WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies including non-thermal

  1. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  2. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  3. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  4. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  5. Constraints from Ly-α forests on non-thermal dark matter including resonantly-produced sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Julien; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Armengaud, Éric; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2017-12-01

    We use the large BOSS DR9 sample of quasar spectra to constrain two cases of non-thermal dark matter models: cold-plus-warm dark matter (C+WDM) where the warm component is a thermal relic, and sterile neutrinos resonantly produced in the presence of a lepton asymmetry (RPSN). We establish constraints on the thermal relic mass mx and its relative abundance Fwdm=Ωwdm/Ωdm using a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations in 28 C+WDM configurations. We find that the 3σ bounds in the mx - Fwdm parameter space approximately follow Fwdm ~ 0.35 (keV/mx)-1.37 from BOSS data alone. We also establish constraints on sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle by further producing the non-linear flux power spectrum of 8 RPSN models, where the input linear power spectrum is computed directly from the particles distribution functions. We find values of lepton asymmetries for which sterile neutrinos as light as ~ 6.5 keV (resp. 3.5 keV) are consistent with BOSS data at the 2σ (resp. 3σ) level. These limits tighten by close to a factor of 2 for values of lepton asymmetries departing from those yielding the coolest distribution functions. Our Lyman-α forest bounds can be additionally strengthened if we include higher-resolution data from XQ-100, HIRES and MIKE that allow us to probe smaller scales. At these scales, the measured flux power spectrum exhibits a suppression that can be due to Doppler broadening, IGM pressure smoothing or free-streaming of WDM particles. In order to distinguish between these mechanisms, thermal history at redshifts z >= 5 should be determined. In the current work, we show that if one extrapolates temperatures from lower redshifts via broken power laws in T0 and γ, then our 3σ C+WDM {bounds strengthen to Fwdm ~ 0.20 (keV/mx)-1.37, and the lightest resonantly-produced sterile neutrinos consistent with our extended data set have masses of ~ 7.0 keV at the 3σ level. In particular, using dedicated hydrodynamical simulations, we show that} a

  6. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) session overview: Second International Symposium on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Technologies (used in pollution control and treating hazardous wastes) has expanded from using hydroxyl radicals to treat organic compounds in water, to using reductive free radicals as well, and to application to pollutants in both gases and aqueous media. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) is created in a gas by an electrical discharge or energetic electron injection. Highly reactive species (O atoms, OH, N radicals, plasma electrons) react with entrained hazardous organic chemicals in the gas, converting them to CO2, H2O, etc. NTP can be used to simultaneously remove different kinds of pollutants (eg, VOCs, SOx, NOx in flue gases). This paper presents an overview of NTP technology for pollution control and hazardous waste treatment; it is intended as an introduction to the NTP session of the symposium

  7. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be

  8. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL FOODBORNE PATHOGENS TO NON-THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eCebrián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS, pulsed electric fields (PEF, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP and UV-light (UV is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could

  9. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  10. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  11. Non-thermally activated chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.

    1987-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: state-of-the art of non-thermally activated chemical processes; basic phenomena in non-thermal chemistry including mechanochemistry, photochemistry, laser chemistry, electrochemistry, photo-electro chemistry, high-field chemistry, magneto chemistry, plasma chemistry, radiation chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, and positronium and muonium chemistry; elementary processes in non-thermal chemistry including nuclear chemistry, interactions of electromagnetic radiations, electrons and heavy particles with matter, ionic elementary processes, elementary processes with excited species, radicalic elementary processes, and energy-induced elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces; and comparative considerations. An appendix with historical data and a subject index is given. 44 figs., 41 tabs., and 544 refs

  12. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher R. McLaron

    2004-12-01

    Powerspan has conducted pilot scale testing of a multi-pollutant control technology at FirstEnergy's Burger Power Plant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. The technology, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO), simultaneously removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and mercury (Hg) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Powerspan's ECO{reg_sign} pilot test program focused on optimization of Hg removal in a 1-MWe slipstream pilot while maintaining greater than 90% removal of NO{sub x} and 98% removal of SO{sub 2}. This Final Technical Report discusses pilot operations, installation and maintenance of the Hg SCEMS instrumentation, and performance results including component and overall removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM and Hg from the flue gas and removal of captured Hg from the co-product fertilizer stream.

  13. Reactions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) leading to the formation of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) in non-thermal plasmas (NTPs). White paper for the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) (Compliance Project CP-1038: Development of non-thermal plasma reactor technology for control of atmospheric emissions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miziolek, A.W.; Nusca, M.J. [Army Research Lab., Watertown, MA (United States); Chang, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Herron, J.T. [National Inst. for Standards and Technology (United States)

    1998-08-17

    SERDP Compliance Project CP-1038 (Development of Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Technology for Control of Atmospheric Emissions) has been commissioned to evaluate and develop non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor technology, a form of low-temperature plasma chemical processing, for Department of Defense (DoD) applications. The primary emphasis is on the control of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), with a secondary emphasis on hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission control (primarily volatile organic compounds--VOCs). In this white paper, as a SERDP-requested deliverable, the authors will verify the NO{sub x} removal reactions in NTPs, especially those converging on nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) as a primary reaction product. The benefit of making HNO{sub 3} as a primary terminal de-NO{sub x} product is that it can be easily neutralized by relatively simple caustic (base) scrubbers--although the economics of scrubber systems needs to be compared with the conversion to particles that can be filtered or precipitated. Jet engines also emit a significant amount of SO{sub x} in their exhaust; NTPs also remove SO{sub x} and actually do it more effectively in combination with NO{sub x}. This will not be dealt with in this particular white paper.

  14. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  15. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  16. Non-thermal AGN models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared, optical and x-ray continua from radio quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are explained by a compact non-thermal source surrounding a thermal ultraviolet emitter, presumably the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The ultraviolet source is observed as the ''big blue bump.'' The flat (α ≅ .7) hard x-ray spectrum results from the scattering of thermal ultraviolet photons by the flat, low energy end of an electron distribution ''broken'' by Compton losses; the infrared through soft x-ray continuum is the synchrotron radiation of the steep, high energy end of the electron distribution. Quantitative fits to specific AGN result in models which satisfy the variability constraints but require electron (re)acceleration throughout the source. 11 refs., 1 fig

  17. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION:

  18. EDITORIAL: Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry Non-thermal plasma-assisted fuel conversion for green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Gutsol, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This special issue is based on the symposium on Non-thermal Plasma Assisted Fuel Conversion for Green Chemistry, a part of the 240th ACS National Meeting & Exposition held in Boston, MA, USA, 22-26 August 2010. Historically, the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has featured three plasma-related symposia since 2000, and has launched special issues in Catalysis Today on three occasions: 'Catalyst Preparation using Plasma Technologies', Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 2000. Special issue in Catalysis Today 72 (3-4) with 12 peer-reviewed articles. 'Plasma Technology and Catalysis', Spring Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2003. Special issue in Catalysis Today 89 (1-2) with more than 30 peer-reviewed articles. 'Utilization of Greenhouse Gases II' (partly focused on plasma-related technologies), Spring Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2004. Special issue in Catalysis Today 98 (4) with 25 peer-reviewed articles. This time, selected presentations are published in this Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics special issue. An industrial material and energy conversion technology platform is established on thermochemical processes including various catalytic reactions. Existing industry-scale technology is already well established; nevertheless, further improvement in energy efficiency and material saving has been continuously demanded. Drastic reduction of CO2 emission is also drawing keen attention with increasing recognition of energy and environmental issues. Green chemistry is a rapidly growing research field, and frequently highlights renewable bioenergy, bioprocesses, solar photocatalysis of water splitting, and regeneration of CO2 into useful chemicals. We would also like to emphasize 'plasma catalysis' of hydrocarbon resources as an important part of the innovative next-generation green technologies. The peculiarity of non-thermal plasma is that it can generate reactive species almost independently of reaction temperature. Plasma

  19. Non-thermal soot denuder, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a non-thermal soot denuder for measuring chemical components of the nucleation mode particulate matter emissions from gas turbine engines, in...

  20. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  1. Dynamical origin of non-thermal states in galactic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Gupta, Shamik; Casetti, Lapo

    2018-03-01

    Observations strongly suggest that filaments in galactic molecular clouds are in a non-thermal state. As a simple model of a filament, we study a two-dimensional system of self-gravitating point particles by means of numerical simulations of the dynamics, with various methods: direct N-body integration of the equations of motion, particle-in-cell simulations, and a recently developed numerical scheme that includes multiparticle collisions in a particle-in-cell approach. Studying the collapse of Gaussian overdensities, we find that after the damping of virial oscillations the system settles in a non-thermal steady state whose radial density profile is similar to the observed ones, thus suggesting a dynamical origin of the non-thermal states observed in real filaments. Moreover, for sufficiently cold collapses, the density profiles are anticorrelated with the kinetic temperature, i.e. exhibit temperature inversion, again a feature that has been found in some observations of filaments. The same happens in the state reached after a strong perturbation of an initially isothermal cylinder. Finally, we discuss our results in the light of recent findings in other contexts (including non-astrophysical ones) and argue that the same kind of non-thermal states may be observed in any physical system with long-range interactions.

  2. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  3. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  4. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the

  5. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  6. Non-thermal pressure in the outskirts of Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco-Femiano, Roberto; Lapi, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Clumping and turbulence are expected to affect the matter accreted on to the outskirts of galaxy clusters. To determine their impact on the thermodynamic properties of Abell 2142, we perform an analysis of the X-ray temperature data from XMM-Newton via our SuperModel, a state-of-the-art tool for investigating the astrophysics of the intracluster medium already tested on many individual clusters (since Cavaliere, Lapi & Fusco-Femiano 2009). Using the gas density profile corrected for clumpiness derived by Tchernin et al. (2016), we find evidence for the presence of a non-thermal pressure component required to sustain gravity in the cluster outskirts of Abell 2142, that amounts to about 30 per cent of the total pressure at the virial radius. The presence of the non-thermal component implies the gas fraction to be consistent with the universal value at the virial radius and the electron thermal pressure profile to be in good agreement with that inferred from the SZ data. Our results indicate that the presence of gas clumping and of a non-thermal pressure component are both necessary to recover the observed physical properties in the cluster outskirts. Moreover, we stress that an alternative method often exploited in the literature (included Abell 2142) to determine the temperature profile kBT = Pe/ne basing on a combination of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) pressure Pe and of the X-ray electron density ne does not allow us to highlight the presence of non-thermal pressure support in the cluster outskirts.

  7. Non thermal cyclotron emission and absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-08-01

    The problem of emission and absorption in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma out of thermal equilibrium is investigated. We explicitly construct the Green function of the Maxwell equations in the eikonal approximation. Then, considering the fluctuating microcurrents associated with the non thermal component of the electronic population, we give the general expressions for the source function and the optical depth. The theory is then applied to a tokamak plasma whose current is generated by lower-hybrid waves and to the final stage of the Parail-Pogutse instability

  8. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Cognizant, IBM, Infosys, Kana, Patni, Siemens, Tapfin, Veritas... Workers From At&T Solutions, Chimes, Cognizant, Patni, Siemens, Xerox Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Revised...

  9. Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...

  10. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates...

  11. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  13. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  14. Non-thermal Dupree diffusivity and shielding effects on atomic collisions in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-05-01

    The influence of non-thermal Dupree turbulence and the plasma shielding on the electron-ion collision is investigated in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal analysis and the effective interaction potential including the Lorentzian far-field term are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length and spectral index of the astrophysical Lorentzian plasma. It is shown that the non-thermal effect suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift. However, it enhances the eikonal collision cross section in astrophysical non-thermal turbulent plasmas. The effect of non-thermal turbulence on the eikonal atomic collision cross section is weakened with increasing collision energy. The variation of the atomic cross section due to the non-thermal Dupree turbulence is also discussed. This research was supported by Nuclear Fusion Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No. 2015M1A7A1A01002786).

  15. Non-thermal-plasma-activated de-NOx catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Rahman; Stere, Cristina E; Goguet, Alexandre; Hardacre, Christopher

    2018-01-13

    The combination of non-thermal plasma (NTP) with catalyst systems as an alternative technology to remove NO x emissions in the exhaust of lean-burn stationary and mobile sources is reviewed. Several factors, such as low exhaust gas temperatures (below 300°C), low selectivity to N 2 and the presence of impurities, make current thermally activated technologies inefficient. Various hybrid plasma-catalyst systems have been examined and shown to have a synergistic effect on de-NO x efficiency when compared with NTP or catalyst-alone systems. The NTP is believed to form oxygenated species, such as aldehydes and nitrogen-containing organic species, and to convert NO to NO 2 , which improves the reduction efficiency of N 2 during hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction reactions. The NTP has been used as a pretreatment to convert NO to its higher oxidation states such as NO 2 to improve NO x reduction efficiency in the subsequent processes, e.g. NH 3 -selective catalytic reduction. It has been applied to the lean phase of the NO x storage to improve the adsorption capacity of the catalyst by conversion of NO to NO 2 Alternatively, a catalyst with high adsorption capacity is chosen and the NTP is applied to the rich phase to improve the reduction activity of the catalyst at low temperature.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. On the Non-Thermal Energy Content of Cosmic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Vazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: the budget of non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is not well constrained, owing to the observational and theoretical difficulties in studying these diluted plasmas on large scales; (2 Method: we use recent cosmological simulations with complex physics in order to connect the emergence of non-thermal energy to the underlying evolution of gas and dark matter; (3 Results: the impact of non-thermal energy (e.g., cosmic rays, magnetic fields and turbulent motions is found to increase in the outer region of galaxy clusters. Within numerical and theoretical uncertainties, turbulent motions dominate the budget of non-thermal energy in most of the cosmic volume; (4 Conclusion: assessing the distribution non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is crucial to perform high-precision cosmology in the future. Constraining the level of non-thermal energy in cluster outskirts will improve our understanding of the acceleration of relativistic particles and of the origin of extragalactic magnetic fields.

  17. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2000-04-01

    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  18. Investigation of atmospheric pressure capillary non-thermal plasmas and their applications to the degradation of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Min

    Atmospheric pressure capillary non-thermal plasma (AP-CNTP) has been investigated as a potential technology far the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Advanced Life Support Systems (ALS). AP-CNTP is a destructive technology far the removal of VOCs from air streams by active plasma species, such as electrons, ions, and excited molecules. Complete VOC destruction ideally results in the formation of water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other by-product's may also form, including ozone (O3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and decomposed hydrocarbons. Several organic compounds, such as BTEX, ethylene, n-heptane, isooctane, methanol and NH3, were tested in an AP-CNTP system. Parametric experiments were carried out by varying plasma discharge power, flowrates, and initial concentrations. The degradation efficiency varied depending on the chemical nature of the compounds. A plasmochemical kinetic model was derived for toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and n-heptane.

  19. Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božena, ŠERÁ; Michal, ŠERÝ

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.

  20. Electric field effects in combustion with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Tiernan Albert

    Chemically reacting zones such as flames act as sources of charged species and can thus be considered as weakly-ionized plasmas. As such, the action of an externally applied electric field has the potential to affect the dynamics of reaction zones by enhancing transport, altering the local chemical composition, activating reaction pathways, and by providing additional thermal energy through the interaction of electrons with neutral molecules. To investigate these effects, one-dimensional simulations of reacting flows are performed including the treatment of charged species transport and non-thermal electron chemistry using a modified reacting fluid solver. A particular area of interest is that of plasma assisted ignition, which is investigated in a canonical one-dimensional configuration. An incipient ignition kernel, formed by localized energy deposition into a lean mixture of methane and air at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to sub-breakdown electric fields by applied voltages across the domain, resulting in non-thermal behavior of the electron sub-fluid formed during the discharge. Strong electric fields cause charged species to be rapidly transported from the ignition zone across the domain in opposite directions as charge fronts, augmenting the magnitude of the electric field in the fresh gas during the pulse through a dynamic-electrode effect. This phenomenon results in an increase in the energy of the electrons in the fresh mixture with increasing time, accelerating electron impact dissociation processes. A semi-analytic model to represent this dynamic electrode effect is constructed to highlight the relative simplicity of the electrodynamic problem admitted by the far more detailed chemistry and transport. Enhanced fuel and oxidizer decomposition due to electron impact dissociation and interaction with excited neutrals generate a pool of radicals, mostly O and H, in the fresh gas ahead of the flame's preheat zone. The effect of nanosecond pulses are to

  1. Monitoring non-thermal plasma processes for nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Process characterization tools have played a crucial role in the investigation of dusty plasmas. The presence of dust in certain non-thermal plasma processes was first detected by laser light scattering measurements. Techniques like laser induced particle explosive evaporation and ion mass spectrometry have provided the experimental evidence necessary for the development of the theory of particle nucleation in silane-containing non-thermal plasmas. This review provides first a summary of these early efforts, and then discusses recent investigations using in situ characterization techniques to understand the interaction between nanoparticles and plasmas. The advancement of such monitoring techniques is necessary to fully develop the potential of non-thermal plasmas as unique materials synthesis and processing platforms. At the same time, the strong coupling between materials and plasma properties suggest that it is also necessary to advance techniques for the measurement of plasma properties while in presence of dust. Recent progress in this area will be discussed.

  2. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    was collected by Tenax tubes and the concentration of TCA and TBA were analyzed by thermal desorption GC–MS. The results showed that the plasma air purifier was effective on removing TCA and TBA with a single pass efficiency of better than 82%. The effect was further validated in a wine cellar under a realistic......A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine...... condition. The concentrations of TCA and TBA in the wine cellar decreased 94% and 50% respectively after running two plasma air purifiers for 5 days. The non-thermal plasma air purification technology may be used in wine cellar to remove the two airborne contaminants and prevent the wine from being...

  3. Non-Thermal Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; McGowan, J. William; Chiu, K. C. Ray

    1995-01-01

    The removal of fluorine based exhaust gases such as CFC's, PFC's, NF3, and SF6 used for plasma etching of and deposition on semi-conductors is a subject of increasing interest because of safety, air pollution, and global warming issues. Conventional treatment methods for removing exhaust gas pollutants are wet scrubbing, carbon and resin adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and thermal incineration. However, there are drawbacks associated with each of these methods which include difficulties in implementation, problems with the disposal of solid and liquid pollutant waste, large water and fuel consumption, and additional pollutants such as NOx emissions which are generated in thermal incineration processes.

  4. Ultrafast Non-Thermal Electron Dynamics in Single Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov K.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the ultrafast dynamics of non-thermal electron relaxation in graphene upon impulsive excitation. The 10-fs resolution two color pump-probe allows us to unveil the non-equilibrium electron gas decay at early times.

  5. 76 FR 22729 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Industries, including on-site leased workers from Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, Securitas Security Services...

  6. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO...

  7. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  8. SOLCOST - Version 3. 0. Solar energy design program for non-thermal specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The SOLCOST solar energy design program is a public domain computerized design tool intended for use by non-thermal specialists to size solar systems with a methodology based on life cycle cost. An overview of SOLCOST capabilities and options is presented. A detailed guide to the SOLCOST input parameters is included. Sample problems showing typical imput decks and resulting SOLCOST output sheets are given. Details of different parts of the analysis are appended. (MHR)

  9. State of the art in medical applications using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Plasma medical science is a novel interdisciplinary field that combines studies on plasma science and medical science, with the anticipation that understanding the scientific principles governing plasma medical science will lead to innovations in the field. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used for medical treatments, such as for cancer, blood coagulation, and wound healing. The interactions that occur between plasma and cells/tissues have been analyzed extensively. Direct and indirect treatment of cells with plasma has broadened the applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in medicine. Examples of indirect treatment include plasma-assisted immune-therapy and plasma-activated medium. Controlling intracellular redox balance may be key in plasma cancer treatment. Animal studies are required to test the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for future clinical applications.

  10. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,755] Thomson Reuters, Finance... of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site leased workers from... administrative services. New findings show that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology...

  11. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  12. 76 FR 4724 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... from Supply Technologies were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies, Osceola, WI; Amended Certification...

  13. 75 FR 77666 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... from Supply Technologies were employed on-site at the Osceola, Wisconsin location of Polaris Industries... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff and Supply Technologies, Osceola, WI; Amended Certification...

  14. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  15. Some perspectives in nuclear astrophysics on non-thermal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author presents and comments his research activities on nuclear phenomena in stellar eruptions (solar eruptions, lithium nucleosynthesis in stellar eruptions), on particle acceleration in shock waves of stellar explosions (diffusive acceleration by shock wave, particle acceleration in symbiotic novae, particle acceleration in radio-detected supernovae), of research on low energy cosmic rays (galactic emission of nuclear gamma rays, non thermal soft X rays as new tracer of accelerated particles), and on the origin of short period radioactivities in the primitive solar system (extinguished radio-activities and formation of the solar system, origin of berylium-10 in the primitive solar system). The author concludes with some perspectives on non thermal phenomena in nuclear astrophysics, and on research and development for the future of medium-energy gamma astronomy [fr

  16. Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal eDev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

  17. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Jäger, A.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.; Dejneka, A.

    2015-02-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained rat skin sections from plasma-treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  18. 76 FR 5833 - Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek, and Securitas Security Services..., applicable to workers of Polaris Industries, including on-site leased workers from Westaff, Osceola...

  19. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S.

    2006-01-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  20. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Sch?chter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35?C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  1. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: scanning electron microscopy observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Churpita, Olexandr; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Deyneka, I.G.; Meshkovskii, I.K.; Jäger, Aleš; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2015), "053703-1"-"053703-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * plasma medicine * bacteria * cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  2. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  3. Evaluation of thermal and non-thermal effects of UHF RFID exposure on biological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnini, Giovanni; Censi, Federica; Maffia, Michele; Mainetti, Luca; Mattei, Eugenio; Patrono, Luigi; Urso, Emanuela

    2012-11-01

    The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises to improve several processes in the healthcare scenario, especially those related to traceability of people and things. Unfortunately, there are still some barriers limiting the large-scale deployment of these innovative technologies in the healthcare field. Among these, the evaluation of potential thermal and non-thermal effects due to the exposure of biopharmaceutical products to electromagnetic fields is very challenging, but still slightly investigated. This paper aims to setup a controlled RF exposure environment, in order to reproduce a worst-case exposure of pharmaceutical products to the electromagnetic fields generated by the UHF RFID devices placed along the supply chain. Radiated powers several times higher than recommended by current normative limits were applied (10 W and 20 W). The electric field strength at the exposed sample location, used in tests, was as high as 100 V/m. Non-thermal effects were evaluated by chromatography techniques and in vitro assays. The results obtained for a particular case study, the ActrapidTM human insulin preparation, showed temperature increases lower than 0.5 °C and no significant changes in the structure and performance of the considered drug.

  4. Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection non-thermal plasma (NTP) processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis A [Los Alamos, NM; Ferreri, Vincent [Westminster, CO; Kim, Yongho [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-21

    The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a non-thermal plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.

  5. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...] Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload... Docket 10-92 (Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or...

  7. 77 FR 13351 - Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,336] Polaris Industries, Including On-site Leased Workers From Westaff, Supply Technologies, Aerotek Securitas Security Services... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Polaris Industries...

  8. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. The authors discuss in detail their work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. The results suggest that their plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kW and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1,200 liters per minute

  9. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitric oxides (NO x ) Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. We discuss in detail our work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. Our results suggest that our plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO x with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kill and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1200 liters per minute

  10. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  11. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  12. Developing the FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies: Classification and description of technology use (including ICT) in falls prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an

  13. (Non)thermal aspects of charmonium production and a new look at J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun-Munzinger, P.; Stachel, J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate a recent proposal that J/ψ production in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions is of thermal origin we have reanalyzed the data from the NA38/50 collaboration within a thermal model including charm. Comparison of the calculated with measured yields demonstrates the non-thermal origin of hidden charm production at SPS energy. However, the ratio ψ' /(J/ψ) exhibits, in central nucleus-nucleus collisions, thermal features which lead us to a new interpretation of open charm and charmonium production at SPS energy. Implications for RHIC and LHC energy measurements will be discussed. (orig.)

  14. Non-thermal escape rates of atmospheric H and D from Mars using MAVEN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that an ocean of liquid water existed on Mars until at least middle to late Noachian era (4.1 to 3.8 Ga) and possibly, at least episodically, as late as Hesperian. Between 67% and 87% of the total primordial amount of water, equal to about 70 to 110 meters equivalent (spread over the entire Mars' surface), is believed to have escape to space, while about 35 meters remains on or beneath the surface as water ice. Establishing better constraints on these numbers and identifying the responsible atmospheric loss processes remains the major objective of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The ratio of atmospheric Deuterium and Hydrogen (D/H) on Mars is one of the best indicators of water loss to space. While majority of H and D escape through thermal Jeans escape, up to 10% of D can escape to space via non-thermal mechanisms, such as collisions with superthermal neutral atoms. In this study, we present new estimates of non-thermal escape rates of light molecules of interest to the water evolution, including H2, HD, OH, and OD, based on recent measurements of atmospheric density and temperature profiles by MAVEN. The escape mechanisms considered include photochemical sources of hot O, as well as collisions with energetic neutral atoms produced in charge-exchange of solar wind ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Energy transport and escape rates are modeled using quantum reactive scattering formalism3 and seasonal variations are illustrated. Finally, a simple estimate of the role of the non-thermal escape mechanisms in previous eras is given. We conclude that D escape rates can be affected by the non-thermal processes with consequences on the estimates of primordial water inventory based on the D/H ratio. [1] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) [2] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, V. Kharchenko, Icarus 284, 90 (2017) [3] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012)

  15. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-12-06

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere.

  16. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  17. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  18. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  19. Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...

  20. Contemporary Aspects of Marketing in Clinical Trials Including Segments of IT and Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenovic, Milorad; Dobraca, Amra; Smajlovic, Mersiha

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the marketing strategy and the application of management (marketing management) and advertising in order to increase the efficiency of innovative approach in clinical trials that include and involve the use of new technologies and transfer of technologies. This paper has a descriptive character and represents a narrative review of the literature and new model implementation. Marketing models are primarily used to improve the inclusion of a larger (and appropriate) number of patients, but they can be credited for the stay and monitoring of patients in the trial. Regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the application of various marketing strategies within clinical trials. The value for the patient as the most important stakeholder is defined in the field of clinical trials according to Kotler's value model for the consumer. In order to achieve the best results it is important to adequately examine all the elements of clinical trials and apply this knowledge in creation of a marketing plan that will be made in accordance with the legal regulations defined globally and locally. In this paper, two challenges have been highlighted for the adequate application of marketing tools in the field of clinical trials, namely: defining business elements in order to provide an adequate marketing approach for clinical trials and technology transfer and ensuring uniformity and regulatory affirmation of marketing attitudes in clinical trials in all regions in which they are carried out in accordance with ICH-GCP and valid regulations.

  1. Non-thermal CMSSM with a 125 GeV Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luis; Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Bhaskar; Krippendorf, Sven; Maharana, Anshuman; Muia, Francesco; Quevedo, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    We study the phenomenology of the CMSSM/mSUGRA with non-thermal neutralino dark matter. Besides the standard parameters of the CMSSM we include the reheating temperature as an extra parameter. Imposing radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and no dark matter overproduction, we contrast the scenario with different experimental bounds from colliders (LEP, LHC), cosmic microwave background (Planck), direct (LUX, XENON100, CDMS, IceCube) and indirect (Fermi) dark matter searches. The allowed parameter space is characterised by a Higgsino-like LSP with a mass around 300 GeV. The observed dark matter abundance can be saturated for reheating temperatures around 2GeV while larger temperatures require extra non-neutralino dark matter candidates and extend the allowed parameter space. Sfermion and gluino masses are in the few TeV region. These scenarios can be achieved in string models of sequestered supersymmetry breaking which avoid cosmological moduli problems and are compatible with gauge coupling unification. Astrophysics and particle physics experiments will fully investigate this non-thermal scenario in the near future.

  2. Non-thermal CMSSM with a 125 GeV Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Luis [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, TAMU,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Krippendorf, Sven [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad, UP 211019 (India); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-20

    We study the phenomenology of the CMSSM/mSUGRA with non-thermal neutralino dark matter. Besides the standard parameters of the CMSSM we include the reheating temperature as an extra parameter. Imposing radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with a Higgs mass around 125 GeV and no dark matter overproduction, we contrast the scenario with different experimental bounds from colliders (LEP, LHC), cosmic microwave background (Planck), direct (LUX, XENON100, CDMS, IceCube) and indirect (Fermi) dark matter searches. The allowed parameter space is characterised by a Higgsino-like LSP with a mass around 300 GeV. The observed dark matter abundance can be saturated for reheating temperatures around 2 GeV while larger temperatures require extra non-neutralino dark matter candidates and extend the allowed parameter space. Sfermion and gluino masses are in the few TeV region. These scenarios can be achieved in string models of sequestered supersymmetry breaking which avoid cosmological moduli problems and are compatible with gauge coupling unification. Astrophysics and particle physics experiments will fully investigate this non-thermal scenario in the near future.

  3. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, M.; Mojsilović, S.; Okić Đorđević, I.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Malović, G.; Milenković, P.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

  4. Integrated CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization Using Non-Thermal Plasmolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Matthew, E-mail: mmoss1@sheffield.ac.uk; Reed, Daniel G.; Allen, Ray W. K.; Styring, Peter [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-02

    In this work, two simple processes for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) such as capture and utilization have been combined to form a whole systems approach to carbon capture and utilization (CCU). The first stage utilizes a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system, which offers many benefits over current amine technologies. It was found that high selectivity can be achieved with rapid adsorption/desorption times while employing a cheap, durable sorbent that exhibits no sorbent losses and is easily regenerated by simple pressure drops. The PSA system is capable of capturing and upgrading the CO{sub 2} concentration of a waste gas stream from 12.5% to a range of higher purities. As many CCU end processes have some tolerance toward impurities in the feed, in the form of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), for example, this is highly advantageous for this PSA system since CO{sub 2} purities in excess of 80% can be achieved with only a few steps and minimal energy input. Non-thermal plasma is one such technology that can tolerate, and even benefit from, small N{sub 2} impurities in the feed, therefore a 100% pure CO{sub 2} stream is not required. The second stage of this process deploys a nanosecond pulsed corona discharge reactor to split the captured CO{sub 2} into carbon monoxide (CO), which can then be used as a chemical feedstock for other syntheses. Corona discharge has proven industrial applications for gas cleaning and the benefit of pulsed power reduces the energy consumption of the system. The wire-in-cylinder geometry concentrates the volume of gas treated into the area of high electric field. Previous work has suggested that moderate conversions can be achieved (9%), compared to other non-thermal plasma methods, but with higher energy efficiencies (>60%).

  5. Integrated CO2 Capture and Utilization Using Non-Thermal Plasmolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Moss

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two simple processes for carbon dioxide (CO2 such as capture and utilization have been combined to form a whole systems approach to carbon capture and utilization (CCU. The first stage utilizes a pressure swing adsorption (PSA system, which offers many benefits over current amine technologies. It was found that high selectivity can be achieved with rapid adsorption/desorption times while employing a cheap, durable sorbent that exhibits no sorbent losses and is easily regenerated by simple pressure drops. The PSA system is capable of capturing and upgrading the CO2 concentration of a waste gas stream from 12.5% to a range of higher purities. As many CCU end processes have some tolerance toward impurities in the feed, in the form of nitrogen (N2, for example, this is highly advantageous for this PSA system since CO2 purities in excess of 80% can be achieved with only a few steps and minimal energy input. Non-thermal plasma is one such technology that can tolerate, and even benefit from, small N2 impurities in the feed, therefore a 100% pure CO2 stream is not required. The second stage of this process deploys a nanosecond pulsed corona discharge reactor to split the captured CO2 into carbon monoxide (CO, which can then be used as a chemical feedstock for other syntheses. Corona discharge has proven industrial applications for gas cleaning and the benefit of pulsed power reduces the energy consumption of the system. The wire-in-cylinder geometry concentrates the volume of gas treated into the area of high electric field. Previous work has suggested that moderate conversions can be achieved (9%, compared to other non-thermal plasma methods, but with higher energy efficiencies (>60%.

  6. Hydrogenated liquids and hydrogen production by non-thermal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.M. [Orleans Univ., Orleans Cedex (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Polytech d' Orleans, Group for Research and Studies on Mediators of Inflamation

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) has been considered as a fuel for electricity generation and transportation purposes. H{sub 2} is a renewable energy source that does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. This paper reported on a comparative study of syngas production from alcohol, with particular reference to the plasma steam-reforming of ethanol, methanol, ammonia and vegetable oil. The H{sub 2} yields and energetic cost in function of hydrogen sources were presented. The non thermal plasma used in this study was a laboratory scale experimental device static discharge. An arc formed between two electrodes made of graphite. The efficiency of the process was determined through chemical diagnostics. Gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to determine concentrations of H{sub 2}, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and carbon as functions of flow and inlet liquid mixture concentration parameters. This paper also presented the values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio and the composition of synthesis gas according to various operating conditions. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Analysis of non-thermal velocities in the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Contesse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe new ground-based spectroscopic observations made using a 40-cm aperture coronagraph over a whole range of radial distances (up to heights of 12' above the limb and along four different heliocentric directions N, E, S and W. The analysis is limited to the study of the brightest forbidden emission line of Fe XIV at 530.3nm, in order to reach the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. To make the results statistically more significant, the extracted parameters are averaged over the whole length of the slit, and measurements are repeated fives times at each position; the corresponding dispersions in the results obtained along the slit are given. Central line profile intensities and full line widths (FWHM are plotted and compared to measurements published by other authors closer to the limb. We found widths and turbulent (non-thermal velocities of significantly higher values above the polar regions, especially when a coronal hole is present along the line of sight. We do not see a definitely decreasing behaviour of widths and turbulent velocities in equatorial directions for larger radial distances, as reported in the literature, although lower values are measured compared to the values in polar regions. The variation in the high corona is rather flat and a correlation diagram indicates that it is different for different regions and different radial distances. This seems to be the first analysis of the profiles of this coronal line, up to large heights above the limb for both equatorial and polar regions.

  8. 32 CFR 37.875 - Should my TIA include a provision concerning foreign access to technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude the establishment of domestic sources of the technology for defense purposes. Financial and... foreign access to technology? 37.875 Section 37.875 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms...

  9. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services...., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities... Technology Help Desk ] Services. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the...

  10. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the

  11. Inactivation of Microorganisms in Model Biofilms by an Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Non-thermal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishev, Yuri; Trushkin, N.; Grushin, M.; Petryakov, A.; Karal'nik, V.; Kobzev, E.; Kholodenko, V.; Chugunov, V.; Kireev, G.; Rakitsky, Yu.; Irkhina, I.

    Non-thermal plasma jet formed by self-running pulsed-periodical high-current spark generator (PPSG) was used for atmospheric pressure inactivation of microorganisms including biofilms. A distinctive feature of the PPSG is a formation of transient hot plasma clouds (plasma bullets) periodically flying out to the target. We experimented with model biofilms of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis monocultures which were grown on agar and surfaces of steel and polypropylene coupons. High efficiency of plasma inactivation was demonstrated. This effect is associated primarily with an interaction of transient hot plasma clouds with biofilms. Besides complete or partial degradation of the cell membrane, weakening of the cell wall of E.coli culture by active plasma was found.

  12. Non-thermal enhancement of electron-positron pair creation in burning thermonuclear laboratory plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. G.; Rose, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the number of electron-positron pairs which will be produced during the burning of a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasma in conditions that are anticipated will be achieved at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we consider, for the first time, the effect of including the gamma photons produced in a low probability channel of the DT reaction. It is found that non-thermal effects driven by the fusion products are the dominant method of pair production, and lead to a number density of positrons within the capsule in excess of 3 × 1017 cm-3. The positrons are predominately produced by the Bethe-Heitler process and destroyed by two photon annihilation.

  13. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous solid water (ASW) is a metastable form of water created by vapor deposition onto a cold substrate (typically less than 130 K). Since this unusual form of water only exists on earth in laboratories with highly specialized equipment, it is fair to ask why there is any interest in studying this esoteric material. Much of the scientific interest involves using ASW as a model system to explore the physical and reactive properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions. Other researchers are interested in ASW because it is believed to be the predominate form of water in the extreme cold temperatures found in many astrophysical and planetary environments. In addition, ASW is a convenient model system for studying the stability of metastable systems (glasses) and the properties of highly porous materials. A fundamental understanding of such properties has applications in a diverse range of disciplines including cryobiology, food science, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics and nuclear waste storage among others.There exist several excellent reviews on the properties of ASW and supercooled liquid water and a new comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this Account. Instead, we focus on our research over the past 15 years using molecular beams and surface science techniques to probe the thermal and non thermal properties of nanoscale films of ASW. We use molecular beams to precisely control the deposition conditions (flux, incident, energy, incident angle) to create compositionally-tailored, nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, at which time they transform into deeply supercooled liquids prior to crystallization. The advantage of this approach is that at temperatures near Tg the viscosity is approximately 15 orders of magnitude larger than a normal liquid, and therefore the crystallization kinetics are dramatically slowed

  14. Utilities and Power - Sector Report. Malaysia: including electricity, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications and information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market. The Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the five year period, 1996-2000, contains an ambitious menu of infrastructure projects. Total expenditure under the Plan is envisaged at RM450 billion, of which around RM380 billion will be sourced from the private sector. This is an indication of the wealth accumulated within the Malaysian economy. The infrastructure developments identified are designed to take the country towards Vision 2020. These infrastructure developments will continue to make the country highly attractive to foreign investors, who were the catalyst for Malaysia`s explosive growth over the last few years. Malaysian Corporations have also grown rapidly and are becoming international investors and traders in their own right, including in the United Kingdom. As they expand, seeking new markets, they are looking also for partners with whom they can share technology and jointly develop projects. Such companies are often ideal partners for UK companies wishing to enter the Malaysian and Asian market. Malaysia offers opportunities to companies prepared to make the small effort to know and understand the country and its people. This report will assist companies to develop a useful understanding of the market. (author)

  15. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  16. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,164] International Business... 25, 2010, applicable to workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... hereby issued as follows: All workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology...

  17. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  18. Spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis in high-scale inflation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2006-11-01

    We argue that a non-thermal leptogenesis occurs spontaneously, without direct couplings of the inflation with right-handed neutrinos, in a wide class of high-scale inflation models such as the chaotic and hybrid inflation. It is only a finite vacuum expectation value of the inflaton, of more precisely, a linear term in the Kaehler potential, that is a prerequisite for the spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis. To exemplify how it works, we show that a chaotic inflation model in supergravity naturally produces a right amount of baryon asymmetry via the spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis. We also discuss the gravitino production from the inflation. (orig.)

  19. Changing the surface properties on naval steel as result of non-thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Sabău, A.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Crețu, M.; Astanei, D.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of corrosion, related to Biofouling formation, is an issue with very high importance in the maritime domain. According to new rules, the paints and all the technologies for the conditioning of naval materials must fulfil more restrictive environmental conditions. In order to solve this issue, different new clean technologies have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-thermal plasmas produced at atmospheric pressure plays a very important role. This study concerns the opportunity of plasma treatment for preparation or conditioning of naval steel OL36 type. The plasma reactors chosen for the experiments can operate at atmospheric pressure and are easy to use in industrial conditions. They are based on electrical discharges GlidArc and Spark, which already proved their efficiency for the surface activation or even for coatings of the surface. The non-thermal character of the plasma is ensured by a gas flow blown through the electrical discharges. One power supply has been used for reactors that provide a 5 kV voltage and a maximum current of 100 mA. The modifications of the surface properties and composition have been studied by XPS technique (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). There were taken into consideration 5 samples: 4 of them undergoing a Mini-torch plasma, a Gliding Spark, a GlidArc with dry air and a GlidArc with CO2, respectively the fifth sample which is the untreated witness. Before the plasma treatment, samples of naval steel were processed in order to obtain mechanical gloss. The time of treatment was chosen to 12 minutes. In the spectroscopic analysis, done on a ULVAC-PHI, Inc. PHI 5000 Versa Probe scanning XPS microprobe, a monocromated Al Kα X-ray source with a spot size of 100 μm2 was used to scan each sample while the photoelectrons were collected at a 45-degree take-off angle. Differences were found between atomic concentrations in each individual case, which proves that the active species produced by each type of plasma affects

  20. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  1. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  2. Non-thermal x-ray emission from wire array z-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampleford, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Stephanie B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jennings, Christopher Ashley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Webb, Timothy Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper-Slaboszewicz, V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Loisel, Guillaume Pascal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Timothy McGuire [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, Kate Suzanne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brent M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McPherson, Leroy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gregory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chittenden, Jeremy P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Sherlock, Mark [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Appelbe, Brian [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Giuliani, John [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Ouart, Nicholas [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Seely, John [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We report on experiments demonstrating the transition from thermally-dominated K-shell line emission to non-thermal, hot-electron-driven inner-shell emission for z pinch plasmas on the Z machine. While x-ray yields from thermal K-shell emission decrease rapidly with increasing atomic number Z, we find that non-thermal emission persists with favorable Z scaling, dominating over thermal emission for Z=42 and higher (hn ≥ 17keV). Initial experiments with Mo (Z=42) and Ag (Z=47) have produced kJ-level emission in the 17-keV and 22-keV Kα lines respectively. We will discuss the electron beam properties that could excite these non - thermal lines. We also report on experiments that have attempted to control non - thermal K - shell line emission by modifying the wire array or load hardware setup.

  3. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  4. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  5. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  6. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonporn Panngom

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  7. Hydrodynamic Simulation of Non-thermal Pressure Profiles of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Kaylea; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties. Using a mass-limited sample of galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, we characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate....

  8. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  9. Hydrodynamic simulation of non-thermal pressure profiles of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lau, Erwin T., E-mail: kaylea.nelson@yale.edu [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties. Using a mass-limited sample of galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, we characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find that the non-thermal pressure fraction profile is universal across redshift when galaxy cluster radii are defined with respect to the mean matter density of the universe instead of the commonly used critical density. We also find that the non-thermal pressure is predominantly radial, and the gas velocity anisotropy profile exhibits strong universality when galaxy cluster radii are defined with respect to the mean matter density of the universe. However, we find that the non-thermal pressure fraction is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate of the galaxy cluster. We provide fitting formulae for the universal non-thermal pressure fraction and velocity anisotropy profiles of gas in galaxy clusters, which should be useful in modeling astrophysical uncertainties pertinent to using galaxy clusters as cosmological probes.

  10. Optimization of Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in an In Vivo Model Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lee

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma is increasingly being recognized for a wide range of medical and biological applications. However, the effect of non-thermal plasma on physiological functions is not well characterized in in vivo model systems. Here we use a genetically amenable, widely used model system, Drosophila melanogaster, to develop an in vivo system, and investigate the role of non-thermal plasma in blood cell differentiation. Although the blood system in Drosophila is primitive, it is an efficient system with three types of hemocytes, functioning during different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Blood cell differentiation in Drosophila plays an essential role in tissue modeling during embryogenesis, morphogenesis and also in innate immunity. In this study, we optimized distance and frequency for a direct non-thermal plasma application, and standardized doses to treat larvae and adult flies so that there is no effect on the viability, fertility or locomotion of the organism. We discovered that at optimal distance, time and frequency, application of plasma induced blood cell differentiation in the Drosophila larval lymph gland. We articulate that the augmented differentiation could be due to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS upon non-thermal plasma application. Our studies open avenues to use Drosophila as a model system in plasma medicine to study various genetic disorders and biological processes where non-thermal plasma has a possible therapeutic application.

  11. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. SynGas production from organic waste using non-thermal-pulsed discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young N; Kim, Si W; Song, Hyoung O; Chae, Jae O

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology that can convert biogas to synthesis gas (SynGas), a low-emission substituted energy, using a non-thermal-pulsed plasma method. To investigate the characteristics of SynGas production from simulated biogas, the reforming characteristics in relation to variations in pulse frequency, biogas component ratio (C3H8/CO2), vapor flow ratio (H2O/total flow rate [TFR]), biogas velocity, and pulse power were studied. A maximum conversion rate of 49.1% was achieved for the biogas when the above parameters were 500 Hz, 1.5, 0.52, 0.32 m/sec, and 657 W, respectively. Under the above conditions, the dry basis mole fractions of the SynGas were as follows: H2 = 0.645, CH4 = 0.081, C2H2 = 0.067, C3H6 = 0.049, CO = 0.008 and C2H4 = 0.004. The ratio of hydrogen to the other intermediates in the SynGas (H2/ITMs) was 3.1.

  13. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode. PMID:26496630

  14. First report on non-thermal plasma reactor scaling criteria and optimization models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Korzekwa, R.A.

    1998-01-13

    The purpose of SERDP project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor technology for Department of Defense (DoD) air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Example NO{sub x} sources are jet engine test cells (JETCs) and diesel engine powered electrical generators. Example VOCs are organic solvents used in painting, paint stripping, and parts cleaning. To design and build NTP reactors that are optimized for particular DoD applications, one must understand the basic decomposition chemistry of the target compound(s) and how the decomposition of a particular chemical species depends on the air emissions stream parameters and the reactor operating parameters. This report is intended to serve as an overview of the subject of reactor scaling and optimization and will discuss the basic decomposition chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) and two representative VOCs, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride, and the connection between the basic plasma chemistry, the target species properties, and the reactor operating parameters (in particular, the operating plasma energy density). System architecture, that is how NTP reactors can be combined or ganged to achieve higher capacity, will also be briefly discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Talebizadeh

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma (NTP has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode.

  16. Evaluation of Residence Time on Nitrogen Oxides Removal in Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebizadeh, Pouyan; Rahimzadeh, Hassan; Babaie, Meisam; Javadi Anaghizi, Saeed; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been introduced over the last few years as a promising after- treatment system for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter removal from diesel exhaust. NTP technology has not been commercialised as yet, due to its high rate of energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to seek out new methods to improve NTP performance. Residence time is a crucial parameter in engine exhaust emissions treatment. In this paper, different electrode shapes are analysed and the corresponding residence time and NOx removal efficiency are studied. An axisymmetric laminar model is used for obtaining residence time distribution numerically using FLUENT software. If the mean residence time in a NTP plasma reactor increases, there will be a corresponding increase in the reaction time and consequently the pollutant removal efficiency increases. Three different screw thread electrodes and a rod electrode are examined. The results show the advantage of screw thread electrodes in comparison with the rod electrode. Furthermore, between the screw thread electrodes, the electrode with the thread width of 1 mm has the highest NOx removal due to higher residence time and a greater number of micro-discharges. The results show that the residence time of the screw thread electrode with a thread width of 1 mm is 21% more than for the rod electrode.

  17. Non-thermal inactivation of Noroviruses in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Bošković, T.

    2017-09-01

    An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses caused by Norovirus and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative antiviral processing technologies. Chlorine dioxide, UV treatment and thermal processing are standard antinoroviral technologies that have been employed for a while; however, they tend to be non-effective in modern processing due to residue concerns (ClO2), shadowing effects (UV) and low-energy efficiency (heat treatment). Alternative technologies have been validated such as ozone treatment, high pressure processing and pulse electric fields. Although these techniques are promising, none of them individually can deem food free of Norovirus. Further research on the effects on Norovirus in various food matrices is required. Good manufacturing practices and proper sanitation procedures remain the “gold” safety tools in food business.

  18. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  19. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (<40°C) allows a reduction of energy consumption, along with the preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meat products: main pathogens and non-thermal control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Heredia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich nutrient matrix that allows the proper environment for diverse microorganisms’ proliferation, deteriorative and pathogen. E. coli O157 and non-O157, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are among the pathogen ones. On other hand, the growing demand for “fresh-like” products with high sanitary, organoleptic and nutritional quality had drive the development of alternative technologies to traditional or thermal, to satisfy consumers’ demand. In the last decades new food preservation techniques with no effect on nutritional or organoleptic characteristics had been developed, maintaining or improving microbiological stability and quality. This work is review of the most common pathogen microorganisms in meat and meat products, and the emerging technologies like high hydrostatic pressure, radiation, intelligent and active packages, and the use of natutal compounds for their control.

  1. Non-thermal emission from young supernova remnants: Implications on cosmic ray acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Arguedas, Miguel A.

    For a long time, supernova remnants have been thought to constitute the main source of galactic cosmic rays. Plausible mechanisms have been proposed through which these objects would be able to transfer some of their energy to charged particles. Detailed studies of SNRs, particularly allowed by the spectral and spatial resolution obtained with telescopes such as the Chandra X-Ray Observatory , have permitted us to understand some of the properties of high-energy particles within these objects and their interactions with their environment. In the first part of this work, the basic concepts of particle acceleration in SNRs are outlined, and the main observational tools available today for studying high-energy phenomena in astrophysics are mentioned briefly. In the second part, a study of non-thermal emission from the young SNR Cassiopeia A is presented. Through the use of a very deep one million-second Chandra observation of this remnant, the spectral evolution across non-thermal filaments near the forward shock was studied. A consistent hardening of the spectrum towards the exterior of the remnant was found and explained via a model developed that takes into account particle diffusion, plasma advection and radiation losses. The role of particle diffusion was studied and its effect on the photon spectral index quantified. In the model, the diffusion is included as a fraction of Bohm-type diffusion, which is consistent with the data. The model also allowed an estimation of the electron distribution, the magnetic field and its orientation, as well as the level of magnetic turbulence. In the third part, a multi-wavelength study of two young SNRs is presented. Multi-wavelength modeling of spectral energy distributions (SED) may hold the key to disentangle the nature and content of cosmic rays within these objects. The first model shown presents state of the art measurements gathered for Cassiopeia A, and the modeling is based partly on the results presented in the second

  2. Effect of indirect non-thermal plasma on particle size distribution and composition of diesel engine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linbo, GU; Yixi, CAI; Yunxi, SHI; Jing, WANG; Xiaoyu, PU; Jing, TIAN; Runlin, FAN

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of the gas source flow rate on the actual diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM), a test bench for diesel engine exhaust purification was constructed, using indirect non-thermal plasma technology. The effects of different gas source flow rates on the quantity concentration, composition, and apparent activation energy of PM were investigated, using an engine exhaust particle sizer and a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results show that when the gas source flow rate was large, not only the maximum peak quantity concentrations of particles had a large drop, but also the peak quantity concentrations shifted to smaller particle sizes from 100 nm to 80 nm. When the gas source flow rate was 10 L min-1, the total quantity concentration greatly decreased where the removal rate of particles was 79.2%, and the variation of the different mode particle proportion was obvious. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) improved the oxidation ability of volatile matter as well as that of solid carbon. However, the NTP gas source rate had little effects on oxidation activity of volatile matter, while it strongly influenced the oxidation activity of solid carbon. Considering the quantity concentration and oxidation activity of particles, a gas source flow rate of 10 L min-1 was more appropriate for the purification of particles.

  3. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based

  4. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  5. Mitochondria-Mediated Anticancer Effects of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhunussova, Aigul; Vitol, Elina A; Polyak, Boris; Tuleukhanov, Sultan; Brooks, Ari D; Sensenig, Richard; Friedman, Gary; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has attracted great interest due to its multiple potential biomedical applications with cancer treatment being among the most urgent. To realize the clinical potential of non-thermal plasma, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of plasma effects must be understood. This work aimed at studying the prostate cancer specific mechanisms of non-thermal plasma effects on energy metabolism as a central regulator of cell homeostasis and proliferation. It was found that cancer cells with higher metabolic rate initially are more resistant to plasma treated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) since the respiratory and calcium sensitive signaling systems were not responsive to plasma exposure. However, dramatic decline of cancer oxidative phosphorylation developed over time resulted in significant progression of cell lethality. The normal prostate cells with low metabolic activity immediately responded to plasma treated PBS by suppression of respiratory functions and sustained elevation of cytosolic calcium. However, over time the normal cells start recovering their mitochondria functions, proliferate and restore the cell population. We found that the non-thermal plasma induced increase in intracellular ROS is of primarily non-mitochondrial origin. The discriminate non-thermal plasma effects hold a promise for clinical cancer intervention.

  6. Improvement of Polytetrafluoroethylene Surface Energy by Repetitive Pulse Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoqing; Zhang Guanjun; Zhang Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy by non-thermal plasma treatment is presented, using a nanosecond-positive-edge repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge generator in atmospheric air. The electrical parameters including discharging power, peak and density of micro-discharge current were calculated, and the electron energy was estimated. Surface treatment experiments of polytetrafluoroethylene films were conducted for both different applied voltages and different treating durations. Results show that the surface energy of polytetrafluoroethylene film could be improved to 40 mJ/m 2 or more by plasma treatment. Surface roughness measurement and surface X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are chemical etching and implantation of polar oxygen groups in the sample surface treating process, resulting in the improvement of the sample surface energy. Compared with an AC source of 50 Hz, the dielectric barrier discharges generated by a repetitive pulsed source could provide higher peak power, lower mean power, larger micro-discharge current density and higher electron energy. Therefore, with the same applied peak voltage and treating duration, the improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy using repetitive pulsed plasma is more effective, and the plasma treatment process based on repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in air is thus feasible and applicable.

  7. RADYN Simulations of Non-thermal and Thermal Models of Ellerman Bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-08-20

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are brightenings in the H α line wings that are believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere. To study the response and evolution of the chromospheric line profiles, we perform radiative hydrodynamic simulations of EBs using both non-thermal and thermal models. Overall, these models can generate line profiles that are similar to observations. However, in non-thermal models we find dimming in the H α line wings and continuum when the heating begins, while for the thermal models dimming occurs only in the H α line core, and with a longer lifetime. This difference in line profiles can be used to determine whether an EB is dominated by non-thermal heating or thermal heating. In our simulations, if a higher heating rate is applied, then the H α line will be unrealistically strong and there are still no clear UV burst signatures.

  8. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,649; TA-W-74,649a] DST Systems... Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc., Boston... November 5, 2010, applicable to workers of DST Systems, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Comsys...

  9. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields

  10. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal in non-thermal plasma double dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Fu, Xindi; Liu, Yanjun; Abbas, Yawar; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) an emerging technology to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in unhygienic point source air streams. In present study, double dielectric barrier discharge (DDBD) reactors were used for the first time to evaluate the removal efficiency of VOCs mixture of different nature at constant experimental conditions (input power 16-65.8 W, VOCs mixture feeding rate 1-6 L/min, 100-101 ppm inlet concentration of individual VOC). Reactor A and B with discharge gap at 6 mm and 3 mm respectively, were used in current study. When treated at an input power of 53.7 W with gas feeding rate of 1 L/min in DDBD reactor A, removal efficiency of the VOCs were: tetrachloroethylene (100%), toluene (100%), trichloroethylene (100%), benzene (100%), ethyl acetate (100%) and carbon disulfide (88.30%); whereas in reactor B, the removal efficiency of all VOCs were 100%. Plasma-catalyst (Pt-Sn/Al 2 O 3 , BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5) synergistic effect on VOCs removal efficiency was also investigated. Highest removal efficiency i.e 100% was observed for each compound with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 at an input power 65.8 W. However, integrating NTP with BaTiO 3 and HZSM-5 leads to enhanced removal performance of VOCs mixture with high activity, increase in energy efficiency and suppression of unwanted byproducts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics

  12. Non-LTE modeling with non-thermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai; Scott, Howard

    2017-10-01

    We present a computational tool to simulate self-consistently the time evolution of the non-LTE kinetics and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The standard collisional-radiative rate equations for the atomic states are solved together with a Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equation for the EEDF. Both elastic and inelastic processes as well as radiative transitions are included. The EEDF is discretized on a non-uniform grid in energy space, and the numerical solution of the BFP equation is based on a set of recently developed algorithms. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Non-thermalization in trapped atomic ion spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P. W.; Becker, P.; Kaplan, H. B.; Kyprianidis, A.; Lee, A. C.; Neyenhuis, B.; Pagano, G.; Richerme, P.; Senko, C.; Smith, J.; Tan, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Monroe, C.

    2017-10-01

    Linear arrays of trapped and laser-cooled atomic ions are a versatile platform for studying strongly interacting many-body quantum systems. Effective spins are encoded in long-lived electronic levels of each ion and made to interact through laser-mediated optical dipole forces. The advantages of experiments with cold trapped ions, including high spatio-temporal resolution, decoupling from the external environment and control over the system Hamiltonian, are used to measure quantum effects not always accessible in natural condensed matter samples. In this review, we highlight recent work using trapped ions to explore a variety of non-ergodic phenomena in long-range interacting spin models, effects that are heralded by the memory of out-of-equilibrium initial conditions. We observe long-lived memory in static magnetizations for quenched many-body localization and prethermalization, while memory is preserved in the periodic oscillations of a driven discrete time crystal state. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.

  14. Solar off-limb line widths with SUMER: revised value of the non-thermal velocity and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dolla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind and in the upper corona. In the lower corona, one can use the line profiles to infer the ion temperatures. But the value of the so-called "non-thermal" (or "unresolved" velocity, potentially related to the amplitude of Alfvén waves propagating in the corona, is critical in firmly identifying ion-cyclotron preferential heating. In a previous paper, we proposed a method to constrain both the Alfvén wave amplitude and the preferential heating, above a polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. Taking into account the effect of instrumental stray light before analysing the line profiles, we ruled out any direct evidence of damping of the Alfvén waves and showed that ions with the lowest charge-to-mass ratios were preferentially heated. We re-analyse these data here to correct the derived non-thermal velocity, and we discuss the consequences on the main results. We also include a measure of the Fe VIII 1442.56 Å line width (second order, thus extending the charge-to-mass ratio domain towards ions more likely to experience cyclotron resonance.

  15. Optimization of non-thermal plasma efficiency in the simultaneous elimination of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene from polluted airstreams using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpoor, Ali Asghar; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad; Khani Jazani, Reza; Bargozin, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model goodness-of-fit and statistical significance was assessed using determination coefficients (R 2 and R 2 adj ) and the F-test. The results revealed that the R 2 proportion was greater than 0.96 for BTEX removal efficiency. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the BTEX removal efficiency was significantly correlated with the temperature, BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate. Voltage was the most influential variable affecting the dependent variable as it exerted a significant effect (p polluted with BTEX in conditions of low residence time and high concentrations of pollutants.

  16. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Churpita, O.; Jäger, A.; Polívka, L.; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, mar. (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bacteria * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  17. Towards the understanding of non-thermal airplasma action: effects on bacteria and fibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Jäger, Aleš; Polívka, Leoš; Syková, Eva; Terebova, N.; Kulikov, A.; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 30 (2016), 25286-25292 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bactericidal effects * medical applications Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  18. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  19. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Tsap, Yuri T., E-mail: huangj@nao.cas.cn [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 98409 Crimea, Nauchny (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  20. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The decomposition of mixture of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied in a catalytic non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The VOCs mixture consisting n-hexane, cyclo-hexane and -xylene was chosen for the present study. The decomposition characteristics of mixture of VOCs ...

  2. Milk Technological Properties as Affected by Including Artichoke By-Products Silages in the Diet of Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.

  3. 75 FR 11917 - Chrysler LLC, Technology Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Ajilon, Altair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Quest Corporation, Quantum Consultants, Rapid Global Business, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, RSB...., Quantum Consultants, Rapid Global Business, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, RSB Systems, Spherion, Synova... Learning, Resource Technologies, Ricardo, Spherion, Synova, Systems Technology, TAC, Technical Training...

  4. NON-THERMAL EMISSION FROM CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES: IMPLICATIONS ON ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Šimon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the lines of evidence that some cataclysmic variables (CVs are the sources of non-thermal radiation. It was really observed in some dwarf novae in outburst, a novalike CV in the high state, an intermediate polar, polars, and classical novae (CNe during outburst. The detection of this radiation suggests the presence of highly energetic particles in these CVs. The conditions for the observability of this emission depend on the state of activity, and the system parameters. We review the processes and conditions that lead to the production of this radiation in various spectral bands, from gamma-rays including TeV emission to radio. Synchrotron and cyclotron emissions suggest the presence of strong magnetic fields in CV. In some CVs, e.g. during some dwarf nova outbursts, the magnetic field generated in the accretion disk leads to the synchrotron jets radiating in radio. The propeller effect or a shock in the case of the magnetized white dwarf (WD can lead to a strong acceleration of the particles that produce gamma-ray emission via pi0 decay; even Cherenkov radiation is possible. In addition, a gamma-ray production via pi0 decay was observed in the ejecta of an outburst of a symbiotic CN. Nuclear reactions during thermonuclear runaway in the outer layer of the WD undergoing CN outburst lead to the production of radioactive isotopes; their decay is the source of gamma-ray emission. The production of accelerated particles in CVs often has episodic character with a very small duty cycle; this makes their detection and establishing the relation of the behavior in various bands difficult.

  5. Investigation of non-thermal plasma effects on lung cancer cells within 3D collagen matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surya B.; Thapa Gupta, Tripti; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.; Ayan, Halim

    2017-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in plasma medicine have identified a potential application for the non-thermal plasma in cancer therapy. Most studies on the effects of non-thermal plasma on cancer cells have used traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture. However, very few studies are conducted employing non-thermal plasma in animal models. Two dimensional models do not fully mimic the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment and animal models are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we used 3D collagen matrices that closely resemble the native geometry of cancer tissues and provide more physiologically relevant results than 2D models, while providing a more cost effective and efficient precursor to animal studies. We previously demonstrated a role for non-thermal plasma application in promoting apoptotic cell death and reducing the viability of A549 lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells cultured upon 2D matrices. In this study, we wished to determine the efficacy of non-thermal plasma application in driving apoptotic cell death of A549 lung cancer cells encapsulated within a 3D collagen matrix. The percentage of apoptosis increased as treatment time increased and was time dependent. In addition, the anti-viability effect of plasma was demonstrated. Twenty-four hours post-plasma treatment, 38% and 99% of cell death occurred with shortest (15 s) and longest treatment time (120 s) respectively at the plasma-treated region. We found that plasma has a greater effect on the viability of A549 lung cancer cells on the superficial surface of 3D matrices and has diminishing effects as it penetrates the 3D matrix. We also identified the nitrogen and oxygen species generated by plasma and characterized their penetration in vertical and lateral directions within the 3D matrix from the center of the plasma-treated region. Therefore, the utility of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in driving apoptosis and reducing the viability of lung cancer cells

  6. A Student Experiment Method for Learning the Basics of Embedded Software Technologies Including Hardware/Software Co-design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Hiroyasu; Endo, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hisao

    The applications of embedded system technologies have spread widely in various products, such as home appliances, cellular phones, automobiles, industrial machines and so on. Due to intensified competition, embedded software has expanded its role in realizing sophisticated functions, and new development methods like a hardware/software (HW/SW) co-design for uniting HW and SW development have been researched. The shortfall of embedded SW engineers was estimated to be approximately 99,000 in the year 2006, in Japan. Embedded SW engineers should understand HW technologies and system architecture design as well as SW technologies. However, a few universities offer this kind of education systematically. We propose a student experiment method for learning the basics of embedded system development, which includes a set of experiments for developing embedded SW, developing embedded HW and experiencing HW/SW co-design. The co-design experiment helps students learn about the basics of embedded system architecture design and the flow of designing actual HW and SW modules. We developed these experiments and evaluated them.

  7. Thermal and Non-Thermal Production of Gravitinos in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco; Tkachev, Igor I

    1999-01-01

    The excessive production of gravitinos in the early universe destroys the successful predictions of nucleosynthesis. The thermal generation of gravitinos after inflation leads to the bound on the reheating temperature, T_{RH}< 10^9 GeV. However, it has been recently realized that the non-thermal generation of gravitinos in the early universe can be extremely efficient and overcome the thermal production by several orders of magnitude, leading to much tighter constraints on the reheating temperature. In this paper, we first investigate some aspects of the thermal production of gravitinos, taking into account that in fact reheating is not instantaneous and inflation is likely to be followed by a prolonged stage of coherent oscillations of the inflaton field. We then proceed by further investigating the non-thermal generation of gravitinos, providing the necessary tools to study this process in a generic time-dependent background with any number of superfields. We also present the first numerical results rega...

  8. Field induced decrystallization of silicon: Evidence of a microwave non-thermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozariasbmarz, Amin; Dsouza, Kelvin; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2018-02-01

    It is rather strange and not fully understood that some materials decrystallize when exposed to microwave radiation, and it is still debatable if such a transformation is a thermal or non-thermal effect. We hereby report experimental evidences that weight the latter effect. First, a single crystal silicon wafer exposed to microwaves showed strong decrystallization at high temperature. Second, when some areas of the wafer were masked with metal coating, only the exposed areas underwent decrystallization. Transmission electron microscopy analysis, x-ray diffraction data, and thermal conductivity measurements all indicated strong decrystallization, which occurred in the bulk of the material and was not a surface effect. These observations favor the existence of a non-thermal microwave effect.

  9. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  10. Statistical physics of non-thermal phase transitions from foundations to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abaimov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    Statistical physics can be used to better understand non-thermal complex systems—phenomena such as stock-market crashes, revolutions in society and in science, fractures in engineered materials and in the Earth’s crust, catastrophes, traffic jams, petroleum clusters, polymerization, self-organized criticality and many others exhibit behaviors resembling those of thermodynamic systems. In particular, many of these systems possess phase transitions identical to critical or spinodal phenomena in statistical physics. The application of the well-developed formalism of statistical physics to non-thermal complex systems may help to predict and prevent such catastrophes as earthquakes, snow-avalanches and landslides, failure of engineering structures, or economical crises. This book addresses the issue step-by-step, from phenomenological analogies between complex systems and statistical physics to more complex aspects, such as correlations, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, susceptibility, the concept of free ener...

  11. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV (2014), "7129-1"-"7129-11" ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell death * non-thermal plasma * therapeutic perspectives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; FH - Neurology (UEM-P); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  12. The Swift BAT Perspective on Non-Thermal Emission in HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Until recently, comprehensive surveys of hard X-ray emission from clusters were not possible; instead, individually proposed-for. long observations would be collated from the archive. With the advent of the Swift BAT all sky survey, any c1u,;ter's emission above 14 keV can be probed with nearly uniform sensitivity. which is comparable to that of RXTE, Beppo-SAX, and Suzaku with the 58-month version of the survey. In this work. we search for non-thermal excess emission above the exponentially decreasing, high energy thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. The BAT emission from many of the detected clusters is marginally extended; we are able to extract the total flux for these clusters using fiducial models for their spatial extent. To account for thermal emission at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both the thermal and non-thermal spectral components can be determined simultaneou,;ly in joint fits. We find marginally significant IC components in 6 clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative non-thermal signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single temperature

  13. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  15. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Autoclaves and UV sterilizers have been commonly used to prevent cross-infections between dental patients and dental instruments or materials contaminated by saliva and blood. To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated. After inoculating E. coli and B. subtilis the diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were sterilized by exposing them to the plasma for different lengths of time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and, 240 seconds). The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials were immersed in PBS solutions, cultured on agar plates and quantified by counting the colony forming units. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and significance was assessed by the LSD post hoc test (α=0.05). The device was effective in killing E. coli contained in the plasma device compared with the UV sterilizer. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device contributed greatly to the sterilization of diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli and B. subtilis. Diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with E. coli was effective after 60 and 90 seconds. The diamond burs and polyvinyl siloxane materials inoculated with B. subtilis was effective after 120 and 180 seconds. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was effective in killing both E. coli and B. subtilis, and was more effective in killing E. coli than the UV sterilizer.

  16. Simulations of planar non-thermal plasma assisted ignition at atmospheric pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Casey, Tiernan A.

    2016-10-21

    The opportunity for ignition assistance by a pulsed applied voltage is investigated in a canonical one-dimensional configuration. An incipient ignition kernel, formed by localized energy deposition into a lean mixture of methane and air at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to sub-breakdown electric fields (E/N ≈ 100 Td) by a DC potential applied across the domain, resulting in non-thermal behavior of the plasma formed during the discharge. A two-fluid approach is employed to couple thermal neutrals and ions to the non-thermal electrons. A two-temperature plasma mechanism describing gas phase combustion, excitation of neutral species, and high-energy electron kinetics is employed to account for non-thermal effects. Charged species transported from the ignition zone drift rapidly through the domain, augmenting the magnitude of the electric field in the fresh gas during the pulse through a dynamic-electrode effect, which results in an increase in the energy of the electrons in the fresh mixture with increasing time. Enhanced fuel and oxidizer decomposition due to electron impact dissociation and interaction with excited neutrals generate a pool of radicals, mostly O and H, in the fresh gas ahead of the flame\\'s preheat zone. In the configuration considered, the effect of the nanosecond pulse is to increase the mass of fuel burned at equivalent times relative to the unsupported ignition through enhanced radical generation, resulting in an increased heat release rate in the immediate aftermath of the pulse.

  17. Balloon-borne hard x-ray imaging observations of non-thermal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, Hideyo

    2006-06-01

    Non-thermal phenomena is now-a-days recognized as an important half of the energetics of the Universe. Hard X-ray emission from energetic particles is the most important clue to investigate the non-thermal phenomena. Hard X-ray imaging telescopes are known to improve the sensitivity of hard X-ray observations dramatically. Since hard X-rays above 25 keV can be observed at the altitude of 40 km, we are performing hard X-ray imaging balloon experiments as the path finders of future satellite missions of hard X-ray imaging. Major fields we are looking into are non-thermal components from SNR and Cluster of galaxies and the power law components from AGN even with thick column. The former are related to acceleration mechanisms of high energy particles responsible for hard X-ray power law components. The latter is the complete search of emission from massive blackholes which contribute most to the cosmic X-ray background. Our current balloon programs are InFOCμS experiment and SUMIT project. NeXT is the hard X-ray imaging mission proposed as the next Japanese X-ray mission.

  18. The role of non-thermal atmospheric pressure biocompatible plasma in the differentiation of osteoblastic precursor cells, MC3T3-E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ihn; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-05-30

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is ionized matter, composed of highly reactive species that include positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, neutral atoms, and molecules. Recent reports have suggested that non-thermal biocompatible plasma (NBP) can selectively kill a variety of cancer cells, and promote stem cell differentiation. However as of yet, the regulation of proliferation and differentiation potential of NBP has been poorly understood.Here, we investigated the effects of NBP on the osteogenic differentiation of precursor cell lines of osteoblasts, MC3T3 E1 and SaOS-2. For in vitro osteogenic differentiation, precursor cell lines were treated with NBP, and cultured with osteogenic induction medium. After 10 days of treatment, the NBP was shown to be effective in osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3 E1 cells by von Kossa and Alizarin Red S staining assay. Real-time PCR was then performed to investigate the expression of osteogenic specific genes, Runx2, OCN, COL1, ALP and osterix in MC3T3 E1 cells after treatment with NBP for 4 days. Furthermore, analysis of the protein expression showed that NBP treatment significantly reduced PI3K/AKT signaling and MAPK family signaling. However, p38 controlled phosphorylation of transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) that related to cell differentiation with increased phosphorylated p38. These results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma can induce osteogenic differentiation, and enhance bone formation.

  19. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  20. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Ballazs G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput

  1. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis Spores in a Sealed Package Using a Non-thermal Plasma System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Kevin M.; Jensen, J. L.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Connolly, J.; Mosnier, J. P.; Cullen, P. J.

    The safety of packaged food and medical devices is a major concern to consumers and government officials. Recent inventions (PK-1 and PK-2) based on the principles of non-thermal, atmospheric plasma has shown significant reduction in bacterial contamination inside a sealed package. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK-1 and PK-2 systems in the reduction of Bacillus subtilis spores using packages containing air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). The experimental design consisted of the following parameters: (1) two voltage conditions: 13.5 kV with 1.0 cm electrode gap (PK-1) and 80 kV with 4.5 cm electrode gap (PK-2), (2) two treatment conditions: inside and outside the field of ionization, (3) PK-1 and PK-2 optimized treatment times: 300 and 120 s, respectively, and (4) two package gas types: air and modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). Measurements included: (1) bacterial reductions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. atrophaeus), (2) ozone, nitrous oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide concentrations, and (3) relative humidity. Bacillus subtilis (1.7 × 106/strip) were loaded into sterile uncovered petri dishes and treated with ionization generated in packages using air or MA gas blend. Samples were treated for 300 s (PK-1) or 120 s (PK-2) and stored at room ­temperature for 24 h. Results documented relative humidity (RH) ranged from 20% to 30%. After 300 s of PK-1 treatment (13.5 kV/44 W/1.0 cm gap), ozone concentrations were 6,000 ppm (air) and 7,500 ppm (MA). After 120 s of PK-2 treatment (80 kV/150 W/4.5 cm), ozone concentrations were 7,500 ppm (air) and 12,000 ppm (MA). Ozone and NOx concentrations were non-detect (ND) after 24 h. PK-1 carbon monoxide levels were package ionization process.

  2. 77 FR 40638 - Syniverse Technologies, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown, MA... workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as Sapphire Technologies, Watertown... telecommunication services. The company reports that workers leased from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad...

  3. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  4. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  5. Evaluation of the differential energy distribution of systems of non-thermally activated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A non-thermally activated molecule may undergo pressure dependent deactivation or energy dependent decomposition. It should be possible to use the pressure dependent stabilization/decomposition yields to determine the energy distribution in non-thermal systems. The numerical technique of regularization has been applied to this chemical problem to evaluate this distribution. The resulting method has been tested with a number of simulated distributions and kinetic models. Application was then made to several real chemical systems to determine the energy distribution resulting from the primary excitation process. Testing showed the method to be quite effective in reproducing input distributions from simulated data in all test cases. The effect of experimental error proved to be negligible when the error-filled data were first smoothed with a parabolic spline. This method has been applied to three different hot atom activated systems. Application to 18 F-for-F substituted CH 3 CF 3 generated a broad distribution extending from 62 to 318 kcal/mol, with a median energy of 138 kcal/mol. The shape of this distribution (and those from the other applications) indicated the involvement of two mechanisms in the excitation process. Analysis of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 F system showed a more narrow distribution (56-218 kcal/mol) with a median energy of 79.8 kcal/mol. The distribution of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 Cl system, extending from 54.5 to 199 kcal/mol was seen to be quite similar. It was concluded that this method is a valid approach to evaluating differential energy distributions in non-thermal systems, specifically those activated by hot atom substitution

  6. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, A de; Dewulf, J; Durme, J van; Leys, C; Morent, R; Langenhove, H Van

    2008-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation

  7. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  8. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  9. Study of non-thermal effects from laser radiation on live tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, M.A.

    1987-02-01

    The functional biological effects related to the irradiation of live tissues with low power lasers, called non-thermal effects were theoretical and experimentally studied. For the experimental part, a device which allows to: irradiation lesions artificially created on the back of rats by a He-Ne laser, or put a moving ground glass in front of the laser beam, by irradiation of this same laser with its coherence degree decreased. The relevance of the radiation coherence in the lesion cicatrization process was shown. The electrical field distribution and the intensity distribution on a surface with micro-roughness when irradiated by coherent light are theoretically studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Jäger, Aleš; Polívka, Leoš; Syková, E.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, Mar (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568; AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bacteria * cytotoxicity * apoptosis * bacterial inactivation * reactive oxygen species (ROS) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  11. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susc...

  12. Non-Thermal Production of Dangerous Relics in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco; Tkachev, Igor I

    1999-01-01

    Many models of supersymmetry breaking, in the context of either supergravity or superstring theories, predict the presence of particles with weak scale masses and Planck-suppressed couplings. Typical examples are the scalar moduli and the gravitino. Excessive production of such particles in the early Universe destroys the successful predictions of nucleosynthesis. In particular, the thermal production of these relics after inflation leads to a bound on the reheating temperature, T_{RH}< 10^9 GeV. In this paper we show that the non-thermal generation of these dangerous relics may be much more efficient than the thermal production after inflation. Scalar moduli fields may be copiously created by the classical gravitational effects on the vacuum state. Consequently, the new upper bound on the reheating temperature is shown to be, in some cases, as low as 100 GeV. We also study the non-thermal production of gravitinos in the early Universe, which can be extremely efficient and overcome the ther in realistic su...

  13. Non-thermal Leptogenesis and a Prediction of Inflaton Mass in a Supersymmetric SO(10) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuyama, T; Osaka, T; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Osaka, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    The gravitino problem gives a severe constraint on the thermal leptogenesis scenario. This problem leads us to consider some alternatives to it if we try to keep the gravitino mass around the weak scale $m_{3/2} \\sim 100$ GeV. We consider, in this paper, the non-thermal leptogenesis scenario in the framework of a minimal supersymmetric SO(10) model. Even if we start with the same minimal SO(10) model, we have different predictions for low-energy phenomenologies dependent on the types of seesaw mechanism. This is the case for leptogenesis: it is shown that the type-I see-saw model gives a consistent scenario for the non-thermal leptogenesis but not for type-II. The predicted inflaton mass needed to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe is found to be $M_I \\sim 5 \\times 10^{11}$ GeV for the reheating temperature $T_R = 10^6$ GeV.

  14. Atmospheric non-thermal argon-oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar-O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar-O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar-O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  15. Neutralized solar wind ahead of the Earth's magnetopause as contribution to non-thermal exospheric hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In a most recent paper by Qin and Waldrop (2016, it had been found that the scale height of hydrogen in the upper exosphere of the Earth, especially during solar minimum conditions, appears to be surprisingly large. This indicates that during minimum conditions when exobasic temperatures should be small, large exospheric H-scale heights predominate. They thus seem to indicate the presence of a non-thermal hydrogen component in the upper exosphere. In the following parts of the paper we shall investigate what fraction of such expected hot hydrogen atoms could have their origin from protons of the shocked solar wind ahead of the magnetopause converted into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs via charge-exchange processes with normal atmospheric, i.e., exospheric hydrogen atoms that in the first step evaporate from the exobase into the magnetosheath plasma region. We shall show that, dependent on the sunward location of the magnetopause, the density of these types of non-thermal hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs becomes progressively comparable with the density of exobasic hydrogen with increasing altitude. At low exobasic heights, however, their contribution is negligible. At the end of this paper, we finally study the question of whether the H-ENA population could even be understood as a self-consistency phenomenon of the H-ENA population, especially during solar activity minimum conditions, i.e., H-ENAs leaving the exosphere being replaced by H-ENAs injected into the exosphere.

  16. Neutralized solar wind ahead of the Earth's magnetopause as contribution to non-thermal exospheric hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Hans J.; Nass, Uwe; Dutta-Roy, Robindro; Zoennchen, Jochen H.

    2018-03-01

    In a most recent paper by Qin and Waldrop (2016), it had been found that the scale height of hydrogen in the upper exosphere of the Earth, especially during solar minimum conditions, appears to be surprisingly large. This indicates that during minimum conditions when exobasic temperatures should be small, large exospheric H-scale heights predominate. They thus seem to indicate the presence of a non-thermal hydrogen component in the upper exosphere. In the following parts of the paper we shall investigate what fraction of such expected hot hydrogen atoms could have their origin from protons of the shocked solar wind ahead of the magnetopause converted into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) via charge-exchange processes with normal atmospheric, i.e., exospheric hydrogen atoms that in the first step evaporate from the exobase into the magnetosheath plasma region. We shall show that, dependent on the sunward location of the magnetopause, the density of these types of non-thermal hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs) becomes progressively comparable with the density of exobasic hydrogen with increasing altitude. At low exobasic heights, however, their contribution is negligible. At the end of this paper, we finally study the question of whether the H-ENA population could even be understood as a self-consistency phenomenon of the H-ENA population, especially during solar activity minimum conditions, i.e., H-ENAs leaving the exosphere being replaced by H-ENAs injected into the exosphere.

  17. Galaxy Cluster Outskirts from the Thermal SZ and Non-Thermal Synchrotron Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuv Basu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy cluster merger shocks are the main agent for the thermalization of the intracluster medium and the energization of cosmic ray particles in it. Shock propagation changes the state of the tenuous intracluster plasma, and the corresponding signal variations are measurable with the current generation of X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ effect instruments. Additionally, non-thermal electrons (re-energized by the shocks sometimes give rise to extended and luminous synchrotron sources known as radio relics, which are prominent indicators of shocks propagating roughly in the plane of the sky. In this short review, we discuss how the joint modeling of the non-thermal and thermal signal variations across radio relic shock fronts is helping to advance our knowledge of the gas thermodynamical properties and magnetic field strengths in the cluster outskirts. We describe the first use of the SZ effect to measure the Mach numbers of relic shocks, for both the nearest (Coma and the farthest (El Gordo clusters with known radio relics.

  18. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...... the lower end of the industrial scale. The machinery bridges the gap through firstly achieving improved ink efficiency without surface contact, followed by better ink efficiency at higher speeds, and finally large-area processing at high speed with very high ink efficiency....

  19. Application of pulsed power and power modulation to the non-thermal plasma treatment of hazardous gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1992-10-01

    Acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, and smog are preeminent environmental problems facing the world today. Non-thermal plasma techniques offer an innovative approach to the cost-effective solution of these problems. Many potential applications of non-thermal plasmas to air pollution control have already been demonstrated. The use of pulsed power and power modulation is essential to the successful implementation of non-thermal plasma techniques. This paper provides an overview of the most recent developments in non-thermal plasma systems that have been applied to gaseous waste treatment. In the non-thermal plasma approach, the nonequilibrium properties of the plasma are fully exploited. These plasmas are characterized by high electron temperatures, while the gas remains at near ambient temperature and pressure. The energy is directed preferentially to the undesirable components, which are often present in very small concentrations. These techniques utilize the dissociation and ionization of the background gas to produce radicals which, in turn, decompose the toxic compounds. The key to success in the non-thermal plasma approach is to produce a discharge in which the majority of the electrical energy goes into the production of energetic electrons, rather than into gas heating. For example, in a typical application to flue gas cleanup, these electrons produce radicals, such as O and OH, through the dissociation or ionization of molecules such as H 2 O or O 2 . The radicals diffuse through the gas and preferentially oxidize the nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides to form acids that can then be easily neutralized to form non-toxic, easily-collectible (and commercially salable) compounds. Non-thermal plasmas can be created in essentially two different ways: by electron-beam irradiation, and by electrical discharges

  20. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Ignition phase and steady-state structures of a non-thermal air plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Xin Pei

    2003-01-01

    An AC-driven, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure air plasma is generated within the gap separating a disc-shaped metal electrode and a water electrode. The ignition phase and the steady-state are studied by a high-speed CCD camera. It is found that the plasma always initiates at the surface of the water electrode. The plasma exhibits different structures depending on the polarity of the water electrode: when the water electrode plays the role of cathode, a relatively wide but visibly dim plasma column is generated. At the maximum driving voltage, the gas temperature is between 800 and 900 K, and the peak current is 67 mA; when the water electrode is anode, the plasma column narrows but increases its light emission. The gas temperature in this case is measured to be in the 1400-1500 K range, and the peak current is 81 mA.

  2. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

    2002-01-01

    An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

  3. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  4. Non-thermal transitions in a model inspired by moral decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces a model in which agents of a network act upon one another according to three different kinds of moral decisions. These decisions are based on an increasing level of sophistication in the empathy capacity of the agent, a hierarchy which we name Piaget ’ s ladder . The decision strategy of the agents is non-rational, in the sense they are arbitrarily fixed, and the model presents quenched disorder given by the distribution of its defining parameters. An analytical solution for this model is obtained in the large system limit as well as a leading order correction for finite-size systems which shows that typical realisations of the model develop a phase structure with both continuous and discontinuous non-thermal transitions. (paper)

  5. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  6. Solitary, explosive and periodic solutions for electron acoustic solitary waves with non-thermal hot ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakil, S. A.; Abulwafa, E. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Abd-El-Hamid, H. M.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made for electron acoustic waves propagating in a system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consists of a cold electron fluid and ions with two different temperatures in which the hot ions obey the non-thermal distribution. The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for small but finite amplitude electrostatic waves. It is found that the presence of the energetic population of non-thermal hot ions δ, initial normalized equilibrium density of low temperature ions μ and the ratio of temperatures of low temperature ions to high temperature ions β do not only significantly modify the basic properties of solitary structure, but also change the polarity of the solitary profiles. At the critical hot ions density, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system. Hence, a new set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KdV equation. In the vicinity of the critical hot ions density, neither KdV nor modified KdV equation is appropriate for describing the electron acoustic waves. Therefore, a further modified KdV equation is derived. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation, which greatly exceeds the applicability of the existing tanh, extended tanh methods in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the various KdV-type equations, is used here. Numerical studies have been reveals different solutions e.g., bell-shaped solitary pulses, singular solitary "blowup" solutions, Jacobi elliptic doubly periodic wave, Weierstrass elliptic doubly periodic type solutions, in addition to explosive pulses. The results of the present investigation may be applicable to some plasma environments, such as Earth's magnetotail region.

  7. Non-thermal desorption from interstellar dust grains via exothermic surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, R. T.; Wakelam, V.; Herbst, E.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The gas-phase abundance of methanol in dark quiescent cores in the interstellar medium cannot be explained by gas-phase chemistry. In fact, the only possible synthesis of this species appears to be production on the surfaces of dust grains followed by desorption into the gas. Yet, evaporation is inefficient for heavy molecules such as methanol at the typical temperature of 10 K. It is necessary then to consider non-thermal mechanisms for desorption. But, if such mechanisms are considered for the production of methanol, they must be considered for all surface species. Methods: Our gas-grain network of reactions has been altered by the inclusion of a non-thermal desorption mechanism in which the exothermicity of surface addition reactions is utilized to break the bond between the product species and the surface. Our estimated rate for this process derives from a simple version of classical unimolecular rate theory with a variable parameter only loosely constrained by theoretical work. Results: Our results show that the chemistry of dark clouds is altered slightly at times up to 106 yr, mainly by the enhancement in the gas-phase abundances of hydrogen-rich species such as methanol that are formed on grain surfaces. At later times, however, there is a rather strong change. Instead of the continuing accretion of most gas-phase species onto dust particles, a steady-state is reached for both gas-phase and grain-surface species, with significant abundances for the former. Nevertheless, most of the carbon is contained in an undetermined assortment of heavy surface hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The desorption mechanism discussed here will be better constrained by observational data on pre-stellar cores, where a significant accretion of species such as CO has already occurred.

  8. Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawareek, Mahmoud Y; Algwari, Qais Th; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Graham, William G; O'Connell, Deborah; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria exist, in most environments, as complex, organised communities of sessile cells embedded within a matrix of self-produced, hydrated extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilms. Bacterial biofilms represent a ubiquitous and predominant cause of both chronic infections and infections associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and prostheses. Such infections typically exhibit significantly enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial, biocidal and immunological challenge. This renders them difficult, sometimes impossible, to treat using conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Effective alternative approaches for prevention and eradication of biofilm associated chronic and device-associated infections are therefore urgently required. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and control of bacterial infection and contamination. To date, however, the majority of studies have been conducted with reference to planktonic bacteria and rather less attention has been directed towards bacteria in the biofilm mode of growth. In this study, the activity of a kilohertz-driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operated in a helium oxygen mixture, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilms was evaluated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exhibit marked susceptibility to exposure of the plasma jet effluent, following even relatively short (≈ 10's s) exposure times. Manipulation of plasma operating conditions, for example, plasma operating frequency, had a significant effect on the bacterial inactivation rate. Survival curves exhibit a rapid decline in the number of surviving cells in the first 60 seconds followed by slower rate of cell number reduction. Excellent anti-biofilm activity of the plasma jet was also demonstrated by both confocal scanning laser microscopy and metabolism of the tetrazolium salt, XTT, a measure of bactericidal activity.

  9. Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Y Alkawareek

    Full Text Available Bacteria exist, in most environments, as complex, organised communities of sessile cells embedded within a matrix of self-produced, hydrated extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilms. Bacterial biofilms represent a ubiquitous and predominant cause of both chronic infections and infections associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and prostheses. Such infections typically exhibit significantly enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial, biocidal and immunological challenge. This renders them difficult, sometimes impossible, to treat using conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Effective alternative approaches for prevention and eradication of biofilm associated chronic and device-associated infections are therefore urgently required. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and control of bacterial infection and contamination. To date, however, the majority of studies have been conducted with reference to planktonic bacteria and rather less attention has been directed towards bacteria in the biofilm mode of growth. In this study, the activity of a kilohertz-driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operated in a helium oxygen mixture, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilms was evaluated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exhibit marked susceptibility to exposure of the plasma jet effluent, following even relatively short (≈ 10's s exposure times. Manipulation of plasma operating conditions, for example, plasma operating frequency, had a significant effect on the bacterial inactivation rate. Survival curves exhibit a rapid decline in the number of surviving cells in the first 60 seconds followed by slower rate of cell number reduction. Excellent anti-biofilm activity of the plasma jet was also demonstrated by both confocal scanning laser microscopy and metabolism of the tetrazolium salt, XTT, a measure of bactericidal

  10. Stability analysis of non-thermal complex astrofluids in the presence of polarized dust-charge fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P.; Das, P.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    The panoptic influence of plasma q-nonextensivity and dust-charge fluctuations on the gravito-electro-magnetic stability behaviour of a realistic non-thermal complex astroplasma model configuration with infinite geometrical extension is reconnoitered. It includes active viscoelasticity and dust polarization force-field effects in quasi-neutral hydrostatic equilibrium on the astrophysical fluid scales of space and time. The nontrivial linear model is simplified with the Jeans homogenization assumption (Jeans swindle, no zeroth-order force-field). It analytically and logically enables us to relax from the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities and of associated intrinsic complications. The role of boundary effects on the dynamical stability is assumed to be insignificant. We apply a standard technique of the Fourier formulaic plane-wave analysis over the basic cloud-structuring equations in a closed integrated form. It reduces the model Fourier algebraic equations decoupling into a unique form of cubic dispersion relation having mixed variable coefficients, which, indeed, explicitly, evolve on the diverse model plasma parameters. It is interestingly seen that the polarization and nonextensive effects directly play destabilizing roles. In contrast, the viscoelasticity and magnetic field create stabilizing effects on the instability. The pragmatic significance and applicability in the context of astro-cosmo-galactic environments are briefly indicated aboard analytic facts and introspective faults.

  11. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered

  12. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  13. Non-thermal plasma with 2-deoxy-D-glucose synergistically induces cell death by targeting glycolysis in blood cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Tae Gyu; Baik, Ku Youn; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the selective and efficient anti-cancer effects of plasma (at a low dose) when cell metabolic modifiers are also included. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was used with effective doses of non-thermal plasma, synergistically attenuating cell metabolic viability and inducing caspase-dependent and independent cell death. The combination treatment decreased the intracellular ATP and lactate production in various types of blood cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that 2-DG enhances the efficacy and selectivity of plasma and induces the synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth by targeting glycolysis and apoptosis. Specifically, this treatment strategy demonstrated an enhanced growth inhibitory effect of plasma in the presence of a metabolic modifier that was selective against cancer cells, not non-malignant cells. This is the first study to report the advantage of combining plasma with 2-DG to eradicate blood cancer cells. Finally, we conclude that 2-DG with non-thermal plasma may be used as a combination treatment against blood cancer cells.

  14. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  15. Ultraviolet light and ultrasound as non-thermal treatments for the inactivation of microorganisms in fresh ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmpa, Angeliki; Sfika, Vasiliki; Vantarakis, Apostolos

    2013-10-01

    The effects of two non thermal disinfection processes, Ultraviolet light (UV 254 nm) and Ultrasound (US) on the inactivation of bacteria and color in two freshly cut produces (lettuce and strawberry) were investigated. The main scope of this work was to study the efficacy of UV and US on the decontamination of inoculated lettuce and strawberries with a cocktail of four bacteria, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of lettuce with UV reduced significantly the population of E. coli, L. innocua, S. Enteritidis and S. aureus by 1.75, 1.27, 1.39 and 1.21 log CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, more than a 2-log CFU/g reduction of E. coli and S. Enteritidis was achieved with US. In strawberries, UV treatment reduced bacteria only by 1-1.4 log CFU/g. The maximum reductions of microorganisms, observed in strawberries after treatment with US, were 3.04, 2.41, 5.52 and 6.12 log CFU/g for E. coli, S. aureus, S. Enteritidis and L. innocua, respectively. Treatment with UV and US, for time periods (up to 45 min) did not significantly (p>0.05) change the color of lettuce or strawberry. Treatment with UV and US reduced the numbers of selected inoculated bacteria on lettuce and strawberries, which could be good alternatives to other traditional and commonly used technologies such as chlorine and hydrogen peroxide solutions for fresh produce industry. These results suggest that UV and US might be promising, non-thermal and environmental friendly disinfection technologies for freshly cut produce. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  17. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250–1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  18. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... workers of the subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of electronic design automation software and related services including quality assurance and learning products, marketing, product development, marketing and administration. The company reports that on-site leased workers from Managed...

  19. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  20. Physics and applications of atmospheric non-thermal air plasma with reference to environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marode, E.; Djermoune, D.; Dessante, P.; Deniset, C.; Ségur, P.; Bastien, F.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C.

    2009-12-01

    Since air is a natural part of our environment, special attention is given to the study of plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure and their applications. This fact promoted the study of electrical conduction in air-like mixtures, i.e. mixtures containing an electronegative gas component. If the ionization growth is not limited its temporal evolution leads to spark formation, i.e. a thermal plasma of several thousand kelvins in a quasi-local thermodynamic equilibrium state. But before reaching such a thermal state, a plasma sets up where the electrons increase their energy characterized by an electron temperature Te much higher than that of heavy species T or T+ for the ions. Since the plasma is no longer characterized by only one temperature T, it is said to be in a non-thermal plasma (NTP) state. Practical ways are listed to prevent electron ionization from going beyond the NTP states. Much understanding of such NTP may be gathered from the study of the simple paradigmatic case of a discharge induced between a sharp positively stressed point electrode facing a grounded negative plane electrode. Some physical properties will be gathered from such configurations and links underlined between these properties and some associated applications, mostly environmental. Aerosol filtration and electrostatic precipitators, pollution control by removal of hazardous species contained in flue gas exhaust, sterilization applications for medical purposes and triggering fuel combustion in vehicle motors are among such applications nowadays.

  1. Identifying possible non-thermal effects of radio frequency energy on inactivating food microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaoxi; Li, Rui; Hou, Lixia; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-03-23

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been successfully used for inactivating microorganisms in agricultural and food products. Athermal (non-thermal) effects of RF energy on microorganisms have been frequently proposed in the literature, resulting in difficulties for developing effective thermal treatment protocols. The purpose of this study was to identify if the athermal inactivation of microorganisms existed during RF treatments. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in apple juice and mashed potato were exposed to both RF and conventional thermal energies to compare their inactivation populations. A thermal death time (TDT) heating block system was used as conventional thermal energy source to simulate the same heating treatment conditions, involving heating temperature, heating rate and uniformity, of a RF treatment at a frequency of 27.12 MHz. Results showed that a similar and uniform temperature distribution in tested samples was achieved in both heating systems, so that the central sample temperature could be used as representative one for evaluating thermal inactivation of microorganisms. The survival patterns of two target microorganisms in two food samples were similar both for RF and heating block treatments since their absolute difference of survival populations was  0.05) in inactivating bacteria between the RF and the heating block treatments at each set of temperatures. The solid temperature and microbial inactivation data demonstrated that only thermal effect of RF energy at 27.12 MHz was observed on inactivating microorganisms in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpretation of the microwave non-thermal radiation of the Moon during impact events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grimalsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent observations of the non-thermal electromagnetic (EM emission at wavelengths of 2.5cm, 13cm, and 21cm are summarized. After strong impacts of meteorites or spacecrafts (Lunar Prospector with the Moon's surface, the radio emissions in various frequency ranges were recorded. The most distinctive phenomenon is the appearance of quasi-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of 3–10K during several hours. The mechanism concerning the EM emission from a propagating crack within a piezoactive dielectric medium is considered. The impact may cause the global acoustic oscillations of the Moon. These oscillations lead to the crackening of the Moon's surface. The propagation of a crack within a piezoactive medium is accompanied by the excitation of an alternative current source. It is revealed that the source of the EM emission is the effective transient magnetization that appears in the case of a moving crack in piezoelectrics. The moving crack creates additional non-stationary local mechanical stresses around the apex of the crack, which generate the non-stationary electromagnetic field. For the cracks with a length of 0.1–1µm, the maximum of the EM emission may be in the 1–10GHz range.

  3. Functionalization of polymer surfaces by medium frequency non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T.; Trigueiro, J. S.; Bundaleski, N.; Teodoro, O. M. N. D.; Sério, S.; Debacher, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    This work addresses the surface modification of different polymers by argon dielectric barrier discharge, using bromoform vapours. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that plasma etching occurs in stages and may be related to the reach of the species generated and obviously the gap between the electrodes. In addition, the stages of flatten surface or homogeneity may be the result of the transient crosslinking promoted by the intense UV radiation generated by the non- thermal plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis showed that bromine was inserted on the polymer surface as Csbnd Br bonds and as adsorbed HBr. The obtained results demonstrate that the highest degree of bromofunctionalization was achieved on polypropylene surface, which contains about 8,5% of Br. After its derivatization in ammonia, Br disappeared and about 6% of nitrogen in the form of amine group was incorporated at the surface. This result can be considered as a clear fingerprint of the Br substitution by the amine group, thus illustrating the efficiency of the proposed method for functionalization of polymer surfaces.

  4. Improved oxidation of air pollutants in a non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, U.; Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of non-thermal plasma (NTP) for the removal of organic air pollutants (especially in low concentrations) is improved by the introduction of ferroelectric and catalytically active materials into the discharge zone of an NTP reactor. Experiments with model systems (various contaminants and packed-bed materials) have shown that such a modification of a homogeneous gas-phase plasma can overcome the most serious restrictions of the NTP technique at its present state of the art: the incomplete total oxidation (i.e. the low selectivity to CO 2 ) and the energetic inefficiency. Placing a ferroelectric packed-bed material in the discharge zone was shown to result in a lowering of the energy input required. The main effects of plasma catalysis enabled by the introduction of a catalytically active material were an enhanced conversion of pollutants and a higher CO 2 selectivity. These improvements are based on the presence of short-lived oxidising species in the inner volume of porous catalysts. Additionally, the formation of a reservoir of adsorbed oxidants in the NTP zone could be shown. The combination of both modifications (ferroelectric packed-bed materials and plasma catalysis) is a promising method to support the NTP-initiated oxidation of air pollutants

  5. Production of TEMPO by O atoms in atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma–liquid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Yang, I.-Wei; Graves, David B.

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas enable plasma treatment of surfaces without requiring a low-pressure environment. These plasmas are currently of interest for, among other things, their biomedical applications, many of which are enabled by production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Plasma–liquid interactions are especially important due to the high amounts of water in biological materials. However, the chemistries of these plasmas are very complex and are not well-understood. One method to quantify plasma–liquid interactions is to dissolve a reactant into the liquid which, when exposed to plasma-created RONS, forms a measurable product. In particular, the oxidation of the spin trap TEMP to TEMPO has been used to track trends in reactive oxygen species. However, the effect of individual species on TEMP has not previously been determined. This paper differentiates the oxidation of TEMP due to various oxygen species produced by a He plasma jet operating in a controllable environment. Oxidation of TEMP is mainly to O atoms, with small or negligible contributions from other species. Thus, the TEMPO yield will also be used to illuminate trends in O atom production.

  6. Damages of Biological Components in Bacteria and Bacteriophages Exposed to Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Akira; Yasuda, Hachiro

    Mechanism of inactivation of bio-particles exposed to dielectric barrier discharge, DBD, has been studied using E. coli and bacteriophages. States of different biological components were monitored during the course of inactivation. Analysis of green fluorescent protein, GFP, introduced into E.coli cells proved that Non-thermal Plasma, NTP causes a prominent protein damages without cutting peptide bonds. We have developed a biological assay which evaluates in vitro DNA damage of the bacteriophages. Bacteriophage λ having double stranded DNA was exposed to DBD, then DNA was purified and subjected to in vitro DNA packaging reactions. The re-packaged phages consist of the DNA from discharged phages and brand-new coat proteins. Survival curves of the re-packaged phages showed extremely large D value (D = 25 s) compared to the previous D value (D = 3 s) from the discharged phages. The results indicate that DNA damage hardly contributed to the inactivation, and the damage in coat proteins is responsible for inactivation of the phages. M13 phages having single stranded DNA were also examined with the same manner. In this case, damage to DNA was as severe as that of the coat proteins.

  7. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golberg, A; Laufer, S; Rabinowitch, H D; Rubinsky, B

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 deg. C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  8. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  9. Non-Thermal Plasma in Contact with Water: The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbanev, Yury; O'Connell, Deborah; Chechik, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its potential for biomedical applications. Determining the mechanism of the formation of reactive species in liquid treated with plasma is thus of paramount importance for both fundamental and applied research. In this work, the origin of reactive species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions was investigated by using spin-trapping, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic labelling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The species originating from molecules in the liquid phase and those introduced with the feed gas were differentiated by EPR and 1 H NMR analysis of liquid samples. The effects of water vapour and oxygen admixtures in the feed gas were investigated. All the reactive species detected in the liquid samples were shown to be formed largely in the plasma gas phase. It is suggested that hydrogen peroxide (determined by UV/Vis analysis) is formed primarily in the plasma tube, whereas the radical species ⋅OOH, ⋅OH and ⋅H are proposed to originate from the region between the plasma nozzle and the liquid sample. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Theory of cylindrical Langmuir probes in weakly ionized, non-thermal, stationary and moderately collisional plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, P M [University of Liverpool, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.m.bryant@liv.ac.uk

    2009-02-01

    A finite length cylindrical Langmuir probe is modelled as an ellipsoid of revolution with spheroidal equipotential surfaces and confocal orthogonal hyperboloidal electric field lines. The theory is applicable in the transition regime of probe operation between the collisionless and fully collisional limits. The plasma is assumed to be weakly ionized, non-thermal and stationary, being characterized by frozen reactions and constant temperatures. It is further assumed that in an isotropic plasma the cold ions follow the field lines, as a result of ion-neutral collisions, in the presheath and sheath regions with collisionless Maxwellian electrons. The governing system of equations is derived and solved numerically with the results presented of the presheath and sheath solutions in collisionless and collisional regimes. These show convergence to the respective collisionless and collisional radial motion limits for spherical and cylindrical probes. Analytical approximations are also obtained for the sheath width (defined as the point where the ions reach the Bohm speed) and the Bohm potential over a wide range of collisionality. The collisional presheath drop according to the perturbation theory of Shih and Levi, as applied to cylindrical probes, is shown to significantly underestimate the numerical results. These are in better agreement with the collisional presheath drop for spheres even for long probes. Application of the theory to experimentally derived probe characteristics is also discussed.

  11. Non-thermal hydrogen plasma processing effectively increases the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Yulong; Zhu, Zhongjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Graphene-based materials (GMs) are promising antibacterial agents which provide an alternative route to treat pathogenic bacteria with resistance to conventional antibiotics. To further improve their antibacterial activity, many methods have been developed to functionalize the GMs with chemicals. However, the application of additional chemicals may pose potential risks to the environment and human being. Herein, a radio-frequency-driven inductively coupled non-thermal hydrogen plasma was used to treat and reduce graphene oxide (GO) without using any other chemicals, and we found that the plasma-reduced GO (prGO) is with significantly higher bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the increased antibacterial activity of prGO is due to that plasma processing breaks down the GO sheets into smaller layers with more rough surface defects, which can thus induce more destructive membrane damages to the bacteria. This work sets another good example, showing that plasma processing is a green and low-cost alternative for GM modification for biomedical applications.

  12. Effect of Non Thermal Plasma on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Forage Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.; El-Aragi, G.M.; Tarrad, M.M.; Zayed, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Farm, at Inshas, Egypt during 2011–2012 on alfalfa. The aim of this investigation to caused mutation in alfalfa to obtain new variation. Seeds of the alfalfa were subjected to six doses of non-thermal plasma pulse. The plasma (consisting of ozone, UV and visible light) was injected into the seed samples for different durations or number of pulses. The doses used treatments were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 pulses (P) and non-treated control. The results showed difference seeds in both level field performances from cut 1st to cut 10th in the forage production. The results showed differences between the Control and treatment (number of pulses (P)) in each of all cuts for the productivity. The results showed the impact of plant height, Number of leaves/plant and number of branches/leaf and stem diameter as well as fresh weight of plant, fresh/weight (t/fed), dry yield (t/fed) in some cuts for Pulses 2, 4 and 10, and the ten pulses were the best for the majority of the qualities and cuts.

  13. Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2016-07-16

    The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization of the flame in a V-shape or an M-shape geometry, over a central stainless steel rod. The plasma is produced by short pulses of 10-ns duration, 8-kV maximum voltage amplitude, applied at 10 kHz. The central rod is used as a cathode, while the anode is a stainless steel ring, fixed on the outer surface of the quartz tube. Plasma forcing is produced by positive or negative steps of plasma. The step response of the flame is investigated through heat release rate (HRR) fluctuations, to facilitate comparisons with flame response to acoustic perturbations. The chemiluminescence of CH* between two consecutive pulses was recorded using an intensified camera equipped with an optical filter to estimate the HRR fluctuations. First, the results show that the flame does not respond to each single plasma pulse, but is affected only by the average plasma power, confirming the step nature of the forcing. The temporal evolutions of HRR are analyzed and the flame transfer functions are determined. A forcing mechanism, as a local increase in the reactivity of the fluid close to the rod, is proposed and compared with numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement. © 2016.

  14. Antitumor action of non thermal plasma sources, DBD and Plasma Gun, alone or in combined protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Eric; Brullé, Laura; Vandamme, Marc; Riès, Delphine; Le Pape, Alain; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    The presentation deals with the assessment on two non thermal plasma sources developed and optimized for oncology applications. The first plasma source is a floating-electrode dielectric barrier discharge powered at a few hundreds of Hz which deliver air-plasma directly on the surface of cell culture medium in dishes or on the skin or organs of mice bearing cancer tumors. The second plasma source, so called Plasma Gun, is a plasma jet source triggered in noble gas, transferred in high aspect ratio and flexible capillaries, on targeting cells or tumors after plasma transfer in air through the ``plasma plume'' generated at the capillary outlet. In vitro evidence for massive cancer cell destruction and in vivo tumor activity and growth rate reductions have been measured with both plasma sources. DNA damages, cell cycle arrests and apoptosis induction were also demonstrated following the application of any of the two plasma source both in vitro and in vivo. The comparison of plasma treatment with state of the art chemotherapeutic alternatives has been performed and last but not least the benefit of combined protocols involving plasma and chemotherapeutic treatments has been evidenced for mice bearing orthotopic pancreas cancer and is under evaluation for the colon tumors.

  15. Gaseous phase benzene decomposition by non-thermal plasma coupled with nano titania catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Li, J.; Jin, Y. Q.; Liang, Y. H.; Ma, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    Synergistic effect of atmospheric non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge and nano titania photo catalyst for benzene decomposition was tested. The paper indicated the effect of photo catalyst on removal efficiency of benzene, the compare of photo catalyst characteristic in different high temperatures by heat treatment, analysis of by-products. The results showed that the effect of degradation was visible by added photo catalyst in the plasma reactor. When concentration of benzene was 600 mg/m 3 and electric field strength was 10 kV/cm, the removal efficiency of benzene was increased up to 81 % without photo catalyst. At the same condition, the removal efficiency was increased to 15 % higher with photo catalyst. Nano titania crystal was anatase crystal in 450 d eg C heat treatment which is best for benzene removal. The plasma reactor packed with photo catalyst shows a better selectivity of carbon dioxide than that without photo catalyst. By-products are mostly carbon dioxide, water and a small quantity of carbon monoxide

  16. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  17. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  18. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-12-01

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death with Non-Thermal Plasma for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Abraham G.

    Even with the recent advancements in cancer immunotherapy, treatments are still associated with debilitating side effects and unacceptable fail rates. Induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumors is a promising approach to cancer treatment that may overcome these deficiencies. Cells undergoing ICD pathways enhance the interactions between cancerous cells and immune cells of the patient, resulting in the generation of anti-cancer immunity. The goal of this therapy relies on the engagement and reestablishment of the patient's natural immune processes to target and eliminate cancerous cells systemically. The main objective of this research was to determine if non-thermal plasma could be used to elicit immunogenic cancer cell death for cancer immunotherapy. My hypothesis was that plasma induces immunogenic cancer cell death through oxidative stress pathways, followed by development of a specific anti-tumor immune response. This was tested by investigating the interactions between plasma and multiple cancerous cells in vitro and validating anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Following plasma treatment, two surrogate ICD markers, secreted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and surface exposed calreticulin (ecto-CRT), were emitted from all three cancerous cell lines tested: A549 lung carcinoma cell line, CNE-1 radiation-resistant nasopharyngeal cell line and CT26 colorectal cancer cell line. When these cells were co-cultured with macrophages, cells of the innate immune system, the tumoricidal activity of macrophages was enhanced, thus demonstrating the immunostimulatory activity of cells undergoing ICD. The underlying mechanisms of plasma-induced ICD were also evaluated. When plasma is generated, four major components are produced: electromagnetic fields, ultraviolet radiation, and charged and neutral reactive species. Of these, we determined that plasma-generated charged and short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) were the major effectors of ICD. Following plasma

  20. A Non-thermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Pal, P. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report the analysis result of UV/X-ray emission from AR Scorpii, which is an intermediate polar (IP) composed of a magnetic white dwarf and an M-type star, with the XMM-Newton data. The X-ray/UV emission clearly shows a large variation over the orbit, and their intensity maximum (or minimum) is located at the superior conjunction (or inferior conjunction) of the M star orbit. The hardness ratio of the X-ray emission shows a small variation over the orbital phase and shows no indication of the absorption by an accretion column. These properties are naturally explained by the emission from the M star surface rather than that from the accretion column on the white dwarf’s (WD) star, which is similar to usual IPs. Additionally, the observed X-ray emission also modulates with the WD’s spin with a pulse fraction of ∼14%. The peak position is aligned in the optical/UV/X-ray band. This supports the hypothesis that the electrons in AR Scorpii are accelerated to a relativistic speed and emit non-thermal photons via the synchrotron radiation. In the X-ray bands, evidence of the power-law spectrum is found in the pulsed component, although the observed emission is dominated by the optically thin thermal plasma emissions with several different temperatures. It is considered that the magnetic dissipation/reconnection process on the M star surface heats up the plasma to a temperature of several keV and also accelerates the electrons to the relativistic speed. The relativistic electrons are trapped in the WD’s closed magnetic field lines by the magnetic mirror effect. In this model, the observed pulsed component is explained by the emissions from the first magnetic mirror point.

  1. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  2. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marković, Marijana; Jović, Milica; Stanković, Dalibor; Kovačević, Vesna; Roglić, Goran; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Manojlović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe 2+ ). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC–MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15 min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. - Highlights: • Twelve ibuprofen degradation products were identified in total. • The degradation percentage differed between treatments (DBD/Fe 2+ was 99%). • In DBD/Fe 2+ only aliphatic degradation products were identified. • V. fischeri was sensitive to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment. • A. salina showed no toxic effect when exposed to all post treatment solutions

  3. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marković, Marijana [Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jović, Milica; Stanković, Dalibor [Innovation Center, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia); Kovačević, Vesna [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 44, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Roglić, Goran [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia); Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana [Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Manojlović, Dragan, E-mail: manojlo@chem.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia)

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe{sup 2+}). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC–MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15 min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. - Highlights: • Twelve ibuprofen degradation products were identified in total. • The degradation percentage differed between treatments (DBD/Fe{sup 2+} was 99%). • In DBD/Fe{sup 2+} only aliphatic degradation products were identified. • V. fischeri was sensitive to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment. • A. salina showed no toxic effect when exposed to all post treatment solutions.

  4. A novel approach to the pacemaker infection with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Li, Yu; Li, Yinglong; Yu, Shuang; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jue

    2017-08-01

    Although the pacemaker (PM) is a key cardiac implantable electrical device for life-threatening arrhythmias treatment, the related infection is a challenge. Thus, the aim of this study is to validate cold plasma as a potential technology for the disinfection of infected pacemakers. Fifty donated PMs were cleaned and sterilized before use and then infected with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus). Then, each experimental group was treated with cold plasma treatment for 1 min, 3 min, 5 min and 7 min, while the control group was immersed with sterilized water. Effectiveness of disinfection was evaluated by using CFU counting method and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The physicochemical properties of water treated with cold plasma at different time were evaluated, including water temperature change and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The major reactive species generated by the cold plasma equipment during cold plasma were analyzed with optical emission spectroscopy (OES). No live bacteria were detected with CFU counting method after 7 min of cold plasma treatment, which matches with the CLSM results. The ORP value of water and H2O2 concentration changed significantly after treating with cold plasma. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), especially NO, O (777 nm) and O (844 nm) were probably key inactivation agents in cold plasma treatment. These results indicate that cold plasma could be an effective technology for the disinfection of implantable devices.

  5. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  6. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yu-Ri [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jae-Sung [Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Doo-Hoon [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701, 447-1 Wokgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Nam [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Mahn, E-mail: kmkim@yuhs.ac [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Orofacial Hard Tissue Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering.

  7. Dust-acoustic shock waves in a dusty plasma with non-thermal ions and super-thermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamuddin, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of dust-acoustic shock waves (DASWs) in a collisionless unmagnetized dusty plasma (containing super-thermal electrons of two distinct temperatures, non-thermal ions, and a negatively charged viscous dust fluid) has been theoretically investigated by deriving and solving the nonlinear Burgers' equation. It has been observed that the viscous force acting on the dust fluid is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of DASWs, and that the basic features (viz., amplitude, polarity, width, etc.) of the DASWs are significantly modified by the presence of super-thermal electrons and non-thermal ions. The possible applications of this investigation in Earth's mesosphere, the solar atmosphere, Saturn's magnetosphere, etc., have also been briefly addressed.

  8. Artificial vesicles as an animal cell model for the study of biological application of non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, S. H.; Park, J. K.; Sung, C.; Lee, C. B.; Uhm, H.; Choi, E. H.; Baik, K. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Artificial cell-like model systems can provide information which is hard to obtain with real biological cells. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) containing intra-membrane DNA or OH radical-binding molecules are used to visualize the cytolytic activity of OH radicals. Changes in the GUV membrane are observed by microscopy or flow cytometry as performed for animal cells after non-thermal plasma treatment. The experimental data shows that OH radicals can be detected inside the membrane, although the biological effects are not as significant as for H2O2. This artificial model system can provide a systemic means to elucidate the complex interactions between biological materials and non-thermal plasma.

  9. Relationship between carbohydrate composition and fungal deterioration of functional strawberry juices preserved using non-thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Lucía; Quintana, Gabriel; Moreira, María R; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2017-12-12

    The quantification of the main carbohydrates present in strawberry juices enriched with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and preserved by non-thermal techniques (vanillin and ultrasound) was conducted, in addition to an investigation of the evolution of these compounds and their relationship with fungal deterioration over 14 days of refrigerated storage. A simple and environmentally friendly analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with a reflection index detector was developed for simultaneous determination of inulin, FOS and mono- and disaccharides present in the juices. When analyzing the evolution of carbohydrates during storage, a direct relationship between the consumption of sucrose and the growth of yeasts and molds (main spoilage flora in strawberry) was observed, especially in untreated samples (control). By contrast, no sucrose consumption was observed during storage of the treated sample, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the non-thermal treatments for controlling yeasts and mold growth. In turn, inulin and FOS added to juices were not degraded during storage. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that non-thermal treatments are adequate for preventing the growth of deteriorative flora in strawberry juices and that the addition of inulin and FOS can be a good strategy for functionalizing them, as well as improving their nutritional properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, J; Foest, R; Reuter, S; Kewitz, T; Šperka, J; Weltmann, K-D

    2012-10-01

    The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 ± 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 ± 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable

  11. Probing the non-thermal emission in Abell 2146 and the Perseus cluster with the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; van Weeren, Reinout; Clarke, Tracy; Intema, Huib; Russell, Helen; Edge, Alastair; Fabian, Andy; Olamaie, Malak; Rumsey, Clare; King, Lindsay; McNamara, Brian; Fecteau-Beaucage, David; Hogan, Michael; Mezcua, Mar; Taylor, Gregory; Blundell, Katherine; Sanders, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Jets created from accretion onto supermassive black holes release relativistic particles on large distances. These strongly affect the intracluster medium when located in the center of a brightest cluster galaxy. The hierarchical merging of subclusters and groups, from which cluster originate, also generates perturbations into the intracluster medium through shocks and turbulence, constituting a potential source of reacceleration for these particles. I will present deep multi-configuration low radio frequency observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of two unique clusters, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows.Recently awarded of 550 hours of Chandra observations, Abell 2146 is one of the rare clusters undergoing a spectacular merger in the plane of the sky. Our recent deep multi-configuration JVLA 1.4 GHz observations have revealed the presence of a structure extending to 850 kpc in size, consisting of one component associated with the upstream shock and classified as a radio relic, and one associated with the subcluster core, consistent with a radio halo bounded by the bow shock. Theses structures have some of the lowest radio powers detected thus far in any cluster. The flux measurements of the halo, its morphology and measurements of the dynamical state of the cluster suggest that the halo was recently created (~ 0.3 Gyr after core passage). This makes A2146 extremely interesting to study, allowing us to probe the complete evolutionary stages of halos.I will also present results on 230-470 MHz JVLA observations of the Perseus cluster. Our observations of this nearby relaxed cool core cluster have revealed a multitude of new structures associated with the mini-halo, extending to hundreds of kpc in size. Its irregular morphology seems to be have been influenced both by the AGN activity and by the sloshing motion of the cluster’ gas. In addition, it has a filamentary structure similar to that seen in

  12. Shock tube experiments on nitromethane and Promotion of chemical reactions by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljeskog, Morten

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to study two different subjects both related to molecular decomposition by applying a shock tube and non-thermal plasma to decompose selected hydrocarbons. The first approach to molecular decomposition concerned thermal decomposition and oxidation of highly diluted nitromethane (NM) in a shock tube. Reflected shock tube experiments on NM decomposition, using mixtures of 0.2 to 1.5 vol% NM in nitrogen or argon were performed over the temperature range 850-1550 K and pressure range 190-900 kPa, with 46 experiments diluted in nitrogen and 44 diluted in argon. By residual error analysis of the measured decomposition profiles it was found that NM decomposition (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} + M {yields} CH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} + M, where M = N{sub 2} /Ar) corresponds well to a law of first order. Arrhenius expressions corresponding to NM diluted either in N{sub 2} or in Ar were found as k{sub N2} = 10{sup 17.011} * exp(- 182.6 kJ/mole / R*T) and k{sub Ar} = 10{sup 17.574}*exp(-207 kJ/mole / R*T ) , respectively. A new reaction mechanism was then proposed, based on new experimental data for NM decomposition both in Ar and N{sub 2} and on three previously developed mechanisms. The new mechanism predicts well the decomposition of NM diluted in both N{sub 2} and Ar within the pressure and temperature range covered by the experiments. In parallel to, and following the decomposition experiments, oxidative experiments on the ignition delay times of NM/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures were investigated over high temperature and low to high pressure ranges. These experiments were carried out with eight different mixtures of gaseous NM and oxygen diluted in argon, with pressures ranging between 44.3-600 kPa, and temperatures ranging between 842-1378 K. The oxidation experiments were divided into different categories according to the type of decomposition signals achieved. For signals with and without emission, the apparent quasi

  13. Exploring the connection between the stellar wind and the non-thermal emission in LS 5039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Motch, C.; Ribó, M.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Negueruela, I.; Paredes, J. M.; Martocchia, A.

    2007-10-01

    compact object, or the density in the system is 3 to 27 times smaller than that predicted by a spherical symmetric wind model. We suggest that the multiwavelength non-thermal emission of LS 5039 is related to the observed extended radio jets and is unlikely to be produced inside the binary system. The Hα results presented here are based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program IDs 67.D-0229(A), 69.D-0628(A) and 075.D-0591(A); the Observatoire de Haute-Provence; the Observatório do Pico dos Dias / LNA, Brazil; the G. D. Cassini telescope operated at the Loiano Observatory by the Osservatorio Astronómico di Bologna; and the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (those data were taken using ALFOSC, which is owned by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) and operated at the Nordic Optical Telescope under agreement between IAA and the NBIfAFG of the Astronomical Observatory of Copenhagen). Table 2 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew B. Loomis

    2004-05-01

    This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

  15. Development of Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Technology for Control of Atmospheric Emissions: Final Report for SERDP Project CP-1038

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosocha, Louis A

    2000-01-01

    .... Developed from in-depth interviews with veterans having MOUT combat experience, this report provides a comprehensive and detailed overview of the decisions platoon leaders must make during five...

  16. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant and oxygen as life support consumables from the atmospheric CO2 and water on Mars is a key enabling technology required...

  17. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant by methanation of CO2, also called Sabatier reaction, is a key enabling technology required for sustainable and...

  18. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  19. Theoretical-experimental study of the non-thermal effects of the polarized laser radiation in living tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present research we had as a fundamental objective to analyse the non-thermal effects of the laser polarized light in biological tissues. These effects were performed with low power laser output. The theoretical procedure consisted in looking for a simple model which connects the effect of light polarized with microscopically rough tissues using well established physical concepts. Experimentally, we created artificial wounds on the back of animals using liquid nitrogen (this method was chosen because it does not interfere in the biochemistry of the animal tissue). For the wound irradiation we have utilized a He-Ne attached to an optical system. (author)

  20. Proceedings of the second workshop on thermal-non-thermal interactions in solar flares [TNT-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-09-01

    The Second Workshop on the theme of Thermal-Non-thermal Interactions in Solar Flares (TNT-II) was held at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the week of April 10-14, 1989. The keynote address, gave a view of the problems still outstanding with regard to soft and hard X-ray observations of flares. The gathering broke up into four subgroups. The subjects under discussion were: large-scale magnetic field phenomena, flare dynamics, energy release and deposition, and global energy balance. (author)

  1. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. The connection between X-ray and coronal emission measure in solar limb flares as a diagnostic of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio da Costa, F.; Effenberger, F.; Kleint, L.

    2017-12-01

    Using RHESSI X-ray observations and EUV differential emission measures (DEM) inferred from SDO/AIA observations, we investigate thermal and non-thermal heating processes associated with coronal emission. We focus on partially occulted flares located near the solar limb, without contamination of the strong non-thermal footpoint emission, which allows us to investigate non-thermal sources at/near the loop top.This study allows us to temporally and spatially correlate the non-thermal hard X-ray signatures with temperature dependent heating processes, with the goal of constraining the physical processes of energy release in the upper corona. This leads to a better understanding of the thermal response of the upper atmosphere to non-thermal processes during solar flares. Our preliminary results show that low coronal loops are denser and cooler than higher coronal emissions. Higher coronal emissions are associated to low energy (6-12 keV) thermal emission and lower loops, to non-thermal (24-26 keV) emission.

  3. Liquid-phase non-thermal plasma-prepared N-doped TiO(2) for azo dye degradation with the catalyst separation system by ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hui; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Tseng, Wei-Lun; Wang, Yi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    This study strived to improve the photocatalytic activity by using liquid-phase non-thermal plasma (LPNTP) technology for preparing N-doping TiO(2) as well as to separate/recover the N-dope TiO(2) particles by using ceramic ultrafiltration membrane process. The yellow color N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts, obtained through the LPNTP process, were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The UV-Vis spectrum of N-doped TiO(2) showed that the absorption band was shifted to 439 nm and the band gap was reduced to 2.82 eV. The structure analysis of XRD spectra showed that the peak positions and the crystal structure remained unchanged as anatase after plasma-treating at 13.5 W for 40 min. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2) was evaluated by azo dyes under visible light, and 63% of them was degraded after 16 hours in a continuous-flow photocatalytic system. For membrane separation/recover system, the recovery efficiency reached 99.5% after the ultrafiltration had been carried out for 90 min, and the result indicated that the photocatalyst was able to be separated/recovered completely.

  4. Massive 70 μm quiet clumps - II. Non-thermal motions driven by gravity in massive star formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Smith, R. J.; Billot, N.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Peretto, N.; Molinari, S.; Pineda, J. E.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamic activity in massive star-forming regions prior to the formation of bright protostars is still not fully investigated. In this work, we present observations of HCO+ J = 1-0 and N2H+ J = 1-0 made with the IRAM 30 m telescope towards a sample of 16 Herschel-identified massive 70 μm quiet clumps associated with infrared dark clouds. The clumps span a mass range from 300 to 2000 M⊙. The N2H+ data show that the regions have significant non-thermal motions with velocity dispersion between 0.28 and 1.5 km s-1, corresponding to Mach numbers between 2.6 and 11.5. The majority of the 70 μm quiet clumps have asymmetric HCO+ line profiles, indicative of significant dynamical activity. We show that there is a correlation between the degree of line asymmetry and the surface density Σ of the clumps, with clumps of Σ ≳ 0.1 g cm-2 having more asymmetric line profiles, and so are more dynamically active, than clumps with lower Σ. We explore the relationship between velocity dispersion, radius and Σ and show how it can be interpreted as a relationship between an acceleration generated by the gravitational field, aG, and the measured kinetic acceleration, ak, consistent with the majority of the non-thermal motions originating from self-gravity. Finally, we consider the role of external pressure and magnetic fields in the interplay of forces.

  5. Bio-soliton model that predicts non-thermal electromagnetic frequency bands, that either stabilize or destabilize living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesink, J H; Meijer, D K F

    2017-01-01

    Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells. The particular effects are exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave eigen-frequencies of one-tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz that show a pattern of 12 bands, and can be positioned on an acoustic reference frequency scale. The model was substantiated by a meta-analysis of 240 published articles of biological electromagnetic experiments, in which a spectrum of non-thermal electromagnetic waves were exposed to living cells and intact organisms. These data support the concept of coherent quantized electromagnetic states in living organisms and the theories of Fröhlich, Davydov and Pang. It is envisioned that a rational control of shape by soliton-waves and related to a morphogenetic field and parametric resonance provides positional information and cues to regulate organism-wide systems properties like anatomy, control of reproduction and repair.

  6. Investigation the Influence of Different Salts on the Degradation of Organic Dyes Using Non-Thermal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Tayeb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In dye decolorization tests a non-thermal plasma (NTP corona discharge generated by a high voltage pin-to-ground plate displayed 82% color removal within 11 min. Total color removal was accomplished after 28 min. Different salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3 were utilized to check the influence of conductivity changes on the dye decolorization process. Higher dye solution conductivity improved the color removal efficiency. The discharge energy and degradation efficiency were computed for diverse concentrations for NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3, whereby it was noticed that the salts generally have a small impact on the level of dye decolorization using corona discharge. In addition, the essential reactive species involved in the oxidation of organic dye compounds such as ozone (O3 generated in treated water and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were investigated and the energetic species that produced the non-thermal plasma at the optimum operation time were determined. Energy yields for decolorization and Electrical Energy per Order (EE/O were calculated for different concentrations of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3. This work may help in designing plasma systems appropriate for treatment of industrial wastewaters polluted by dyes.

  7. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  8. GEC Student Award for Excellence Finalist: Interaction of Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma with DNA inside Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalghatgi, Sameer; Kelly, Crystal; Fridman, Gregory; Clifford-Azizkhan, Jane; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary

    2008-10-01

    Direct non-thermal plasma is now being widely considered for various medical applications, viz; cancer treatment, coagulation, wound healing. However, the understanding of the interaction between non-thermal plasma and cells is lacking. Here we study the possibility that effects of the plasma treatment can penetrate though cellular membranes without destroying them. One of the most important of such effects to investigate would be DNA double strand breaks (DSB's) since these are some of the important events in a cell's life cycle. We measured DNA DSB's in mammalian cells using immunofluorescence and western blots. Hydrogen peroxide treatment was used as a positive control since it is known to induce massive DNA double strand breaks. The results indicate that short (5 seconds) direct plasma treatment at low power (0.2 W/cm^2) does produce DNA DSB's in mammalian cells. This means that somehow plasma penetrates inside the cells. Several questions arise about what is the mechanism of penetration and do the cells repair the DNA DSB's. We show that the cells do repair the DNA DSB's produced by short exposure of low power plasma. Although the detailed mechanisms are being investigated we confirmed that reactive oxygen species mediate interaction between plasma and DNA.

  9. Formation of hydrophobic coating on glass surface using atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Qiu, Y; Kuffel, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using a non-thermal plasma generated by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) with a needle array-to-plane electrode arrangement in atmospheric air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBCD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and the wet flashover voltage test. The effects of the plasma dose (the product of average discharge power and treatment time) of DBCD on the surface modification are studied, and the mechanism of interaction between the plasma and glass surface is discussed. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface through DBCD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on the plasma dose of the DBCD. It seems that there is an optimum plasma dose for the surface treatment. The test results of thermal ageing and chemical ageing show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics

  10. Discovery of massive star formation quenching by non-thermal effects in the centre of NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Minguez, P.; Prieto, M. A.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Observations show that massive star formation quenches first at the centres of galaxies. To understand quenching mechanisms, we investigate the thermal and non-thermal energy balance in the central kpc of NGC 1097—a prototypical galaxy undergoing quenching—and present a systematic study of the nuclear star formation efficiency and its dependencies. This region is dominated by the non-thermal pressure from the magnetic field, cosmic rays and turbulence. A comparison of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of the molecular clouds shows that most of them are magnetically critical or supported against the gravitational collapse needed to form the cores of massive stars. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of the clouds drops with the magnetic field strength. Such an anti-correlation holds with neither the turbulent nor the thermal pressure. Hence, a progressive build up of the magnetic field results in high-mass stars forming inefficiently, and this may be the cause of the low-mass stellar population in the bulges of galaxies.

  11. Non-Thermal Plasma Recovery of Hydrogen from Sabatier Waste Methane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods for recovery and regeneration of cabin atmosphere to supply oxygen are critical to facilitate extended duration manned missions including...

  12. Cosmic ray heating in cool core clusters - II. Self-regulation cycle and non-thermal emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Svenja; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Self-regulated feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centres of galaxy clusters and in regulating star formation in central galaxies. In a companion paper, we found steady-state solutions of the hydrodynamic equations that are coupled to the cosmic ray (CR) energy equation for a large cluster sample. In those solutions, radiative cooling in the central region is balanced by streaming CRs through the generation and dissipation of resonantly generated Alfvén waves and by thermal conduction at large radii. Here, we demonstrate that the predicted non-thermal emission resulting from hadronic CR interactions in the intracluster medium exceeds observational radio (and gamma-ray) data in a subsample of clusters that host radio mini haloes (RMHs). In contrast, the predicted non-thermal emission is well below observational data in cooling galaxy clusters without RMHs. These are characterized by exceptionally large AGN radio fluxes, indicating high CR yields and associated CR heating rates. We suggest a self-regulation cycle of AGN feedback in which non-RMH clusters are heated by streaming CRs homogeneously throughout the central cooling region. We predict radio micro haloes surrounding the AGNs of these CR-heated clusters in which the primary emission may predominate the hadronically generated emission. Once the CR population has streamed sufficiently far and lost enough energy, the cooling rate increases, which explains the increased star formation rates in clusters hosting RMHs. Those could be powered hadronically by CRs that have previously heated the cluster core.

  13. Cosmic Rays and Non-thermal Emission Induced by Accretion of Cool Gas onto the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Susumu; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Arakawa, Masanori; Renaud, Matthieu; Wada, Keiichi

    2017-11-01

    On both observational and theoretical grounds, the disk of our Galaxy should be accreting cool gas with temperature ≲ {10}5 K via the halo at a rate ˜1 {{M}⊙ {yr}}-1. At least some of this accretion is mediated by high-velocity clouds (HVCs), observed to be traveling in the halo with velocities of a few 100 km s-1 and occasionally impacting the disk at such velocities, especially in the outer regions of the Galaxy. We address the possibility of particle acceleration in shocks triggered by such HVC accretion events, and the detectability of consequent non-thermal emission in the radio to gamma-ray bands and high-energy neutrinos. For plausible shock velocities ˜ 300 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and magnetic field strengths ˜ 0.3{--}10 μ {{G}}, electrons and protons may be accelerated up to ˜1-10 TeV and ˜ 30{--}{10}3 TeV, respectively, in sufficiently strong adiabatic shocks during their lifetime of ˜ {10}6 {{yr}}. The resultant pion decay and inverse Compton gamma-rays may be the origin of some unidentified Galactic GeV-TeV sources, particularly the “dark” source HESS J1503-582 that is spatially coincident with the anomalous H I structure known as “forbidden-velocity wings.” Correlation of their locations with star-forming regions may be weak, absent, or even opposite. Non-thermal radio and X-ray emission from primary and/or secondary electrons may be detectable with deeper observations. The contribution of HVC accretion to Galactic cosmic rays is subdominant, but could be non-negligible in the outer Galaxy. As the thermal emission induced by HVC accretion is likely difficult to detect, observations of such phenomena may offer a unique perspective on probing gas accretion onto the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  14. Degradation of reactive blue 19 by needle-plate non-thermal plasma in different gas atmospheres: Kinetics and responsible active species study assisted by CFD calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yanan; Li, Rui; Xue, Gang; Ognier, Stéphanie

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degradation of a model organic compound, reactive blue (RB-19), in aqueous solution using a needle-plate non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, which was operated using three gas atmospheres (Ar, air, O2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The relative discharge and degradation parameters, including the peak to peak applied voltage, power, ozone generation, pH, decolorization rates, energy density and the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction were analyzed to determine the various dye removal efficiencies. The decolorization rate for Ar, air and O2 were 59.9%, 49.6% and 89.8% respectively at the energy density of 100 kJ/L. The best TOC reduction was displayed by Ar with about 8.8% decrease, and 0% with O2 and air atmospheres. This phenomenon could be explained by the formation of OH• and O3 in the Ar and O2 atmospheres, which are responsible for increased mineralization and efficient decolorization. A one-dimension model was developed using software COMSOL to simulate the RB-19-ozone reaction and verify the experiments by comparing the simulated and experimental results. It was determined that ozone plays the most important role in the dye removal process, and the ozone contribution rate ranged from 0.67 to 0.82. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  16. Improved application of the electrophoretic tissue clearing technology, CLARITY, to intact solid organs including brain, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunsu; Park, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Incheol; Park, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Shin

    2014-12-21

    Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed. This method provided a major advance in understanding the structure-function relationships in circuits of the nervous system and organs by using whole-body clearing. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve the original CLARITY procedure and developed specific CLARITY protocols for various intact organs. We determined the optimal conditions for reducing bubble formation, discoloration, and depositing of black particles on the surface of tissue, which allowed production of clearer organ images. We also determined the appropriate replacement cycles of clearing solution for each type of organ, and convincingly demonstrated that 250-280 mA is the ideal range of electrical current for tissue clearing. We then acquired each type of cleared organs including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. Additionally, we determined the images of axon fibers of hippocampal region, the Purkinje layer of cerebellum, and vessels and cellular nuclei of pancreas. CLARITY is an innovative biochemical technology for the structural and molecular analysis of various types of tissue. We developed improved CLARITY methods for clearing of the brain, pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and kidney, and identified the appropriate experimental conditions for clearing of each specific tissue type. These optimized methods will be useful for the application of CLARITY to various types of organs.

  17. Non-thermal air plasma promotes the healing of acute skin wounds in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Závišková, Kristýna; Uherková, Lenka; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, mar (2017), s. 45183 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04010449 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : randomized controlled-trial * atmospheric argon plasma * nitric-oxide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods; Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Possible electronic entropy-driven mechanism for non-thermal ablation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    The physical mechanism of metal ablation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation was investigated in this study. Calculations based on finite-temperature density functional theory indicate that condensed copper becomes unstable at high electron temperatures due to an electronic entropy effect. Based on these results, an electronic entropy-driven mechanism is proposed to explain the metal ablation. Furthermore, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the ablation depth, where the effect of the electronic entropy is included. This mathematical model can quantitatively describe the experimental data in the low-laser-fluence region, where the electronic entropy effect is determined to be especially important.

  19. Inactivation efficacy of non-thermal plasma activated solutions against Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xia; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Hongzhuan; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Zhenhua; Jiang, Beiyu; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2018-02-23

    In recent years, plasma activated solution (PAS) have made a good progress in the disinfection of medical device, tooth whitening, fruit preservation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation efficacy of Newcastle disease virus by PAS. Water, 0.9% NaCl and 0.3% H 2 O 2 were excited by plasma to obtain the corresponding solutions PAS(H 2 O), PAS(NaCl) and PAS(H 2 O 2 ). The complete inactivation of virus after PAS treatment for 30 min was confirmed by the embryo lethality assay (ELA) and hemagglutination (HA) test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the morphology of the viral particle changed under PAS treatments. The total protein concentration of virus decreased by bradford protein assay due to PAS treatment. The nucleic acid integrity assay demonstrated that viral RNA degraded into smaller fragments. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of PAS including ORP, electric conductivity, H 2 O 2 concentration and electron spin resonance spectra analysis indicated that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a major role in the virus inactivation. Therefore, PAS, as an environmentally friendly method, would be a promising alternative strategy for application in the poultry industries. Importance Newcastle disease (ND) as an infectious viral disease of avian species caused significant economic losses to domestic animal and poultry industry. The traditional chemical sanitizers, such as chlorine-based products, are associated with risks of by-products formation with carcinogenic effect and environmental pollution. Based on these, plasma activated water as a green disinfection product is a promising alternative applied in stock farming and sterilization in hospitals and public places. In this study, we explored the inactivation efficacy of different plasma activated solution (PAS) against NDV and the possible mechanism between PAS and NDV. Our results demonstrated that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species detected in PAS, including short

  20. Analysis of technological innovation in Danish wind turbine industry - including the Test Station for Windturbines dual roll as research institution and certification authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the interactions between the Danish wind turbine industry and the Test Station for Wind Turbines. Because these interactions are concerning technological innovation, it follows that the innovation processes within the enterprises must be analyzed and modelled. The study is carried out as an iterative model-developing process using case study methods. The findings from some less structured interviews are discussed with literature and forms a basis for models and new interviews. The thesis is based on interviews with 20 R and D engineers in the Danish wind turbine industry, 7 engineers at The Test Station and 7 people involved in wind power abroad (American and British). The theoretical frame for this thesis is sociology/organizational theory and industrial engineering. The thesis consists of five main sections, dealing with technology and knowledge, innovation processes, organizational culture, innovation and interaction between the Test Station's research activities and the companies' innovation processes, and finally interaction through the Test Stations certification activity. First a taxonomy for technology and knowledge is established in order to clarify what kind of technology the interactions are all about, and what kind of knowledge is transferred during the interactions. This part of the thesis also contains an analysis of the patents drawn by the Danish wind turbine industry. The analysis shows that the Danish wind turbine industry do not use patents. Instead the nature of the technology and the speed of innovation are used to protect the industry's knowledge. (EG) (192 refs.)

  1. Spectral evolution of non-thermal electron distributions in intense radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolakou, K.; Horns, D.; Kirk, J. G.

    2007-11-01

    Context: Models of many astrophysical gamma-ray sources assume they contain a homogeneous distribution of electrons that are injected as a power law in energy and evolve by interacting with radiation fields, magnetic fields, and particles in the source and by escaping. This problem is particularly complicated if the radiation fields have higher energy density than the magnetic field and are sufficiently energetic that inverse Compton scattering is not limited to the Thomson regime. Aims: We present a simple, time-dependent, semi-analytical solution to the electron kinetic equation that treats both continuous and impulsive injection, cooling via synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation (taking Klein-Nishina effects into account), and energy-dependent particle escape. We used this solution to calculate the temporal evolution of the multi-wavelength spectrum of systems where energetic electrons cool in intense photon fields. Methods: The kinetic equation for an arbitrary, time-dependent source function is solved by the method of Laplace transformations. Using an approximate expression for the energy-loss rate that takes synchrotron and inverse Compton losses into account, including Klein-Nishina effects for scattering off an isotropic photon field with either a power-law or black-body distribution, we find explicit expressions for the cooling time and escape probability of individual electrons. This enables the full, time-dependent solution to be reduced to a single quadrature. From the electron distribution, we then construct the time-dependent, multi-wavelength emission spectrum. Results: We compare our solutions with several limiting cases and discuss the general appearance and temporal behaviour of spectral features (i.e., cooling breaks, bumps, etc.). As a specific example, we model the broad-band energy spectrum of the open stellar association Westerlund-2 at different times of its evolution, and compare it with observations. The model calculation matches the

  2. Trends in ectopic pregnancy rates following assisted reproductive technologies in the UK: a 12-year nationwide analysis including 160 000 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2016-02-01

    Have the advancement of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and changes in the incidence of specific causes of infertility-altered ectopic pregnancy (EP) rates following ART over time in the UK? EP rates in the UK following IVF/ICSI have progressively decreased, and this appears to be associated with a reduction in the incidence of tubal factor infertility and the increased use of both a lower number of embryos transferred and extended embryo culture. Historically, EP rates following ART are known to have increased over time. However, the impact of progress in ART procedures and changes in both policy and the incidence of specific causes of infertility on the overall EP rate in the UK has yet to be studied. A population-based retrospective analysis was carried out on all pregnancies following ART cycles carried out in the UK between 2000 and 2012 included in the anonymized database of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. Overall, 161 967 treatment cycles resulting in a pregnancy were included in the analysis. Among them, 8852 pregnancies occurred after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and 153 115 following IVF/ICSI. During this period of 12 years, ∼1.4% (n = 2244) of all pregnancies following ART were an EP. Crude EP rates were significantly higher after IVF/ICSI when compared with following IUI (1.4 versus 1.1%, P = 0.043). The incidence of EP decreased significantly over time for IVF/ICSI cycles [incidence rate ratios (IRR) 0.96 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-0.97], but not after IUI (IRR 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.91-1.03).Among pregnancies resulting from IVF/ICSI, multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the major risk factor for EP was the presence of tubal infertility [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.93-2.58), followed by the increased number of embryos transferred (aOR 1.29 for 2 versus 1 embryo transferred, 95% CI 1.11-1.49; aOR 1.69 for 3 or more versus 1 embryo transferred, 95% CI 1.35-2.11). The

  3. Development of non-thermal plasma jet and its potential application for color degradation of organic pollutant in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdo Kasih, Tota; Kharisma, Angel; Perdana, Muhammad Kevin; Murphiyanto, Richard Dimas Julian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the development of non-thermal plasma-based AOPs for color degradation in wastewater treatment. The plasma itself was generated by an in-house high voltage power supply (HVPS). Instead of gas-phase plasma system, we applied plasma jet system underwater during wastewater treatment without additional any chemicals (chemical-free processing). The method is thought to maximize the energy transfer and increase the efficient interaction between plasma and solution during the process. Our plasma jet system could proceed either by using helium (He), argon (Ar) and air as the medium in an open air atmosphere. Exploring the developed plasma to be applied in organic wastewater treatment, we demonstrated that the plasma jet could be generated underwater and yields in color degradation of methylene blue (MB) wastewater model. When using Ar gas as a medium, the color degradation of MB could be achieved within 90 minutes. Whereas, by using Ar with an admixing of oxygen (O2) gas, the similar result could be accomplished within 60 minutes. Additional O2 gas in the latter might produce more hydroxyl radicals and oxygen-based species which speed up the oxidative reaction with organic pollutants, and hence accelerate the process of color degradation.

  4. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma increased mRNA expression of growth factors in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) on the cellular activity of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) for possible non-surgical application of it during gingival wound healing. HGF cells were exposed with NTAPPJ for 1, 2, and 4 min and were investigated for cellular attachment, cell viability, morphology of attached cells, proliferation rate, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of various growth factors. Also, scavengers for chemicals produced by NTAPPJ were used to identify the chemical species responsible for the effects. There was no significant change in the number of HGF cells attached or their proliferation following NTAPPJ exposure. Also, high cell viability resulted from exposure of all of HGF cells to NTAPPJ for 1, 2, and 4 min. However, cells were more stretched while the mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly increased following NTAPPJ exposure. Additionally, the scavenger test showed that nitric oxide is likely to be the chemical responsible for an increase of cellular activity. The results demonstrated that the NTAPPJ increased mRNA expressions of growth factors in human gingival fibroblasts. Application of NTAPPJ would be useful in gingival wound healing in clinics though additional studies confirming the effects would be needed.

  5. Analgetic effects of non-thermal GSM-1900 radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the land snail Helix pomatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittby, Henrietta; Moghadam, Mehri Kaviani; Sun, Wenjun; Malmgren, Lars; Eberhardt, Jacob; Persson, Bertil R; Salford, Leif G

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether mobile phone radiation might affect snail nociception, employing radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) which, to our knowledge, have hitherto not been studied in a snail model. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has however been shown to significantly affect nociceptive responses. In the present study, we exposed 29 land snails of the strain Helix pomatia to global system for mobile communications (GSM) EMF at 1900 MHz at the non-thermal level 48 mW/kg for 1 hour each and 29 snails were sham controls. The experiments took place during the onset of summer, with all snails being well out of hibernation. Before and after GSM or sham exposure, the snails were subjected to thermal pain by being placed on a hot plate. The reaction time for retraction from the hot plate was measured by two blinded observers. Comparing the reaction pattern of each snail before and after exposure, the GSM-exposed snails were less sensitive to thermal pain as compared to the sham controls, indicating that RF exposure induces a significant analgesia (Mann-Whitney p < 0.001). This study might support earlier findings, describing beneficial effects of EMF exposure upon nociception.

  6. Room-temperature cataluminescence from CO oxidation in a non-thermal plasma-assisted catalysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei; Yang, Yuhan; Han, Jiaying; Ouyang, Jin; Na, Na

    2015-08-15

    Cataluminescence (CTL) is a kind of chemiluminescence during catalytic reaction on surface of catalysts under a heated condition. Due to the low catalytic reactivity of CO, normally low intensity of CTL is obtained during heterogeneously catalytic oxidation of CO under heated conditions (normally higher than 150°C), even catalyzed by precious-metal-based catalysts. Therefore, seeking enhanced CTL of CO at room temperature and using low-cost catalysts becomes significant. Here, CTL generated from CO oxidation was firstly reported at room temperature, which was carried out in a non-thermal plasma-assisted (NTPA) catalysis system. With air acting as discharge gas, carrier gas as well as oxidant, a Mn/SiO2 nanomaterials-based NTPA catalysis system was fabricated for CO catalytic oxidation at room temperature, whose temperature was much lower than previous CTL methods. Relatively high and selective CTL responses were acquired during CO oxidation on surface of Mn/SiO2 nanomaterials, whereas no significant CTL signal was recorded without plasma assistance or on other metals-doped SiO2 catalysts. Without any excitation light source or heating element, a low cost and simple CO sensor was fabricated by using common and easily synthesized catalysts. The present work has greatly simplified the constructions, and enlarged CTL applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Surface Treatments on Nylon 6,6 via Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma for Thermoplastic Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chin; Bujanda, Andres; Demaree, John; Robinette, Jason; Weerasooriya, Amanda; Flanagan, David; ARL Plasma Group, CCEP, WMRD Team

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to modify the properties of Nylon 6,6 surfaces for attaining improved interfacial adhesion to thermoplastic composites utilizing atmospheric non-thermal plasma treatments followed by silane treatments using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) in some cases. An L-shaped dielectric barrier discharge configuration was employed to expose nylon substrates to oxygen-containing gas plasmas such as He/O2 and He/H2O, respectively, at room temperature. The chemically-modified surface of the substrate after plasma exposure was immediately examined by static water contact angle wettability measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the surface hydrophilicity was substantially enhanced and the amount of surface oxygen was significantly increased after a three-minute plasma exposure due to the increased surface energy and additional O-H bonds. The enhancements on interfacial adhesion were evaluated with lap shear tests using three types of adhesives: EPON 825/D230, EPON 825/D2000 and sikaflex252, respectively. The results of tensile tests on the adhesive joints showed an almost ~ 300% increase in interfacial adhesive strength for EPON 825/D230 bonds after plasma treatments. Finite element modeling of adhesive joints for bond strength is underway to compare with experimental results and study the quantitative relations between the mechanical properties within the bond and at interfaces.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE NON THERMAL PLASMA-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AZO DYES SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tota Pirdo Kasih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the development of non thermal plasma-based AOPs for removal of organic contaminants in wastewater treatment. The plasma itself is generated based on point-to-point geometry under organic solution and can generate hydroxyl radicals, ozone, peroxide and other radicals as the basic species to destruct organic contaminants. Electrical diagnostic in the form of voltage and current waveform was investigated through the variation of time during the formation of plasma channeling. The evolutions of plasma channeling with its physical phenomena were also discussed. The relationship between the electrodes distance towards applied voltage to sustain the plasma were also studied. It was found that the mineralization have occurred during plasma treatment to transform the harmful functional group in organic dye solution into harmless species. Simultaneously, the decoloration process by using this submerged plasma treatment system is able to change the orange color of methyl orange solution into clearly transparent water in 30 minutes. The present findings may provide the plasma-based advanced oxidation process as a promising chemical-free and cost competitive AOP process application on specially the waste water treatment in textile industry.

  9. Position- and time-resolved Stark broadening diagnostics of a non-thermal laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Stark-broadened line shapes of silicon ions in a laser-induced plasma using a model constructed, without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), using a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The method is applied to temporally and spatially resolved measurements of Si 2+ and Si 3+ emissions from a transient plasma expanding into vacuum, produced by 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a Si (1 0 0) target. The best-fitting simulated line shapes and the corresponding electron number densities and temperatures (or equivalently, Druyvesteyn average energies) are compared with those returned assuming LTE (i.e. for a Maxwellian EEDF). Non-thermal behavior is found to dominate at all but the very earliest stages of expansion close to the target surface, consistent with McWhirter’s criterion for the establishment of LTE. The Druyvesteyn EEDF always yields an equivalent or better model of the experimental measurements, and the observed increasingly strong departure from the Maxwellian case with time and distance from the ablation event highlights the essential invalidity of the LTE assumption for moderate-power, nanosecond laser-induced plasma expanding in vacuo. (paper)

  10. Effects of Background Fluid on the Efficiency of Inactivating Yeast with Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young-Hyo; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jin-Young; Shim, Gun-Bo; Uhm, Han-Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media) on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose) were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH.) produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment) can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media. PMID:23799081

  11. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Activation of CO2in a Packed-Bed Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Danhua; Tu, Xin

    2017-11-17

    Direct conversion of CO 2 into CO and O 2 is performed in a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor at low temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The maximum CO 2 conversion of 22.6 % is achieved when BaTiO 3 pellets are fully packed into the discharge gap. The introduction of γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst into the BaTiO 3 packed DBD reactor increases both CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency of the plasma process. Packing γ-Al 2 O 3 or 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 upstream of the BaTiO 3 bed shows higher CO 2 conversion and energy efficiency compared with that of mid- or downstream packing modes because the reverse reaction of CO 2 conversion-the recombination of CO and O to form CO 2 -is more likely to occur in mid- and downstream modes. Compared with the γ-Al 2 O 3 support, the coupling of the DBD with the Ni catalyst shows a higher CO 2 conversion, which can be attributed to the presence of Ni active species on the catalyst surface. The argon plasma treatment of the reacted Ni catalyst provides extra evidence to confirm the role of Ni active species in the conversion of CO 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A new approach to surface activation of porous nanomaterials using non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriyasart, Farkfun; Ohtani, Masataka; Oh, Jun-Seok; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kobiro, Kazuya

    2017-06-20

    Non-thermal helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment is applied to the surface activation of porous TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies. Treatment conditions such as the working distance of the plasma discharge, helium gas flow rate, and treatment time are optimized for effective removal of contaminants from the assembly surface. Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) is applied to detect trace amounts of contaminants on assembly surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirm that the nanoparticle assemblies retain their original perfect spherical structures as well as their ultra-fine convex-concave nano-surfaces even after the plasma jet treatment. N 2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show no significant changes in their BET specific surface areas and crystal structures, respectively. The plasma jet-treated TiO 2 nanoparticle assemblies show a 3.8 fold improvement in their reaction rate constants for methylene blue degradation and a 2 fold enhancement of their photocurrents under UV irradiation when compared with untreated TiO 2 .

  13. Influence of electrical parameters on H2O2 generation in DBD non-thermal reactor with water mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Xiao, Zehua; Hao, Chunjing; Qiu, Jian; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is introduced to generate H2O2 by non-thermal plasma with a mixture of oxygen and water mist produced by an ultrasonic atomizer. The results of our experiment show that the energy yield and concentration of the generated H2O2 in the pulsed discharge are much higher than that in AC discharge, due to its high energy efficiency and low heating effect. Micron-sized liquid droplets produced by an ultrasonic atomizer in water mist have large specific surface area, which greatly reduces mass transfer resistance between hydroxyl radicals and water liquids, leading to higher energy yield and H2O2 concentration than in our previous research. The influence of applied voltage, discharge frequency, and environmental temperature on the generated H2O2 is discussed in detail from the viewpoint of the DBD mechanism. The H2O2 concentration of 30 mg l-1, with the energy yield of 2 g kW-1h-1 is obtained by pulsed discharge in our research.

  14. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, K N; Ma, Jie; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Fangjian; Cai, Zhiming; Han, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP selectively induces apoptosis in some types of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we further investigated possible molecular mechanisms for NTP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The results showed that NTP exposure significantly inhibited the growth and viability of HeLa cells. Morphological observation and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NTP exposure induced HeLa cell apoptosis. NTP exposure also activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, NTP exposure suppressed Bcl-2 expression, enhanced Bax expression and translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c. Further studies showed that NTP treatment led to ROS generation, whereas blockade of ROS generation by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavengers) significantly prevented NTP-induced mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptosis of HeLa cells via suppressing Bax translocation, cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our results indicated that NTP exposure induced mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis of HeLa cells was activated by ROS generation. These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Promotion of adhesive penetration and resin bond strength to dentin using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Chang-Keun; Oh, Kyu-Hwan; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NT-APPs) have been shown to improve the bond strength of resin composites to demineralized dentin surfaces. Based on a wet-bonding philosophy, it is believed that a rewetting procedure is necessary after treatment with NT-APP because of its air-drying effect. This study investigated the effect of 'plasma-drying' on the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin by comparison with the wet-bonding technique. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were acid-etched and divided into four groups according to the adhesion procedure: wet bonding, plasma-drying, plasma-drying/rewetting, and dry bonding. In plasma treatment groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a plasma plume generated using a pencil-type low-power plasma torch. After the adhesion procedures, resin composite/dentin-bonded specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond-strength test. The hybrid layer formation was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The plasma-drying group presented significantly higher bond strength than the wet-bonding and dry-bonding groups. Micro-Raman spectral analysis indicated that plasma-drying improved the penetration and polymerization efficacy of the adhesive. Plasma-drying could be a promising method to control the moisture of demineralized dentin surfaces and improve the penetration of adhesive and the mechanical property of the adhesive/dentin interface. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. The NuSTAR view of the non-thermal emission from PSR J0437-4715

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, S.; Kaspi, V M; Archibald, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    STAR background dominates. We measure a photon index Gamma = 1.50 +/- 0.25 (90 per cent confidence) for the power-law fit to the non-thermal emission. It had been shown that spectral models with two or three thermal components fit the XMM-Newton spectrum of PSR J0437-4715, depending on the slope of the power-law...... component, and the amount of absorption of soft X-rays. The new constraint on the high-energy emission provided by NuSTAR removes ambiguities regarding the thermal components of the emission below 3 keV. We performed a simultaneous spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR data to confirm that three...... thermal components and a power law are required to fit the 0.3-20 keV emission of PSR J0437-4715. Adding a ROSAT-PSPC spectrum further confirmed this result and allowed us to better constrain the temperatures of the three thermal components. A phase-resolved analysis of the NuSTAR data revealed...

  17. NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NORTHWESTERN RIM OF THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G266.2-1.2 (RX J0852.0-4622)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Agrawal, Rashika; Allen, Glenn E.; Filipovic, Miroslav D.; De Horta, Ain; Stupar, Milorad

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of two observations (with a total integration time of 73280 s) made of the X-ray-luminous northwestern rim complex of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G266.2-1.2 (RX J0852.0-4622) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. G266.2-1.2 is a member of a class of Galactic SNRs which feature X-ray spectra dominated by non-thermal emission: in the cases of these SNRs, the emission is believed to have a synchrotron origin and studies of the X-ray spectra of these SNRs can lend insight into how SNRs accelerate cosmic-ray particles. The Chandra observations have clearly revealed fine structure in this rim complex (including a remarkably well-defined leading shock) and the spectra of these features are dominated by non-thermal emission. We have measured the length scales of the upstream structures at eight positions along the rim and derive lengths of 0.02-0.08 pc (assuming a distance of 750 pc to G266.2-1.2). We have also extracted spectra from seven regions in the rim complex (as sampled by the ACIS-S2, -S3, and -S4 chips) and fit these spectra with such models as a simple power law as well as the synchrotron models SRCUT and SRESC. We have constrained our fits to the latter two models using estimates for the flux densities of these filaments at 1 GHz as determined from radio observations of this rim complex made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Statistically acceptable fits to all seven regions are derived using each model: differences in the fit parameters (such as photon index and cutoff frequency) are seen in different regions, which may indicate variations in shock conditions and the maximum energies of the cosmic-ray electrons accelerated at each region. Finally, we estimate the maximum energy of cosmic-ray electrons accelerated along this rim complex to be approximately 40 TeV (corresponding to one of the regions of the leading shock structure assuming a magnetic field strength of 10 μG). We

  18. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  19. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  20. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  1. Effective degradation of organic water pollutants by atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch and analysis of degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Avinash S; More, Supriya E; Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Satpute, Shruti; Ahmad, Absar; Bhoraskar, Sudha V; Mathe, Vikas L

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports the use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch as a catalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants dissolved in water. A flow of He mixed with air was used to produce the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), at the tip of the torch, using pulsed electric excitation at 12 kV. The torch, operated at a power of 750 mW/mm 2 , was seen to completely degrade the aqueous solutions of the pollutants namely methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine-B (RB), at around 10 -4  M concentrations, the concentration of polluants is one order higher than of routinely used heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, within 10 min of irradiation time at room temperature. UV Visible spectra of the organic dye molecules, monitored after different intervals of plasma-irradiation, ranging between 1 and 10 min, have been used as tools to quantify their sequential degradation. Further, instead of using He, only air was used to form plasma plume and used for degradation of organic dye which follow similar trend as that of He plasma. Further, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) technique has been used to understand degradation pathway of methylene blue (MB) as a representative case. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements indicates significant decrease in its content as a function of duration of plasma exposure onto methylene blue as a representative case. Toxicity studies were carried out onto Gram negative Escherichia coli. This indicated that methylene blue, without plasma treatment, shows growth inhibition, whereas with plasma treatment no inhibition was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye Yeon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Yu-Ri; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ), elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air), to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in cellular activity

  3. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  4. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Chahal, M. S.; Bowen, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  5. Effect of a non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure, plasma brush on conversion of model self-etch adhesive formulations compared to conventional photo-polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Xiaomei; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of non-thermal, atmospheric plasmas for inducing polymerization of model dental self-etch adhesives. The monomer mixtures used were bis-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), with mass ratios of 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70. Water was added to the above formulations: 10-30wt%. These monomer/water mixtures were treated steadily for 40s under a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 32 to 35°C. For comparison, photo-initiators were added to the above formulations for photo-polymerization studies, which were light-cured for 40s. The degree of conversion (DC) of both the plasma- and light-cured samples was measured using FTIR spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance attachment. The non-thermal plasma brush was effective in inducing polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. The presence of water did not negatively affect the DC of plasma-cured samples. Indeed, DC values slightly increased, with increasing water content in adhesives: from 58.3% to 68.7% when the water content increased from 10% to 30% in the adhesives with a 50/50 (2MP/HEMA) mass ratio. Conversion values of the plasma-cured groups were higher than those of light-cured samples with the same mass ratio and water content. Spectral differences between the plasma- and light-cured groups indicate subtle structural distinctions in the resultant polymer networks. This research if the first to demonstrate that the non-thermal plasma brush induces polymerization of model adhesives under clinical settings by direct/indirect energy transfer. This device shows promise for polymerization of dental composite restorations having enhanced properties and performance. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure, plasma brush on conversion of model self-etch adhesive formulations compared to conventional photo-polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Xiaomei; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of non-thermal, atmospheric plasmas for inducing polymerization of model dental self-etch adhesives. Methods The monomer mixtures used were bis-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), with mass ratios of 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70. Water was added to the above formulations: 10–30 wt%. These monomer/water mixtures were treated steadily for 40 s under a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 32° to 35°C. For comparison, photo-initiators were added to the above formulations for photo-polymerization studies, which were light-cured for 40 s. The degree of conversion (DC) of both the plasma- and light-cured samples was measured using FTIR spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance attachment. Results The non-thermal plasma brush was effective in inducing polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. The presence of water did not negatively affect the DC of plasma-cured samples. Indeed, DC values slightly increased, with increasing water content in adhesives: from 58.3% to 68.7% when the water content increased from 10% to 30% in the adhesives with a 50/50 (2MP/HEMA) mass ratio. Conversion values of the plasma-cured groups were higher than those of light-cured samples with the same mass ratio and water content. Spectral differences between the plasma- and light-cured groups indicate subtle structural distinctions in the resultant polymer networks. Significance This research if the first to demonstrate that the non-thermal plasma brush induces polymerization of model adhesives under clinical settings by direct/indirect energy transfer. This device shows promise for polymerization of dental composite restorations having enhanced properties and performance. PMID:23018084

  7. Modeling tumor growth and irradiation response in vitro--a combination of high-performance computing and web-based technologies including VRML visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, G S; Zacharaki, E I; Makropoulou, M I; Mouravliansky, N A; Marsh, A; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2001-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation model of in vitro tumor growth and response to fractionated radiotherapeutic schemes is presented in this paper. The paper aims at both the optimization of radiotherapy and the provision of insight into the biological mechanisms involved in tumor development. The basics of the modeling philosophy of Duechting have been adopted and substantially extended. The main processes taken into account by the model are the transitions between the cell cycle phases, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and the cell survival probabilities following irradiation. Specific algorithms satisfactorily describing tumor expansion and shrinkage have been applied, whereas a novel approach to the modeling of the tumor response to irradiation has been proposed and implemented. High-performance computing systems in conjunction with Web technologies have coped with the particularly high computer memory and processing demands. A visualization system based on the MATLAB software package and the virtual-reality modeling language has been employed. Its utilization has led to a spectacular representation of both the external surface and the internal structure of the developing tumor. The simulation model has been applied to the special case of small cell lung carcinoma in vitro irradiated according to both the standard and accelerated fractionation schemes. A good qualitative agreement with laboratory experience has been observed in all cases. Accordingly, the hypothesis that advanced simulation models for the in silico testing of tumor irradiation schemes could substantially enhance the radiotherapy optimization process is further strengthened. Currently, our group is investigating extensions of the presented algorithms so that efficient descriptions of the corresponding clinical (in vivo) cases are achieved.

  8. THE LOCATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY IN THE EARLY PHASES OF LARGE FLARES-REVEALING PRE-ERUPTION FLUX ROPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. L. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Cheung, Mark C. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Building/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Hara, Hirohisa, E-mail: l.harra@ucl.ac.uk [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    Non-thermal velocity measurements of the solar atmosphere, particularly from UV and X-ray emission lines have demonstrated over the decades that this parameter is important in understanding the triggering of solar flares. Enhancements have often been observed before intensity enhancements are seen. However, until the launch of Hinode, it has been difficult to determine the spatial location of the enhancements to better understand the source region. The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer has the spectral and spatial resolution to allow us to probe the early stages of flares in detail. We analyze four events, all of which are GOES M- or X-classification flares, and all are located toward the limb for ease of flare geometry interpretation. Three of the flares were eruptive and one was confined. In all events, pre-flare enhancement in non-thermal velocity at the base of the active region and its surroundings has been found. These enhancements seem to be consistent with the footpoints of the dimming regions, and hence may be highlighting the activation of a coronal flux rope for the three eruptive events. In addition, pre-flare enhancements in non-thermal velocity were found above the looptops for the three eruptive events.

  9. Influence of non-thermal plasma on structural and electrical properties of globular and nanostructured conductive polymer polypyrrole in water suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galář, Pavel; Khun, Josef; Kopecký, Dušan; Scholtz, Vladimír; Trchová, Miroslava; Fučíková, Anna; Jirešová, Jana; Fišer, Ladislav

    2017-11-08

    Non-thermal plasma has proved its benefits in medicine, plasma assisted polymerization, food industry and many other fields. Even though, the ability of non-thermal plasma to modify surface properties of various materials is generally known, only limited attention has been given to exploitations of this treatment on conductive polymers. Here, we show study of non-thermal plasma treatment on properties of globular and nanostructured polypyrrole in the distilled water. We observe that plasma presence over the suspension level doesn't change morphology of the polymer (shape), but significantly influences its elemental composition and physical properties. After 60 min of treatment, the relative concentration of chloride counter ions decreased approximately 3 and 4 times for nanostructured and globular form, respectively and concentration of oxygen increased approximately 3 times for both forms. Simultaneously, conductivity decrease (14 times for globular and 2 times for nanostructured one) and changes in zeta potential characteristics of both samples were observed. The modification evolution was dominated by multi-exponential function with time constants having values approximately 1 and 10 min for both samples. It is expected that these time constants are related to two modification processes connected to direct presence of the spark and to long-lived species generated by the plasma.

  10. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.

  11. Detection of non-thermal emission from the massive protostellar jet HH80-81 at low radio frequencies using GMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, S.; Veena, V. S.; Mandal, S.; Tej, A.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Low radio frequencies are favourable for the identification of emission from non-thermal processes such as synchrotron emission. The massive protostellar jet associated with IRAS 18162-2048 (also known as the HH80-81 system) has been imaged at low radio frequencies: 325, 610 and 1300 MHz, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India. This is the first instance of detection of non-thermal emission from a massive protostellar jet at such low radio frequencies. The central region displays an elongated structure characteristic of the jet. In addition, the associated Herbig-Haro objects such as HH80, HH81, HH80N, and other condensations along the inner regions of the jet exhibit negative spectral indices. The spectral indices of most condensations are ˜-0.7, steeper than the value of -0.3 determined earlier using high-frequency measurements. The magnetic field values derived using radio flux densities in this work, under the assumption of equipartition near minimum energy condition, lie in the range 116-180 μG. We probe into the hard X-ray nature of a source that has been attributed to HH80, in an attempt to reconcile the non-thermal characteristics of radio and X-ray measurements. The flux densities of condensations at 610 MHz, measured nearly 11 yr apart, display variability that could be ascribed to the cooling of condensations, and emphasize the importance of coeval or nearly coeval measurements for estimation of spectral indices.

  12. Treatment of methyl orange by nitrogen non-thermal plasma in a corona reactor: The role of reactive nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadorin, Bruno Mena, E-mail: brunomenacadorin@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Tralli, Vitor Douglas [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Ceriani, Elisa [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy); Benetoli, Luís Otávio de Brito [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Marotta, Ester, E-mail: ester.marotta@unipd.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy); Ceretta, Claudio [Department of Industrial Engineering, Università di Padova (Italy); Debacher, Nito Angelo [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Paradisi, Cristina [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Nitration of methyl orange is one of the main processes in treatment with N{sub 2}-plasma. • MS/MS analysis shows preferred nitration of methyl orange in ortho position. • N{sub 2} plasma, N{sub 2}-PAW, reaction with NO{sub 2}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 2 give the same products. - Abstract: Methyl orange (MO) azo dye served as model organic pollutant to investigate the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced water treatments. The results of experiments in which MO aqueous solutions were directly exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP are compared with those of control experiments in which MO was allowed to react with nitrite, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide, which are species formed in water exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP. Treatment of MO was also performed in PAW, Plasma Activated Water, that is water previously exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP. Both direct N{sub 2}-NTP and N{sub 2}-PAW treatments induced the rapid decay of MO. No appreciable reaction was instead observed when MO was treated with NO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} either under acidic or neutral pH. In contrast, in acidic solutions MO decayed rapidly when treated with NO{sub 2}{sup −} and with a combination of NO{sub 2}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thorough product analysis was carried out by HPLC coupled with UV–vis and ESI–MS/MS detectors. In all experiments in which MO reaction was observed, the major primary product was a derivative nitro-substituted at the ortho position with respect to the N,N-dimethylamino group of MO. The reactions of RNS are discussed and a mechanism for the observed nitration products is proposed.

  13. Proposed Use of Zero Bias Diode Arrays as Thermal Electric Noise Rectifiers and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2009-03-01

    cells are also considered for possible higher frequency ZPE transduction. Diode arrays of self-assembled molecular rectifiers or preferably, nano-sized cylindrical diodes are shown to reasonably provide for rectification of electron fluctuations from thermal and non-thermal ZPE sources to create an alternative energy DC electrical generator in the picowatt per diode range.

  14. The nonthermal plasma technologies for strategy of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urashima, K.

    2009-01-01

    Japan was mandated to achieve under the Kyoto Protocol is a 6% reduction compared with 1990 in the period from 2008 to 2012. All countries, even developing countries, should be included and discussed in any plan. It must be flexible and there must be diversity. A high value is placed on making the best use of technology for conservation of energy etc., and to unite environmental preservation and economic development. Plasma processes are carried out in either the high-temperature environment of transferred and non-transferred plasmas or at pressures low enough to give large active volumes with higher electron and lower gas temperature glow discharge plasmas. Several eligible non-thermal plasma technologies are already finished for small scale pilot test, and are already in the stage of commercialization. (author)

  15. Development of Scaling Algorithms and Economic Evaluation for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors - Adsorbant/Catalyzer Hybrid System for Control of NOx Released During Army and Related U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urashima, K

    1998-01-01

    Computer code (SUENTP-J) to predict scale-up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower...

  16. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  17. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  18. Economic assessment of proposed electric-discharge non-thermal plasma field-pilot demonstration units for NO{sub x} removal in jet-engine exhaust: White paper for SERDP Project CP-1038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chang, J.S.; Urashima, Kuniko; Kim, S.J. [McMaster Univ. (Canada); Miziolek, A.W. [Army Research Lab. (United States)

    1999-01-05

    This project is currently evaluating non-thermal plasma (NTP) technologies for treating jet-engine exhaust arising from DoD test facilities. In the past, some economic analyses for NTP de-NO{sub x} have shown that it is not economical, compared to other techniques. The main reasons for this conclusion was that the previous analyses examined stand-alone, or less mature electrical-discharge reactors, or electron-beam based systems that incorporated both chemical additives and quite expensive electron accelerators. Also, in contrast to more recent developments, both the discharge and electron-beam techniques of the past did not extensively incorporate methods to increase the yields of active NO{sub x}-decomposing species. In an earlier White paper and a Project Report, the authors have analyzed the costs of more mature NTP systems incorporating chemical additives and new-concept NTP technologies for jet-engine emissions control and have shown lower exhaust-gas treatment costs for NTP systems compared to baseline standard de-NO{sub x} technologies like Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) combined with a wet scrubber or SCR combined with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In this paper, the authors will examine their most-promising candidate NTP reactor systems for a field-pilot demonstration on jet-engine exhaust and discuss the economic analyses for these hybrid units, which show that the economics of the proposed candidate systems are more favorable than earlier NTP reactor economic-assessment conclusions for NO{sub x} removal.

  19. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  20. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  1. Multiple Non-Thermal Reaction Steps for the Photooxidation CO to CO2 on Reduced TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2013-02-07

    The photooxidation of CO on reduced, rutile TiO2(110) was studied on a millisecond timescale. For a saturation coverage of chemisorbed O2 (0sat) and for half that coverage, the CO2 photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) signal is initially zero, increases to a maximum after several tens of milliseconds, and then decreases at longer times. The CO2 PSD signal increases ~5 times more quickly for 0.50sat. The initial rate of increase of the CO2 PSD signal is proportional to the flux of UV photons. The intermediate species involved in the reactions is stable for at least 100 s at 30 K. These results show that two or more non-thermal reaction steps are required to photooxidize CO adsorbed on TiO2(110). In contrast, previous models had suggested that CO photooxidation required only one non-thermal reaction. The likely initial and final charge states of the system suggest that an electron-mediated reaction and a hole-mediated reaction are needed for the complete photooxidation reaction.

  2. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardahl, Christopher L [Richland, WA; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou [West Richland, WA; Chanda, Ashok [Peoria, IL; Habeger, Craig F [West Richland, WA; Koshkarian, Kent A [Peoria, IL; Park, Paul W [Peoria, IL

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  3. Innovative non-thermal plasma disinfection process inside sealed bags: Assessment of bactericidal and sporicidal effectiveness in regard to current sterilization norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier Ben Belgacem

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed a device capable to generate a non-thermal plasma discharge inside a sealed bag. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the oxygen, nitrogen and argon plasma sterilization on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores according to the NF EN 556 Norm. Moreover the bag integrity which is a critical key to maintain the sterile state of items after the end of the process was verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS analyses. After plasma treatments, the bacterial counting showed a 6 log reduction of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus in 45 min and 120 min respectively whatever the gas used and a 4 log reduction of B. subtilis spores in 120 min with only oxygen plasma. These results were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations showing altered bacteria or spores and numerous debris. Taking into account the studied microorganisms, the oxygen plasma treatment showed the highest efficiency. FTIR and XPS analyses showed that this treatment induced no significant modification of the bags. To conclude this non-thermal plasma sterilization technique could be an opportunity to sterilize heat and chemical-sensitive medical devices and to preserve their sterile state after the end of the process.

  4. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds after non-thermal processing of an exotic fruit juice blend sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buniowska, Magdalena; Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Frigola, Ana; Esteve, Maria J

    2017-04-15

    A comparative study of the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in a fruit juice-Stevia rebaudiana mixture processed by pulsed electric fields (PEF), high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and ultrasound (USN) technology at two equivalent energy inputs (32-256kJ/kg) was made using an in vitro model. Ascorbic acid was not detected following intestinal digestion, while HVED, PEF and USN treatments increased total carotenoid bioaccessibility. HVED at an energy input of 32kJ/kg improved bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (34.2%), anthocyanins (31.0%) and antioxidant capacity (35.8%, 29.1%, 31.9%, for TEAC, ORAC and DPPH assay, respectively) compared to untreated sample. This was also observed for PEF treated samples at an energy input of 256kJ/kg (37.0%, 15.6%, 29.4%, 26.5%, 23.5% for phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity using TEAC, ORAC and DPPH method, respectively). Consequently, pulsed electric technologies (HVED and PEF) show good prospects for enhanced bioaccessibility of compounds with putative health benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Search for Non-thermal Dark Matter in Monojet Events in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undleeb, Sonaina [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents a search for dark matter in events with one or more jets and large missing transverse energy using proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data was collected in 2016 by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 $fb^{-1}$. The results are interpreted in terms of Light Non-thermal dark matter model which explains presence of dark matter as well as baryon asymmetry in the universe. Model independent limit on narrow resonance is also obtained for monojet dominant coupling parameter space. There is no evidence for an excess of events above the background processes in the signal region, therefore cross section limits are set for different mediator masses.

  6. The influence of non thermal coherent EMR with low intensity and extremely high frequency on total activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, A.V.; Shahinyan, M.A.; Khachatryan, A.V.; Vardevanyan, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with low intensity and extremely high frequency on intensity of wheat developing germ metabolism has been investigated. Particularly, total activity and isoenzymatic composition of peroxidase of germ cells have been determined during their growth. The role of water in formation of organism response reaction to the external physical field effect has also been investigated. It has been shown, that water appears to be a primary element of extremely high frequency EMR effect on bio system. Extremely high frequency EMR irradiation of germinating seeds and the cultivation of dry seeds and their germs by irradiated water stimulate peroxidase synthesis in germ cells. The redistribution of quantitative composition of peroxidase molecular forms takes place in germ cells effected by EMR with extremely high frequency and low intensity

  7. Detection of reactive oxygen species supplied into the water bottom by atmospheric non-thermal plasma jet using iodine-starch reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Eto, Wataru; Hamada, Masaki; Wakabayashi, Yasutaka; Abe, Yasufumi; Kihara, Keisuke

    2015-08-01

    The supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a target through liquid by plasma jet should be clarified. In this study, a non-thermal plasma jet was irradiated onto the water surface in atmospheric air, and the ROS reaching the water bottom were detected using a gel reagent with iodine-starch reactions. As a result, two-dimensional ROS distributions were visually obtained at the bottom, and the relative ROS concentration was obtained by absorbance measurement. Oxygen addition to helium led to a higher ROS supply into the bottom than helium plasma jet and ozone exposure. A doughnut-shaped ROS distribution was clearly observed at the bottom under certain conditions. The ROS concentration at the bottom significantly depended on irradiation distance and water layer thickness. It is observed from the results obtained using a liquid reagent that the plasma-jet-induced flow and the mixing effect play an important role in ROS supply into the bottom.

  8. Application of Response Surface Methodology for characterization of ozone production from Multi-Cylinder Reactor in non-thermal plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian See, Tan; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Mook Tzeng, Lim

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a reactant which can be applied for various environmental treatment processes. It can be generated via atmospheric air non-thermal plasmas when sufficient voltages are applied through a combination of electrodes and dielectric materials. In this study, the concentration of ozone generated via two different configurations of multi-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor (3 x 40 mm and 10 x 10 mm) was investigated. The influence of the voltage and the duty cycle to the concentration of ozone generated by each configuration was analysed using response surface methodology. Voltage was identified as significant factor to the ozone production process. However, the regressed model was biased towards one of the configuration, leaving the predicted results of another configuration to be out of range.

  9. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n E-18008 Granada (Spain); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Toledo 2801 West Bancroft Street Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Concepción Concepción (Chile); Furlan, Elise [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland [European Space Astronomy Center, ESA P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory Garching bei München (Germany); Watson, Dan M., E-mail: osorio@iaa.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s{sup −1}. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  10. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s −1 . The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s −1 , similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  11. Preferential induction of apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells as compared with normal keratinocytes using a non-thermal plasma torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Shoshanna N; Zirnheld, Jennifer; Bagati, Archis; DiSanto, Thomas M; Des Soye, Benjamin; Wawrzyniak, Joseph A; Etemadi, Kasra; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Berezney, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Selective induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells is optimal for therapeutic development. To achieve this goal, a non-thermal helium plasma torch was modified for use on cultured cells in a temperature-controlled environment. Melanoma cells were targeted with this torch (1) in parallel cultures with keratinocytes, (2) in co-culture with keratinocytes and (3) in a soft agar matrix. Melanoma cells displayed high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species generated by the torch and showed a 6-fold increase in cell death compared with keratinocytes. The extent of cell death was compared between melanoma cells and normal human keratinocytes in both short-term (5 min) co-culture experiments and longer assessments of apoptotic cell death (18-24 h). Following a 10 sec plasma exposure there was a 4.9-fold increase in the cell death of melanoma vs. keratinocytes as measured after 24 h at the target site of the plasma beam. When the treatment time was increased to 30 sec, a 98% cell death was reported for melanoma cells, which was 6-fold greater than the extent of cell death in keratinocytes. Our observations further indicate that this preferential cell death is largely due to apoptosis.. In addition, we report that this non-thermal plasma torch kills melanoma cells growing in soft agar, suggesting that the plasma torch is capable of inducing melanoma cell death in 3D settings. We demonstrate that the presence of gap junctions may increase the area of cell death, likely due to the "bystander effect" of passing apoptotic signals between cells. Our findings provide a basis for further development of this non-invasive plasma torch as a potential treatment for melanoma.

  12. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; Gómez, José F.; González-García, Beatriz; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.; Loinard, Laurent; Vavrek, Roland; Carrasco-González, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multi-epoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free-free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ˜7500-12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ˜100 km s-1. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ˜30 km s-1, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  13. Effect of Non-Thermal Argon Plasma on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Adhesive System to NaOCl-Treated Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, João Luiz Bittencourt de; Prado, Maíra; Simão, Renata Antoun; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Dias, Katia Regina Hostilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been showing a decrease of bond strength in dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-thermal argon plasma on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to dentin exposed to NaOCl. Thirty-two flat dentin surfaces of bovine incisors were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 30 min to simulate the irrigation step during endodontic treatment. The specimens were divided into four groups (n=8), according to the surface treatment: Control (without plasma treatment), AR15 (argon plasma for 15 s), AR30 (argon plasma for 30 s) and AR45 (argon plasma for 45 s). For microtensile bond strength test, 5 specimens were used per group. In each group, the specimens were hybridized with a self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) and resin composite buildups were constructed. After 48 h of water storage, specimens were sectioned into sticks (5 per tooth, 25 per group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) until failure, evaluating failure mode. Three specimens per group were analyzed under FTIR spectroscopy to verify the chemical modifications produced in dentin. μTBS data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane tests (p<0.05). AR30 showed the highest μTBS (20.86±9.0). AR15 (13.81±6.4) and AR45 (11.51±6.8) were statistically similar to control (13.67±8.1). FTIR spectroscopy showed that argon plasma treatment produced chemical modifications in dentin. In conclusion, non-thermal argon plasma treatment for 30 s produced chemical changes in dentin and improved the μTBs of Clearfil SE Bond to NaOCl-treated dentin.

  14. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each

  15. A comparison of the radial distribution of molecular gas and non-thermal radio continuum in spiral disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Young, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The present study includes 65 spiral galaxies selected from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey for which the major axis distributions of CO emission and 1.49 GHz radio continuum emission are well determined. The radial distribution of the CO emission has been measured with the FCRAO at positions along the major axis that are spaced by one half power beam width (HPBW) (45 seconds). The radial profile of the 1.49 GHz radio continuum emission was constructed by determining the radio emission at the location of the CO measurements from the 1.49 GHz maps of Condon (1987). Large, greater than a factor of ten, radially decreasing gradients in the star formation efficiency are observed for a small percentage, approx. 10 percent, of the spirals in this sample. The majority of spirals, however, are associated with small gradients in the star formation efficiency that do not systematically increase or decrease with radius. That the star formation efficiency does not systematically decrease with radius tends to argue against a global dynamical mechanism, such as a spiral density wave, for being the dominant mechanism triggering disk star formation for the majority of spirals in this sample. The results tend to support the view that the star formation in spiral disks is dominated by a local process that depends more on the molecular cloud properties than the dynamical structure of a galaxy.

  16. Use of non-thermal atmospheric plasmas to reduce the viability of Bacillus subtilis on spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Trigwell, Steven; Calle, Carlos I.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow-discharge (APGD) plasmas have been proposed for sterilizing spacecraft surfaces prior to launch. The advantages of APGD plasmas for the sterilization of spacecraft surfaces include low temperatures at treatment sites, rapid inactivation kinetics of exposed microbial cells, physical degradation and removal of microbial cells, physical removal of organic biosignature molecules, and short exposure times for the materials. However, few studies have tested APGD plasmas on spacecraft materials for their effectiveness in both sterilizing surfaces and removal of microbial cells or spores. A helium (He)+oxygen (O2) APGD plasma was used to expose six spacecraft materials (aluminum 6061, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate, Saf-T-Vu, Rastex, and Herculite 20) doped with spores of the common spacecraft contaminant, Bacillus subtilis, for periods of time up to 6 min. Results indicated that greater than six orders of magnitude reductions in viability were observed for B. subtilis spores in as short of time as 40 s exposure to the APGD plasmas. Spacecraft materials were not affected by exposures to the APGD plasmas. However, Saf-T-Vu was the only material in which spores of B. subtilis adhered more aggressively to plasma-treated coupons when compared to non-plasma treated coupons; all other materials exhibited no significant differences between plasma and non-plasma treated coupons. In addition, spores of B. subtilis were physically degraded by exposures to the plasmas beginning at the terminal ends of spores, which appeared to be ruptured after only 30 s. After 300 s, most bacteria were removed from aluminium coupons, and only subtle residues of bacterial secretions or biofilms remained. Results support the conclusion that APGD plasmas can be used as a prelaunch cleaning and sterilization treatment on spacecraft materials provided that the biocidal and cleaning times are shorter than those required to alter surface properties of materials.

  17. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  18. Development of ultra-hydrophilic and non-cytotoxic dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2013-05-01

    Dental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials are widely used for the replication of intraoral tissue where hydrophilicity is important as the oral tissues are surrounded by wet saliva. Recent attempts to improve the wettability of VPS using a ‘surfactant’, however, have resulted in a high level of cytotoxicity. Hence, in this study, application of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) on VPS and its effects in terms of both hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The results showed that the application of the plasma jet resulted in significant improvement of hydrophilicity of VPS that had no surfactant, whereby the results were similar to commercially available products with the surfactant. The surface chemical analysis results indicated that this was due to the oxidation and decreased amount of hydrocarbon on the surface following NTAPPJ exposure. Meanwhile, an NTAPPJ-treated sample was shown to be non-cytotoxic. Therefore, the use of dental VPS impression materials without any surfactant, in conjunction with an NTAPPJ treatment, is a promising method for ultra-hydrophilic but yet non-cytotoxic materials.

  19. Efficient degradation of chlorobenzene in a non-thermal plasma catalytic reactor supported on CeO2/HZSM-5 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liying; Nie, Guofeng; Zhu, Runye; Wang, Jiade; Chen, Jianmeng; Mao, Yubo; Cheng, Zhuowei; Anderson, Willam A

    2017-05-01

    Chlorobenzene removal was investigated in a non-thermal plasma reactor using CeO 2 /HZSM-5 catalysts. The performance of catalysts was evaluated in terms of removal and energy efficiency. The decomposition products of chlorobenzene were analyzed. The results show that CeO 2 /HZSM-5 exhibited a good catalytic activity, which resulted in enhancements of chlorobenzene removal, energy efficiency, and the formation of lower amounts of by-products. With regards to CO 2 selectivity, the presence of catalysts favors the oxidation of by-products, leading to a higher CO 2 selectivity. With respect to ozone, which is considered as an unavoidable by-product in air plasma reactors, a noticeable decrease in its concentration was observed in the presence of catalysts. Furthermore, the stability of the catalyst was investigated by analyzing the evolution of conversion in time. The experiment results indicated that CeO 2 /HZSM-5 catalysts have excellent stability: chlorobenzene conversion only decreased from 78% to 60% after 75hr, which means that the CeO 2 /HZSM-5 suffered a slight deactivation. Some organic compounds and chlorinated intermediates were adsorbed or deposited on the catalysts surface as shown by the results of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the catalyst before and after the reaction, revealing the cause of catalyst deactivation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. First hard X-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the Arches cluster: morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-01-01

    and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity......The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe Ku line emission at 6.4 keV from material...... that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology...

  1. Evolution of the oxidative stability, bio-active compounds and color characteristics of non-thermally treated vegetable pâtés during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmai, Lucrezia; Caponio, Francesco; Pasqualone, Antonella; Paradiso, Vito M; Summo, Carmine

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of frozen storage on processed vegetables. The present study evaluates its effects on the quality characteristics of non-thermally stabilized tomato-based pâtés compared to thermally stabilized pâtés stored at room temperature. Two different types of tomato-based pâtés were analyzed in terms of bio-active compounds, as well as colorimetric parameters and oxidative degradation just after processing and also after 4, 8 and 12 months of storage. Thermal treatment mainly affected the colorimetric parameters and oxidative degradation, whereas its effects on bio-active compounds became more visible and significant during storage. Freezing allowed in both pâtés to maintain significantly higher a* values than storage at room temperature, whereas brightness, which is linked to residual activities of different enzymes, varied during storage according to the ingredient formulation. During storage, oxidative degradation of the lipid fraction was more marked in the pâté containing a lower quality oil, and less marked when the absence of thermal treatment was combined with frozen storage. Freezing could represent a viable alternative way to preserve high-quality products over time. An optimal combination of blanching, freezing rate, storage and thawing conditions will provide the best results in terms of the quality/price ratio. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Frequency Dependent Non- Thermal Effects of Oscillating Electric Fields in the Microwave Region on the Properties of a Solvated Lysozyme System: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Floros

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves in every day's applications raises issues regarding the non thermal biological effects of microwaves. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations to advance further the dielectric studies of protein solutions in the case of lysozyme, taking into consideration possible frequency dependent changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the system upon application of electric field in the microwave region. The obtained dielectric spectra are identical with those derived in our previous work using the Fröhlich-Kirkwood approach in the framework of the linear response theory. Noticeable structural changes in the protein have been observed only at frequencies near its absorption maximum. Concerning Cα position fluctuations, different frequencies affected different regions of the protein sequence. Furthermore, the influence of the field on the kinetics of protein-water as well as on the water-water hydrogen bonds in the first hydration shell has been studied; an extension of the Luzar-Chandler kinetic model was deemed necessary for a better fit of the applied field results and for the estimation of more accurate hydrogen bond lifetime values.

  3. Development of ultra-hydrophilic and non-cytotoxic dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Dental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials are widely used for the replication of intraoral tissue where hydrophilicity is important as the oral tissues are surrounded by wet saliva. Recent attempts to improve the wettability of VPS using a ‘surfactant’, however, have resulted in a high level of cytotoxicity. Hence, in this study, application of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) on VPS and its effects in terms of both hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The results showed that the application of the plasma jet resulted in significant improvement of hydrophilicity of VPS that had no surfactant, whereby the results were similar to commercially available products with the surfactant. The surface chemical analysis results indicated that this was due to the oxidation and decreased amount of hydrocarbon on the surface following NTAPPJ exposure. Meanwhile, an NTAPPJ-treated sample was shown to be non-cytotoxic. Therefore, the use of dental VPS impression materials without any surfactant, in conjunction with an NTAPPJ treatment, is a promising method for ultra-hydrophilic but yet non-cytotoxic materials. (paper)

  4. Assessment of a chair-side argon-based non-thermal plasma treatment on the surface characteristics and integration of dental implants with textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Hellen S; Marin, Charles; Witek, Lukasz; Freitas, Amilcar; Silva, Nelson R F; Lilin, Thomas; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2012-05-01

    The biomechanical effects of a non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment, suitable for use in a dental office, on the surface character and integration of a textured dental implant surface in a beagle dog model were evaluated. The experiment compared a control treatment, which presented an alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) surface, to two experimental treatments, in which the same AB/AE surface also received NTP treatment for a period of 20 or 60 s per implant quadrant (PLASMA 20' and PLASMA 60' groups, respectively). The surface of each specimen was characterized by electron microscopy and optical interferometry, and surface energy and surface chemistry were determined prior to and after plasma treatment. Two implants of each type were then placed at six bilateral locations in 6 dogs, and allowed to heal for 2 or 4 weeks. Following sacrifice, removal torque was evaluated as a function of animal, implant surface and time in vivo in a mixed model ANOVA. Compared to the CONTROL group, PLASMA 20' and 60' groups presented substantially higher surface energy levels, lower amounts of adsorbed C species and significantly higher torque levels (p=.001). Result indicated that the NTP treatment increased the surface energy and the biomechanical fixation of textured-surface dental implants at early times in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  6. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  7. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor for degradation and detoxification of high concentrations of dye Reactive Black 5 in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation and detoxification efficiency of high concentrations of commercially available reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 solution (40, 80, 200, 500, 1000 mg L-1, were studied. Advanced oxidation processes in water falling film based dielectric barrier discharge as a non-thermal plasma reactor were used. For the first time, this reactor was used for the treatment of high concentrations of organic pollutants such as reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 in water. Solution of the dye is treated by plasma as thin water solution film that is constantly regenerated. Basically, the reactor works as a continuous flow reactor and the electrical discharge itself takes place at the gas-liquid interphase. The dye solution was recirculated through the reactor with an applied energy density of 0-374 kJ L-1. Decolorization efficiency (% was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometric technique. Samples were taken after every recirculation (~ 22 kJ L-1 and decolorization percent was measured after 5 min and 24 h of plasma treatment. The efficiency of degradation (i.e. mineralization and possible degradation products were also tracked by determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and by ion chromatography (IC. Initial toxicity and toxicity of solutions after the treatment were studied with Artemia salina test organisms. Efficiency of decolorization decreased with the increase of the dye concentration. Complete decolorization, high mineralization and non-toxicity of the solution (<10 % were acomplished after plasma treatment using energy density of 242 kJ L-1, while the initial concentrations of Reactive Black 5 were 40 and 80 mg L-1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 171034

  8. Cyclic AMP-dependent signaling system is a primary metabolic target for non-thermal effect of microwaves on heart muscle hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinyan, Lilia; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we have suggested that cell hydration is a universal and extra-sensitive sensor for the structural changes of cell aqua medium caused by the impact of weak chemical and physical factors. The aim of present work is to elucidate the nature of the metabolic messenger through which physiological solution (PS) treated by non-thermal (NT) microwaves (MW) could modulate heart muscle hydration of rats. For this purpose, the effects of NT MW-treated PS on heart muscle hydration, [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with cell membrane, 45 Ca 2+ uptake and intracellular cyclic nucleotides contents in vivo and in vitro experiments were studied. It is shown that intraperitoneal injections of both Sham-treated PS and NT MW-treated PS elevate heart muscle hydration. However, the effect of NT MW-treated PS on muscle hydration is more pronounced than the effect of Sham-treated PS. In vitro experiments NT MW-treated PS has dehydration effect on muscle, which is not changed by decreasing Na + gradients on membrane. Intraperitoneal injection of Sham- and NT MW-treated PS containing 45 Ca 2+ have similar dehydration effect on muscle, while NT MW-treated PS has activation effect on Na + /Ca 2+ exchange in reverse mode. The intraperitoneal injection of NT MW-treated PS depresses [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with its high-affinity membrane receptors, elevates intracellular cAMP and decreases cGMP contents. Based on the obtained data, it is suggested that cAMP-dependent signaling system serves as a primary metabolic target for NT MW effect on heart muscle hydration.

  9. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  10. 1998 Annual Study Report. Surveys on seeds for global environmental technologies, including those for energy saving; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sho energy nado chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no seeds ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)

  11. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  12. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  13. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  14. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…

  17. Who Needs to Fit In? Who Gets to Stand Out? Communication Technologies Including Brain-Machine Interfaces Revealed from the Perspectives of Special Education School Teachers through an Ableism Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Lucy; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Some new and envisioned technologies such as brain machine interfaces (BMI) that are being developed initially for people with disabilities, but whose use can also be expanded to the general public have the potential to change body ability expectations of disabled and non-disabled people beyond the species-typical. The ways in which this dynamic…

  18. Evaluation of mechanism of non-thermal plasma effect on the surface of polypropylene films for enhancement of adhesive and hemo compatible properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore-641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019 (India); Arunkumar, A.; Ramkumar, M.C. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore-641062 (India); Ruzybayev, I.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Investigated the mechanism of effect of various gaseous plasma treatments on the surface properties of Polypropylene (PP) films. • The improvement in surface energy is basically due to the incorporation of polar functional groups onto the PP films. • The extent of surface modification and hydrophobic recovery depends upon the type of plasma forming gas. • Due to the significant morphological and chemical changes induced by the gaseous plasma treatment, improved the blood compatibility as well as adhesive strength of the PP films. - Abstract: The hydro-carbon based polymers have attracted attention of scientists for its use in bio-medical field as various implants due to inherent flexibility. However, they have poor surface properties; particularly they have low surface energy (SE). Hence, blood components (platelets, blood proteins, etc.)-polymer surface interaction is the major concern when it comes in contact with blood. Thus, surface modification is required to develop the perfect antithrombogenic property without affecting the materials bulk. The present study describes the improvement in adhesive and blood compatible properties of polypropylene (PP) by low temperature (non-thermal) plasma of various gases such as Ar, O{sub 2}, air and Ar + O{sub 2} for biomedical applications. The changes in surface morphological, chemical and hydrophilic modification induced by the gaseous plasma treatment were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively. Moreover, the stability of plasma effect was also studied for the different storage conditions. Variation in adhesive strength of the plasma treated PP film was studied by T-Peel and Lap-Shear strength tests. The blood compatibility of the surface modified PP films was investigated by in vitro analysis. It was found that gaseous plasma treatment improved the blood compatibility

  19. Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Fibroblasts Are Primary Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Balzer

    Full Text Available The proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblast differentiation are crucial in wound healing and wound closure. Impaired wound healing is often correlated with chronic bacterial contamination of the wound area. A new promising approach to overcome wound contamination, particularly infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens, is the topical treatment with non-thermal "cold" atmospheric plasma (CAP. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD devices generate CAP containing active and reactive species, which have antibacterial effects but also may affect treated tissue/cells. Moreover, DBD treatment acidifies wound fluids and leads to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide products, such as nitrite and nitrate, in the wound. Thus, in this paper, we addressed the question of whether DBD-induced chemical changes may interfere with wound healing-relevant cell parameters such as viability, proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of primary human fibroblasts. DBD treatment of 250 μl buffered saline (PBS led to a treatment time-dependent acidification (pH 6.7; 300 s and coincidently accumulation of nitrite (~300 μM, nitrate (~1 mM and H2O2 (~200 μM. Fibroblast viability was reduced by single DBD treatments (60-300 s; ~77-66% or exposure to freshly DBD-treated PBS (60-300 s; ~75-55%, accompanied by prolonged proliferation inhibition of the remaining cells. In addition, the total number of myofibroblasts was reduced, whereas in contrast, the myofibroblast frequency was significantly increased 12 days after DBD treatment or exposure to DBD-treated PBS. Control experiments mimicking DBD treatment indicate that plasma-generated H2O2 was mainly responsible for the decreased proliferation and differentiation, but not for DBD-induced toxicity. In conclusion, apart from antibacterial effects, DBD/CAP may mediate biological processes, for example, wound healing by accumulation of H2O2. Therefore, a clinical DBD treatment must be well

  20. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactions of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Leading to the Formation of Nitric Acid (HNO3) in Non-Thermal Plasmas (NTPs): White Paper for the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Compliance Project CP-1038, "Development of Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Technology for Control of Atmospheric Emissions"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosocha, Louis A

    1998-01-01

    ...), it is particularly attractive for many present and future environmental applications. In a thermal process thousands of electron volts of energy are typically required to decompose one pollutant molecule, because it is a non-selective process...

  2. Reply to ‘Comment on the paper N. A. Dyatko, I. V. Kochetov and A. P. Napartovich ‘Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function’, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23 (2014) 043001’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    In this reply we respond to the comment made by E A Bogdanov, M V Krasilnikov and A A Kudryavtsev on our review ‘Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function’.

  3. Reply to ‘Comment on the paper N. A. Dyatko, I. V. Kochetov and A. P. Napartovich ‘Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function’, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23 (2014) 043001’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatko, N A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P

    2016-01-01

    In this reply we respond to the comment made by E A Bogdanov, M V Krasilnikov and A A Kudryavtsev on our review ‘Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function’. (reply)

  4. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  5. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  6. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merrit, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to apply non-thermal in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non-thermal plasma processing of VOCs. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactor. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiency it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the VOCs. This paper presents results from basic experimental and theoretical studied aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of VOCs. (Authors)

  7. Atomic and molecular physics of plasma-based environmental technologies for abatement of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B. M.; Hsiao, M. C.; Bardsley, J. N.; Merritt, B. T.; Vogtin, G. E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C. P.; Bayless, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques represent a new generation of air emission control technology that potentially could treat large-volume emissions containing dilute concentrations of volatile organic compounds. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process.There is a need for reliable data concerning the primary decomposition mechanisms and subsequent chemical kinetics associated with non- thermal plasma processing of volatile organic compounds. There are many basic atomic and molecular physics issues that are essential in evaluating the economic performance of non-thermal plasma reactors. These studies are important in understanding how the input electrical power is dissipated in the plasma and how efficiently it is converted to the production of the plasma species (radicals, ions or electrons) responsible for the decomposition of the volatile organic compounds. This paper will present results from basic experimental and theoretical studies aimed at identifying the reaction mechanisms responsible for the primary decomposition of various types of volatile organic compounds. (authors)

  8. Technology and Love for Everyone, Including the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Ivonne Alvarez Tamayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología al alcance de todos es un objetivo tendencia. Se aplica un estudio cuantitativo sobre el uso del tiempo libre basado en el Modelo de Adopción de la Precaución y la teoría del código en adultos mayores de clase media en Puebla, México. Se revela que el concepto que tienen de tiempo libre no refleja ninguna conexión con el uso de la tecnología, ni en lo familiar, la amistad o las actividades de ocio. Sin embargo, el análisis cualitativo de sus discursos en redes sociales, particularmente en Facebook, muestra que la tecnología contribuye a disminuir la distancia con su familia, a actualizarlos, al encuentro con amigos y a nuevas relaciones. Los hábitos de los adultos mayores en el entorno virtual están vinculados con la emoción.

  9. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......, - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...

  10. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  11. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO{sub 2} selectivity and byproducts reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health and Research Center for Health Science, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Hossein, E-mail: hossein.ebrahimi@yahoo.com [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and ZnO Nano particles were coated on the surface of expanded graphite. • Expanded graphite-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano composite under UV light was placed downstream non-thermal plasma reactor. • Chlorobenzene removal and selectivity of CO{sub 2} were enhanced in combined system. • Produced harmful byproducts from plasma reactor were reduced dramatically in combined system. - Abstract: The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO{sub 2} and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts.

  12. Technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report

  13. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. 8-10 August: Vellore, TN. Suggested institutions:.

  14. Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using alternative thermal and non-thermal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swada, Jeffrey G; Keeley, Christopher J; Ghane, Mohammad A; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2016-05-01

    Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high temperature (UHT, 20-135 °C, 1-3 s) and irradiation (0-10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using transmission electron microscopy were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity [19.22 to 24.32 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (papaya), 190.51 to 287.68 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (strawberry)], with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. Progress report SF2-3-MW-35, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.; Shell, T.; Farmer, J.C.; Adamson, M.

    1996-01-27

    Direct Chemical Oxidation is an emerging ``omnivorous`` waste destruction technique which uses one of the strongest known oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate) to convert organic solids or liquids to carbon dioxide and their mineral constituents. The process operates at ambient pressure and at moderate temperatures (80--100 C) where organic destruction is rapid without catalysts. The byproduct (ammonium sulfate) is benign and may be recycled using commercial electrolysis equipment. The authors have constructed and initially tested a bench-scale facility (batch prereactor and plug-flow reactor) which allows treatability tests on any solid or liquid organic waste surrogate, with off-gas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Shake-down tests of the plug flow reactor on model chemical ethylene glycol confirmed earlier predictive models. Pre-reactor tests on water-immiscible substances confirmed destruction of cotton rags (cellulose), kerosene, tributyl phosphate and triethylamine. The process is intended to provide an all-aqueous, ambient pressure destruction technique for difficult materials not suitable or fully accepted for conventional incineration. Such wastes include solid and liquid mixed wastes containing incinerator chars, halogenated and nitrogenated wastes, oils and greases, and chemical or biological warfare agents.

  16. Demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. Progress report SF2-3-MW-35, October--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.; Shell, T.; Farmer, J.C.; Adamson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation is an emerging ''omnivorous'' waste destruction technique which uses one of the strongest known oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate) to convert organic solids or liquids to carbon dioxide and their mineral constituents. The process operates at ambient pressure and at moderate temperatures (80--100 C) where organic destruction is rapid without catalysts. The byproduct (ammonium sulfate) is benign and may be recycled using commercial electrolysis equipment. The authors have constructed and initially tested a bench-scale facility (batch prereactor and plug-flow reactor) which allows treatability tests on any solid or liquid organic waste surrogate, with off-gas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Shake-down tests of the plug flow reactor on model chemical ethylene glycol confirmed earlier predictive models. Pre-reactor tests on water-immiscible substances confirmed destruction of cotton rags (cellulose), kerosene, tributyl phosphate and triethylamine. The process is intended to provide an all-aqueous, ambient pressure destruction technique for difficult materials not suitable or fully accepted for conventional incineration. Such wastes include solid and liquid mixed wastes containing incinerator chars, halogenated and nitrogenated wastes, oils and greases, and chemical or biological warfare agents

  17. Heavy stable charged tracks as signatures of non-thermal dark matter at the LHC: a study in some non-supersymmetric scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Avirup; Mondal, Tanmoy; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    We consider two theoretical scenarios, each including a ℤ 2-odd sector and leading to an elementary dark matter candidate. The first one is a variant of the Type-III seesaw model where one lepton triplet is ℤ 2-odd, together with a heavy sterile neutrino. It leads to a fermionic dark matter, together with the charged component of the triplet being a quasi-stable particle which decays only via a higher-dimensional operator suppressed by a high scale. The second model consists of an inert scalar doublet together with a ℤ 2-odd right-handed Majorana neutrino dark matter. A tiny Yukawa coupling delays the decay of the charged component of the inert doublet into the dark matter candidate, making the former long-lived on the scale of collider detectors. The parameter space of each model has been constrained by big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints, and also by estimating the contribution to the relic density through freeze-out of the long-lived charged particle as well the freeze-in production of the dark matter candidate. We consider two kinds of signals at the Large Hadron Collider for each case. For the first kind of models, namely two charged tracks and single track [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and for the second kind, the characteristic signals are opposite as well as same-sign charged track pairs. We perform a detailed analysis using event selection criteria consistent with the current experimental programmes. It is found that the scenario with a lepton triplet can be probed upto 960 (1190) GeV with an integrated luminosity of 300 (3000) fb-1, while the corresponding numbers for the inert doublet scenario are 630 (800) GeV. Furthermore, the second kind of signal mentioned in each case allows us to differentiate different dark matter scenarios from each other.

  18. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  19. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  20. Comparative study on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions via ozonation, photocatalysis and non-thermal plasma using a planar falling film reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama Aziz, Kosar Hikmat; Miessner, Hans; Mueller, Siegfried; Mahyar, Ali; Kalass, Dieter; Moeller, Detlev; Khorshid, Ibrahim; Rashid, Muhammad Amin M

    2018-02-05

    Ozonation and advanced oxidation processes based on photocatalysis (P.C.) and non-thermal plasma generated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in different gas atmospheres were compared for the degradation and mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solutions, using a planar falling film reactor with comparable design. The energetic yields (G 50 ) as measure of the efficiencies of the different methods are for 2,4-D in the order DBD/Ar-Fenton>ozonation>DBD/Ar>P.C.ozonation>DBD/Ar:O 2 ≫DBD/Air>P.C.oxidation. For 2,4-DCP the order is ozonation≫DBD/Ar-Fenton>P.C.ozonation>DBD/Ar>DBD/Ar:O 2 ≫P.C.oxidation>DBD/Air. The degradation by using ozone is very effective, but it should be noted that the mineralization measured by the total organic carbon (TOC) removal is low. The reason is the formation of stable towards ozone intermediates, especially low chain carboxylic acids. The fate of these intermediates during the degradation with the different methods has been followed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electron Beam Technology and Other Irradiation Technology Applications in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D; Shayanfar, Shima

    2017-02-01

    Food irradiation is over 100 years old, with the original patent for X-ray treatment of foods being issued in early 1905, 20 years after there discovery by W. C. Roentgen in 1885. Since then, food irradiation technology has become one of the most extensively studied food processing technologies in the history of mankind. Unfortunately, it is the one of the most misunderstood technologies with the result that there are rampant misunderstandings of the core technology, the ideal applications, and how to use it effectively to derive the maximum benefits. There are a number of books, book chapters, and review articles that provide overviews of this technology [25, 32, 36, 39]. Over the last decade or so, the technology has come into greater focus because many of the other pathogen intervention technologies have been unable to provide sustainable solutions on how to address pathogen contamination in foods. The uniqueness of food irradiation is that this technology is a non-thermal food processing technology, which unto itself is a clear high-value differentiator from other competing technologies.

  2. General presentation including new structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  3. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  6. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  7. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  8. Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…

  9. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  10. Power Technologies Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.

    2002-09-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.

  11. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W.; Yu, S.K.W.; Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  12. NASA Technology Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Peter B.; Okimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    NTTS is the IT infrastructure for the Agency's Technology Transfer (T2) program containing 60,000+ technology portfolio supporting all ten NASA field centers and HQ. It is the enterprise IT system for facilitating the Agency's technology transfer process, which includes reporting of new technologies (e.g., technology invention disclosures NF1679), protecting intellectual properties (e.g., patents), and commercializing technologies through various technology licenses, software releases, spinoffs, and success stories using custom built workflow, reporting, data consolidation, integration, and search engines.

  13. Army Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    MUTT ) is a semi-autonomous robotic follower that lightens the load for Soldiers by decreasing the amount of equipment they need to carry when...dismounted in the toughest of terrains. The MUTT uses advanced, proven commercial technology that has been adapted for the rigors of the battlefield...With ultra-quiet electric motors, the MUTT gives Soldiers unmatched internal transportability options and expeditionary power that includes hands- free

  14. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  15. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  16. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kimberly R.

    1995-01-01

    The development and application of new technologies in the United States has always been important to the economic well being of the country. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been an important source of these new technologies for almost four decades. Recently, increasing global competition has emphasized the importance of fully utilizing federally funded technologies. Today NASA must meet its mission goals while at the same time, conduct research and development that contributes to securing US economic growth. NASA technologies must be quickly and effectively transferred into commercial products. In order to accomplish this task, NASA has formulated a new way of doing business with the private sector. Emphasis is placed on forming mutually beneficial partnerships between NASA and US industry. New standards have been set in response to the process that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and timely customer response. This summer I have identified potential markets for two NASA inventions: including the Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Characterization of Flaws in Metallic Tubing and the Radiographic Moire. I have also worked to establish a cooperative program with TAG, private industry, and a university known as the TAG/Industry/Academia Program.

  17. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  18. Technology Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shoji; Stern, Sam

    1993-01-01

    Describes the history, current status, and future direction of technology education in Japan, including the process of curriculum transition, secondary and postsecondary structure, and lack of resources. (SK)

  19. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  20. Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Kasi

    2011-01-01

    This paper was written to support a position on using technology in education. The purpose of this study was to support the use of technology in education by synthesizing previous research. A variety of sources including books and journal articles were studied in order to compile an overview of the benefits of using technology in elementary,…

  1. E-Business Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen TIMOFTE

    2007-01-01

    Internet technologies have revolutionized the business world by creating a global online marketplace. Appropriate understanding for the technologies and the impact of different design choices of technologies (including the Internet and open systems) dramatically affects both functional and non-functional aspects of the e-business solution.

  2. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  3. Developments in lubricant technology

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, S P

    2014-01-01

    Provides a fundamental understanding of lubricants and lubricant technology including emerging lubricants such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Teaches the reader to understand the role of technology involved in the manufacture of lubricants Details both major industrial oils and automotive oils for various engines Covers emerging lubricant technology such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Discusses lubricant blending technology, storage, re-refining and condition monitoring of lubricant in equipment

  4. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  5. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  6. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC's R ampersand D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities

  7. Taming Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, Lewis M.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews aspects of technology in our society: technology as a force for social change; reasons for the frustration and dissatisfaction with technology; how technology decentralizes power; the individual's influence; resolving conflicts in the ionized" society; regulation of technology; corporate responsibility; and the potential pitfalls for the…

  8. NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE: EVALUATION OF PERSPECTIVES OF RUSSIA'S TECHNOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Kurakova; A. N. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    There were analysed scientific-technological solutions which are suggested to be included in the National Technological Initiative «New Production technologies» (NSI-NPT). Considering that Russian President set a target to become a technological leader and conquer the noticeable niches of global products and services markets using technologies, the attention has been drawn to the fact that readiness to influence markets of high-technological products is defined by the shares of patents, recei...

  9. Technological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  10. Better Learning Through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, R. D.; National InstituteScience Education, College Level-One Team

    2000-12-01

    The Learning Through Technology (LT2) resource is designed to help college Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology (SMET) instructors: - understand why and how they should use technology-enhanced learning strategies; - shape the powerful emerging technologies into learning tools that better prepare college students for the 21st century; and - provide all their students more experience with, and a better appreciation for, SMET as a living enterprise. The LT2 website includes case studies of learning technology innovations at a variety of post-secondary institutions. Personal narratives of faculty and students cover virtually every logistical, technological, inter-personal, and political issue involved in adapting learning technologies into courses or curricula. The site also includes a wide array of lively first-person vignettes about learning technology experiences from around the country. Frequently Asked Questions is a quick stop for opinions, advice, and bits of wisdom from experienced learning technology users. Finally, the Team is developing user-friendly evaluation resources to help faculty assess the success of learning technologies in improving student learning. The LT2 site is an element of the NISE website "Innovations in SMET Education". This site is intended to help college faculty meet multiple challenging goals including: educating all students to be scientifically literate in a technological society, developing the ranks of future scientists and skilled technicians, and preparing K-12 science and math teachers. The "Innovations in SMET Education" website can be found at www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1 .

  11. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  12. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  13. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  14. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  15. Robot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean; Coiffet, Philippe.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperation is concerned with the exploration and exploitation of of spaces which do not allow, because of their inaccessibility or hostility, direct access to man. This volume (Parts 2, 3 and 4) covers the contribution of computer science and automatic control to this technology. Part 2 includes a description of teleoperation systems followed by chapters on the operator substitution function by computer feedback to the operator. Part 3 has chapters on performance evaluation of teleoperation systems and the human operator in the teleoperation system. Part 4 is about applications of teleoperation in the nuclear industry, underwater, in space, in medicine, in industry and in security and civil protection. The nuclear applications include research and pilot facilities, reactor operation and maintenance, reactor decommissioning and dismantling and in emergencies, for example following a reactor accident. (U.K.)

  16. Comparative Kinetic Study and Microwaves Non-Thermal Effects on the Formation of Poly(amic acid) 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic Anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline (BAPHF). Reaction Activated by Microwave, Ultrasound and Conventional Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Hugo Mendoza; Alquisira, Joaquín Palacios; Alonso, Carlos Rius; Cortés, José Guadalupe López; Toledano, Cecilio Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid) synthesized from (6FDA) dianhydride and (BAPHF) diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH), microwave (MW) and ultrasound irradiation (US). Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH) and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system. PMID:22072913

  17. Comparative kinetic study and microwaves non-thermal effects on the formation of poly(amic acid) 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline (BAPHF). Reaction activated by microwave, ultrasound and conventional heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Hugo Mendoza; Alquisira, Joaquín Palacios; Alonso, Carlos Rius; Cortés, José Guadalupe López; Toledano, Cecilio Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid) synthesized from (6FDA) dianhydride and (BAPHF) diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH), microwave (MW) and ultrasound irradiation (US). Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH) and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  18. Comparative Kinetic Study and Microwaves Non-Thermal Effects on the Formation of Poly(amic acid 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenediphthalic Anhydride (6FDA and 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxydianiline (BAPHF. Reaction Activated by Microwave, Ultrasound and Conventional Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mendoza Tellez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid synthesized from (6FDA dianhydride and (BAPHF diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH, microwave (MW and ultrasound irradiation (US. Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  19. Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Stojmenovic, Ivan; Choi, Min; Xhafa, Fatos; FutureTech 2013

    2014-01-01

    Future technology information technology stands for all of continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience and HCI, security and trust computing and so on, for satisfying our ever-changing needs. In past twenty five years or so, Information Technology (IT) influenced and changed every aspect of our lives and our cultures. These proceedings foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization.

  20. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The first wave delivered a range of services to most areas of the world through a vast, carefully constructed global network. Cellular technology ...Information Technology and Services Alliance. Digital Planet 2002: The Global Information Economy. February 2002. Yegyazarian, Anush. Sales Taxes...Information Technology ABSTRACT: The information technology (IT) industry affects virtually every industry in the n economy. During the late 90

  1. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  2. Buildings Energy Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Buildings Energy Technology (BET) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Each issue of BET also will include an article presenting a program overview or highlighting a current energy conservation technology project of DOE's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) plus a listing of scheduled meetings of interest. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  3. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  4. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  5. 75 FR 67770 - Sara Lee Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From EDS, Hewitt Packard, Sapphire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., Deductions, Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial... this certification to include workers providing shared financial and information technology services at..., Deductions, Collections, Call Center, Information Technology, Accounts Payable, General Accounts, Financial...

  6. 11th annual conference on clean coal technology, proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include coal combustion technology, multi-purpose coal conversion technology (including entrained-bed coal flash pyrolysis process (CPX), hydrogen production from coal and coal liquefaction), coal ash utilization technology, next general technology (including dry coal cleaning technologies and coal conversion by supercritical water) and basic coal utilization technology (including ash behaviour during coal gasification).

  7. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  8. Technology in geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Alberto; Boi, Raffaella; Petermans, Jean

    2018-03-13

    Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice. The most promising clinical applications of technologies are housing and safety to guarantee older people remaining in their own homes and communities, mobility and rehabilitation to improve mobility and gait and communication and quality of life by reducing isolation, improve management of medications and transportation. Many factors impair a broad use of technology in older age, including psychosocial and ethical issues, costs and fear of losing human interaction. A substantial lack of appropriate clinical trials to establish the clinical role of technologies to improve physical or cognitive performances and/or quality of life of subjects and their caregivers may suggest that the classical biomedical research model may not be the optimal choice to evaluate technologies in older people. In conclusion, successful technology development requires a great effort in interdisciplinary collaboration to integrate technologies into the existing health and social service systems with the aim to fit into the older adults' everyday life.

  9. Assessing Teacher Technology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2000-01-01

    Advocates the assessment of teachers' technology skills by school media and technology specialists who are involved in staff training. Discusses what should be assessed, including level of curricular integration and attitudes; assessment objectives; informal assessments; formal assessments; assessment tools; and administrators as role models for…

  10. New technologies in contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlands, Sam

    2009-01-01

    New technologies in both reversible contraception and sterilisation are described. The review includes recent advances in the development of oral contraception, emergency contraception, injectable contraception, vaginal rings, subdermal implants, transdermal contraception, intrauterine devices, spermicides and barrier methods. It also covers methods of transcervical female sterilisation and more easily reversible male sterilisation. The emphasis is on the technology and its safety and effecti...

  11. Educational Technology: Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dean L.; Tennyson, Robert D.

    This paper presents a perspective of the current state of technology-assisted instruction integrating computer language, artificial intelligence (AI), and a review of cognitive science applied to instruction. The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) the language of instructional technology, i.e., programming languages, including authoring…

  12. Riding the Technology Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Pierre

    This paper presents an overview of information technology development. The first section sets the scene, comparing the first WAN (Wide Area Network) and Intel processor to current technology. The birth of the microcomputer is described in the second section, including historical background on semiconductors, microprocessors, and the microcomputer.…

  13. Graphite technology development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

  14. Rehabilitation Technology Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherleigh Co., Ltd., New York, NY.

    Designed as a special continuing education program for rehabilitation professionals, this document is divided into five lessons. Lesson 1, "Technology Assessment: Determining the Needs" (Ricardo G. Cerna), includes discussion on technology assessment and determining the needs of the clients as well as different types of assistive…

  15. Nuclear safeguards technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to present to United States industrial organizations the Department of Energy's (DOE) Safeguards Technology Program. The roles and missions for safeguards in the U.S. government and application of the DOE technology program to industry safeguards planning are discussed. A guide to sources and products is included

  16. Educational Technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This overview of the current state of educational technology in Japan includes discussions of professional associations; academic and popular journals; diffusion of media and the budget in elementary and secondary schools; recent trends in government policies; educational technology research; a literature review; and suggestions of future trends.…

  17. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  18. Forecasting and management of technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roper, A. T

    2011-01-01

    .... The scope of this edition has broadened to include management of technology content that is relevant to now to executives in organizations while updating and strengthening the technology forecasting...

  19. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  20. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  2. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  3. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  4. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  5. Internetworking technological foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This book is supposed to serve as a comprehensive and instructive guide through the new world of digital communication. On the physical layer optical and electrical cabling technology are described as well as wireless communication technologies. On the data link layer local area networks (LANs) are introduced together with the most popular LAN technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM as well as wireless LAN technologies including IEEE 802.x, Bluetooth, or ZigBee. A wide range of WAN technologies are covered including contemporary high speed technologies like PDH and SDH up to h

  6. Recombinant protein production technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  8. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  9. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The general development of the Department of Reacctor Technology at Risoe during 1981 is presented, ant the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included. (author)

  10. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  11. Industry Service - Technology Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2011-01-01

    The chapter describes and explains the development of an Industry Service Technology (IS-T) portal solution at Danfoss for testing of products, including booking system for standardised 'service packages' in order to reduce waiting time.......The chapter describes and explains the development of an Industry Service Technology (IS-T) portal solution at Danfoss for testing of products, including booking system for standardised 'service packages' in order to reduce waiting time....

  12. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  13. Information Technology for Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yazdanpanah

    2016-01-01

    The article produced below hopes to focus on the use of information technology solutions for improving healthcare delivery systems. It explains evolution of IT-Enhanced healthcare from Telemedicine to e-health, including definition and requirements of telemedical systems. It also traces the evolution of contemporary telemedical systems and the challenges faced by future technologies including legal and formal aspects of telemedicine as well as its acceptance among users. It overvi...

  14. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  15. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness......As a response to climate change and the desire to gain independence from imported fossil fuels, there is a pressure to increase the proportion of electricity from renewable sources which is one of the reasons why electricity grids are currently being turned into Smart Grids. In this paper, we focus...... in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...

  16. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  17. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  18. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  19. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  20. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  1. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  2. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  3. Technology '90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report.

  4. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  5. Communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This is the first point of reference for the communications industries. It offers an introduction to a wide range of topics and concepts encountered in the field of communications technology. Whether you are looking for a simple explanation, or need to go into a subject in more depth, the Communications Technology Handbook provides all the information you need in one single volume.This second edition has been updated to include the latest technology including: Video on DemandWire-less Distribution systemsHigh spee

  6. Focus on Technologies: Worry or Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Kanišauskas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses different attitudes towards technologies in contemporary philosophical discourses. It points out that classical notion of technology formulated by Martin Heidegger seems to be more and more often questioned and even forgotten. As a result, it is being replaced by the theory of determinism, according to which the change of technologies determines the changes in social systems, the human being including. This happens this way and not vice versa. Nowadays technē, or “technika” (in English: technology is mostly understood in the instrumental meaning or in the meaning of power. It is considered to be a powerful means, tool or mechanism to influence, change, control and manipulate human consciousness and human feelings. Despite the fact that technologies have already been tamed, the problem of huge responsibility for using and developing them arises. It is questioned whether the increasing society’s attention to modern technologies is not a particular “technology” of the postmodern capitalism to manipulate social consciousness. In parallel with “yes” answer to this question, Albert Borgmann’s idea that the causes of technological development have an ontological dimension, i.e. the causes are rooted in the nature of human beings themselves and their desire to adore own creativity, is discussed. Thus, it becomes necessary to probe deeper into the nature of creativity.

  7. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  8. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  9. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  10. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chase, Peter J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gross, Michael P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  11. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform...... patterns of social action and interaction in organisations (Barley 1986; 1990, Orlikowski 2000). Current research in the field shows that new technologies affect organisational routines/structures/social relationships/power relations/dependencies and alter organisational roles (Barley 1986; 1990, Burkhardt......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...

  12. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  13. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  14. Technology alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G.; Kugler, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, Canada and Korea developed a highly successful relationship that could serve as a model for other high-technology industries. This is particularly significant when one considers the complexity and technical depth required to design, build and operate a nuclear reactor. This paper will outline the overall framework for technology transfer and cooperation between Canada and Korea, and will focus on cooperation in nuclear R and D between the two countries

  15. Health care technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  16. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  17. Testing Technology: A Sandia technology bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, B.; Floyd, H.L.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    Inside this issue is a farewell to Testing Technology message from technical advisor, Ruth David. Also included are articles on: Testing the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande, simulated reactor meltdown studies, an inexpensive monitor for testing integrated circuits, testing of antihelicoptor mines, and quality assurance on aircraft inspection.

  18. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  19. Integrating Technology into Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzenthaler, Mark Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Technology has become increasingly saturated into the very fabric of students' daily lives. They are exposed to and use technology in every facet of their lives, including their schoolwork. With millions of dollars being spent by school districts on technology and its infrastructure, this study used an on-line survey to gather data on how teachers…

  20. A Tale of Two Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Donald T.; Jackson, Stephanie F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information technology and human performance technology (HPT) and considers the potential of performance technology to improve business results. Topics include the strategic value of HPT in organizational governance, developing leadership capability, team building, fostering collaboration, and corporate culture change; and the need to…

  1. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  2. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  3. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  4. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  5. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  6. Technology in L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    -of-school literacy practices. A final finding is the emphasis on teacher uncertainty regarding how and why to integrate technology within existing paradigms of the subject. This calls for further research on how technology may be justified in L1 practice, including various forms of teacher education.......In recent decades, several Scandinavian research projects have had an explicit focus on how technology intervenes in L1 (or so-called Mother Tongue Education) practices in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish educational contexts, and how this may impact on understanding of the subject. There is currently...... no systematic overview of the documented possibilities and challenges related to the use of technology in L1. At the same time, there is terminological confusion in use of ‘technology’ and related concepts in L1. Finally, there is a general lack of critical reflection on the relation between technological...

  7. Art, Technology and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Since 1900, the connections between art and technology with nature have become increasingly inextricable. Through a selection of innovative readings by international scholars, this book presents the first investigation of the intersections between art, technology and nature in post-medieval times....... Transdisciplinary in approach, this volume’s 14 essays explore art, technology and nature’s shifting constellations that are discernible at the micro level and as part of a larger chronological pattern. Included are subjects ranging from Renaissance wooden dolls, science in the Italian art academies, and artisanal...... Camilla Skovbjerg Paldam and Jacob Wamberg trace the Kantian heritage of radically separating art and technology, and inserting both at a distance to nature, suggesting this was a transient chapter in history. Thus, they argue, the present renegotiation between art, technology and nature is reminiscent...

  8. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  9. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  10. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  11. Technology collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jacob [Halliburton (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Halliburton's Brazilian technology center. Halliburton has technology centers in the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, Singapore and Brazil, all of which aim at delivering accelerated innovation in the oil sector. The technology centers engage in research and development activities with the help of various universities and in collaboration with the customer or supplier. The Halliburton Brazil technology center provides its customers with timely research and development solutions for enhancing recovery and mitigating reservoir uncertainty; they are specialized in finding solutions for pre- and post-salt carbonate drilling and in the enhancement of production from mature fields. This presentation showcased the work carried out by the Halliburton Brazil technology center to help customers develop their deepwater field activities.

  12. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  13. Energy and Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure.

  14. Energy and Technology Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.A.; McElroy, L.; Wheatcraft, D.; Middleton, C.; Shang, S.

    1994-10-01

    Two articles are included: the industrial computing initiative, and artificial hip joints (applying weapons expertise to medical technology). Three research highlights (briefs) are included: KEN project (face recognition), modeling groundwater flow and chemical migration, and gas and oil national information infrastructure

  15. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  16. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  17. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  18. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  19. Digital security technology simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  20. Buildings Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Emmanuel, L. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    BET announces on a monthly basis current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. It contains abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers,patents,theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through IEA`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government- to-government agreements. The citations are available for online searching and retrieval; current information, added daily, is available to DOE and its contractors.

  1. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  2. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  3. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  4. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  5. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  7. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  8. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  9. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  10. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  11. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  12. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  13. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  14. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  15. Technology transfer - the role of AEA Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A.E.; Bullough, R.; Mason, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates mostly on examples of spin offs which have arisen from the more basic research carried out by the AEA. However, it should not be inferred from this that the only examples of successful technology transfer by the AEA are of a similar, often unforeseen nature. The most outstanding example of technology transfer by the AEA must surely be that achieved through the applied research which has enabled the establishment of a successful civil nuclear power programme in the UK. The natural transfer of technology here, achieved by virtue of the unique bridging position of the AEA with respect to universities and the nuclear industry, means that its success can easily be overlooked; to do so would be a mistake. However, by including spin off examples, we hope to illustrate how the AEA has also succeeded in bridging to more difficult areas where the special relationship which it shares with the nuclear industry is absent. (author)

  16. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  17. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  18. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  19. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  20. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.