacetic acid, has enabled a direct assessment to be made of any differences resulting from the use of a metal or an organic compound in the calibration of DSC equipment. Following calibration with indium, the equilibrium fusion temperatures for diphenylacetic acid, were determined by both the stepwise heating and extrapolation to zero heating rate methods. The results were in excellent agreement with the certificate values and established that indium may be used as a calibrant when making accurate DSC measurements on organic materials in the same temperature range and that it has the advantage that it is non-volatile and can be used a number of times without significant change. Similar agreement was obtained in the measurement of the enthalpy of fusion, although the larger heat capacity change on fusion of diphenylacetic acid resulted in a greater uncertainty than with indium.

  1. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSix-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  2. Different magnetic properties of rhombohedral and cubic Ni2+ doped indium oxide nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions doped indium oxide nanomaterials were potentially used as a kind of diluted magnetic semiconductors in transparent spintronic devices. In this paper, the influences of Ni2+ doped contents and rhombohedral or cubic crystalline structures of indium oxide on magnetic properties were investigated. We found that the magnetic properties of Ni2+ doped indium oxide could be transferred from room temperature ferromagnetisms to paramagnetic properties with increments of doped contents. Moreover, the different crystalline structures of indium oxide also greatly affected the room temperature ferromagnetisms due to different lattice constants and almost had no effects on their paramagnetic properties. In addition, both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties were demonstrated to be intrinsic and not caused by impurities.

  3. Structure of cubic polytype indium nitride layers on top of modified sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Garcia, R.; Gonzalez, D. [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Lebedev, V.; Wang, Ch.Y.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O. [Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, Technical University Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The occurrence of cubic indium nitride thin layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of c-plane sapphire substrates modified by an intermediate layer of cubic indium oxide is reported. An orientation relationship between the (0001) plane of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both (001) surfaces of body-centered cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and zinc-blende InN is demonstrated by means of electron and X-ray diffraction and by transmission electron microscopy. We propose that the demonstrated approach is able to stabilize the non equilibrium phase of InN (i. e., the cubic polytype) due to a low lattice mismatch together with a four fold surface atomic arrangement of the indium oxide-indium nitride interface. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Cytotoxicity and terminal differentiation of human oral keratinocyte by indium ions from a silver-palladium-gold-indium dental alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Sang-Hee; Lee, Sang-Bae; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-02-01

    Dental alloys containing indium (In) have been used in dental restoration for two decades; however, no study has investigated the biological effects of In ions, which may be released in the oral cavity, on human oral keratinocytes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of In ions on human oral keratinocyte after confirming their release from a silver-palladium-gold-indium (Ag-Pd-Au-In) dental alloy. As a corrosion assay, a static immersion tests were performed by detecting the released ions in the corrosion solution from the Ag-Pd-Au-In dental alloy using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity and biological effects of In ions were then studied with In compounds in three human oral keratinocyte cell lines: immortalized human oral keratinocyte (IHOK), HSC-2, and SCC-15. Higher concentrations of In and Cu ions were detected in Ag-Pd-Au-In (PAg-Pd-Au, and AgCl deposition occurred on the surface of Ag-Pd-Au-In after a 7-day corrosion test due to its low corrosion resistance. At high concentrations, In ions induced cytotoxicity; however, at low concentrations (∼0.8In(3+)mM), terminal differentiation was observed in human oral keratinocytes. Intracellular ROS was revealed to be a key component of In-induced terminal differentiation. In ions were released from dental alloys containing In, and high concentrations of In ions resulted in cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations induced the terminal differentiation of human oral keratinocytes via increased intracellular ROS. Therefore, dental alloys containing In must be biologically evaluated for their safe use. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Chen, Changlong; Han, Liuyuan; Shao, Baiqi; Wei, Yuling; Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2 O 3 octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In 2 O 3 octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO 2 gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO 2 gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on

  6. Tin–indium/graphene with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency and rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxun; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid was firstly synthesized. • Indium in the hybrid reduces charge transfer resistance of electrode. • Graphene can accommodate the volume change of nanoparticles during cycling. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced initial coulombic efficiency. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced rate capability. -- Abstract: Tin is an attractive anode material replacing the current commercial graphite for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical storage capacity and energy density. However, poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling, and low rate capability frustrate its practical application. In this study, a new ternary composite based on tin–indium alloy (Sn–In) and graphene nanosheet (GNS) was prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by thermal treatment in hydrogen and argon at 550 °C. Characterizations show that the tin–indium nanoparticles with about 100 nm in size were wrapped between the graphene nanosheets. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the Sn–In/GNS composite exhibits a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of lithium storage capacity (865.6 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 rate), initial coulombic efficiency (78.6%), cycling stability (83.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles), and rate capability (493.2 mAh g −1 at 600 mA g −1 rate after 25 cycles) compared to Sn/GNS and Sn–In electrode. This improvement is attributed to the introduction of lithium activity metal, indium, which reduces the charge transfer resistance of electrode, and the graphene nanosheet which accommodates the volume change of tin–indium nanoparticles during cycling and improves electrical conductivity of material

  7. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  8. Purification of indium, gallium, and antimony by melting with synthetic slug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Nowicki, A.

    1997-01-01

    The tracer technique has been used for metal purification process control. The indium, gallium and antimony have been purified up to semiconductor purity in the melting with synthetic slug process. The 115m Cd, 59 Fe, 204 Tl. 76 As, 210 Bi have been used as tracers. The high effectiveness of proposed purification method have been found in the cases of indium and gallium. 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Positive indium-III bone marrow scan in metastatic breast carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Hyzinski, M.; Swami, V.K.; Parker, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Indium is generally presumed to localize in the bone marrow within the erythroid cell line. Fibrosis, inflammation, lymphoma, extended field radiation, chemotherapy, or combinations of both treatment modalities generally depress the uptake of indium by the marrow in a complex fashion. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma and pancytopenia in which the In-111 scan appeared qualitatively similar to a Tc-99m MDP bone scan. Findings were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy

  10. Demonstration of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgers, S.L.; Strauss, E.; Smith, E.O.; Reed, D.; Ezekowitz, M.D.

    1986-10-01

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, documented by cerebral angiography, was demonstrated by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in a 40-year-old man presenting with seizures and intracerebral hematoma. Early scintigraphy demonstrated focal increased indium-111 activity at the two ends of the thrombus, while later scintigraphy showed diffuse increased activity in the area of the sinus. This initial experience suggests that platelet scintigraphy may provide unique information regarding the natural history of intracranial venous thrombosis.

  11. Self-Similar Bumps and Wiggles: Isolating the Evolution of the BAO Peak with Powerlaw Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Chris; Weinberg, David

    2011-04-01

    Future observations of a subtle dark matter clustering feature known as Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) will play a key role in unraveling the mystery of dark energy. Originally detected in galaxy clustering data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Degree Field Survey, by observing this feature the cosmological distance to galaxies at a particular redshift can be accurately determined and the expansion history of the universe constrained with high precision. A complication of this analysis, however, is that the clustering feature changes over time -- the "bump" feature broadens and is shifted slightly. We investigate a simplified model of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations using cosmological N-body simulations to better understand the underlying physics of how this feature evolves. We model our simulation results both phenomenologically and compare with ab initio predictions from perturbation theory, yielding useful insights for more physically-motivated cosmological models. The simplicity of our setup also allows interesting self-similar numerical tests that indicate that modern simulation methods and resolutions robustly capture the non-linear evolution of the BAO feature.

  12. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC 50 in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats

  13. Multilayer microfluidic systems with indium-tin-oxide microelectrodes for studying biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Lyau, Jia-Bo; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chen, Hsin

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary semiconductor and micromachining technologies have been exploited to develop lab-on-a-chip microsystems, which enable parallel and efficient experiments in molecular and cellular biology. In these microlab systems, microfluidics play an important role for automatic transportation or immobilization of cells and bio-molecules, as well as for separation or mixing of different chemical reagents. However, seldom microlab systems allow both morphology and electrophysiology of biological cells to be studied in situ. This kind of study is important, for example, for understanding how neuronal networks grow in response to environmental stimuli. To fulfill this application need, this paper investigates the possibility of fabricating multi-layer photoresists as microfluidic systems directly above a glass substrate with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. The microfluidic channels are designed to guide and trap biological cells on top of ITO electrodes, through which the electrical activities of cells can be recorded or elicited. As both the microfluidic system and ITO electrodes are transparent, the cellular morphology is observable easily during electrophysiological studies. Two fabrication processes are proposed and compared. One defines the structure and curing depth of each photoresist layer simply by controlling the exposure time in lithography, while the other further utilizes a sacrificial layer to defines the structure of the bottom layer. The fabricated microfluidic system is proved bio-compatible and able to trap blood cells or neurons. Therefore, the proposed microsystem will be useful for studying cultured cells efficiently in applications such as drug-screening.

  14. IS THE LATE NEAR-INFRARED BUMP IN SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B DUE TO THE LI-PACZYNSKI KILONOVA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming; Xu, Dong; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be produced by the merger of two binary compact objects, specifically by two neutron stars or by a neutron star orbiting a black hole. According to the Li-Paczynski kilonova model, the merger would launch sub-relativistic ejecta and a near-infrared/optical transient would then occur, lasting up to days, which is powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements synthesized in the ejecta. The detection of a late bump using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the near-infrared afterglow light curve of the short-hard GRB 130603B is indeed consistent with such a model. However, as shown in this Letter, the limited HST near-infrared light curve behavior can also be interpreted as the synchrotron radiation of the external shock driven by a wide mildly relativistic outflow. In such a scenario, the radio emission is expected to peak with a flux of ∼100 μJy, which is detectable for current radio arrays. Hence, the radio afterglow data can provide complementary evidence on the nature of the bump in GRB 130603B. It is worth noting that good spectroscopy during the bump phase in short-hard bursts can test the validity of either model above, analogous to spectroscopy of broad-lined Type Ic supernova in long-soft GRBs

  15. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Speed Bumps Design and Optimization for Vehicles' Energy Recovery in Smart Cities 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo E. Zich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the technology development and increasing amounts of investment in renewables has led to a growing interest towards design and optimization of green energy systems. In this context, advanced Computational Intelligence (CI techniques can be applied by engineers to several technical problems in order to find out the best structure and to improve efficiency in energy recovery. This research promises to give new impulse to using innovative unconventional renewable sources and to develop the so-called Energy Harvesting Devices (EHDs. In this paper, the optimization of a Tubular Permanent Magnet-Linear Generator for energy harvesting from vehicles to grid is presented. The optimization process is developed by means of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to reach the best overall system efficiency and the impact on the environment and transportation systems. Finally, an experimental validation of the designed EHD prototype is presented. 

  17. Separation and recovery of glass, plastic and indium from spent LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferella, Francesco; Belardi, Girolamo; Marsilii, Antonella; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The present paper deals with physico-mechanical pre-treatments for dismantling of spent liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and further recovery of valuable fractions like plastic, glass and indium. After a wide experimental campaign, two processes were designed, tested and optimized. In the wet process, 20%, 15% and 40% by weight of the feeding panels are recovered as plastic, glass and indium concentrate, respectively. Instead, in the dry process, only two fractions were separated: around 11% and 85% by weight are recovered as plastic and glass/indium mixture. Indium, that concentrated in the -212μm fraction, was completely dissolved by sulphuric acid leaching (0.75molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, 80°C, 10%vol H 2 O 2 , pulp density 10%wt/vol, leaching time 3h). 100% of indium can be extracted from the pregnant solution with 5%wt/vol Amberlite™ resin, at room temperature and pH 3 in 24h. Indium was thus re-extracted from the resin by means of a 2molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, at room temperature and S/L of 40%wt/vol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polarographic studies about indium (III) behaviour in aqueous media of sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study shows some polarographic behavior of indium (III) in azide media that is close those observed in a thiocyanate solution. The presence of azide ligand decreases the overpotential in the discharge of indium whose catalytic character can be explained by formation of an azide bridge between electrode and indium (III) increasing the speed of electron transfer. The discharge of indium in azide media is diffusion controlled. As the azide concentration is increased the half wave potential displaces in the cathodic direction. This displacement is due to complex formation. The number of electrons, n, involved in the total process was estimates by the reversible polarographic equation to be 2,7. The potentiostatic coulometry of indium in azide/hydrazoic acid buffer showed a catalytic process where the chemistry regeneration was performed by reaction of hydrazoic acid and indium amalgam. The electrochemistry evidence was the constancy of current as the electrolysis proceeded. The chemistry aspect was the presence of ammonium cation in electrolysed solution. The catalytic process with chemistry regeneration and the formation of a bridge by azide could explain the higher value of current in azide media compared to perchlorate solution. (author) [pt

  19. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  20. Enhanced performance in organic photovoltaic devices with a KMnO4 solution treated indium tin oxide anode modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qian-Qian; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Zhang Fu-Jun; Yan Guang; Kong Chao; Fan Xing; Zhang Yan-Fei; Xu Xu-Rong

    2012-01-01

    The properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode treated by a KMnO 4 solution are investigated. The optimized KMnO 4 solution has a concentration of 50 mg/L, and ITO is treated for 15 min. The modification of ITO anode results in an enhancement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device, which is responsible for the increase of the photocurrent. The performance enhancement is attributed to the work function modification of the ITO substrate through the strong oxygenation of KMnO 4 , and then the charge collection efficiency is improved. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  2. Effect of replacement of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) by ZnO: analysis of environmental impact categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra; Barecka Magda; Zbiciński Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Abundant use of natural resources is doubtlessly one of the greatest challenges of sustainable development. Process alternatives, which enable sustainable manufacturing of valuable products from more accessible resources, are consequently required. One of examples of limited resources is Indium, currently broadly used for tin doped indium oxide (ITO) for production of transparent conductive films (TCO) in electronics industry. Therefore, candidates for Indium replacement, which would offer as...

  3. Integrated optical MEMS using through-wafer vias and bump-bonding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Frederick, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    This LDRD began as a three year program to integrate through-wafer vias, micro-mirrors and control electronics with high-voltage capability to yield a 64 by 64 array of individually controllable micro-mirrors on 125 or 250 micron pitch with piston, tip and tilt movement. The effort was a mix of R&D and application. Care was taken to create SUMMiT{trademark} (Sandia's ultraplanar, multilevel MEMS technology) compatible via and mirror processes, and the ultimate goal was to mate this MEMS fabrication product to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics substrate. Significant progress was made on the via and mirror fabrication and design, the attach process development as well as the electronics high voltage (30 volt) and control designs. After approximately 22 months, the program was ready to proceed with fabrication and integration of the electronics, final mirror array, and through wafer vias to create a high resolution OMEMS array with individual mirror electronic control. At this point, however, mission alignment and budget constraints reduced the last year program funding and redirected the program to help support the through-silicon via work in the Hyper-Temporal Sensors (HTS) Grand Challenge (GC) LDRD. Several months of investigation and discussion with the HTS team resulted in a revised plan for the remaining 10 months of the program. We planned to build a capability in finer-pitched via fabrication on thinned substrates along with metallization schemes and bonding techniques for very large arrays of high density interconnects (up to 2000 x 2000 vias). Through this program, Sandia was able to build capability in several different conductive through wafer via processes using internal and external resources, MEMS mirror design and fabrication, various bonding techniques for arrayed substrates, and arrayed electronics control design with high voltage capability.

  4. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. K. Gustafsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective.

  5. Lithium abundance in the globular cluster M4: from the turn-off to the red giant branch bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Lucatello, S.; Gratton, R. G.

    2011-03-01

    We present Li and Fe abundances for 87 stars in the globular cluster M4, obtained by using high-resolution spectra collected with GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope. The targets range from the turn-off up to the red giant branch bump. The Li abundance in the turn-off stars is uniform, with an average value equal to A(Li)= 2.30 ± 0.02 dex (σ= 0.10 dex), consistent with the upper envelope of Li content measured in other globular clusters and in the halo field stars, confirming also for M4 the discrepancy with the primordial Li abundance predicted by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe+ big bang nucleosynthesis (WMAP+BBNS). The global behaviour of A(Li) as a function of the effective temperature allows us to identify the two main drops in the Li evolution due to the first dredge-up and to the extra-mixing episode after the red giant branch bump. The measured iron content of M4 results to [Fe/H]=-1.10 ± 0.01 dex (σ= 0.07 dex), with no systematic offsets between dwarf and giant stars. The behaviour of the Li and Fe abundances along the entire evolutionary path is incompatible with theoretical models including pure atomic diffusion, pointing out that an additional turbulent mixing below the convective region needs to be taken into account, able to inhibit the atomic diffusion. The measured value of A(Li) and its homogeneity in the turn-off stars allow us to put strong constraints on the shape of the Li profile inside the M4 turn-off stars. The global behaviour of A(Li) with the effective temperature can be reproduced with different pristine Li abundances, depending on the kind of adopted turbulent mixing. One cannot reproduce the global trend that starts from the WMAP+BBNS A(Li) and adopts the turbulent mixing described by Richard, Michaud & Richer with the same efficiency as that used by Korn et al. to explain the Li content in NGC 6397. In fact, such a solution is not able to well reproduce simultaneously the Li abundance observed in turn-off and red giant branch

  6. Subcellular localization of aluminum and indium in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.; Lamperti, A.; Bourahla, K.; Escaig, F

    2004-06-15

    Previous studies, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) have shown that several elements are selectively concentrated in the lysosomes of the proximal tubule cells (PTC) of the kidney. In these lysosomes the elements are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts, before being eliminated with the urinary flow as submicroscopic particles. However, in these studies, large, sub-toxic doses were administered, and this particular mechanism of 'concentration-precipitation-elimination' was not initially considered as a physiological process, but, only as a pathological consequence of the toxic doses. Due to the high sensitivity of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), images can be obtained representing the distributions of these elements at a concentration several orders of magnitude lower than that required by EPMA. Two elements, aluminum and indium, have been administered in the rats at very low doses. Analytical images were acquired using the University of Chicago scanning ion microprobe, and it has been shown that in a few hours, the lysosomes of the PTC are able to remove these two elements from the extracellular fluid, even when they are at a concentration at the ppm range in the plasma. This mechanism of 'concentration-insolubilisation-elimination' can be considered as a physiological process for the two studied elements.

  7. Sputtered boron indium oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kevin A.; Gouliouk, Vasily; Keszler, Douglas A.; Wager, John F.

    2017-11-01

    Boron indium oxide (BIO) is studied for thin-film transistor (TFT) channel layer applications. Sputtered BIO thin films exhibit an amorphous phase over a wide range of B2O3/In2O3 ratios and remain amorphous up to 500 °C. The band gap decreases linearly with decreasing boron content, whereas device performance generally improves with decreasing boron content. The best amorphous BIO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, turn-on voltage of 2.5 V, and sub-threshold swing of 0.72 V/dec. Decreasing the boron content to 12.5% leads to a polycrystalline phase, but further increases the mobility up to 20-40 cm2 V-1 s-1. TCAD simulation results suggest that the reason for higher performance after increasing the anneal temperature from 200 to 400 °C is due to a lower defect density in the sub-bandgap region of the BIO channel layer.

  8. Modification of Deposition Process Parameters for Uniform Indium Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Isaac

    The need for more efficient light to energy converting cells has long been a subject of research and development. With abundant availability of solar energy that the earth receives, the photovoltaic industry has sought materials that could serve the purpose of great energy conversion. The photovoltaic industry is mainly dominated by Silicon owing to its abundant availability, reliability and economic cost. However, due to limitations on efficiency improvements, some focus has shifted toward III-V based solar cells with a great potential for attaining higher efficiency and multi-junction applications. However, the cost of the III-V materials is extremely high due to the cost of the raw materials, the need for a lattice-matched substrate for single crystal growth, and complex growth processes. Research groups have investigated direct non-epitaxial growth of thin poly-crystalline films using a MOCVD process and VLS growth on cheaper substrates [1,2]. To do so, it is important to develop a planar reaction template for the group III metal, which will prevent de-wetting of the seed layer from the substrate during growth. In this thesis, we study various deposition parameters (substrate, deposition rate, structure...) that improve the de-wetting of an Indium layer as a template for future III-V virtual substrate.

  9. Electronic properties of aluminum, gallium and indium pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Dheerendra Singh; Singh, S P

    2010-01-01

    The Phillips and Van Vechten theory was applied to aluminum, gallium and indium pnictides (AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb). The values of the homopolar gap, ionic gap and Penn gap were evaluated for these binary semiconductors. The derived values of E h and E p were found to be in good agreement with the values obtained from the Phillips model and the Penn model. Electronic polarizability was investigated using the Chemla relation and the values were found to be in agreement with the results obtained from the Clausius-Mossotti relation. The Phillips ionicity (f i ) was evaluated and the obtained values were compared with the values obtained from the Tubbs model and the Pauling ionicity model. The evaluated values of various ionicities were used to determine the microhardness (H), cohesive energy or total energy (E) and bulk modulus (B) of these materials. The values of these parameters thus obtained are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data and theoretical findings.

  10. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.J.; Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G.; Falcony, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N 2 /Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N 2 /Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10 −4 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10 20 cm −3

  11. Subcellular localization of aluminum and indium in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.; Lamperti, A.; Bourahla, K.; Escaig, F.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) have shown that several elements are selectively concentrated in the lysosomes of the proximal tubule cells (PTC) of the kidney. In these lysosomes the elements are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts, before being eliminated with the urinary flow as submicroscopic particles. However, in these studies, large, sub-toxic doses were administered, and this particular mechanism of 'concentration-precipitation-elimination' was not initially considered as a physiological process, but, only as a pathological consequence of the toxic doses. Due to the high sensitivity of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), images can be obtained representing the distributions of these elements at a concentration several orders of magnitude lower than that required by EPMA. Two elements, aluminum and indium, have been administered in the rats at very low doses. Analytical images were acquired using the University of Chicago scanning ion microprobe, and it has been shown that in a few hours, the lysosomes of the PTC are able to remove these two elements from the extracellular fluid, even when they are at a concentration at the ppm range in the plasma. This mechanism of 'concentration-insolubilisation-elimination' can be considered as a physiological process for the two studied elements

  12. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  13. The angular distributions of sputtered indium atoms at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1993-01-01

    The effect of temperature and surface topography on the angular distribution of indium atoms was studied under bombardment by 2T KeV Ar + ions at normal incidence. Experiments were carried out on two samples, A and B, at 25 o C and 70 o C respectively. The function Y(θ) = a cosθ + b cos n θ, where θ is the sputtering angle, was found to fit the experimental data. The term (a cos θ) corresponds to the cosine distribution predicted by random collision cascade theory, and the term (b cos n θ) is dependent on factors such as the surface topography. For sample A, a∼b, whereas for sample B a< b. The surface of A consisted of flat and pebble like regions of almost equal area while the surface of B was more cratered. An explanation of the fitting values of a,b and n is given in terms of the shielding effects of the different structures. (UK)

  14. Indium(III) complexes with some salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.R.; Issa, I.M.; El-Gyar, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    In(III) complexes with salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases have been prepared. The nature of the complexes has been studied by microanalysis of the solid complexes, conductometric titration, uv and ir spectrophotometric measurements. The complexes are of the type 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 [Ligand : In(III)] depending upon the Schiff base. The tendency of the salicylidene Schiff base molecule towards complex formation with In(III) is found to depend largely on the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bound established between the aldehydic OH group and C = N. Furthermore, it is concluded that these Schiff bases coordinate to In(III) as tri- or bidentate ligands depending upon the molecular structure of the Schiff base (not as monodentate ligand as previously described). The high molar absorbance of the 1 : 2 In(II) complex with salicylidene-o-hydroxyaniline I (17,800 mo1 -1 cm 2 ) can be applied for the micro determination of small amounts of Indium as low as 0.57 anti g/m1 solution. (author)

  15. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity

  16. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J.J., E-mail: jjosila@hotmail.com [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo la Bufa, Fracc. Progreso, C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Doctorado Institucional de Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78270 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaría, Calz. Legaría No. 694, Col. Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional campus Zacatenco, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}.

  17. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    remains the primary material of choice. This research is about investigating Indium Arsenide nanowires as alternative platform for sensing charged species - chemical and biological, in solution. Starting with nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we discuss...

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB bumps of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of globular clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement ΔY = 0.011 ± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  19. Safety and efficacy of the bumped kinase inhibitor BKI-1553 in pregnant sheep experimentally infected with Neospora caninum tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, and recent studies have highlighted its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. Vaccines or drugs for the control of neosporosis are lacking. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs, which are ATP-competitive inhibitors of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1, were shown to be highly efficacious against several apicomplexan parasites in vitro and in laboratory animal models. We here present the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of BKI-1553 in pregnant ewes and foetuses using a pregnant sheep model of N. caninum infection. BKI-1553 showed exposure in pregnant ewes with trough concentrations of approximately 4 μM, and of 1  μM in foetuses. Subcutaneous BKI-1553 administration increased rectal temperatures shortly after treatment, and resulted in dermal nodules triggering a slight monocytosis after repeated doses at short intervals. BKI-1553 treatment decreased fever in infected pregnant ewes already after two applications, resulted in a 37–50% reduction in foetal mortality, and modulated immune responses; IFNγ levels were increased early after infection and IgG levels were reduced subsequently. N. caninum was abundantly found in placental tissues; however, parasite detection in foetal brain tissue decreased from 94% in the infected/untreated group to 69–71% in the treated groups. In summary, BKI-1553 confers partial protection against abortion in a ruminant experimental model of N. caninum infection during pregnancy. In addition, reduced parasite detection, parasite load and lesions in foetal brains were observed. Keywords: Neospora caninum, Sheep, Pregnancy, Treatment, Protein kinase inhibitor, BKI-1553

  20. A Solid-Contact Indium(III) Sensor based on a Thiosulfinate Ionophore Derived from Omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; Hend Samy Amer [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    A novel solid-contact indium(III)-selective sensor based on bis-(1H-benzimidazole-5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyridinyl) 2-methyl]) thiosulfinate, known as an omeprazole dimer (OD) and a neutral ionophore, was constructed, and its performance characteristics were evaluated. The sensor was prepared by applying a membrane cocktail containing the ionophore to a graphite rod pre-coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) conducting polymer as the ion-to-electron transducer. The membrane contained 3.6% OD, 2.3% oleic acid (OA) and 62% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the solvent mediator in PVC and produced a good potentiometric response to indium(III) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19.09 mV/decade. The constructed sensor possessed a linear concentration range from 3 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M and a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 Χ 10{sup -7} M indium(III) over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It also displayed a fast response time and good selectivity for indium(III) over several other ions. The sensor can be used for longer than three months without any considerable divergence in potential. The sensor was utilized for direct and flow injection potentiometric (FIP) determination of indium(III) in alloys. The parameters that control the flow injection method were optimized. Indium(III) was quantitatively recovered, and the results agreed with those obtained using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as confirmed by the f and t values. The sensor was also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of fluoride in the presence of chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions using indium(III) nitrate as the titrant.

  1. A Solid-Contact Indium(III) Sensor based on a Thiosulfinate Ionophore Derived from Omeprazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; Hend Samy Amer

    2013-01-01

    A novel solid-contact indium(III)-selective sensor based on bis-(1H-benzimidazole-5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyridinyl) 2-methyl]) thiosulfinate, known as an omeprazole dimer (OD) and a neutral ionophore, was constructed, and its performance characteristics were evaluated. The sensor was prepared by applying a membrane cocktail containing the ionophore to a graphite rod pre-coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) conducting polymer as the ion-to-electron transducer. The membrane contained 3.6% OD, 2.3% oleic acid (OA) and 62% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the solvent mediator in PVC and produced a good potentiometric response to indium(III) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19.09 mV/decade. The constructed sensor possessed a linear concentration range from 3 Χ 10 -7 to 1 Χ 10 -2 M and a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 Χ 10 -7 M indium(III) over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It also displayed a fast response time and good selectivity for indium(III) over several other ions. The sensor can be used for longer than three months without any considerable divergence in potential. The sensor was utilized for direct and flow injection potentiometric (FIP) determination of indium(III) in alloys. The parameters that control the flow injection method were optimized. Indium(III) was quantitatively recovered, and the results agreed with those obtained using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as confirmed by the f and t values. The sensor was also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of fluoride in the presence of chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions using indium(III) nitrate as the titrant

  2. Characterization of Gallium Indium Phosphide and Progress of Aluminum Gallium Indium Phosphide System Quantum-Well Laser Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroki

    2017-07-28

    Highly ordered gallium indium phosphide layers with the low bandgap have been successfully grown on the (100) GaAs substrates, the misorientation toward [01-1] direction, using the low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. It is found that the optical properties of the layers are same as those of the disordered ones, essentially different from the ordered ones having two orientations towards [1-11] and [11-1] directions grown on (100) gallium arsenide substrates, which were previously reported. The bandgap at 300 K is 1.791 eV. The value is the smallest ever reported, to our knowledge. The high performance transverse stabilized AlGaInP laser diodes with strain compensated quantum well structure, which is developed in 1992, have been successfully obtained by controlling the misorientation angle and directions of GaAs substrates. The structure is applied to quantum dots laser diodes. This paper also describes the development history of the quantum well and the quantum dots laser diodes, and their future prospects.

  3. Evidence for atomic scale disorder in indium nitride from perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, R; Shrestha, S K; Byrne, A P; Ridgway, M C; Edge, A V J; Vianden, R; Penner, J; Timmers, H

    2005-01-01

    The crystal lattice of bulk grains and state-of-the-art films of indium nitride was investigated at the atomic scale with perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy using the 111 In/Cd radioisotope probe. The probe was introduced during sample synthesis, by diffusion and by ion implantation. The mean quadrupole interaction frequency ν Q = 28 MHz was observed at the indium probe site in all types of indium nitride samples with broad frequency distributions. The observed small, but non-zero, asymmetry parameter indicates broken symmetry around the probe atoms. Results have been compared with theoretical calculations based on the point charge model. The consistency of the experimental results and their independence of the preparation technique suggest that the origin of the broad frequency distribution is inherent to indium nitride, indicating a high degree of disorder at the atomic scale. Due to the low dissociation temperature of indium nitride, furnace and rapid thermal annealing at atmospheric pressure reduce the lattice disorder only marginally

  4. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    KAUST Repository

    Benaissa, M.

    2015-03-09

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations - plasmons - at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Yaan, E-mail: caoyaan@yahoo.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO{sub 2} in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO{sub 2}, the narrowness of band gap of TiO{sub 2} doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO{sub 2}, boron doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–B) and indium doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  6. Synthesis of Indium Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement and Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Greg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single crystalline indium nanowires were prepared on Zn substrate which had been treated in concentrated sulphuric acid by galvanic displacement in the 0.002 mol L−1In2(SO43-0.002 mol L−1SeO2-0.02 mol L−1SDS-0.01 mol L−1citric acid aqueous solution. The typical diameter of indium nanowires is 30 nm and most of the nanowires are over 30 μm in length. XRD, HRTEM, SAED and structural simulation clearly demonstrate that indium nanowires are single-crystalline with the tetragonal structure, the growth direction of the nanowires is along [100] facet. The UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that indium nanowires display typical transverse resonance of SPR properties. The surfactant (SDS and the pretreatment of Zn substrate play an important role in the growth process. The mechanism of indium nanowires growth is the synergic effect of treated Zn substrate (hard template and SDS (soft template.

  7. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-01-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO 2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO 2 , the narrowness of band gap of TiO 2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) and B 2 O 3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO 2 , boron doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –B) and indium doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-05-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV-vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO2, the narrowness of band gap of TiO2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) and B2O3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2, boron doped TiO2 (TiO2-B) and indium doped TiO2 (TiO2-In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  10. Phase relations and chemical vapor transport of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze InxWO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase relations of hexagonal bronze In x WO 3 with neighboring phases. • Chemical vapor transport experiments using NH 4 Cl as transport agent. • Single crystals of In x WO 3 up to a few mm in size were prepared. • Selective synthesis of crystals of the indium poor and indium rich phase boundary. - Abstract: Phase pure powder samples of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze In x WO 3 (x = 0.25–0.35) were synthesized by solid state reaction at 1173 K. The phase relations of In x WO 3 with neighboring binary and ternary phases were determined in the phase diagram In–W–O. Systematic chemical vapor transport experiments were carried out on source materials with compositions corresponding to miscellaneous two-phase and three-phase regions using NH 4 X (X = Cl, Br, I) as transport agent. Crystals of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze were deposited beside In 2 W 3 O 12 with composition corresponding to the indium poor phase boundary and dimensions up to a few mm in a temperature gradient 1173 K → 1073 K starting from ternary mixtures In x WO 3 /In 2 W 3 O 12 /In 0.02 WO 3 . Sole deposition of In x WO 3 single crystals with composition x ≈ 0.33 was observed from ternary mixtures In x WO 3 /W 18 O 49 /WO 2 with a migration rate of about 0.5 mg/h (transport agent NH 4 Cl)

  11. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaissa, M., E-mail: benaissa.um5@gmail.com, E-mail: benaissa@fsr.ac.ma [LMPHE, Physics Department, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, 4 Avenue Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014 RP, 10000 Rabat (Morocco); Sigle, W.; Aken, P. A. van [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstraße 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ng, T. K.; Ooi, B. S. [Photonics Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); El Bouayadi, R. [LPMR, Université Mohammed Premier, B.P. 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Jahangir, S.; Bhattacharya, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations—plasmons—at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  12. Decay studies of the highly neutron-deficient indium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    An extension of the experimentally known nuclidic mass surface to nuclei far from the region of beta-stability is of fundamental interest in providing a better determination of the input parameters for the various nuclear mass formulae, allowing a more accurate prediction of the ultimate limits of nuclear stability. In addition, a study of the shape of the mass surface in the vicinity of the doubly-closed nuclide /sup 100/Sn provides initial information on the behavior of the shell closure to be expected when Z = N = 50. Experiments measuring the decay energies of /sup 103/ /sup 105/In by ..beta..-endpoint measurements are described with special attention focused on the development of a plastic scintillator ..beta..-telescope coupled to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer). An attempt to measure the ..beta..-endpoint energy of /sup 102/In is also briefly described. The experimentally determined decay energies and derived masses for /sup 103/ /sup 105/In are compared with the predictions of different mass models to identify which models are more successful in this region. Furthermore, the inclusion in these comparisons of the available data on the neutron-rich indium nuclei permits a systematic study of their ground state mass behavior as a function of the neutron number between the shell closures at N = 50 and N = 82. These analyses indicate that the binding energy of /sup 103/In is 1 MeV larger than predicted by the majority of the mass models. An examination of the Q/sub EC/ surface and the single- and two-neutron separation energies in the vicinity of /sup 103/ /sup 105/In is also performed to investigate further the deviation and other possible systematic variations in the mass surface in a model-independent way.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of an indium tin oxide acoustoelectric hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Pier; Greenlee, Charles L.; Wang, Zhaohui; Olafsson, Ragnar; Norwood, Robert A.; Witte, Russell S.

    2010-03-01

    Clinical ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy require a precise knowledge of the intensity distribution of the acoustic field. Although piezoelectric hydrophones are most common, these devices are limited in terms of, for example, type of materials, cost, and performance at high frequency and pressure. As an alternative to conventional acoustic detectors, we describe acoustoelectric hydrophones, developed using photolithographic fabrication techniques, where the induced voltage (phase and amplitude) is proportional to both the US pressure and bias current injected through the device. In this study a number of different hydrophone designs were created using indium tin oxide (ITO). A constriction of the current path within the hydrophone created a localized "sensitivity zone" of high current density. The width of this zone ranged from 30 to 1000 μm, with a thickness of 100 nm. A raster scan of the US transducer produced a map of the acoustic field. Hydrophones were evaluated by mapping the pressure field of a 2.25 MHz single element transducer, and their performance was compared to a commercial capsule hydrophone. Focal spot sizes at -6 dB were as low as 1.75 mm, comparing well with the commercial hydrophone measurement of 1.80 mm. Maximum sensitivity was 2 nV/Pa and up to the 2nd harmonic was detected. We expect improved performance with future devices as we optimize the design. Acoustoelectric hydrophones are potentially cheaper and more robust than the piezoelectric models currently in clinical use, potentially providing more choice of materials and designs for monitoring therapy or producing arrays for imaging.

  14. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in nanocrystalline indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsh, E.A.; Marikutsa, A.V.; Martyshov, M.N.; Forsh, P.A.; Rumyantseva, M.N.; Gaskov, A.M.; Kashkarov, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The charge transport properties of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) are studied. A number of nanostructured In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method and characterized using various techniques. The mean nanocrystals size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm depending on the conditions of their preparation. Structural characterizations of the In 2 O 3 samples are performed by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of dc and ac conductivity in a wide temperature range (T = 50–300 K) shows that at high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band and at low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. We find out that the temperature of transition from one mechanism to another depends on nanocrystal size: the transition temperature rises when nanocrystals are bigger in size. The average hopping distance between two sites and the activation energy are calculated basing on the analysis of dc conductivity at low temperature. Using random barrier model we show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples and conclude that nanocrystalline In 2 O 3 can be regarded as a disordered system. - Highlights: • In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method. • The mean nanocrystal size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm. • At high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band. • At low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. • We show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples

  15. Imaging experimental coronary artery thrombosis with indium-111 platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of cardiac scintigraphy with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets to detect coronary artery thrombosis (CAT) was assessed in a canine model. Cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were performed shortly after administering 111 In-labeled platelets to 12 dogs (group 1) with acute CAT. Four dogs (group 2) with acute CAT were studied 2 and 22 hours after administering 111 In platelets. In addition, four dogs (group 3) with 24-hour-old CAT were similarly evaluated. In all group 1 animals, in vivo imaging 1 to 2 hours after 111 In platelet administration revealed intense uptake in the region of thrombus-containing left anterior descending arteries that was readily discernible from background blood pool activity. Sequential imaging of the four group 2 animals over a 22-hour period revealed no change in the scintigraphic pattern of the thrombosed arteries. In contrast, 111 In platelet imaging in the four group 3 animals with 24-hour-old CAT failed to reveal enhanced activity within the region of the thrombus-containing coronary artery. In the 12 group 1 animals, the CAT accumulated 69 +- 10 (mean +- SEM) times greater activity than present in blood and 651 +- 135 times greater activity than normal left ventricular myocardium. There was 24 +- 7 times greater 111 In activity in the damaged left anterior descending arteries compared with normal circumflex arteries. Similar uptake ratios were seen in group 2 animals. The 24-hour old thrombi from group 3 animals showed no enhanced 111 In uptake. This study demonstrates that experimental acute CAT can be detected readily with 111 In platelet cardiac scintigraphy

  16. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  17. Decay studies of the highly neutron-deficient indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    An extension of the experimentally known nuclidic mass surface to nuclei far from the region of beta-stability is of fundamental interest in providing a better determination of the input parameters for the various nuclear mass formulae, allowing a more accurate prediction of the ultimate limits of nuclear stability. In addition, a study of the shape of the mass surface in the vicinity of the doubly-closed nuclide 100 Sn provides initial information on the behavior of the shell closure to be expected when Z = N = 50. Experiments measuring the decay energies of 103 105 In by β-endpoint measurements are described with special attention focused on the development of a plastic scintillator β-telescope coupled to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer). An attempt to measure the β-endpoint energy of 102 In is also briefly described. The experimentally determined decay energies and derived masses for 103 105 In are compared with the predictions of different mass models to identify which models are more successful in this region. Furthermore, the inclusion in these comparisons of the available data on the neutron-rich indium nuclei permits a systematic study of their ground state mass behavior as a function of the neutron number between the shell closures at N = 50 and N = 82. These analyses indicate that the binding energy of 103 In is 1 MeV larger than predicted by the majority of the mass models. An examination of the Q/sub EC/ surface and the single- and two-neutron separation energies in the vicinity of 103 105 In is also performed to investigate further the deviation and other possible systematic variations in the mass surface in a model-independent way

  18. Recent developments in MrBUMP: better search-model preparation, graphical interaction with search models, and solution improvement and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M; McNicholas, Stuart J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simpkin, Adam J; Simkovic, Felix; Uski, Ville; Ballard, Charles C; Winn, Martyn D; Wilson, Keith S; Rigden, Daniel J

    2018-03-01

    Increasing sophistication in molecular-replacement (MR) software and the rapid expansion of the PDB in recent years have allowed the technique to become the dominant method for determining the phases of a target structure in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. In addition, improvements in bioinformatic techniques for finding suitable homologous structures for use as MR search models, combined with developments in refinement and model-building techniques, have pushed the applicability of MR to lower sequence identities and made weak MR solutions more amenable to refinement and improvement. MrBUMP is a CCP4 pipeline which automates all stages of the MR procedure. Its scope covers everything from the sourcing and preparation of suitable search models right through to rebuilding of the positioned search model. Recent improvements to the pipeline include the adoption of more sensitive bioinformatic tools for sourcing search models, enhanced model-preparation techniques including better ensembling of homologues, and the use of phase improvement and model building on the resulting solution. The pipeline has also been deployed as an online service through CCP4 online, which allows its users to exploit large bioinformatic databases and coarse-grained parallelism to speed up the determination of a possible solution. Finally, the molecular-graphics application CCP4mg has been combined with MrBUMP to provide an interactive visual aid to the user during the process of selecting and manipulating search models for use in MR. Here, these developments in MrBUMP are described with a case study to explore how some of the enhancements to the pipeline and to CCP4mg can help to solve a difficult case.

  19. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  20. Competitive segregation of gallium and indium at heterophase Cu-MnO interfaces studied with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogck, S.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the possible segregation of indium and gallium and competitive segregation of gallium and indium at atomically flat parallel {111}-oriented Cu-MnO interfaces. The segregation of gallium at Cu-MnO interfaces after introduction of gallium in the copper matrix of internally

  1. Low-temperature thermal expansion anomalies in indium and its solid solution alloys with thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Finlayson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Low-temperature thermal expansion measurements have been made for fct, solid solution indium-thallium single-crystal alloys containing 6, 19, 24 and 29 at.% Tl. The expansion coefficients along the 'a' and 'c' axes for the 6, 19 and 24% alloys follow the same anomalous variations with temperature below about 15 K as for those of pure indium, with no change in magnitude. This contrasts with an increased magnitude for the anomalies previously reported for In26.5at.%Tl alloy and reported here for the a-axis expansion for In29at.%Tl. These observations are discussed in terms of the Fermi surface topology for indium and their implications for the fcc to fct transformation in In-Tl alloys being electronically driven. 23 refs., 9 figs

  2. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  3. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  4. Use of activable cations as tracers in groundwater hydrology. The case of DTPA-Indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumu, Badimbayi Matu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of EDTA, CDTA and DTPA metallic complexes use as activable groundwater, tracers are discussed. Indium, which has good nuclear caracteristics for activation analysis and forms complexes of great stability with polyamino carboxylic acid has been for Laboratory and field studies. For corporative studies, Rhodomine B, a fluorescent tracer have been studied together with Indium complexes. In laboratory retention studies have been carried with In-EDTA, Iodine 131 and Rhodomine B, as tracers and bentonite, zeolite 13X and Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 as sorbents. As field studies, drainage evolution flow and resident time distribution of tracers substances in water, have been carried, under artificial rain conditions realized by aspersion. Results from field studies showed good characteristics of Indium Complexes especially in very absorbent medium (argilaceous limon) where their restitution balance were superior to that of Rhodomine B

  5. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement

  6. Effect of ion indium implantation on InP photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnaya, N.B.; Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Ursaki, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of indium phosphide single crystals implanted by indium after annealing under the protective Al 2 O 3 film in a nitrogen flow are investigated. As a result of implantation and annealing in photoluminescence spectra of crystals there appeared a new band with the maximum at 1.305 eV (T=6 K) which is connected with the free electron transition at the level of the antistructure defect of In p - lying by 0.115 eV above the valent zone ceiling. With large doses of the implanted indium in the photoluminescence spectrum a long-wave band with the maximum at 0.98-0.99 eV is also observed caused, apparently, by the strong lattice disorder

  7. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  8. Thermal resistance of indium coated sapphire-copper contacts below 0.1 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisel, T.; Bremer, J.; Koettig, T.

    2014-11-01

    High thermal resistances exist at ultra-low temperatures for solid-solid interfaces. This is especially true for pressed metal-sapphire joints, where the heat is transferred by phonons only. For such pressed joints it is difficult to achieve good physical, i.e. thermal contacts due to surface irregularities in the microscopic or larger scale. Applying ductile indium as an intermediate layer reduces the thermal resistance of such contacts. This could be proven by measurements of several researchers. However, the majority of the measurements were performed at temperatures higher than 1 K. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the thermal resistance of pressed metal-sapphire joints at temperatures below 1 K. In this paper the thermal resistances across four different copper-sapphire-copper sandwiches are presented in a temperature range between 30 mK and 100 mK. The investigated sandwiches feature either rough or polished sapphire discs (Ø 20 mm × 1.5 mm) to investigate the phonon scattering at the boundaries. All sandwiches apply indium foils as intermediate layers on both sides of the sapphire. Additionally to the indium foils, thin indium films are vapour deposited onto both sides of one rough and one polished sapphire in order to improve the contact to the sapphire. Significantly different thermal resistances have been found amongst the investigated sandwiches. The lowest total thermal resistivity (roughly 26 cm2 K4/W at 30 mK helium temperature) is achieved across a sandwich consisting of a polished sapphire with indium vapour deposition. The thermal boundary resistance between indium and sapphire is estimated from the total thermal resistivity by assuming the scattering at only one boundary, which is the warm sapphire boundary where phonons impinge, and taking the scattering in the sapphire bulk into account. The so derived thermal boundary resistance agrees at low temperatures very well with the acoustic mismatch theory.

  9. Determination of gold and indium in sea water by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Ohta, Naoichi

    1979-01-01

    A combination of electrodeposition on graphite with neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of gold and indium in sea water. At a potential of -0.70 V vs. the silver-silver chloride electrode, gold and indium were electrolyzed on to a graphite electrode (1.1 cm phi x 0.2 cm) from 100 ml of 0.5 M sodium chloride. Recovery yield of gold was constant at pH from 1 to 3 and was independent of the initial concentration of gold, (0.01 -- 1) ppb. For a 72-h electrolysis at pH 2 the recovery yield of gold was 92%, while that of indium was 32%. The graphite electrode was exposed to a thermal neutron flux of 5.1 x 10 11 or 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 : 5 min exposure for indium and 6 to 12 h for gold. After appropriate decay periods the activities of 198 Au and sup(116m)In were measured for 2000 s and 300 s, respectively, with a 4000-channel pulse-height analyser and a Ge(Li) detector. The total amount of gold in 1 l of a sea water sample (Tokyo Bay) was (0.023 +- 0.001)μg, in which nonelectrolyzable gold was estimated to be 0.005 μg. Indium concentration in the sample was too low to be determined by the present method. Detection limit for indium was 1 ppb. (author)

  10. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure determination of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1x1) reconstruction by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Zeysing, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed structural model of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1 X 1) surface reconstruction has been established by analyzing an extensive set of X-ray data recorded with synchrotron radiation. Our results show that models with one indium and one germanium adatom per unit cell are incompatible with ...... with the data. A model with two indium adatoms per unit cell saturates all the dangling bonds on the Ge(103) surface, preserves the symmetry and is compatible with all of the experimental results. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A detailed structural model of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1 X 1) surface reconstruction has been established by analyzing an extensive set of X-ray data recorded with synchrotron radiation. Our results show that models with one indium and one germanium adatom per unit cell are incompatible...

  12. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  13. Acute Toxicity of Thallium and Indium toward Brackish-Water and Marine Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Onikura, Norio; Nakamura, Akiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; 鬼倉, 徳雄; 中村, 亜希子; 岸, 克行

    2008-01-01

    We examined the toxic effects of thallium and indium on brackish-water and marine species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on Americamysis bahia, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia salina, and Sillago japonica. The LC50 values of thallium ranged from 3.48 to 100 mg/L, and this metal exhibited the strongest toxic effects on A. bahia. With regard to indium toxicity, the LC50 values ranged from 24 to 51 mg/L, and the strongest toxic effects were noted in B. plicatilis. The toxicity of thallium i...

  14. The density of molten indium at temperatures up to 600 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alchagirov, B.B.; Khatsukov, A.M.; Mozgovoj, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid indium density measurement is carried out through the pycnometric method within the temperature range of 434-600 K both by heating and cooling. The totality of the obtained results was processed through the approximating equation. The root-mean-square deviation of the experimental data from the approximating equation does not exceed ±0.01%. The high accuracy of the obtained results is noted. The deviation of the existing data on the liquid indium density from the approximating equation is shown graphically [ru

  15. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  16. Indium-111 labeled leukocytes in the evaluation of suspected abdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.E.; Black, R.E.; Welch, D.M.; Maxwell, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-eight indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging studies were performed in 53 patients with suspected abdominal abscesses. Twenty-nine studies gave abnormal results. Nine wound infections were demonstrated, and 14 abscesses were correctly identified. Four studied demonstrated colonic accumulation, one of which remains unexplained, and two accessory spleens were identified. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a sensitive and specific study in evaluating patients with suspected abdominal abscess. Differentiation of abscess from other causes of inflammation has not been a problem. The exact role of leukocyte imaging compared with gallium-67 citrate imaging, ultrasound and computerized tomography remains to be determined

  17. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...... developments in ITO replacement which include, but are not limited to, the use of nanomaterials such as metal nanogrids, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. The use of polymers and metals as replacement to ITO are described as well. Finally, recent progress in large-scale experiments on ITO...

  18. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  19. Distribution of indium, thallium and bismuth in the environmental water of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, A; Kimura, A; Tao, H

    2012-12-01

    Indium, thallium and bismuth are toxic and it is important to know the distribution of these elements in environmental water. The concentrations of these elements were measured in 50 sampling points in Japan and the reasons of high concentrations in several samples were discussed. The average concentrations (ng/L) of dissolved and particulate indium in river, lake and coastal seawater were 1.4-3.0 and 2.4-9.1, respectively. Those for thallium were 7.2-11.3 and 3.5-36.0. Those for bismuth were 12.7-24.0 and 12.1-52.7.

  20. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  1. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  2. Phosphasalen indium complexes showing high rates and isoselectivities in rac-lactide polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Dominic; White, Andrew J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Forsyth, Craig M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bown, Mark [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, Charlotte K. [Department of Chemistry, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    Polylactide (PLA) is the leading bioderived polymer produced commercially by the metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Control over tacticity to produce stereoblock PLA, from rac-lactide improves thermal properties but is an outstanding challenge. Here, phosphasalen indium catalysts feature high rates (30±3 m{sup -1} min{sup -1}, THF, 298 K), high control, low loadings (0.2 mol %), and isoselectivity (P{sub i}=0.92, THF, 258 K). Furthermore, the phosphasalen indium catalysts do not require any chiral additives. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komurcu, Pelin; Can, Emre Kaan; Aydin, Erkan; Semiz, Levent [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Gurol, Alp Eren; Alkan, Fatma Merve [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Sankir, Mehmet; Sankir, Nurdan Demirci [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Continuum modelling of silicon diffusion in indium gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Henry Lee, Jr.

    A possible method to overcome the physical limitations experienced by continued transistor scaling and continue improvements in performance and power consumption is integration of III-V semiconductors as alternative channel materials for logic devices. Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) is such a material from the III-V semiconductor family, which exhibit superior electron mobilities and injection velocities than that of silicon. In order for InGaAs integration to be realized, contact resistances must be minimized through maximizing activation of dopants in this material. Additionally, redistribution of dopants during processing must be clearly understood and ultimately controlled at the nanometer-scale. In this work, the activation and diffusion behavior of silicon, a prominent n-type dopant in InGaAs, has been characterized and subsequently modelled using the Florida Object Oriented Process and Device Simulator (FLOOPS). In contrast to previous reports, silicon exhibits non-negligible diffusion in InGaAs, even for smaller thermal budget rapid thermal anneals (RTAs). Its diffusion is heavily concentration-dependent, with broadening "shoulder-like" profiles when doping levels exceed 1-3x1019cm -3, for both ion-implanted and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown cases. Likewise a max net-activation value of ˜1.7x1019cm -3 is consistently reached with enough thermal processing, regardless of doping method. In line with experimental results and several ab-initio calculation results, rapid concentration-dependent diffusion of Si in InGaAs and the upper limits of its activation is believed to be governed by cation vacancies that serve as compensating defects in heavily n-type regions of InGaAs. These results are ultimately in line with an amphoteric defect model, where the activation limits of dopants are an intrinsic limitation of the material, rather than governed by individual dopant species or their methods of incorporation. As a result a Fermi level dependent point

  5. Hydrothermal fluoride and chloride complexation of indium: an EXAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Anselm; Testemale, Denis; Huotari, Simo; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Potapkin, Vasily; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Indium (In) is one of the geochemically lesser studied ore metals, and the factors that control the hydrothermal transport and deposition are largely unknown. It has no ore deposits of its own and is commonly mined as a by-product of Zn ores, and there are very few minerals that contain In as an essential structural component. Recently, industrial application of In in touch screen devices has drastically increased demand, which is projected to exceed supply from the current sources in the near future. Since the most relevant In sources are hydrothermal sphalerite ores and to a lesser extent hydrothermal greisen-type deposits in evolved granitic plutons, the aqueous geochemistry of In is of particular interest for understanding its ore forming processes. As a first step towards a comprehensive model for hydrothermal In solubility and speciation, we have studied In speciation in fluoride and chloride bearing solutions at 30-400˚ C and 500 bar using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. The experiments were conducted in a unique hydrothermal autoclave setup at beamline BM30B-FAME at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Our results show that the complexation of In changes dramatically between 30 and 400˚ C. Below ca. 200˚ C, fluoride complexes are the most stable ones, but they break down at higher temperatures. Chloride complexes on the other hand become increasingly stable with increasing temperature. This behavior has interesting consequences for natural ore forming systems. In Cl-rich systems (e.g. massive sulfide ores formed in sea floor environments), cooling can be an effective precipitating mechanism. In F-rich systems, fluoride complexation can extend In mobility to low temperatures and In will only precipitate when F is effectively removed from the fluid, e.g. by mixing with a Ca-rich fluid and precipitation of fluorite (CaF2) as is commonly observed in skarn or greisen-type deposits. Due to In complexing with

  6. High Affinity Binding of Indium and Ruthenium Ions by Gastrins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S Baldwin

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone gastrin binds two ferric ions with high affinity, and iron binding is essential for the biological activity of non-amidated forms of the hormone. Since gastrins act as growth factors in gastrointestinal cancers, and as peptides labelled with Ga and In isotopes are increasingly used for cancer diagnosis, the ability of gastrins to bind other metal ions was investigated systematically by absorption spectroscopy. The coordination structures of the complexes were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy. Changes in the absorption of gastrin in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ga3+ were fitted by a 2 site model with dissociation constants (Kd of 3.3 x 10-7 and 1.1 x 10-6 M. Although the absorption of gastrin did not change upon the addition of In3+ ions, the changes in absorbance on Fe3+ ion binding in the presence of indium ions were fitted by a 2 site model with Kd values for In3+ of 6.5 x 10-15 and 1.7 x 10-7 M. Similar results were obtained with Ru3+ ions, although the Kd values for Ru3+ of 2.6 x 10-13 and 1.2 x 10-5 M were slightly larger than observed for In3+. The structures determined by EXAFS all had metal:gastrin stoichiometries of 2:1 but, while the metal ions in the Fe, Ga and In complexes were bridged by a carboxylate and an oxygen with a metal-metal separation of 3.0-3.3 Å, the Ru complex clearly demonstrated a short range Ru-Ru separation, which was significantly shorter, at 2.4 Å, indicative of a metal-metal bond. We conclude that gastrin selectively binds two In3+ or Ru3+ ions, and that the affinity of the first site for In3+ or Ru3+ ions is higher than for ferric ions. Some of the metal ion-gastrin complexes may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Polyaromatic disordered carbon grains as carriers of the UV bump: Far-UV to mid-IR spectroscopy of laboratory analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Le, K. C.; Pino, T.; Alata, I.; Giuliani, A.; Dartois, E.

    2017-11-01

    Context. A multiwavelength study of laboratory carbons with varying degrees of hydrogenation and sp2 hybridization is required to characterize the structure of the carbonaceous carriers of interstellar and circumstellar extinction. Aims: We study the spectral properties of carbonaceous dust analogs from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared and correlate features in both spectral ranges to the aromatic/aliphatic degree. Methods: Analogs to carbonaceous interstellar dust encountered in various phases of the interstellar medium have been prepared in the laboratory. These are amorphous hydrogenated carbons (a-C:H), analogs to the diffuse interstellar medium component, and soot particles, analogs to the polyaromatic component. Thin films (d extinction, such as the associated coherent lengths and the size of polyaromatic units. Our study suggests that carriers of the interstellar UV bump should exhibit infrared bands akin to the A/B classes of the aromatic infrared bands, while the circumstellar bump carriers should exhibit bands corresponding to the B/C classes.

  8. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  9. Scaling Mesa Indium Phosphide DHBTs to Record Bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobisser, Evan

    Indium phosphide heterojunction bipolar transistors are able to achieve higher bandwidths at a given feature size than transistors in the Silicon material system for a given feature size. Indium phosphide bipolar transistors demonstrate higher breakdown voltages at a given bandwidth than both Si bipolars and field effect transistors in the InP material system. The high bandwidth of InP HBTs results from both intrinsic material parameters and bandgap engineering through epitaxial growth. The electron mobility in the InGaAs base and saturation velocity in the InP collector are both approximately three times higher than their counterparts in the SiGe material system. Resistance of the base can be made very low due to the large offset in the valence band between the InP emitter and the InGaAs base, which allows the base to be doped on the order of 1020 cm-3 with negligible reduction in emitter injection efficiency. This thesis deals with type-I, NPN dual-heterojunction bipolar transistors. The emitters are InP, and the base is InGaAs. There is a thin (˜ 10 nm) n-type InGaAs "setback" region, followed by a chirped superlattice InGaAs/InAlAs grade to the InP collector. The setback, grade, and collector are all lightly doped n-type. The emitter and collector are contacted through thin (˜ 5 nm) heavily doped n-type InGaAs layers to reduce contact resistivity. The primary focus of this work is increasing the bandwidth of InP HBTs through the proportional scaling of the device dimensions, both layer thicknesses and junction areas, as well as the reduction of the contact resistivities associated with the transistor. Essentially, all RC time constants and transit times must be reduced by a factor of two to double a transistor's bandwidth. Chapter 2 describes in detail the scaling laws and design principles for high frequency bipolar transistor design. A low-stress, blanket sputter deposited composite emitter metal process was developed. Refractory metal base contacts were

  10. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  11. Electrical properties of vacuum-annealed titanium-doped indium oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass 2000 substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by vacuum post-annealing. With increasing deposition power, the as-deposited films showed an increasingly crystalline nature. As-deposited

  12. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fabrication of miniature heater indium tin oxide thin film was grown on special high temperature corning glass substrate by flash evaporation method. Gold was deposited on the film using thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum. The film was then annealed at 700 K for an hour. The thermocouple attached ...

  13. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Gas sensors play vital role in detecting, monitoring and controlling the presence of hazardous and poisonous gases in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. Semicon- .... detailed procedure for deposition of indium tin oxide films and the effect of .... The conductance of the sensor was measured with digital.

  14. Modified method for labeling human platelets with indium-111 oxine using albumin density-gradient separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, R.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Finkelstein, S.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    When labeling platelets with indium-111 oxine, albumin density-gradient separation minimizes the time spent to resuspend those platelets that have been centrifuged against a hard surface. Labeling efficiency or platelet viability, as measured by platelet survival or aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, are not adversely affected

  15. Preparation of imaging kits locally using indium-113 as a suitable short-lived generator product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Hamid Seidna

    1999-05-01

    In this study forty patients are selected to do brain , lung , bone , liver and spleen imaging. Patients were selected carefully in the bases of the imaging history disorders. Kits prepared and kept frozen in (- 20 degree C) eluent the generator and indium 113 products were added to each kit and imaging sorted out using gamma camera and analysed statistically

  16. Study of the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation indium 111 labelled DTPA. Report of 300 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, R.; Askienazy, S.; Mathieu, E.; Moretti, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the C.S.F. circulation by intrathecal injection of radioactive tracers is a usual technique of neurological exploration. Indium-111 DTPA has numerous advantages for this type of study. It is a chelating agent, the renal clearance of which is rapid and which has no toxicity at the dose injected. Indium-111 is a cyclotron product with a half-life (2.8 days) compatible with the duration of the examination. Finally the dose of radioactivity delivered by this isotope is less than that of iodine 131, Technetium 99m, and ytterbium 169. In normal subjects after injection by the lumbar route, the average biological half-life measured by external counting lies between 20 and 28 hours. A study of the circulation of the C.S.F. is particularly useful in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. It permits finer diagnosis and shows the indication and type of by pass operation that may be necessary. An increase in the biological half-life of indium 111-DTPA seems to be a good indication for such an operation. An experience of 300 patients has shown the interest of the use of Indium 111-DTPA which now seems to be the best radio-isotope for the study of the subarachnoid space [fr

  17. Efficient Indium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Aromatics in Ionic Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C. Zacconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient indium-mediated dehalogenation reaction of haloaromatics and haloheteroaromatics in ionic liquids has been studied. This method is simple and effective in the presence of [bmim]Br. Furthermore, this methodology is environmentally friendly compared with conventional ones.

  18. Possible pitfalls with clinical imaging of indium-111 leukocytes: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.E.; Welch, D.

    1980-01-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a reliable procedure for detecting abscesses. Problems such as cell clumping can occur before injection, thus altering the normal distribution. Furthermore, accumulation of the labeled leukocytes in the colon, brain infarcts, and accessory spleens has been observed. Thus, these physiologic and pathologic conditions other than abscesses must be borne in mind to avoid false-positive diagnoses of abscess

  19. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...

  20. Structural analysis of the indium-stabilized GaAs(001)-c(8×2) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, T.-L.; Kumpf, C.; Kazimirov, A.

    2002-01-01

    The indium-stabilized GaAs(001)-c(8x2) surface was investigated by surface x-ray diffraction and x-ray standing waves. We find that the reconstruction closely resembles the c(8x2) structure described by the recently proposed unified model for clean III-V semiconductor surfaces [Kumpf , Phys. Rev....

  1. The clinical utility of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the diagnoses of renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desir, G.V.; Bia, M.; Lange, R.C.; Smith, E.O.; Flye, W.; Kashgarian, M.; Schiff, M.; Ezekowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    It is demonstrated that indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy is a highly accurate test for detecting acute untreated renal allograft rejection and it is shown that changes in platelet uptake can precede signs and symptoms of rejection by at least 48 hours. (author). 34 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Indium-doped aluminium oxide as a non-radioactive test aerosol for aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosselmeyer, E.; Mueller, H.L.; Seidel, A.; Pickering, S.

    1986-01-01

    For testing inhalation facilities it is advantageous to use a non-radioactive, low toxicity test aerosol which can be detected at low concentrations. These criteria are met by a mechanically generated aerosol of indium-doped alumina. Although some cases of lung fibroses have been associated with the inhalation of aluminium compounds in industry, aluminum oxide aerosols are generally considered to be non-toxic. Indium was chosen as a dopant material because (a) it is not normally present in the lung in detectable amounts, (b) it is chemically similar to aluminum and (c) it can be detected in trace amounts by neutron activation analysis (Friberg et al., 1979). Indium aerosols have the same advantages as radioactive tracers for ease of detection, but they are non-toxic during use. This combination of properties offers advantages that could be of use in a wider range of applications than hitherto used, e.g. in inhalation experiments. This paper describes nose-only inhalation experiments on rats using an aerosol of alumina doped with indium. (author)

  3. Nano indium oxide as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano indium oxide is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the reaction between aryl cyanamides and sodium azide to synthesize the arylaminotetrazoles in good yields. This method has advantages of high yields, simple methodology, short reaction times and easy work-up. The catalyst can be recovered and reused.

  4. Enlargement of photocatalytic efficiency of BaSnO3 by indium doping for thiophene degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobahi, Tariq R.; Amin, M. S.; Mohamed, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    BaSnO3 nanorods were produced by a sol-gel mode. Indium, as dopant, was introduced to the surface of BaSnO3 via photo-assisted deposition technique. Phase composition, microstructure and surface area of the synthesized samples were identified via X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and BET techniques, respectively. State of element, band gap energy and position of emission energy were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence emission spectra (Pl), respectively. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of both BaSnO3 and In/BaSnO3 specimens was implemented for photocatalytic destruction of thiophene solution via visible light irradiation. XPS results displayed the patterns corresponding to the In-In at about 443.8 eV, illustrating the presence of indium metal in a nano-sized scale. A red shift was observed after indium loading within the BaSnO3 lattice which was proved via the UV-Vis analysis. 100% oxidation efficiency percent was attained using 0.3 wt% In/BaSnO3 photocatalyst after 1 h reaction time. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the indium doping into BaSnO3 as a result of its capability to hinder the e--h+ re-combination. The catalyst was reused up to five cycles without any change in its efficiency.

  5. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  6. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile precursors ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with di- thiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these com- plexes are ...

  7. Nano indium oxide as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano indium oxide is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the reaction between aryl cyanamides and sodium azide to synthesize the arylaminotetrazoles in good yields. This method has advantages of high yields, simple methodology, short reaction times and easy work-up. The catalyst can be recovered and reused in ...

  8. Fabrication of a novel MOS diode by indium incorporation control for microelectronic applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaliliba, M.; Benouis, C. E.; Aida, M. S.; Ayeshamariam, A.

    2017-06-01

    Control of the electronic parameters on a novel metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode by indium doping incorporation is emphasized and investigated. The electronic parameters, such as ideality factor, barrier height (BH), series resistance, and charge carrier density are extracted from the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The properties of the MOS diode based on 4%, 6% and 8% indium doped tin oxide are largely studied. The Ag/SnO{}2/nSi/Au MOS diode is fabricated by spray pyrolysis route, at 300 °C from the In-doped SnO{}2 layer. This was grown onto n-type silicon and metallic (Au) contacts which were made by thermal evaporation under a vacuum @ 10{}-5 Torr and having a thickness of 120 nm and a diameter of 1 mm. Determined by the Cheung-Cheung approximation method, the series resistance increases (334-534 Ω ) with the In doping level while the barrier height (BH) remains constant around 0.57 V. The Norde calculation technique gives a similar BH value of 0.69 V but the series resistance reaches higher values of 5500 Ω . The indium doping level influences on the characteristics of Ag/SnO{}2:In/Si/Au MOS diode while the 4% indium level causes the capacitance inversion and the device turns into p-type material.

  9. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  10. Impact of atmospheric species on copper indium gallium selenide solar cell stability: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the measurement techniques and results of studies on the stability of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells and their individual layers in the presence of atmospheric species is presented: in these studies, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, their molybdenum back contact, and their

  11. Effect of indium doping on zinc oxide films prepared by chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the conducting and transparent In doped ZnO films fabricated by a homemade chemical spray pyrolysis system (CSPT). The effect of In concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties have been studied. These films are found to show (0 0 2) preferential growth at low indium ...

  12. Photochemical Grafting and Patterning of Organic Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    Covalently attached organic layers on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were prepared by the photochemical grafting with 1-alkenes. The surface modification was monitored with static water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements.

  13. Mimicking Biological Synaptic Functionality with an Indium Phosphide Synaptic Device on Silicon for Scalable Neuromorphic Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarghya; Tao, Jun; Wang, Wei; Lin, Qingfeng; Yeung, Matthew; Ren, Chenhao; Kapadia, Rehan

    2018-02-27

    Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors. However, present day 3-D transistor implementations of synapses are typically based on low-mobility semiconductor channels or technologies that are not scalable. Here, we demonstrate a crystalline indium phosphide (InP)-based artificial synapse for spiking neural networks that exhibits elasticity, short-term plasticity, long-term plasticity, metaplasticity, and spike timing-dependent plasticity, emulating the critical behaviors exhibited by biological synapses. Critically, we show that this crystalline InP device can be directly integrated via back-end processing on a Si wafer using a SiO 2 buffer without the need for a crystalline seed, enabling neuromorphic devices that can be implemented in a scalable and 3-D architecture. Specifically, the device is a crystalline InP channel field-effect transistor that interacts with neuron spikes by modification of the population of filled traps in the MOS structure itself. Unlike other transistor-based implementations, we show that it is possible to mimic these biological functions without the use of external factors (e.g., surface adsorption of gas molecules) and without the need for the high electric fields necessary for traditional flash-based implementations. Finally, when exposed to neuronal spikes with a waveform similar to that observed in the brain, these devices exhibit the ability to learn without the

  14. Heat-up Synthesis of Ag-In-S and Ag-In-S/ZnS Nanocrystals: Effect of Indium Precursors on Their Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Ahmadiantehrani, Mojtaba; Zhao, Jialong; Zhu, Shaihong; Mamalis, Athanasios G; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2016-04-25

    Cadmium-free I-III-VI nanocrystals (NCs) have recently attracted much research interests due to their excellent optical properties and low toxicity. In this work, with a simple heat-up synthetic system to prepare high quality Ag-In-S (AIS) NCs and their core/shell structures (AIS/ZnS NCs), we investigated the effect of different indium precursors (indium acetate and indium chloride) on NC optical properties. The measurements on photoluminescence spectra of AIS NCs show that the photoluminescence peak-wavelength of AIS NCs using indium acetate is in the range from 596 to 604 nm, and that of AIS NCs using indium chloride is from 641 to 660 nm. AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate present around 15% and 40% QYs, and both AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium chloride present around 31% QYs. The photoluminescence decay study indicates that the lifetime parameters of AIS and AIS/ZnS using indium chloride are 2 ~ 4 times larger than those of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate. Moreover, AIS NCs using indium chloride have a slower photobleaching dynamics than AIS NCs using indium acetate, and ZnS shell coating on both types of AIS NCs significantly enhances their photostability against UV exposure. We believe that the unique optical properties of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs will open an avenue for these materials to be employed in broad electronic or biomedical applications.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of indium substituted nanocrystalline Mobil Five (MFI) zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Kishor Kr. [Department of Chemistry, ADP College, Nagaon, Assam 782002 (India); Nandi, Mithun [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam 781014 (India); Talukdar, Anup K., E-mail: anup_t@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam 781014 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • In situ modification of the MFI zeolite by incorporation of indium. • The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, UV–vis (DRS), SAA, EDX and SEM. • The incorporation of indium was confirmed by XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis (DRS), EDX and TGA. • Hydroxylation of phenol reaction was studied on the synthesized catalysts. - Abstract: A series of indium doped Mobil Five (MFI) zeolite were synthesized hydrothermally with silicon to aluminium and indium molar ratio of 100 and with aluminium to indium molar ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The MFI zeolite phase was identified by XRD and FT-IR analysis. In XRD analysis the prominent peaks were observed at 2θ values of around 6.5° and 23° with a few additional shoulder peaks in case of all the indium incorporated samples suggesting formation of pure phase of the MFI zeolite. All the samples under the present investigation were found to exhibit high crystallinity (∼92%). The crystallite sizes of the samples were found to vary from about 49 to 55 nm. IR results confirmed the formation of MFI zeolite in all cases showing distinct absorbance bands near 1080, 790, 540, 450 and 990 cm{sup −1}. TG analysis of In-MFI zeolites showed mass losses in three different steps which are attributed to the loss due to adsorbed water molecules and the two types TPA{sup +} cations. Further, the UV–vis (DRS) studies reflected the position of the indium metal in the zeolite framework. Surface area analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out to characterize the synthesized samples The analysis showed that the specific surface area ranged from ∼357 to ∼361 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and the pore volume of the synthesized samples ranged from 0.177 to 0.182 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The scanning electron microscopy studies showed the structure of the samples to be rectangular and twinned rectangular shaped. The EDX analysis was carried out for confirmation of Si, Al and In in zeolite frame work. The catalytic activities of

  16. Defects, strain relaxation, and compositional grading in high indium content InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazioti, C.; Kehagias, Th.; Pavlidou, E.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadomanolaki, E.; Iliopoulos, E. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion Crete, Greece and Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Walther, T. [Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Smalc-Koziorowska, J. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the structural properties of a series of high alloy content InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, employing the deposition temperature as variable under invariant element fluxes. Using transmission electron microscopy methods, distinct strain relaxation modes were observed, depending on the indium content attained through temperature adjustment. At lower indium contents, strain relaxation by V-pit formation dominated, with concurrent formation of an indium-rich interfacial zone. With increasing indium content, this mechanism was gradually substituted by the introduction of a self-formed strained interfacial InGaN layer of lower indium content, as well as multiple intrinsic basal stacking faults and threading dislocations in the rest of the film. We show that this interfacial layer is not chemically abrupt and that major plastic strain relaxation through defect introduction commences upon reaching a critical indium concentration as a result of compositional pulling. Upon further increase of the indium content, this relaxation mode was again gradually succeeded by the increase in the density of misfit dislocations at the InGaN/GaN interface, leading eventually to the suppression of the strained InGaN layer and basal stacking faults.

  17. Extraction of indium from sulfuric acid solutions by mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric and caprylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flejtlikh, I.Yu.; Pashkov, G.L.; Nikiforova, L.K.; Grigor'eva, N.A.; Pavlenko, N.I.; Kolesnichenko, G.V.; Stoyanov, E.S.; Makarov, I.V.; Khol'kin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on indium extraction from sulfuric acid solutions by mixtures of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HR) and caprylic acid (HA) are presented. By the methods of IR spectroscopy state of HR in HA is investigated. It is shown that imperfection in this system is described by the processes of partial HR dimerization in organic phase. During indium extraction there is strong antagonistic effect caused by interaction HR and HA because of formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. In the case of low indium concentration and big excess of extractant formation of In(HR 2 ) 3 takes place in organic phase as is in the case of application of inert diluents [ru

  18. [Mechanism of renal elimination of 2 elements of group IIIA of the periodic table : aluminum and indium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P

    1981-01-05

    Aluminium and indium, two elements of group IIIA of the periodic table, are concentrated by the kidney inside lysosomes of proximal tubule cell. In these lysosomes, aluminium and indium are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts and these precipitates are then expelled in the tubular lumen and eliminated with the urinary flow. These data have been visualized by analytical microscopy (ion microscopy and X ray microanalysis). Local acid phosphatases are assumed to permit the concentration of aluminium and indium salts inside the lysosomes.

  19. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  20. Perspective nouvelle pour la récupération de l'indium issu des e-déchets par électrodéposition dans les liquides ioniques à température ambiante

    OpenAIRE

    Traore, Youssouf

    2012-01-01

    Faced with explosive growth in demand for indium and, faced with challenges to both socio-economic and political potential it represents, the recycling of indium content in the equipments of end of life remains the only alternative to address risk of shortages. Beyond the economic and strategic aspects, recycling of indium can help preserving the environment by preventing large-scale exploitation of mineral ores containing indium. In addition, the toxicity of indium alone justifies the develo...

  1. Blood pressure self-monitoring in pregnancy (BuMP) feasibility study; a qualitative analysis of women's experiences of self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Lisa; Tucker, Katherine L; Greenfield, Sheila M; Hodgkinson, James A; Mackillop, Lucy; McCourt, Christine; Carver, Trisha; Crawford, Carole; Glogowska, Margaret; Locock, Louise; Selwood, Mary; Taylor, Kathryn S; McManus, Richard J

    2017-12-19

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity worldwide. Raised blood pressure (BP) affects 10% of pregnancies worldwide, of which almost half develop pre-eclampsia. The proportion of pregnant women who have risk factors for pre-eclampsia (such as pre-existing hypertension, obesity and advanced maternal age) is increasing. Pre-eclampsia can manifest itself before women experience symptoms and can develop between antenatal visits. Incentives to improve early detection of gestational hypertensive disorders are therefore strong and self-monitoring of blood pressure (SMBP) in pregnancy might be one means to achieve this, whilst improving women's involvement in antenatal care. The Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring in Pregnancy (BuMP) study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SMBP in pregnancy. To understand women's experiences of SMBP during pregnancy, we undertook a qualitative study embedded within the BuMP observational feasibility study. Women who were at higher risk of developing hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia were invited to take part in a study using SMBP and also invited to take part in an interview. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the women's homes in Oxfordshire and Birmingham with women who were self-monitoring their BP as part of the BuMP feasibility study in 2014. Interviews were conducted by a qualitative researcher and transcribed verbatim. A framework approach was used for analysis. Fifteen women agreed to be interviewed. Respondents reported general willingness to engage with monitoring their own BP, feeling that it could reduce anxiety around their health during pregnancy, particularly if they had previous experience of raised BP or pre-eclampsia. They felt able to incorporate self-monitoring into their weekly routines, although this was harder post-partum. Self-monitoring of BP made them more aware of the risks of hypertension and pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. Feelings of

  2. Indium Catalysts for Ring Opening Polymerization: Exploring the Importance of Catalyst Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Kimberly M; Mehrkhodavandi, Parisa

    2017-11-21

    Inexorably, the environmental persistence and damage caused by polyolefins have become major drawbacks to their continued long-term use. Global shifts in thinking from fossil-fuel to renewable biobased resources have urged researchers to focus their attention on substituting fossil-fuel based polymers with renewable and biodegradable alternatives on an industrial scale. The recent development of biodegradable polyesters from ring opening polymerization (ROP) of bioderived cyclic ester monomers has emerged as a promising new avenue toward this goal. Ever increasing numbers of metal-based initiators have been reported in the literature for the controlled ROP of cyclic esters, in particular for the polymerization of lactide to produce poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA has several material weaknesses, which hinder its use as a replacement for commodity plastics. Despite many advances in developing highly active and controlled catalysts for lactide polymerization, no single catalyst system has emerged to replace industrially used catalysts and provide access to PLA materials with improved properties. We reported the first example of indium(III) for the ring opening polymerization of lactide. Since then, indium(III) has emerged as a useful Lewis acid in initiators for the controlled polymerization of lactide and other cyclic esters. In particular, we have developed a large family of chiral dinuclear indium complexes bearing tridentate diaminophenolate ligands and tetradentate salen and salan ligands. Complexes within our tridentate ligand family are highly active initiators for the moderately isoselective living and immortal polymerization of rac-lactide, as well as other cyclic esters. We have shown that subtle steric effects influence aggregation in these systems, with polymerization typically proceeding through a dinuclear propagating species. In addition, profound effects on polymerization activities have been observed for central tertiary versus secondary amine donors in

  3. LATE TIME MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT J1644+5734: A LUMINOUS OPTICAL/IR BUMP AND QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J.; Brown, G. C.; Lyman, J. D.; Stanway, E. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Page, K. L.; O’Brien, P. T.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Metzger, B. D. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, J. S., E-mail: A.J.Levan@warwick.ac.uk [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present late time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than t{sup −70}. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of L{sub X} ∼ 5 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1} and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of t{sup −5/3}, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = 3 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint active galactic nucleus or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30–50 days, with a peak magnitude (corrected for host galaxy extinction) of M{sub R} ∼ −22 to −23. The luminosity of the bump is significantly higher than seen in other, non-relativistic TDFs and does not match any re-brightening seen at X-ray or radio wavelengths. Its luminosity, light curve shape, and spectrum are broadly similar to those seen in superluminous supervnovae, although subject to large uncertainties in the correction of the significant host extinction. We discuss these observations in the context of both TDF and massive star origins for Swift J1644+5734 and other candidate relativistic tidal flares.

  4. New PARSEC data base of α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones - I. Calibration with 47 Tuc (NGC 104) and the improvement on RGB bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Montalbán, Josefina; Chen, Yang; Nanni, Ambra

    2018-05-01

    Precise studies on the Galactic bulge, globular cluster, Galactic halo, and Galactic thick disc require stellar models with α enhancement and various values of helium content. These models are also important for extra-Galactic population synthesis studies. For this purpose, we complement the existing PARSEC models, which are based on the solar partition of heavy elements, with α-enhanced partitions. We collect detailed measurements on the metal mixture and helium abundance for the two populations of 47 Tuc (NGC 104) from the literature, and calculate stellar tracks and isochrones with these α-enhanced compositions. By fitting the precise colour-magnitude diagram with HST ACS/WFC data, from low main sequence till horizontal branch (HB), we calibrate some free parameters that are important for the evolution of low mass stars like the mixing at the bottom of the convective envelope. This new calibration significantly improves the prediction of the red giant branch bump (RGBB) brightness. Comparison with the observed RGB and HB luminosity functions also shows that the evolutionary lifetimes are correctly predicted. As a further result of this calibration process, we derive the age, distance modulus, reddening, and the RGB mass-loss for 47 Tuc. We apply the new calibration and α-enhanced mixtures of the two 47 Tuc populations ([α/Fe] ˜ 0.4 and 0.2) to other metallicities. The new models reproduce the RGB bump observations much better than previous models. This new PARSEC data base, with the newly updated α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones, will also be a part of the new stellar products for Gaia.

  5. New PARSEC database of α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones I. Calibration with 47 Tuc (NGC104) and the improvement on RGB bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Montalbán, Josefina; Chen, Yang; Nanni, Ambra

    2018-01-01

    Precise studies on the Galactic bulge, globular cluster, Galactic halo and Galactic thick disk require stellar models with α enhancement and various values of helium content. These models are also important for extra-Galactic population synthesis studies. For this purpose we complement the existing PARSEC models, which are based on the solar partition of heavy elements, with α-enhanced partitions. We collect detailed measurements on the metal mixture and helium abundance for the two populations of 47 Tuc (NGC 104) from the literature, and calculate stellar tracks and isochrones with these α-enhanced compositions. By fitting the precise color-magnitude diagram with HST ACS/WFC data, from low main sequence till horizontal branch, we calibrate some free parameters that are important for the evolution of low mass stars like the mixing at the bottom of the convective envelope. This new calibration significantly improves the prediction of the RGB bump brightness. Comparison with the observed RGB and HB luminosity functions also shows that the evolutionary lifetimes are correctly predicted. As a further result of this calibration process, we derive the age, distance modulus, reddening, and the red giant branch mass loss for 47 Tuc. We apply the new calibration and α-enhanced mixtures of the two 47 Tuc populations ( [α/Fe] ˜0.4 and 0.2) to other metallicities. The new models reproduce the RGB bump observations much better than previous models. This new PARSEC database, with the newly updated α-enhanced stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones, will also be part of the new stellar products for Gaia.

  6. Heat-up synthesis of Ag–In–S and Ag–In–S/ZnS nanocrystals: Effect of indium precursors on their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siqi [Department of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, NV (United States); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Nevada Reno, NV (United States); Ahmadiantehrani, Mojtaba [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, NV (United States); Zhao, Jialong [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Jilin (China); Zhu, Shaihong [Xiangya Third Hospital of Central South University, Changsha (China); Mamalis, Athanasios G. [National Center Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens (Greece); Zhu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: xzhu@unr.edu [Department of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, NV (United States); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Nevada Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Cadmium-free I–III–VI nanocrystals (NCs) have recently attracted much research interests due to their excellent optical properties and low toxicity. In this work, with a simple heat-up synthetic system to prepare high quality Ag–In–S (AIS) NCs and their core/shell structures (AIS/ZnS NCs), we investigated the effect of different indium precursors (indium acetate and indium chloride) on NC optical properties. The measurements on photoluminescence spectra of AIS NCs show that the photoluminescence peak-wavelength of AIS NCs using indium acetate is in the range from 596 to 604 nm, and that of AIS NCs using indium chloride is from 641 to 660 nm. AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate present around 15% and 40% QYs, and both AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium chloride present around 31% QYs. The photoluminescence decay study indicates that the lifetime parameters of AIS and AIS/ZnS using indium chloride are 2–4 times larger than those of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate. Moreover, AIS NCs using indium chloride have a slower photobleaching dynamics than AIS NCs using indium acetate, and ZnS shell coating on both types of AIS NCs significantly enhances their photostability against UV exposure. We believe that the unique optical properties of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs will open an avenue for these materials to be employed in broad electronic or biomedical applications. - Highlights: • High quality of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs were prepared by heat-up. • Different indium precursors in AIS synthesis can impact AIS optical properties. • The impacted optical properties include emission colors, brightness and life time. • The reason why different indium precursors impact optical properties was explored. • The prepared NCs may have broad electronic and biomedical applications.

  7. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    remains the primary material of choice. This research is about investigating Indium Arsenide nanowires as alternative platform for sensing charged species - chemical and biological, in solution. Starting with nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we discuss......H sensing, we apply the same to a more complex system - proteins. The sensing protocol involves the functionalization of the sensor surface with a receptor protein followed by the addition of the protein of interest. Sensor response to oppositely charged proteins is used to confirm the sensitivity...... of the sensor to the protein charge....

  8. Recoil chemistry in inorganic solids with simultaneous activation of anion and cation: indium iodate system [ Paper No. NC-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recoil chemistry of indium iodate has been worked out along with that of indium sulphate and potassium iodate with a view to find out the role of hot atoms of cation and anion being activated simultaneously. The chemical identification and separation has been presented in this paper along with some preliminary results on retention and yield of different hot species produced under (n,γ) process. (author)

  9. Analytical drain current model for symmetric dual-gate amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting; Liao, Congwei; Huang, Shengxiang; Yu, Tianbao; Deng, Lianwen

    2018-01-01

    An analytical drain current model based on the surface potential is proposed for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-InGaZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a synchronized symmetric dual-gate (DG) structure. Solving the electric field, surface potential (φS), and central potential (φ0) of the InGaZnO film using the Poisson equation with the Gaussian method and Lambert function is demonstrated in detail. The compact analytical model of current–voltage behavior, which consists of drift and diffusion components, is investigated by regional integration, and voltage-dependent effective mobility is taken into account. Comparison results demonstrate that the calculation results obtained using the derived models match well with the simulation results obtained using a technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tool. Furthermore, the proposed model is incorporated into SPICE simulations using Verilog-A to verify the feasibility of using DG InGaZnO TFTs for high-performance circuit designs.

  10. Synthesis of Cu-Poor Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide Nanoparticles by Solvothermal Route for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ping Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS thin films were fabricated using precursor nanoparticle ink and sintering technology. The precursor was a Cu-poor quaternary compound with constituent ratios of Cu/(In+Ga=0.603, Ga/(In+Ga=0.674, and Se/(Cu+In+Ga=1.036. Cu-poor CIGS nanoparticles of chalcopyrite for solar cells were successfully synthesized using a relatively simple and convenient elemental solvothermal route. After a fixed reaction time of 36 h at 180°C, CIGS nanocrystals with diameters in the range of 20–70 nm were observed. The nanoparticle ink was fabricated by mixing CIGS nanoparticles, a solvent, and an organic polymer. Analytical results reveal that the Cu-poor CIGS absorption layer prepared from a nanoparticle-ink polymer by sintering has a chalcopyrite structure and a favorable composition. For this kind of sample, its mole ratio of Cu : In : Ga : Se is equal to 0.617 : 0.410 : 0.510 : 2.464 and related ratios of Ga/(In+Ga and Cu/(In+Ga are 0.554 and 0.671, respectively. Under the condition of standard air mass 1.5 global illumination, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated by this kind of sample is 4.05%.

  11. An Investigation into the Effect of Cation-exchange on the Adsorption Performance of Indium-based Sodalite-ZMOF

    KAUST Repository

    Samin, Umer A.

    2016-04-13

    There is a pressing need for advanced solid-state materials that can be implemented in industrial gas separation processes to achieve separations with a significantly reduced energy input compared to what is typically required from current technologies. Although certain porous materials like zeolites bear some commercial significance for gas separation; their inherent lack of tunability limits the extent to which these materials may be exploited in industry. Zeolite-like Metal-Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs) are a sub-class of Metal-Organic Framework materials (MOFs) that show a structural semblance to zeolites while possessing the tunability advantages of MOF materials. ZMOFs which are topologically similar to certain zeolites can be functionalised and tuned in numerous ways to improve their gas separation properties. In this work, indium-based sod-ZMOF was tuned by cation-exchange and then characterised by different experimental tools such as single-crystal x-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and gas adsorption. It was found that various parameters like the choice of cation, the concentration of salt solution and the choice of solvent had a significant bearing on the cation-exchange of sod-ZMOF and its subsequent adsorption properties.

  12. Recycling of indium from waste LCD: A promising non-crushing leaching with the aid of ultrasonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Bin; Wu, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Rubing; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Zuo, Tieyong

    2017-06-01

    The tremendous amount of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has become one of the prominent sources of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in recent years. Despite the necessity of safe treatment, recycling indium is also a focus of waste LCD treatment because of the scarcity of indium. Based on the analyses of the structure of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, crushing is demonstrated to be not required. In the present research, a complete non-crushing leaching method was firstly adopted to recycle indium from waste LCDs, and the ultrasonic waves was applied in the leaching process. The results demonstrated that indium can be leached efficiently with even a low concentration of chloride acid (HCl) without extra heating. About 96.80% can be recovered in 60mins, when the ITO glass was leached by 0.8MHCl with an enhancement of 300W ultrasonic waves. The indium leaching process is abridged free from crushing, and proves to be of higher efficiency. In addition, the ultrasonic wave influence on leaching process was also explained combing with micron-scale structure of ITO glass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  14. Effect of InAlAs window layer on the efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Landis, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide-bandgap lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In0.52Al0.48As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated using a numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improves significantly with the use of a window layer. No improvement is seen for n(+)p InP cells. Cell results are explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction-band energy discontinuity. The calculated I-V and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrate that In0.52Al0.48As is a promising candidate as a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  15. Effect of InAlAs window layer on efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide bandgap, lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In(0.52)Al(0.48)As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated by using the numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improved significantly with the use of the window layer. No improvement was seen for the n(+)p InP cells. The cell results were explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction band energy discontinuity. The calculated current voltage and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrated that In(0.52)Al(0.48)As is a very promising candidate for a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  16. Electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of cadmium sulfide monocrystals doped by indium and irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidyuk, G E; Manzhara, V S

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of irradiation by E = 1.2 MeV energy and PHI = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 dose fast electrons on electrical, optical and photoelectrical CdS single-crystals doped by In. On the basis of analysis of the experimental results one makes conclusions about decomposition and, in this case, indium atoms occurring in cation sublattice nodes are knocked out by cadmium atoms. In CdS:In irradiated specimens one detected new centres of slow recombination with occurrence of maximums of photoconductivity optical suppression within lambda sub M sub sub 1 = 0.75 mu m and lambda sub M sub sub 2 = 1.03 mu m range. It is assumed that complexes containing cadmium vacancies and indium atoms are responsible for recombination new centres

  17. Compton scattering studies of the electron momentum distribution in indium phosphide

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, A; Guin, R; Chatterjee, A K

    1999-01-01

    The electron momentum anisotropy of indium phosphide has been studied by measuring the directional Compton profiles of indium phosphide single crystals with the use of radiation from an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am gamma source. Three different samples, cut along the [100], [110] and [111] planes, were used. The experimental anisotropy has been compared with the results based on the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) method. The agreement is very good with our theoretical results. It is found that the extrema appearing in the dependences on q of the anisotropies have an intimate connection with the bonding properties of the semiconductor. A self-consistent, all-electron, local density calculation for the partial density of states, total density of states and the charge analysis is also presented here.

  18. Silver-indium-cadmium control rod behaviour during a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Jenkins, R.A.; Nichols, A.L.; Rowe, N.A.; Simpson, J.A.H.

    1986-04-01

    An alloy of silver, indium and cadmium is commonly used as control rod material in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The behaviour of this alloy has been studied in a series of experiments using an induction furnace to achieve temperatures up to 1900K. The aerosols released from overheated clad and unclad control rod samples have been characterised in both steam and inert atmospheres. Mass balance experiments have been undertaken to determine the distribution of the control rod alloy constituents following rupture of the cladding, and this work has been supported by thermogravimetric studies of silver-indium mixtures. Metallographic studies were also undertaken to assess the failure mode of the stainless steel cladding and the interaction of the molten alloy with Zircaloy. The results of this work are discussed in terms of aerosol/vapour behaviour during severe reactor accidents. (author)

  19. Indium-defect interactions in FCC and BCC metals studied using the modified embedded atom method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics, Geology, and Engineering Technology (United States)

    2016-12-15

    With the aim of developing a transferable potential set capable of predicting defect formation, defect association, and diffusion properties in a wide range of intermetallic compounds, the present study was undertaken to test parameterization strategies for determining empirical pair-wise interaction parameters in the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) developed by Baskes and coworkers. This report focuses on indium-solute and indium-vacancy interactions in FCC and BCC metals, for which a large set of experimental data obtained from perturbed angular correlation measurements is available for comparison. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with experimental values after model parameters had been adjusted to reproduce as best as possible the following two sets of quantities: (1) lattice parameters, formation enthalpies, and bulk moduli of hypothetical equiatomic compounds with the NaCl crystal structure determined using density functional theory and (2) dilute solution enthalpies in metals as predicted by Miedema’s semi-empirical model.

  20. Extraction of aluminium, gallium and indium by tri-n-octylamine from citric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Kaplunova, A.M.; Ershova, N.I.; Varshal, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on aluminium, gallium and indium distribution in triocylam ine(toa)-citric acid system depending on pH of aqueous solution, concentration of components and foreign electrolytes. The methods of equilibrium shift, compe ting ions and isomolar series were used to find the component ratio in toa: Me: citric acid complexes equal to 3:1:2. The equation describing the extraction of citrate gallium, indium and aluminium complexes by trioctylamine was suggested. Using the difference in extraction behavior of the elements of aluminium, yttri um and lanthanum subgroup the extraction-chromatographic method of their separat ion, applied for the analysis of optical glasses was developed. The method is c haracterized by satisfactory reproduction, simplicity and expre

  1. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    during production. The costcompetitiveness of PSCs is envisioned achievable by the use of inexpensive materials and high throughput roll-to-roll (R2R) printing and coating techniques. The state-ofthe-art of the laboratory PSCs is, however, far removed from the vision of the widely disseminated low......-cost solar cells as the laboratory solar cells are mostly focused on increasing the power conversion efficiency through materials design with little emphasis on the choice of materials, operational stability and large-scale processing. Indium-tinoxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor......, represents majority of the share of cost and energy footprint in terms of materials and processing in a conventional PSC module. Furthermore, the scarcity of indium is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning PSC industry and its brittle nature is an obstacle for fast processing of PSCs on flexible...

  2. Modelling of indium(I) iodide-argon low pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Truong, W; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2014-01-01

    A new collisional-radiative model for a mercury-free low pressure plasma based on an indium(I) iodide-argon system is presented. The electron impact cross sections and rate coefficients for ionization, excitation and dissociation, as well as de-excitation, three-body recombination and dissociative recombination, of studied fillings have been calculated. Additionally, the coefficients for free and ambipolar diffusion were determined. The rate balance equations for individual generation and loss processes have been created. Densities of ions, electrons and neutral particles (ground or metastable state) are presented as a function of electron temperature for varied lamp parameters, such as argon buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature (coldest point of discharge vessel). With the help of the presented model, the line emission coefficients of essential emission lines of indium for given electron temperatures and densities can be predicted. (paper)

  3. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  4. Genotoxicity studies of heavy metals: lead, bismuth, indium, silver and antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Chiba, Momoko; Okamoto, Masahide; Serizawa, Koji; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of heavy metals are used in industry; thus, it is important for us to clarify their toxicity. For example, lead, which is a component of solder, is notorious for its neurotoxicity, and substitute materials have been sought for many years. Therefore, we examined the genotoxicity of lead and also those of metallic bismuth, indium, silver and antimony which are possible substitutes for lead in solder. Bacterial reverse mutation tests and chromosomal aberration tests in cultured mammalian cells were performed according to standard procedures. Antimony showed genotoxicity in both tests, and bismuth also showed positive results in the chromosomal aberration test. In contrast, lead, indium, and silver were considered to be inactive by the criteria of the present study. Although further studies are needed because of the difficulty of genotoxicity evaluation using an in vitro system, sufficient precautions should be made when antimony and bismuth are used.

  5. Mass measurements of neutron-rich indium isotopes toward the N =82 shell closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lascar, D.; Barquest, B. R.; Finlay, A.; Foster, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Hunt, P.; Kootte, B.; Lan, Y.; Paul, S. F.; Phan, M. L.; Reiter, M. P.; Schultz, B.; Short, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    Precise mass measurements of the neutron-rich In-130125 isotopes have been performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. TITAN's electron beam ion trap was used to charge breed the ions to charge state q =13 + thus providing the necessary resolving power to measure not only the ground states but also isomeric states at each mass number. In this paper, the properties of the ground states are investigated through a series of mass differentials, highlighting trends in the indium isotopic chain as compared to its proton-magic neighbor, tin (Z =50 ). In addition, the energies of the indium isomers are presented. The (8-) level in 128In is found to be 78 keV lower than previously thought and the (21 /2- ) isomer in 127In is shown to be lower than the literature value by more than 150 keV.

  6. Related electrical, superconducting and structural characteristics of low temperature indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevtsev, B.I.; Pilipenko, V.V.; Yatsuk, L.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Reported are results of a complex study of electrical, superconducting and structural properties of indium films vacuum evaporated onto a liquid helium-cooled substrate. Structural electron diffraction investigations gave a better insight into the general features of the annealing during the warming-up of cold-deposited films. It is found that the annealing of indium films to about 80 to 100 K entails an irreversible growth of interplanar separations due to decreasing inhomogeneous microstresses. As the films are warmed from 100 to 300 K, the principal annealing processes are determined by crystallite growth and development of dominating orientation. The changes in the residual resistance and in Tsub(c) with warming the cold-deported films are explained on the base of structural data obtained. In particular, a direct relationship is revealed between the crystallite size and Tsub(c) [ru

  7. Adhesion enhancement of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated quartz optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yihua; Liu, Jing; Wu, Xu; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) film was prepared on optical fiber through a multi-step sol–gel process. The influence of annealing temperature on the adhesion of ITO coated optical fibers was studied. Different surface treatments were applied to improve the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and Avometer were used to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and photo-electric properties. A thermal shock test was used to evaluate the adhesion. The result shows that the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber can be strongly influenced by the annealing process, and optimal adhesion can be acquired when annealing temperature is 500 °C. Surface treatments of ultrasonic cleaning and the application of surface-active agent have effectively enhanced the adhesion and photo-electric properties of indium tin oxide film coated quartz optical fiber.

  8. Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic layer deposition with improvement on stability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Fan, Huanhuan; Huang, Chaofan; Hong, Xia; Fang, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu; Li, Chengshuai; Huang, Zhuoyin; Zhen, Hongyu

    2012-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is employed to encapsulate inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells (IFSCs) with a structure of Al/TiOx/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT:PSS. The encapsulation layer, Al2O3, is deposited by ALD on the light incident surface. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer can thus be optimized through optical simulation to minimize light loss of IFSCs. Based on optical calculation, we encapsulated the device (85 nm thick active layer) with a 30 nm thick Al2O3 layer. The resulting ALD encapsulated IFSCs show much better device performance and higher stability than the glass-encapsulated ones.

  9. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  10. Optimal indium-gallium-nitride Schottky-barrier thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Monk, Peter B.

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional model was developed to simulate the optoelectronic characteristics of indium-gallium-nitride (InξGa1-ξN), thin-film, Schottky-barrier-junction solar cells. The solar cell comprises a window designed to reduce the reflection of incident light, Schottky-barrier and ohmic front electrodes, an n-doped InξGa1-ξN wafer, and a metallic periodically corrugated back-reflector (PCBR). The ratio of indium to gallium in the wafer varies periodically in the thickness direction, and thus the optical and electrical constitutive properties of the alloy also vary periodically. This material nonhomogeneity could be physically achieved by varying the fractional composition of indium and gallium during deposition. Empirical models for indium nitride and gallium nitride, combined with Vegard's law, were used to calculate the optical and electrical constitutive properties of the alloy. The periodic nonhomogeneity aids charge separation and, in conjunction with the PCBR, enables incident light to couple to multiple surface plasmon-polariton waves and waveguide modes. The profile of the resulting chargecarrier-generation rate when the solar cell is illuminated by the AM1.5G spectrum was calculated using the rigorous coupled-wave approach. The steady-state drift-diffusion equations were solved using COMSOL, which employs finite-element methods, to calculate the current density as a function of the voltage. Mid-band Shockley- Read-Hall, Auger, and radiative recombination rates were taken to be the dominant methods of recombination. The model was used to study the effects of the solar-cell geometry and the shape of the periodic material nonhomogeneity on efficiency. The solar-cell efficiency was optimized using the differential evolution algorithm.

  11. (111)Indium-transferrin for localization and quantification of gastrointestinal protein loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jane Angel; Braad, Poul-Erik; Veje, Annegrete

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the indium-111 ((111)In)-transferrin method as a means of localization and quantification of gastrointestinal protein loss. Methods. Fourteen patients and 15 healthy subjects underwent an (111)In-transferrin study consisting of abdominal scintigraphy, whole-body counting me...... of the site of the loss needs to be optimized, for instance by serial imaging or image fusion with an anatomical modality....

  12. Properties of epitaxial films of indium phosphides alloyed with erbium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.I.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Korobkin, V.A.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Lopatin, V.V.; Lyubchenko, V.E.; Telegin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature dependences of specific resistance and free charge-carrier mobility at low temperatures for indium phosphide films grown by liquid-phase epitaxial method with erbium additions (0.01-0.1 mass%). The main mechanisms of scattering for different temperature regions: scattering on ionized impurities in the rage from 20 to 40 K and lattice scattering at the temperature above 90 K are determined. The current density dependences on applied electric field strength are presented

  13. Influence of indium clustering on the band structure of semiconducting ternary and quaternarynitride alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca,, I.; Łepkowski, S. P.; Suski, T.

    2009-01-01

    and atomic arrangements are examined. Particular attention is paid to the magnitude of and trends in bowing of the band gaps. Indium composition fluctuation (clustering) is simulated by different distributions of In atoms and it is shown that it strongly influences the band gaps. The gaps are considerably...... show a similar trend. It is suggested that the large variation in the band gaps determined on samples grown in different laboratories is caused by different degrees of In clustering....

  14. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  15. Electron work function and composition of gallium-indium alloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorova, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The dependences of electron work functions on the composition for gallium-indium alloy obtained under different conditions are compared. An attempt is made to estimate a change in the alloy surface composition caused by a change in temperature and in the boundary phase nature. For the case under consideration it has been shown to be reasonable to compare the dependences of the electron work functions not on the alloy volumetric composition but on the composition of its surface

  16. Acid indium strontium phosphate SrIn2[PO3(OH)]4: synthesis and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, D.A.; Bobylev, A.P.; Komissarova, L.N.; Filaretov, A.A.; Danilov, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Acid indium-strontium phosphate SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 is synthesized and characterized. Crystal structure and lattice parameters ate determined. In atoms in SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 structure are in distorted InO 6 octahedrons and form with PO 3 (OH) tetrahedrons mixed paraskeleton {In 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 } 3∞ 2- with emptinesses occupied by big Sr 2+ cations. The compound is thermally stable up to 400 Deg C [ru

  17. Growth of co-doped semi-insulation indium phospide crystals for X-ray detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Ladislav; Žďánský, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 275, - (2005), e409-e413 ISSN 0022-0248. [International Conference on Crystal Growth /14./. Grenoble, 09.08.20004-12.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2067354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : growth from melt * Czochralski method * indium phosphide * semiconductor doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.681, year: 2005

  18. Positron lifetime measurements in a II-VI compound: indium doped CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gely, C.; Corbel, C.; Triboulet, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements in as-grown cadmium telluride crystals doped with indium give direct evidence of the presence of monovacancies. The average positron lifetime is measured as a function of temperature. Two different behaviours appear, depending on temperature: in the 5 to 80 K range, one single lifetime is measured, in the 80 to 300 K range, two lifetimes are detected. Positrons are trapped in a defect which may be attributed to a Cd monovacancy [fr

  19. A spectroscopic study for the behavior of indium compounds in the flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1980-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectra of indium salts in argon-air-hydrogen flame were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A hollow cathode type D 2 lamp and a laboratory made continuum lamp were used as light sources. The absorption spectra consisted of bands originated from InOH at 200 -- 240 nm, InCl at 261 -- 275 nm and 350 nm, InO at 253 nm, and several indium atomic lines. In the emission spectra there were bands originated from InH at 448 -- 459 nm and In 2 at 277 -- 301 nm, 347 -- 365 nm and 367 -- 388 nm along with several indium atomic lines. The absorbances and emission intensities of these spectra were measured at the heights of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm above the burner head as a function of hydrogen flow rate. With increasing flow rate the absorbance of InO and InCl and emission intensity of In 2 decreased, while the absorbance of InOH and In and emission intensity of InH and In increased. The dissociation energies of InH and In 2 were very small in comparison with those of the other indium compounds. Thus, the concentrations of In, InO, InOH and InCl in this flame are controlled by the following set of balanced reactions, InOH + H reversible In + H 2 O InO + 2H reversible In + H 2 O InCl + H reversible In + HCl (author)

  20. Increase in indium diffusion by tetrafluoromethane plasma treatment and its effects on the device performance of polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Kim, Youn Sang; Lee, Se-Jong

    2008-06-01

    The effects of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma treatment of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode on indium diffusion into a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profile showed that 0.2at.% indium was present in the PEDOT:PSS layer when ITO was not plasma treated. The plasma treatment of ITO increased the indium concentration to ˜6at.%. The increase in indium can be explained by an oxygen deficiency in the CF4 plasma treated ITO. The presence of indium in the PEDOT:PSS layer showed a correlation with performance degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes.

  1. Indium-saving effect and physical properties of transparent conductive multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M.; Kiba, T.; Abe, Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2018-03-01

    Indium-free transparent conductive multilayer structures consisting of top and bottom MoO3 layers and an Ag interlayer (MoO3/Ag/MoO3; MAM) are deposited onto glass substrates by vacuum evaporation. The transmittance and sheet resistance of the structures are evaluated, and the optimum structure is determined to be MAM (20/14/30 nm) as it shows the best figure of merit (FOM), which is used as the index for transparent conductive films, with a value of 6.2 × 10-3 Ω-1. To further improve the performance of the films, we attempt to fabricate a multilayer consisting of MoO3 and indium zinc oxide (IZO), based on previous results. The obtained IAM (30/14/50 nm) multilayer shows an FOM higher than that of the MAM, with a value of 32 × 10-3 Ω-1. Moreover, it reduces the amount of required indium as compared with the IZO/Ag/IZO multilayer.

  2. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Requejo, F.G., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Renteria, M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A.G. [UNLP, Programa TENAES (CONICET) and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdad Cs Ex (Argentina)], E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Miro, E.E. [UNL, INCAPE (CONICET) and Faculdad Ing. Quimica (Argentina)

    1999-09-15

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using {sup 111}In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites.

  3. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Miro, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using 111 In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO x with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In 2 O 3 crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In 2 O 3 in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In 2 O 3 . These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites

  4. Indium 111 scintigraphy in the exploration of the erythropoietic marrow (relative to 42 observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, G.C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow is difficult to explore as a whole because of its wide non-uniform distribution, variable with the hematopoietic and supporting tissue sites. 111 indium-transferrine bone marrow scintigraphy is a new technique which partly overcomes these difficulties and gives an idea of the overall distribution and richness of the erythropoietic marrow, thus showing up the erythropoiesis sites at a given moment. The properties of indium as medullary tracer are bound up with the characteristics of its metabolism which, to some extent at least resembles that of iron. The two main features are: - its fixation on transferrine (or siderophiline); - its binding to reticulocytes. Moreover indium 111 fulfils the physico-chemical criteria necessary for scintigraphic practice (long half-life, emission detectable by conventional scintigraphs, moderate irradiation of the patient). The properties of this radioelement and the technical conditions of use are examined in turn, then scintigraphic data are compared with the results of traditional bone marrow investigations: medullary biopsy and blood cell counts with reticulocyte fraction. This comparison concerns 42 scintigraphs carried out on patients suffering from various hematological diseases, with prospects of serious development in common [fr

  5. Measurement of the indium segregation in InGaN based LEDs with single atom sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinschek, Joerg; Kisielowski, Christian; Van Dyck, Dirk; Geuens, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In light emitting diodes (LED) consisting of GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs), the exact indium distribution inside the wells of the active region affects the performance of devices. Indium segregation can take place forming small InGaN clusters of locally varying composition. In the past, we used a local strain analysis from single HRTEM lattice images to determine the In composition inside the InGaN QWs with a resolution of 0.5 nm x 0.3 nm. Truly atomic resolution can be pursued by exploitation of intensity dependencies on the atomic number (Z) of the electron exit-wave (EW). In microscopes with sufficient sensitivity, local variations of amplitude and phase are found to be discrete with sample thickness, which allows for counting the number of atoms in each individual column of ∼0.08 nm diameter. In QW s of ∼17 percent of average indium concentration it is possible to discriminate between pure Ga columns and columns containing 1, 2, 3, or more In atoms because phase changes are discrete and element specific. The preparation of samples with atomically flat surfaces is a limiting factor for the application of the procedure

  6. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, A. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, P. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bertomeu, J. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Antony, A. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band.

  7. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  8. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2015-01-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs. (paper)

  9. Charge mobility increase in indium-molybdenum oxide thin films by hydrogen doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalán, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline CRG, ESRF, 38043 Grenoble (France); Ramírez-Jiménez, R. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida Universidad 30, Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Palomo, A.; Andrés, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The charge mobility in IMO films is correlated with its hydrogen content. • The mobility behavior is explained by the presence of OH{sup −} groups in IMO films. • Mo{sup 4+} is identified in transparent conductive IMO by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. - Abstract: The increase of charge mobility in transparent conductive indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films is correlated with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The introduction of H{sub 2} in the chamber during sputtering deposition compensates the excess charge introduced by cationic Mo doping of indium oxide either by oxygen or hydroxyl interstitials. Films present a linear increase of carrier mobility correlated with H{sub 2} content only after vacuum annealing. This behavior is explained because vacuum annealing favors the removal of oxygen interstitials over that of hydroxyl groups. Since hydroxyl groups offer lower effective charge and smaller lattice distortions than those associated with interstitial oxygen, this compensation mechanism offers the conditions for the observed increase in mobility. Additionally, the short-range order around molybdenum is evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Mo{sup 4+} is placed at the In site of the indium oxide.

  10. Voltammetry and coulometry of indium in two-side thin-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, L.V.; Kabanova, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    An electrochemical behaviour of In and possibilities for its determination have been investigated, using halide background solutions, by voltametry in the thin solution layer thin mercury film system. It has been shown that the maximum current of indium (3) is directly proportional to its concentration over a range of 1x10 -4 - 5x10 -3 M and the maximum current of indium oxidation from the amalgam over a range of 5x10 -7 - 1x10 -4 M. Examined were the effects of halide ion concentration, pH, electrode potential change rate on current maximum value, product efficiency of reducing indium (3) and oxidizing its amalgam, on maximum current potential and half-peak width. The analytical signal has been found to be directly proportional to chloride ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 3.0 M, bromide and iodide ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 1.0 M. This makes it possible to use the method for determination of halide ions

  11. Indium-111 labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roevekamp, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of indium-111 oxinate labelled autologous leucocytes in inflammatory disease. Chapter I provides an outline of the theoretical aspects of leucocyte labelling with indium-111 oxinate, as well as giving a description of the labelling method and scintigraphic technique and of the in-vitro and in-vivo studies performed to evaluate the method. In Chapter II details are given of the initial results obtained in a pilot study. A high false-negative rate led to modification of the labelling technique. The results obtained in patients suspected of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal located inflammatory lesions are described in Chapter III. Chapter IV contains the description of an indium-111-leucocyte-99mTc-Sn-colloid computer-assisted subtraction technique for a better evaluation of patients suspected of an upper-abdominal inflammatory process. In Chapter V the study performed in patients after arterial reconstructive surgery is described, and the results obtained in patients suspected of an infected orthopaedic prosthesis are given in Chapter VI. Finally the characteristics of the different types of inflammatory responses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  12. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  13. Effect of Indium nano-sandwiching on the structural and optical performance of ZnSe films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Al Garni

    Full Text Available In the current study, we attempted to explore the effects of the Indium nanosandwiching on the mechanical and optical properties of the physically evaporated ZnSe thin films by means of X-ray diffractions and ultraviolet spectrophotometry techniques. While the thickness of each layer of ZnSe was fixed at 1.0 μm, the thickness of the nanosandwiched Indium thin films was varied in the range of 25–100 nm. It was observed that the as grown ZnSe films exhibits cubic and hexagonal nature of crystallization as those of the ZnSe powders before the film deposition. The cubic phases weighs ∼70% of the structure. The analysis of this phases revealed that there is a systematic variation process presented by the decreasing of; the lattice constant, compressing strain, stress, stacking faults and dislocation intensity and increasing grain size resulted from increasing the Indium layer thickness in the range of 50–100 nm. In addition, the nanosandwiching of Indium between two layers of ZnSe is observed to enhance the absorbability of the ZnSe. Particularly, at incident photon energy of 2.38 eV the absorbability of the ZnSe films which are sandwiched with 100 nm Indium is increased by 13.8 times. Moreover, increasing the thickness of the Indium layer shrinks the optical energy band gap. These systematic variations in mechanical and optical properties are assigned to the better recrystallization process that is associated with Indium insertion which in turn allows total internal energy redistribution in the ZnSe films through the enlargement of grains. Keywords: ZnSe, Nanosandwiching, Mechanical, Optical gap

  14. Solubility of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Yamschikov, Leonid F.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) employing molten salts and liquid metals as working media is considered as a possible alternative to the existing liquid extraction (PUREX) processes. Liquid salts and metals allow reprocessing highly irradiated high burn-up fuels with short cooling times, including the fuels of fast neutron reactors. Pyrochemical technology opens a way to practical realization of short closed fuel cycle. Liquid low-melting metals are immiscible with molten salts and can be effectively used for separation (or selective extraction) of SNF components dissolved in fused salts. Binary or ternary alloys of eutectic compositions can be employed to lower the melting point of the metallic phase. However, the information on SNF components behaviour and properties in ternary liquid metal alloys is very scarce

  15. Optimization of Indium Recovery and Separation from LCD Waste by Solvent Extraction with Bis(2-ethylhexyl Phosphate (D2EHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is currently the choice of electrode material in liquid crystal displays (LCDs. D2EHPA is known to be an extractant that can be used to selectively recover indium from 1 M sulfuric acid. In order to optimize the extraction and separation of indium from LCD waste, the effects of pH, temperature, time, and extractant concentration on the distribution ratios of In(III and the major impurities such as Al(III, Cu(II, Fe(III, and Zn(II were investigated. Metal concentrations in the aqueous feed were based on the concentrations found in the leach liquor of LCD panel glass at 0.1 g/mL S/L ratio. This study showed that extraction of indium could be increased at 293 K. Furthermore, by increasing D2EHPA concentration from 0.1 M to 0.25 M, extraction of indium could be increased from 70% to >95%.

  16. Indium-mediated asymmetric Barbier-type propargylations: additions to aldehydes and ketones and mechanistic investigation of the organoindium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Terra D; Hirayama, Lacie C; Buckley, Jannise J; Singaram, Bakthan

    2012-01-20

    We report a simple, efficient, and general method for the indium-mediated enantioselective propargylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes under Barbier-type conditions in a one-pot synthesis affording the corresponding chiral alcohol products in very good yield (up to 90%) and enantiomeric excess (up to 95%). The extension of this methodology to ketones demonstrated the need for electrophilic ketones more reactive than acetophenone as the reaction would not proceed with just acetophenone. Using the Lewis acid indium triflate [In(OTf)(3)] induced regioselective formation of the corresponding homoallenic alcohol product from acetophenone. However, this methodology demonstrated excellent chemoselectivity in formation of only the corresponding secondary homopropargylic alcohol product in the presence of a ketone functionality. Investigation of the organoindium intermediates under our reaction conditions shows the formation of allenylindium species, and we suggest that these species contain an indium(III) center. In addition, we have observed the presence of a shiny, indium(0) nugget throughout the reaction, irrespective of the stoichiometry, indicating disproportionation of indium halide byproduct formed during the reaction.

  17. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  18. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  19. In6Se7 thin films by heating thermally evaporated indium and chemical bath deposited selenium multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornelas, R.E.; Avellaneda, D.; Shaji, S.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das; Krishnan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Indium selenide (In 6 Se 7 ) thin films were prepared via selenization of thermally evaporated indium thin films by dipping in sodium selenosulphate solution followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. First, indium was thermally evaporated on glass substrate. Then, the indium coated glass substrates were dipped in a solution containing 80 ml 0.125 M sodium selenosulphate and 1.5 ml dilute acetic acid (25%) for 5 min. Glass/In-Se layers were annealed at 200-400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere (0.1 Torr) for 30 min. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monoclinic In 6 Se 7 . Morphology of the thin films formed at different conditions was analyzed using Scanning electron microscopy. The elemental analysis was done using Energy dispersive X-ray detection. Electrical conductivity under dark and illumination conditions was evaluated. Optical band gap was computed using transmittance and reflectance spectra. The band gap value was in the range 1.8-2.6 eV corresponding to a direct allowed transition. We studied the effect of indium layer thickness and selenium deposition time on the structure, electrical and optical properties of In 6 Se 7 thin films.

  20. Indium-bearing sulfides from the Hämmerlein skarn deposit, Erzgebirge, Germany: evidence for late-stage diffusion of indium into sphalerite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias E.; Seifert, Thomas; Burisch, Mathias; Krause, Joachim; Richter, Nancy; Gutzmer, Jens

    2017-12-01

    At the Hämmerlein skarn deposit, located in the western Erzgebirge (Germany), a major cassiterite-dominated Sn mineralization stage is spatially associated with a younger Zn-Cu-In sulfide mineralization stage. In this contribution, we provide the first detailed description of the Zn-Cu-In sulfide mineralization stage, based on field geological observations combined with detailed petrographic studies and electron probe microanalysis data. Indium-rich sulfide mineralization occurs as irregular, semi-massive lenses or as infill of short, discontinuous veinlets that crosscut the cassiterite-bearing skarn assemblage. Indium- and Cu-rich sphalerite and roquesite are found to be closely associated with In-bearing chalcopyrite. The highest In concentrations in sphalerite occur at the rims and along cracks of sphalerite grains. The distribution resembles diffusion profiles, suggesting that the In enrichment is due to an hydrothermal overprint that postdates the initial formation of both sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Textural relations illustrate that the diffusion fronts in sphalerite grains are thicker where they are in contact to anhedral masses of hematite and magnetite. Our observations suggest that In enrichment in sphalerite at the Hämmerlein skarn deposit is due to the decomposition of In-bearing chalcopyrite. The resultant release of Fe led to the formation of hematite and magnetite, whereas Cu and In were incorporated into sphalerite along grain boundaries and micro fractures. Incorporation into the sphalerite lattice took place by coupled substitution of Cu+ + In3+ ↔ 2Zn2+, suggesting that the concurrent availability of Cu and In may be an essential factor to enrich In in sphalerite in hydrothermal ore-forming environments.

  1. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  2. ‘Cranking up’, ‘whacking up’ and ‘bumping up’: X-ray exposures in contemporary radiographic practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use of X-ray exposures following the introduction of direct digital radiography (DDR). Radiographers are central to delivering optimum levels of ionising radiation whilst maintaining sound image quality for radiological interpretation. Yet do radiographers utilise X-ray exposures appropriately? An ethnographic methodology provides insight of two general radiographic environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structure interviews. A central theme uncovered as part of a Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) study was the lack of autonomy concerning X-ray exposures within the general imaging environment. The findings highlight ‘how radiographers behave’. For example, some radiographers do not alter ‘pre-set’ X-ray exposures, arguably failing to produce images of optimum diagnostic quality. Secondly, radiographers acknowledge ‘whacking up’, ‘cranking up’ and ‘bumping up’ X-ray exposures ensuring image production. In conclusion this article provides an original insight into the attitudes and behaviours of radiographers regarding X-ray exposures in contemporary practices using DDR. Dose and image optimisation are central tenets of radiographic practice that may be hindered in contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Identifies current use of X-ray exposures using direct digital radiography (DDR). • Identifies that radiographers may rely on ‘pre-set’ X-ray exposures, facilitating ‘dose creep’. • Radiographers acknowledge the ability to deliberately increase X-ray exposures using DDR.

  3. Organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured indium tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, R; Palacio, F; Martínez, M; Blázquez, O; Hernández, S; Garrido, B; López, M

    2016-12-06

    Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels. To investigate the increase in detectability, chemical organosilane-functionalization of nanostructured ITO electrodes was performed. The formation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPTS) layers was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As an indirect method to confirm the presence of organosilane molecules on the ITO substrates, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were also carried out. Cyclic voltammograms of functionalized ITO electrodes presented lower reduction-oxidation peak currents compared with non-functionalized ITO electrodes. These results demonstrate the presence of the epoxysilane coating on the ITO surface. EIS showed that organosilane-functionalized electrodes present higher polarization resistance, acting as an electronic barrier for the electron transfer between the conductive solution and the ITO electrode. The results of these electrochemical measurements, together with the significant difference in the X-ray spectra between bare ITO and organosilane-functionalized ITO substrates, may point to a new exploitable oxide-based nanostructured material for biosensing applications. As a first step towards sensing, rapid functionalization of such substrates and their application to electrochemical analysis is tested in this work. Interestingly, oxide-based materials are highly integrable with the silicon chip technology, which would permit the easy adaptation of such sensors into lab

  4. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  5. Extraction chromatography of indium (III) on silica gel impregnated with high molecular weight carboxylic acid and its analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.S.; Ray, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    Indium(III) was separated by extraction chromatography with Versatic 10 as a stationary phase on a column of silica gel from acetic acid and sodium acetate solution (pH 4.5-6.0). The optimum condition for extraction was studied based on the critical study of the relevant factors as effects of pH, flow rate on extraction and elution. Role of stripping agents on the elution was studied. The separation of indium from a number of elements was carried out. Indium(III) was separated from Alsup(III), Gasup(III), Tlsup(III), Zrsup(IV) and trivalent lanthanides which interfere under the recommended extraction condition by exploiting the differences in their stripping behaviour. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Activation analysis of indium, KCl, and melamine by using a laser-induced neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungman; Lee, Kitae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source with a neutron yield of 4 x 10{sup 5} n/pulse and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz, which was developed using a deuterated polystyrene film target and a 24-TW femtosecond laser, was applied for laser activation analyses of indium, KCl, and melamine samples. The nuclear reactions of the measured gamma spectra for the activated samples were identified as (n, γ), (n, n'), and (n, 2n) reactions. These indicate possible usage of the neutron source for practical activation analyses of various materials.

  7. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  8. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  9. Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hui

    2011-01-12

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has found widespread use in solar cells, displays, and touch screens as a transparent electrode; however, two major problems with ITO remain: high reflectivity (up to 10%) and insufficient flexibility. Together, these problems severely limit the applications of ITO films for future optoelectronic devices. In this communication, we report the fabrication of ITO nanofiber network transparent electrodes. The nanofiber networks show optical reflectivity as low as 5% and high flexibility; the nanofiber networks can be bent to a radius of 2 mm with negligible changes in the sheet resistance. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Standard specification for nuclear-grade silver-indium-cadmium alloy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers silver-indium-cadmium alloy for use as a control material in light-water nuclear reactors. 1.2 The scope of this specification excludes the use of this material in applications where material strength of this alloy is a prime requisite. Also, this material must be protected from the primary water by a corrosion and wear resistant cladding. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  12. Indium oxide deposition on glass by aerosol pyrolysis (Pyrosol (R) process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandenet, G.; Lagarde, Y.; Spitz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The pyrosol (R) process involves the pyrolysis of an aerosol generated by ultrasonic nebulisation from a solution of organic or inorganic compounds. This technique was used to deposit transparent n-conducting indium oxide films on glass. The electrical and optical properties of these films were studied as a function of the deposition temperature and doping (using tin or fluorine). A deposition temperature of 480 deg C and a Sn/In ratio of about 5% gave the best results. In this case, the transmission in the visible range was 92%, the infrared reflection 84% and the electrical resistivity 1.7x10 -4 ohm.cm [fr

  13. Fast-neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Broad-resolution neutron total cross sections of elemental indium were measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of approx. = 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles in the range 20 to 160 degrees. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  14. Effects on Organic Photovoltaics Using Femtosecond-Laser-Treated Indium Tin Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tseng, Ya-Hsin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Lin, Zong-Rong; Chu, Hui-Hsin; Chang, Jan-Kai; Luo, Chih-Wei

    2016-09-28

    The effects of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface applied to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system were investigated. The modifications of ITO induced by LIPPS in OPV devices result in more than 14% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and short-circuit current density relative to those of the standard device. The basic mechanisms for the enhanced short-circuit current density are attributed to better light harvesting, increased scattering effects, and more efficient charge collection between the ITO and photoactive layers. Results show that higher PCEs would be achieved by laser-pulse-treated electrodes.

  15. Effects of O{sup 7+} swift heavy ion irradiation on indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokulakrishnan, V. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Parthiban, S. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Elangovan, E. [CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ramamurthi, K., E-mail: krmurthin@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Jeganathan, K. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Martins, R.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT-I3N and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Materials Science Department, FCT-UNL, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structural, morphology and electrical properties of indium oxide thin films. {yields} From the XRD, the ion irradiation has changed the preferred orientation from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0). {yields} RMS roughness is significantly reduced to 10 nm for an ion fluency of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. {yields} The mobility of ion irradiated films (1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) is decreased from 76.6 to 43 cm{sup 2}/V s. {yields} The average transmittance (400-2500 nm) of the as-deposited IO film is decreased from 81% to 72% after SHI irradiation. - Abstract: Indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis were irradiated by 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ions with different fluences of 5 x 10{sup 11}, 1 x 10{sup 12} and 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure of indium oxide with cubic bixbyite. The strongest (2 2 2) orientation observed from the as-deposited films was shifted to (4 0 0) after irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity of the (4 0 0) orientation was decreased with increasing fluence together with an increase in (2 2 2) intensity. Films irradiated with maximum fluence exhibited an amorphous component. The mobility of the as-deposited indium oxide films was decreased from {approx}78.9 to 43.0 cm{sup 2}/V s, following irradiation. Films irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} showed a better combination of electrical properties, with a resistivity of 4.57 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm, carrier concentration of 2.2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 61.0 cm{sup 2}/V s. The average transmittance obtained from the as-deposited films decreased from {approx}81% to 72%, when irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. The surface microstructures confirmed that the irregularly shaped grains seen on the surface of the as-deposited films is modified as 'radish-like' morphology when irradiated with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Determination of cytotoxicity in vivo using 111Indium-labelled human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, Arnold; Giovanella, B.C.; Kolielski, Tony; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Loss of radioactivity from nude mice was determined after inoculation of human tumor cells prelabelled with ( 111 In)indium oxine ( 111 InOx). Elimination of 111 In was increased somewhat by treating the mice with diphtheria toxin (DT), which is toxic selectively for human cells compared to mice. Calcium disodium edetate (CaNa 2 EDTA), a metal chelating agent, facilitated elimination of 111 In and increased the difference in the rates of loss of radioactivity from mice bearing viable compared to DT-killed cells. (author)

  17. Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

  18. The new barium mercuride BaHg6 and ternary indium and gallium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new binary Hg-rich mercuride BaHg 6 crystallizes with a singular structure type. ► Ternary In substituted compounds are isotypic, whereas Ga substituted compounds are only structurally related. ► Structure relation to other Hg-rich alkali and alkaline earth mercurides. ► Discussion of covalent and metallic bonding aspects, as found by structure features and band structure calculations. - Abstract: The new binary barium mercuride BaHg 6 and the derived ternary indium and gallium containing compounds BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 and BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 were synthesized from melts of the elements, which were slowly cooled from 500 to 200 °C. Their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. The binary mercuride BaHg 6 (Pnma, a = 1338.9(3), b = 519.39(13), c = 1042.6(4) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0885) and the isotypic indium substituted compound BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 as well as the structurally related gallium mercuride BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 (Cmcm, a = 729.77(7), b = 1910.1(2), c = 507.48(5) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0606) crystallize with new structure types. Common features of both structures are planar nets of five- and eight-membered Hg rings, stacked perpendicular to the shortest axes. According to their lengths, the Hg–Hg bonds can be classified into three groups: strong, short ones (I, 285–292 pm), which are only found inside the nets, and longer distances (II), still carrying bond critical points, around 300 pm. Further contacts (III) serve to complete the coordination spheres of Hg/M (320–358 pm). The overall coordination numbers of Hg/M range from 10 to 13. The Ba cations are positioned in the centers of the octagons of the Hg/M nets, thus exhibiting a 5:8:5, i.e. 18, coordination by Hg/M atoms. DFT calculations of the electronic band structure of pure BaHg 6 and ordered models of the indium ( ′ BaInHg 5 ′ ) and the gallium ( ′ BaGaHg 5 ′ ) mercurides were performed using the FP-LAPW method. The calculated Bader charges

  19. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  20. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Jorge [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Barbagallo, Nunzio [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Charas, Ana [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Matos, Manuel [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro-1, P-1949-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Alcacer, Luis [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-07

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  1. Solvent effects on extraction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III), with decanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Fujii, Yukio; Mizuta, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum(III) and indium(III) with decanoic acid in 1-octanol was carried out at 25 deg C and at an aqueous ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4 ). Monomeric and tetrameric aluminum(III) decanoates and monomeric indium(III) decanoate are responsible for the extraction. From a comparison of the present results with those obtained from the previous works, the polymerization of the extracted species was found to be more extensive in benzene than in 1-octanol, and the metal decanoates were highly polymerized in the following order in both solvents: Al > Ga > In. (author)

  2. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-03-20

    Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In₄Se₃ - δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In₄Se₃ - δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In₄Se₃ - δ Cl 0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n -type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  3. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nilormi; Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Sunirmal; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films

  4. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.

  5. Influence of Spin-Orbit Quenching on the Solvation of Indium in Helium Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ralf; Pototschnig, Johann V.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Hauser, Andreas W.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental interest of the collaborating group of M. Koch on the dynamics of electronic excitations of indium in helium droplets triggered a series of computational studies on the group 13 elements Al, Ga and In and their indecisive behavior between wetting and non wetting when placed onto superfluid helium droplets. We employ a combination of multiconfigurational self consistent field calculations (MCSCF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) to calculate the diatomic potentials. Particularly interesting is the case of indium with an Ancilotto parameter λ close to the threshold value of 1.9. As shown by Reho et al. the spin-orbit splitting of metal atoms solvated in helium droplets is subject to a quenching effect. This can drastically change the solvation behavior. In this work we extend the approach presented by Reho et al. to include distance dependent spin-orbit coupling. The resulting potential surfaces are used to calculate the solvation energy of the ground state and the first excited state with orbital-free helium density functional theory. F. Ancilotto, P. B. Lerner and M. W. Cole, Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 1995, 101, 1123-1146 J. H. Reho, U. Merker, M. R. Radcliff, K. K. Lehmann and G. Scoles, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2000, 104, 3620-3626

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE WATER-SPLITTING CAPABILITIES OF GALLIUM INDIUM PHOSPHIDE NITRIDE (GaInPN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, J.; Turner, J.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing demand for oil, the fossil fuels used to power society’s vehicles and homes are becoming harder to obtain, creating pollution problems and posing hazard’s to people’s health. Hydrogen, a clean and effi cient energy carrier, is one alternative to fossil fuels. Certain semiconductors are able to harness the energy of solar photons and direct it into water electrolysis in a process known as photoelectrochemical water-splitting. P-type gallium indium phosphide (p-GaInP2) in tandem with GaAs is a semiconductor system that exhibits water-splitting capabilities with a solar-tohydrogen effi ciency of 12.4%. Although this material is effi cient at producing hydrogen through photoelectrolysis it has been shown to be unstable in solution. By introducing nitrogen into this material, there is great potential for enhanced stability. In this study, gallium indium phosphide nitride Ga1-yInyP1-xNx samples were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in an atmospheric-pressure vertical reactor. Photocurrent spectroscopy determined these materials to have a direct band gap around 2.0eV. Mott-Schottky analysis indicated p-type behavior with variation in fl atband potentials with varied frequencies and pH’s of solutions. Photocurrent onset and illuminated open circuit potential measurements correlated to fl atband potentials determined from previous studies. Durability analysis suggested improved stability over the GaInP2 system.

  7. Solubility of indium-tin oxide in simulated lung and gastric fluids: Pathways for human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens Christian Østergård; Cropp, Alastair; Paradise, Diane Caroline

    2017-02-01

    From being a metal with very limited natural distribution, indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is known of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably the liver, kidneys and spleen. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive tract, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to slowly dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung, this environment is likely to provide the major route for uptake of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Although dissolution through digestion may also lead to some uptake, the much shorter residence time is likely to lead to much lower risk of uptake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Mirela; Chira, Ana; Radu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H + species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10 −4 M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode

  9. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconu, Mirela [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Chira, Ana [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania); Radu, Lucian, E-mail: gl_radu@chim.upb.ro [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania)

    2014-08-28

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H{sup +} species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10{sup −4} M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and theranostic evaluation of Indium-111 labeled multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolata, Hamidreza; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Afarideh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled, Trastuzumab-Doxorubicin Conjugated, and APTES-PEG coated magnetic nanoparticles were designed for tumor targeting, drug delivery, controlled drug release, and dual-modal tumor imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition method to obtain narrow size particles. To increase SPIONs circulation time in blood and decrease its cytotoxicity in healthy tissues, SPIONs surface was modified with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APTES) and then were functionalized with N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of Polyethylene Glycol Maleimide (NHS-PEG-Mal) to conjugate with thiolated 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6, 9,-triacetic acid (PCTA) bifunctional chelator (BFC) and Trastuzumab antibody. In order to tumor SPECT/MR imaging, SPIONs were labeled with Indium-111 (T 1/2 = 2.80d). NHS ester of monoethyl malonate (MEM-NHS) was used for conjugation of Doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapeutic agent onto SPIONs surface. Mono-Ethyl Malonate allows DOX molecules to be attached to SPIONs via pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds which lead to controlled drug release in tumor region. Active and passive tumor targeting were achieved through incorporated anti-HER2 (Trastuzumab) antibody and EPR effect of solid tumors for nanoparticles respectively. In addition to in vitro assessments of modified SPIONs in SKBR3 cell lines, their theranostic effects were evaluated in HER2 + breast tumor bearing BALB/c mice via biodistribution study, dual-modal molecular imaging and tumor diameter measurements

  11. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Lucas, Bruno; Schirr-Bonnans, Martin; Ratier, Bernard; Kraft, Thomas M.; Torchio, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (14 nm)/ZnO (30 nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550 nm, R sq of 8 Ω/◻) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics

  12. Bone marrow toxicity in mice treated with Indium-114m-Labelled blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyes, K. P.; Wadeson, P. J.; Lord, B. I. [University of Manchester, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Cancer Research Campaign, Dept. of Experimental Haematology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cowan, R. A. [University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, North Western Medical Physics Dept., Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sharma, H. L. [University of Manchester, Dept. of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2001-12-01

    Clinical trials with autologous indium-114m-labelled lymphocytes have revealed significant anti-tumour effects in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients with highly resistant disease. Substitution of the lymphocyte vector with heat-damaged red blood cells (HDRBC) may make this treatment more universally applicable and reduce the dose-limiting myelosuppression encountered with labelled lymphocytes. Therefore, the bone marrow localization and toxicities of indium-labelled lymphocytes or HDRBC have been investigated in BDF1 mice. At 24 hours approximately 4% and 1.2% of {sup 114}In{sup m} administered as labelled lymphocytes or HDRBC respectively was localized within the bone marrow and remained constant for 57 days thereafter. Toxicity towards bone marrow stem cells, measured as CFU-S, was equivalent for both cellular vectors. However, at clinically relevant activities, {sup 114}In{sup m} HDRBC were less toxic than labelled lymphocytes towards committed progenitors, assayed as in vitro-CFC and CFU-Meg. These data suggest that substitution of HDRBC for lymphocytes as the {sup 114}In{sup m} vector may be beneficial in reducing the myelosuppression associated with this technique.

  13. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  14. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ( 111 In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and 111 In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) 111 In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr 111 In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites

  15. Electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility in indium antimonide at different magnetic fields and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Madan; Prasad, Vijay; Singh, Amita

    1995-01-01

    The electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility of n-type and p-type crystals of indium antimonide have been measured from 25 degC-100 degC temperature range. It has been found by this measurement that indium antimonide is a compound semiconductor with a high mobility 10 6 cm 2 /V.S. The Hall coefficient R H was measured as a function of magnetic field strength H for a number of samples of both p and n-type using fields up to 12 kilo gauss. The Hall coefficient R h decreases with increasing magnetic fields as well as with increase in temperature of the sample. The electric field is more effective on samples with high mobilities and consequently the deviations from linearity are manifested at comparatively low values of the electric field. The measurement of R H in weak and strong magnetic fields makes it possible to determine the separate concentration of heavy and light holes. Measured values of Hall coefficient and electrical resistivity show that there is a little variation of ρ and R h with temperatures as well as with magnetic fields. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  16. High-precision measurements and theoretical calculations of indium excited-state polarizabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, N. B.; Wang, B.-Y.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; Maser, D. L.; Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Majumder, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    We report measurements of the scalar and tensor static polarizabilities of the 115In7 p1 /2 and 7 p3 /2 excited states using two-step diode laser spectroscopy in an atomic beam. These scalar polarizabilities are one to two orders of magnitude larger than for lower-lying indium states due to the close proximity of the 7 p and 6 d states. For the scalar polarizabilities, we find values (in atomic units) of 1.811 (4 ) ×105a03 and 2.876 (6 ) ×105a03 for the 7 p1 /2 and 7 p3 /2 states, respectively. We determine the tensor polarizability component of the 7 p3 /2 state to be -1.43 (18 ) ×104a03 . These measurements set high-precision benchmarks of the transition properties for highly excited states in trivalent atomic systems. We also present ab initio calculations of these quantities and other In polarizabilities using two high-precision relativistic methods to make a global comparison of the accuracies of the two approaches. The precision of the experiment is sufficient to differentiate between the two theoretical methods as well as to allow precise determination of the indium 7 p -6 d matrix elements. The results obtained in this paper are applicable to other heavier and more complicated systems, and provide much needed guidance for the development of even more precise theoretical approaches.

  17. Indium vacancy induced d0 ferromagnetism in Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haiming; Xing, Pengfei; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Dongsheng; Wu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles with room temperature d0 ferromagnetism were prepared by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence were carried out to investigate the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects. As the content of Li increases, non-monotonic changes in shifts of XRD peak (2 2 2) and the intensity ratios of indium vacancies related photoluminescence peak (PII) with respect to oxygen vacancies related peak (PI) are observed. Results show that at low doping level (≤2 at.%) Li prefers to occupy In sites, while with further doping the interstitial sites are more favorable for Li. Combined with the consistent non-monotonic change in saturation magnetization, we think that indium vacancies resulting from Li-doping play an important role in inducing d0 ferromagnetism in our Li-doped In2O3 nanoparticles, and the FM coupling is mainly mediated by the LiIn-ONN-VIn-ONN-LiIn chains.

  18. In vitro corrosion behaviour and microhardness of high-copper amalgams with platinum and indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilikli, B G; Aydin, A; Işimer, A; Alpaslan, G

    1999-02-01

    Samples prepared from Luxalloy, GS-80, Permite-C and Logic and polished after 24 h by traditional methods were stored in polypropylene tubes containing phosphate-buffered saline solutions (pH 3.5 and 6.5) and distilled water. The amounts of mercury, silver, tin, copper, zinc, platinum and indium in the test solutions were determined at the first, second, eighth, 52nd and 78th week by atomic absorption spectrometry. At the end of the eighth week the amalgam samples were removed from solutions and evaluated by Rockwell Super Scial Microhardness tester. Statistically significant low amounts of metal ions were measured for Permite-C containing indium and Logic containing platinum. The microhardness test results showed that there were statistically significant increases in the microhardness of Permite-C and Logic. As a result it was shown that the amalgam samples were affected from corrosion conditions to different degrees. Sample of the Logic group that was stored in distilled water, showed smoother surface properties than other amalgam samples containing high copper. However, it was observed that samples of Permite-C group had the smoothest surface properties.

  19. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  20. The effect of Indium metal nanoparticles on the electronic properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhor, Davood, E-mail: d_kalhor@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Damghan University, POB 3671941167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin, E-mail: e-mohajerani@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi Pour, Omid, E-mail: HashemiPour@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper the effect of Indium nanoparticles (NPs) on the electronic properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is experimentally investigated. The metal NPs which are added to the hole transfer layer can be considered as a blocker layer for injected electrons. By optimizing hole and electron ratio, current density and voltage can be decreased. In order to study this effect, among various fabricated devices, a specific structure, namely ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/TPD (45 nm)/NPs (x nm)/Alq{sub 3} (50 nm)/Ag (80 nm) has been used. Also, the experiment is investigated for Au and Cu as different cathode the results of structures are compared with Ag cathode. A manually controllable shutter was used for vacuum deposition process to prepare the same structures and to avoid any disturbing effects. It is observed that specific Indium NPs reduce current density and turn on voltage of the device. - Highlights: • The effect of In NPs on the electronic properties of OLEDs is investigated. • Current density and voltage may be reduced by optimizing electron hole ratio. • In NPs reduce the current density and turn on voltage of the device.

  1. GXRD study of 100 MeV Fe9+ ion irradiated indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.L.; Dubey, S.K.; Kachhap, N.K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Swift heavy ions with MeV to GeV kinetic energy offer unique possibilities of modifying material properties. Each projectile passing through the target material causes loss of its energy by ion-electrons and ion-atoms interaction with the target material. The consequence of formal one is to change in surface properties and latter to produces damage deep in the target material near the projected range of projectile. In the present work, indium phosphide samples were irradiated at 100 MeV 56 Fe 9+ ions with different fluences varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 14 ions cm -2 using the 15UD Pelletron facilities at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction technique was used to investigate the structural properties of irradiated indium phosphide at different depths. The GXRD spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were recorded at different grazing angle i.e 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5° to get the structural information over the projected range. The detailed result will be presented and discussed in the conference. (author)

  2. General observation of the memory effect in metal-insulator-ITO structures due to indium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Huihua; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Yu; Rogach, Andrey L; Shen, Yingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on metal oxides, organic molecules and inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been studied extensively in recent years. Different memory switching mechanisms have been proposed and shown to be closely related to the device architectures. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an ITO/active layer/InGa structure can yield nonvolatile resistive memory behavior in a variety of active materials, including polymers, organic small molecules, and colloidal NCs. Through the electrode material and thickness-dependent study, we show that the ON state of the devices is associated with filamentary conduction induced by indium diffusion from the ITO electrode, occurring mostly within around 40–50 nm from the ITO/active layer interface. A negative differential resistance (NDR) regime is observed during transition from the ON to OFF state, and is explained by the space charge limited current (SCLC) effect due to hole injection at the ITO/active layer interface. Our study reveals the impact of indium diffusion at the ITO/active layer interface, an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing thin printed RRAM devices. (paper)

  3. Indium-111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascher, N.L.; Ahrenholz, D.H.; Simmons, R.L.; Weiblen, B.; Gomez, L.; Forstrom, L.A.; Frick, M.P.; Henke, C.; McCullough, J.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a new test using indium oxine in the diagnosis of postoperative infection are reported. Indium-111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection and inflammation. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection.

  4. Indium-111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascher, N.L.; Ahrenholz, D.H.; Simmons, R.L.; Weiblen, B.; Gomez, L.; Forstrom, L.A.; Frick, M.P.; Henke, C.; McCullough, J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a new test using indium oxine in the diagnosis of postoperative infection are reported. Indium-111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection and inflammation. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection

  5. Indium 111 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, N L; Ahrenholz, D H; Simmons, R L; Weiblen, B; Gomez, L; Forstrom, L A; Frick, M P; Henke, C; McCullough, J

    1979-04-01

    We report the results of a new test, indium oxine in 111 scanning, in the diagnosis of postoperative infection. Indium 111 was used to label autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which when reinjected migrate to sites of infection, inflammation, or both. Standard scintigraphy localizes the labeled inflammatory cells at these sites. Sixty-six scans were performed in 43 surgical patients. Thirty-seven scans were categorized as true-positive; 19 scans were categorized as true-negative. Therefore, the accuracy rate was 85%. Two scans (3%) in one patient represented false-positive results. Two scans (3%) were positive for inflammation but there was no infection present; this group was denoted as equivocal. Six scans (9%) were false-negative; false-negative scans are more likely in old lesions with poor blood supply and in areas that overlap regions of normal uptake. The noninvasive nature of the test, high accuracy rate, and ease of administration make it a potentially useful tool in the diagnosis of postoperative infection.

  6. Role of delayed indium-111 labeled leukocyte scan in the management of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, G.D.; Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Texter, E.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of nine patients with Crohn's disease who had a positive delayed (24 hr) 111 indium leukocyte scan and 10 patients with negative scan showed no significant difference between the two groups for the Crohn's disease activity index, sedimentation rate, survival, complications, number of days in hospital, outpatient visits, or readmissions. Despite the apparent lack of statistical significance in Crohn's disease activity index, the scan was positive in nine of 16 patients with a Crohn's disease activity index more than 150, and none of three patients with Crohn's disease activity index less than 150. In the patients studied, there were no false-positive leukocyte scans. In nine of 10 patients with ileocolonic disease, scanning results correctly predicted the proper management. Six patients with positive scan and enteroclysis responded to medical treatment. Four patients had positive enteroclysis and negative scan; of these, three had radiographic features of chronic ileal stricture which was confirmed at operation. The results suggest that a negative delayed indium-111 leukocyte scan may be useful in diagnosis of chronic fibrotic ileal stricture

  7. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of the Bumped Kinase Inhibitor 1294 in the Related Cyst-Forming Apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Pablo; Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rahman, Mahbubur; Balmer, Vreni; Manser, Vera; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Ojo, Kayode K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    We report on the in vitro effects of the bumped kinase inhibitor 1294 (BKI-1294) in cultures of virulent Neospora caninum isolates Nc-Liverpool (Nc-Liv) and Nc-Spain7 and in two strains of Toxoplasma gondii (RH and ME49), all grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. In these parasites, BKI-1294 acted with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 20 nM (T. gondii RH) to 360 nM (N. caninum Nc-Liv), and exposure of intracellular stages to 1294 led to the nondisjunction of newly formed tachyzoites, resulting in the formation of multinucleated complexes similar to complexes previously observed in BKI-1294-treated N. caninum beta-galactosidase-expressing parasites. However, such complexes were not seen in a transgenic T. gondii strain that expressed CDPK1 harboring a mutation (G to M) in the gatekeeper residue. In T. gondii ME49 and N. caninum Nc-Liv, exposure of cultures to BKI-1294 resulted in the elevated expression of mRNA coding for the bradyzoite marker BAG1. Unlike in bradyzoites, SAG1 expression was not repressed. Immunofluorescence also showed that these multinucleated complexes expressed SAG1 and BAG1 and the monoclonal antibody CC2, which binds to a yet unidentified bradyzoite antigen, also exhibited increased labeling. In a pregnant mouse model, BKI-1294 efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with one of the two virulent isolates Nc-Liv or Nc-Spain7, demonstrating proof of concept that this compound protected offspring from vertical transmission and disease. The observed deregulated antigen expression effect may enhance the immune response during BKI-1294 therapy and will be the subject of future studies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Yamamoto, Ippei [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Lothongkum, Gobboon [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohishi, Tomoji [Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Tungasmita, Sukkaneste [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visuttipitukul, Patama [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide, E-mail: NABATAME.Toshihide@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y}) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}O{sub y}, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm. This ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  10. CFD analysis of a TG–DSC apparatus : Application to the indium heating and phase change process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Porteiro, Jacobo; Febrero, Lara; Granada, Enrique; Arce, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A ThermoGravimetric analyser with differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) has been studied during the fusion of an indium sample using both an experimental procedure and a CFD simulation. To do so, a CAD model of the real device was built and meshed in detail, in order to take into account the

  11. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of small indium phosphide clusters (InxP-y; x,y=1--4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C.; de Beer, E.; Arnold, D.W.; Arnold, C.C.; Neumark, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Small indium phosphide clusters having 2--8 atoms are studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy of In x P - y (x,y=1--4). From these spectra, the electron affinities are determined. Both ground and low-lying excited electronic states of the neutral clusters are observed. An electronic gap is shown in the even cluster anion spectra

  12. Indium triflate in 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogenphosphate: an efficient and green catalytic system for Friedel-Crafts acylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hoang, Huy Manh; Chau, Duy-Khiem Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Indium triflate in the ionic liquid, 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium dihydrogen phosphate ([i-BMIM]H2PO4), was found to show enhanced catalytic activity in the Friedel–Crafts acylation of various aromatic compounds with acid anhydrides. The catalytic system was easily recovered and reused without...

  13. Structure directing agents induced morphology evolution and phase transition from indium-based rho- to sod-ZMOF

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yanshu

    2017-06-23

    In this report, indium-based rho-and sod-ZMOFs with different morphologies and sizes were prepared. Simultaneous morphology evolution and phase transformation from porous rho-to nonporous sod-ZMOFs were reported for the first time by simply varying the concentration of structure directing agents (SDAs).

  14. Thyrotropinoma with Graves? disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Alagoz, Engin; Arslan, Nuri; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Bolu, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves? disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms.

  15. Indium mediated isoprenylation of carbonyl compounds with 2-bromomethyl-1,3-butadiene: a short synthesis of (±-ipsenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceschi Marco A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenylation of aldehydes and ketones was directly performed by selective indium insertion on a mixture of 2-bromomethyl-1,3-butadiene and its vinylic isomers in good yields. A short synthesis of (±-ipsenol, an aggregation pheromone of the Ips paraconfusus bark beetle, demonstrates the utility of this method in organic synthesis.

  16. Indium-mediated asymmetric barbier-type allylations: additions to aldehydes and ketones and mechanistic investigation of the organoindium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Terra D; Hirayama, Lacie C; Singaram, Bakthan

    2010-02-05

    We report a simple, efficient, and general method for the indium-mediated enantioselective allylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones under Barbier-type conditions in a one-pot synthesis affording the corresponding chiral alcohol products in very good yield (up to 99%) and enantiomeric excess (up to 93%). Our method is able to tolerate various functional groups, such as esters, nitriles, and phenols. Additionally, more substituted allyl bromides, such as crotyl and cinnamyl bromide, can be used providing moderate enantioselectivity (72% and 56%, respectively) and excellent diastereoselectivity when employing cinnamyl bromide (>95/5 anti/syn). However, the distereoselectivity when using crotyl bromide was poor and other functionalized allyl bromides under our method afforded low enantioselectivities for the alcohol products. In these types of indium-mediated additions, solvent plays a major role in determining the nature of the organoindium intermediate and we observed the susceptibility of some allylindium intermediates to hydrolysis in protic solvents. Under our reaction conditions using a polar aprotic solvent, we suggest that an allylindium(III) species is the active allylating intermediate. In addition, we have observed the presence of a shiny, indium(0) nugget throughout the reaction, irrespective of the stoichiometry, indicating disproportionation of indium halide byproduct formed during the reaction.

  17. Outdoor Operational Stability of Indium-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Modules Over 1 Year Studied in India, Holland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sommeling, Paul M.; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    We present an outdoor interlaboratory stability study of fully printed and coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cell modules in JNCASR Bangalore (India), ECN (Holland), and DTU (Denmark) carried over more than 1 year. The modules comprising a fully printed and coated stack (Ag grid...

  18. Standard test methods for chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-Grade silver-indium-cadmium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear grade silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloys to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Silver, Indium, and Cadmium by a Titration Method 7-15 Trace Impurities by Carrier-Distillation Spectro- chemical Method 16-22 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard and precautionary statements, see Section 5 and Practices E50. 7.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of silver, indium, and cadmium in alloys of approximately 80 % silver, 15 % indium, and 5 % cadmium used in nuclear reactor control r...

  19. Crystal growth and optical properties of indium doped LiCaAlF.sub.6./sub. scintillator single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanaka, Ch.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Yamaji, A.; Jarý, Vítězslav; Babin, Vladimir; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Y.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, Mar (2017), s. 69-72 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * LiCaAlF6 * single crystal * Indium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  20. Studies on catalysis by molten metals. X. Hydrogen transfer reactions between alcohols and ketones on liquid indium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, A.; Ogino, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer reactions between alcohols and ketones were studied on liquid indium catalyst by using a pulse reaction technique, and a plausible reaction model is proposed to explain the experimental results including deuterium isotope effects. Further, the stereoselectivity observed in the transfer hydrogenation of methylcyclohexanones and the selectivities observed in the transfer hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones are discussed in terms of the proposed model