WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies including cat

  1. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Grimmig; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein;

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB gene...... care should be taken in the identification of Pasteurella-like bacteria isolated from bite wounds caused by large cats. The evidence of phenotypic and genotypic divergence calls for the further development of PCR tests and DNA sequencing to document doubtful isolates.......To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes...... and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose...

  2. Meningoencephalitis in cats in Austria: a study of infectious causes, including Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Kassl, Christine; Leschnik, Michael; Url, Angelika

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Despite comprehensive diagnostics, the aetiology of meningoencephalitis (ME) in cats often remains undetermined. As a result of recently published surveys, Encephalitozoon cuniculi has gained growing importance in cats not only with ocular disorders, but also with central nervous system disease. Therefore, it was hypothesised that E cuniculi may be an underestimated pathogen in the development of feline non-suppurative and/or granulomatous ME. Methods As a first step, histopathological sections of the brain of cats with encephalopathy were retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of granulomatous ME. In a second step, an immunohistochemical screening for detection of E cuniculi was performed in cases with ME of unknown origin. Results In 59/89 (66.3%) cats with ME, an aetiologically relevant pathogen was detected. Forty-three of 89 (48.3%) cats had a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. In 14/89 (15.7%) cats, protozoan cysts were identified and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in all cases. In 2/89 (2.3%) cats with granulomatous ME, fungal organisms were identified. Thirty of 89 (33.7%) cats with ME of unknown origin that underwent IHC for the detection of E cuniculi remained negative. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that E cuniculi is unlikely to be directly associated with (non-suppurative and/or granulomatous) ME in cats in Austria.

  3. Glucose monitoring in diabetic dogs and cats: adapting new technology for home and hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmeyer, Charles E; DeClue, Amy E

    2011-03-01

    Glucose levels in dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus can be monitored using a variety of techniques. Selecting the best monitoring technique requires involvement of the pet owner, communication between the owner and veterinarian, and practicality of the method. Some of the techniques typically used in dogs and cats are identical to those used in human diabetic patients. The use of modern technology designed specifically for people is being used increasingly for the management of diabetes in dogs and cats and offers a new mechanism for monitoring glucose in diabetic animals.

  4. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups... Moosic, PA, Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased... of MetLife, Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups, Moosic, Pennsylvania...

  5. The application of computer assisted technologies (CAT in the rehabilitation of cognitive functions in psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Srebnicki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available First applications of computer-assisted technologies (CAT in the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, including child and adolescent psychiatric disorders date back to the 80’s last century. Recent developments in computer technologies, wide access to the Internet and vast expansion of electronic devices resulted in dynamic increase in therapeutic software as well as supporting devices. The aim of computer assisted technologies is the improvement in the comfort and quality of life as well as the rehabilitation of impaired functions. The goal of the article is the presentation of most common computer-assisted technologies used in the therapy of children and adolescents with cognitive deficits as well as the literature review of their effectiveness including the challenges and limitations in regard to the implementation of such interventions.

  6. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  7. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  8. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  9. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  10. Including Assistive Technology in Teacher Preparation: Exploring One Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Elissa Wolfe; Wood, Jackie; Schmidt, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is specifically addressed in the most recent reauthorization of IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004). The law insures that assistive devices and services

  11. Functions of a Computer Assisted Teaching Systems, SOLAR-CATS, which uses P2P technology

    OpenAIRE

    山之上, 卓; ヤマノウエ, タカシ; Yamanoue, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    P2P技術を利用した教育支援システムSOLAR-CATSの機能について述べる。SOLAR-CATSを利用することにより、端末教室において、教師が行うSOLAR-CATSの応用プログラムの操作を、全学生端末上で、実時間で同時に見せたり、学生間で共同作業を行ったり、教師や学生が行う操作の記録と再生を行ったりすることができる。ファイヤーウォールで隔てられた遠隔地にある教室のネットワーク間を結んで利用することも可能である。SOLAR- CATSは、お絵かきプログラム、テキストエディタ、簡単なプログラミング環境、Webブラウザ、英作文支援システムなどの応用プログラムを備えている。 A computer assisted teaching system, SOLAR-CATS, which uses P2P technology, is shown. In a computer laboratory, the teacher can show operation of application programs of the SOLAR-CATS at his/her terminal ...

  12. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  14. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-01-22

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

  15. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including... Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The worker group includes on-site leased... Company, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who were engaged in employment...

  16. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  17. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  18. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Greenville... International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, including on-site...

  19. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including... Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 2, 2012, applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance... that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site...

  20. Applying embryo cryopreservation technologies to the production of domestic and black-footed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gómez, M C; Galiguis, J; Dresser, B l

    2012-12-01

    Our objectives were (i) compare in vitro development of early cleavage stage domestic cat embryos after cryopreservation by minimal volume vitrification vs a standard slow, controlled-rate method, (ii) determine viability of vitrified domestic cat embryos by oviductal transfer into synchronous recipients and (iii) evaluate in vivo survival of black-footed cat (BFC, Felis nigripes) embryos after intra- and inter-species transfer. In vitro-derived (IVM/IVF) cat embryos were used to evaluate in vitro development after controlled-rate cryopreservation vs vitrification vs controls. Blastocyst development was similar in both groups of cryopreserved embryos (22-26%), but it was lower (p pregnancies--three of six (50%) and one of two (50%) that received embryos from in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes, respectively. Three male and two female kittens weighing from 51 to 124 g (mean = 88 g) were delivered on days 61-65 of gestation. In BFC, four intra-species embryo transfer procedures were carried out--two recipients received fresh day 2 embryos (n = 5, 8) and two recipients received embryos that had been cryopreserved on day 1 (n = 6) or 2 (n = 8). A 2-year-old recipient of cryopreserved embryos established pregnancy and delivered two live male kittens. Subsequently, five cryopreserved BFC embryos were transferred to a domestic cat recipient. On day 29, the recipient was determined to be pregnant and delivered naturally a live, healthy female BFC kitten on day 66. In summary, in vivo survival of vitrified domestic cat embryos was shown by the births of kittens after transfer into recipients. Also, we demonstrated that sperm and embryo cryopreservation could be combined with intra- and inter-species embryo transfer and integrated into the array of assisted reproductive techniques used successfully for propagation of a rare and vulnerable felid species, the black-footed cat.

  1. CAT5:A Tool for Measuring the Maturity Level of Information Technology Governance Using COBIT 5 Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaïl El ghazi El Houssaïni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companies have more and more trends to automate their operational and organizational activities, therefore the investment of information technology (IT continues to increase every year. However, good governance that can ensure the alignment of IT and business strategy and realized benefits from IT investments has not always followed this increase. Measurement of IT governance is then required as a basis for the continuous improvement of the IT services. This study is aimed at producing a tool CAT5 to measure the maturity level of IT governance, thus facilitating the process of improvement of IT services. CAT5 is based on COBIT 5 framework and the design used is Unified Modeling Language. Through stages of information system development, this research results in an application for measuring the maturity level of IT governance that can be used in assessing existing IT governance.

  2. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P cats compared with healthy cats (P cats than in healthy cats (P cats suffering from systemic disease (P cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  3. 76 FR 35474 - UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., Detroit, MI; UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including... Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Detroit, Michigan (TA-W-71,047) and Warren, Michigan..., Technology Training Joint Programs Staff. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  4. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  5. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including... Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The negative... competitive articles) in 2011 and 2012, loss of business with a firm that employed a worker group eligible...

  6. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload; Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks AGENCY:...

  7. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA’S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  8. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA'S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Mark; Stevenson, Gary; Hovis, Floyd; Gavert, William; Dang, Xung; Darab, Abe; Chuang, Ti; Burns, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  9. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)]. E-mail: espen.nystad@hrp.no

    2006-07-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  10. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  11. Cat parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vošická, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The content of this bachelor thesis describes a different variety of cat parasites. This study discovers that the most infected group of the outdoor cats due to the fact that these animals are not provided with the same care as the household pets. Those cats are usually not vaccinated, not rid of worms, no one takes care of their fur and so they tend to become a host for the parasites. There are several kinds of parasites which attack cats. Among those belong the skin parasites like a cat fle...

  12. State of cat genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  14. Giardia infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  15. Discussion on “Cat Power” Broadband Technology Applications%浅谈“电力猫”宽带接入技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊兴无; 郑家林

    2012-01-01

    "电力猫"是一项基于电力线传输信号的设备,它在电力线上网技术中的应用十分广泛,是继有线通信、无线通信、卫星通信之后的又一通信网,电力猫通信已经成为多年来国内外科技人员技术攻关的新目标。对于家庭或小办公室用户而言,电力猫产品提供了最便捷、最安全的方式,它极大方便了人们的使用,有效延伸区域网路的涵盖范围。%"Cat power" is a kind of equipment that based on a power line signal transmission. It's widely used in power line technology. It's the fourth communication network except wired communication, wireless communication and satellite communication. Cat power communication has become the new technology research goals of the scientific and technical personnel at home and abroad. For home or small office user, cat power products provide the most convenient and safest way, which greatly facilitates the use of the effective extension of the scope of the LAN.

  16. Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...

  17. Use of Computer-Assisted Technologies (CAT) to Enhance Social, Communicative, and Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, Bertram O.; Scharf, Alexa; Nelson, DeShawn; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Major advances in multimedia computer technology over the past decades have made sophisticated computer games readily available to the public. This, combined with the observation that most children, including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), show an affinity to computers, has led researchers to recognize the potential of computer…

  18. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... information processing, computer software services, and business solutions, to the financial services... Employment and Training Administration DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a...

  19. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  20. CAT5:A Tool for Measuring the Maturity Level of Information Technology Governance Using COBIT 5 Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souhaïl El ghazi El Houssaïni; Karim Youssfi; Jaouad Boutahar

    2016-01-01

    .... CAT5 is based on COBIT 5 framework and the design used is Unified Modeling Language. Through stages of information system development, this research results in an application for measuring the maturity level of IT governance that can be used in assessing existing IT governance.

  1. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.

  2. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  3. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  4. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  6. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  7. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Quest Diagnostics, Inc... on-site at the West Norriton, Pennsylvania location of Quest Diagnostics, Inc.,...

  8. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  9. My Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李成梅

    2002-01-01

    The name of my cat is Naty. This year he is one year old. He isvery fat, but he is very nice. He has a big round white head. His mouth and nose are small. His eyes are interesting. In the day,they are small and black,but at night they are big and blue.

  10. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  11. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  12. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  13. CAT-generation of ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Ueckerdt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of generating all ideals of a poset. It is a long standing open problem, whether or not the ideals of any poset can be generated in constant amortized time, CAT for short. We refine the tree traversal, a method introduced by Pruesse and Ruskey in 1993, to obtain a CAT-generator for two large classes of posets: posets of interval dimension at most two and so called locally planar posets. This includes all posets for which a CAT-generator was known before. Posets of interval dimension at most two generalize both, interval orders and 2-dimensional posets. Locally planar posets generalize for example posets with a planar cover graph. We apply our results to CAT-generate all $c$-orientations of a planar graph. As a special case this is a CAT-generator for many combinatorial objects like domino and lozenge tilings, planar spanning trees, planar bipartite perfect matchings, Schnyder woods, and others.

  14. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  15. Performance evaluation of the Switched EtherCAT networks with VLAN tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežić Mladen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EtherCAT technology is one of the most popular Real-Time Ethernet (RTE solutions present on the market at this time. Due to its communication efficiency, EtherCAT is particularly suitable for networks with a large number of devices which demand short cycle times. This paper reviews the application aspects and implementation issues of the Switched EtherCAT networks with VLAN tagging, including their limitations, and provides guidelines for engineering staff in selection of the optimal solution when designing a specific automation system.

  16. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  17. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based

  18. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based pupil-

  19. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  20. Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofod, H

    1993-01-16

    The author's cat started to develop the signs of pemphigus foliaceus one month after he returned home after six months absence. The initial signs included dry coughing and difficulty with purring and swallowing, followed by typical changes of the skin. The cat was treated by a combination of chrysotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid injections, and remained free of clinical signs for one and a half years. The cat then relapsed and showed the initial signs except that coughing was not observed. It was treated as before but after a second relapse and the same treatment it slowly developed a general weakness and was euthanased.

  1. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  2. RadCat 3.0 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, Daniel; Penisten, Janelle J.; Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2009-05-01

    RADTRAN is an internationally accepted program and code for calculating the risks of transporting radioactive materials. The first versions of the program, RADTRAN I and II, were developed for NUREG-0170 (USNRC, 1977), the first environmental statement on transportation of radioactive materials. RADTRAN and its associated software have undergone a number of improvements and advances consistent with improvements in both available data and computer technology. The version of RADTRAN currently bundled with RadCat is RADTRAN 6.0. This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 3.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code. RadCat 3.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0 which includes an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.0.

  3. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  4. Agonistic Vocalisations in Domestic Cats : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schötz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a new cat to a home with resident cats may lead to stress, aggression and even fights. In this case study 468 agonistic cat vocalisations were recorded as one cat was introduced to three resident cats in her new home. Six vocalisation types were identified: growl, howl, howl-growl, hiss, spit and snarl. Numerous other intermediate and complex vocalisations were also observed. An acoustic analysis showed differences within and between all types. Future studies include further acous...

  5. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  6. Mineral metabolism in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Martos, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    The present Doctoral Thesis wa metabolism in the feline species. Through a series of studies, the relationship between calcium metabolism and the main hormones involved in it has been determined metabolism during the juvenile stage of growing cats effects linked to feeding calculolytic diets on feline mineral metabolism. The first part of the work was aimed the quantification of intact (I-PTH) and whole PTH) and to characterize the dynamics of PTH secretion, including ...

  7. Medial humeral epicondylitis in clinically affected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Ronny; Bilzer, Thomas; Grest, Paula; Damur, Daniel; Montavon, Pierre M

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical signs and histologic changes in cats clinically affected with medial humeral epicondylitis (MHE) and evaluate long-term outcome after either conservative or surgical treatment. Prospective cohort study. Client-owned cats (n = 17) with MHE. Cats diagnosed with MHE, based on clinical signs, radiographs and computed tomography (CT), were prospectively recruited. Cats were treated conservatively for an initial 4 weeks, followed by either surgery or continued conservative treatment. Followup examinations were performed at 6 and 12 weeks and at 6-49 months. Cats had a mean age of 10.3 years and presented for chronic lameness. Examination revealed pain on palpation caudodistal to the medial epicondyle and by exerting antebrachial supination/pronation with elbow and carpal flexion. Lameness was restricted to 1 limb although CT revealed bilateral disease in 11/17 cats. Free mineralized joint bodies were identified in 9/17 cats. Nine cats were treated surgically and 8 cats were treated conservatively. Intraoperative findings included new bone formation at the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with displacement and adhesions of the ulnar nerve. Microscopic examination revealed neurogenic myopathy in 4/9 cats treated surgically. Seven of 9 cats treated surgically were free from lameness by 12 weeks. Seven of 8 cats treated conservatively were chronically lame throughout the study. Cats with forelimb lameness should be evaluated for MHE. This condition is associated with free joint bodies and neurogenic myopathy. Surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcome in the majority of cats. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  9. 78 FR 48216 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings and Provocations'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Balthus: Cats and...

  10. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Susan E. Little

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  11. Hands-on workshops as an effective means of learning advanced technologies including genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Stearman, Robert; Kechris, Katerina; Phang, Tzu Lip; Reisdorph, Richard; Prenni, Jessica; Erle, David J; Coldren, Christopher; Schey, Kevin; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Geraci, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Genomics and proteomics have emerged as key technologies in biomedical research, resulting in a surge of interest in training by investigators keen to incorporate these technologies into their research. At least two types of training can be envisioned in order to produce meaningful results, quality publications and successful grant applications: (1) immediate short-term training workshops and (2) long-term graduate education or visiting scientist programs. We aimed to fill the former need by providing a comprehensive hands-on training course in genomics, proteomics and informatics in a coherent, experimentally-based framework. This was accomplished through a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 10-day Genomics and Proteomics Hands-on Workshop held at National Jewish Health (NJH) and the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCD). The course content included comprehensive lectures and laboratories in mass spectrometry and genomics technologies, extensive hands-on experience with instrumentation and software, video demonstrations, optional workshops, online sessions, invited keynote speakers, and local and national guest faculty. Here we describe the detailed curriculum and present the results of short- and long-term evaluations from course attendees. Our educational program consistently received positive reviews from participants and had a substantial impact on grant writing and review, manuscript submissions and publications.

  12. Risk factors for feline infectious peritonitis in Australian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthing, Kate A; Wigney, Denise I; Dhand, Navneet K; Fawcett, Anne; McDonagh, Phillip; Malik, Richard; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patient signalment (age, breed, sex and neuter status) is associated with naturally-occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats in Australia. A retrospective comparison of the signalment between cats with confirmed FIP and the general cat population was designed. The patient signalment of 382 FIP confirmed cases were compared with the Companion Animal Register of NSW and the general cat population of Sydney. Younger cats were significantly over-represented among FIP cases. Domestic crossbred, Persian and Himalayan cats were significantly under-represented in the FIP cohort, while several breeds were over-represented, including British Shorthair, Devon Rex and Abyssinian. A significantly higher proportion of male cats had FIP compared with female cats. This study provides further evidence that FIP is a disease primarily of young cats and that significant breed and sex predilections exist in Australia. This opens further avenues to investigate the role of genetic factors in FIP.

  13. Prevalence of Bartonella species infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, M; Englert, T; Stuetzer, B; Hawley, J R; Lappin, M R; Hartmann, K

    2017-04-01

    Bartonella species are zoonotic pathogens, and infections in cats are common. However, prevalence in cats in Southern Germany is still unknown. Therefore, prevalence of Bartonella species DNA in blood of 479 Southern German cats was determined using a previously published conventional PCR targeting a fragment of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Associations between Bartonella bacteraemia, housing conditions, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) status, including progressive, regressive and abortive FeLV infection, were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia was 2.5 per cent (12/479; CI 0.01-0.04 per cent). Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified in 11 of the 12 cats. One cat was positive for Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA. Of the infected cats, 2/12 cats were ill; 6/12 cats had thrombocytopenia. There was a significantly higher risk of Bartonella species infection in young and shelter cats, but not in FIV-infected or FeLV-infected cats. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia is low in Southern German cats, but there is still a risk of zoonotic transmission associated with ownership of young cats. Most of the infected cats did not show clinical signs. Thrombocytopenia was common in Bartonella species-infected cats and further studies are required to define its clinical relevance. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging.

  15. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore SA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structural epilepsies, and reactive seizures. Although primary epilepsy was once believed to be rare in cats, we now commonly appreciate this syndrome, albeit at a lower frequency than in dogs. Because of this, a complete diagnostic work-up is recommended for all cats presenting for initial evaluation of seizures. Symptomatic treatment of seizures in cats is similar to dogs, with only a few limitations related to species-specific antiepileptic drug toxicities. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent veterinary literature related to feline seizures, with a focus on seizure classification, clinical manifestation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options. Keywords: antiepileptic drug, seizure classification, levetiracetam, zonisamide, phenobarbital

  16. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    ...]. Cats were introduced to Qatar in the 1960s to control the high rodent population in the country, but subsequently they in turn reproduced rapidly [4]. The current density of cats in Qatar may pose a risk for humans, as cats are natural hosts for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens, including T. gondii. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii a...

  18. 78 FR 18585 - Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Technology Savings LLC's application for...

  19. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  1. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-03-07

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions.

  2. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  3. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  4. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  5. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...

  6. Higgs CAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarino, Giampiero [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Higgs Computed Axial Tomography, an excerpt. The Higgs boson lineshape (..and the devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape, Hamlet, Act II, scene 2) is analyzed for the gg → ZZ process, with special emphasis on the off-shell tail which shows up for large values of the Higgs virtuality. The effect of including background and interference is also discussed. The main focus of this work is on residual theoretical uncertainties, discussing how much-improved constraint on the Higgs intrinsic width can be revealed by an improved approach to analysis. (orig.)

  7. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  9. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  10. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  11. Borna disease virus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael

    2014-08-01

    Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites and scratches well with soap and running water. Do not allow cats to lick your wounds. Contact your doctor if you develop any symptoms of cat-scratch disease or infection. CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae . About 40% ...

  13. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  14. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  15. Cat-scratch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scratch or bite from a cat, your health care provider may suspect cat-scratch disease. A physical examination may also reveal an enlarged spleen . Sometimes, an infected lymph node may form a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). This ...

  16. Cat scratch colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rebollo, M Lourdes; Velayos-Jiménez, Benito; Prieto de Paula, José María; Alvarez Quiñones, María; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term "cat scratch colon." This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  17. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  18. Program Review - Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program; Including a Report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L., ed.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, The Division of Geothermal Energy of the Department of Energy established the Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program. The purpose of this program is to ''provide assistance to the Nation's industrial community by helping to remove technical and associated economic barriers which presently inhibit efforts to bring geothermal electric power production and direct heat application on line''. In the near term this involves the adaptation of exploration and assessment techniques from the mineral and petroleum industry to geothermal applications. In the near to far term it involves the development of new technology which will improve the cost effectiveness of geothermal exploration.

  19. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Westlake Village, CA, Santa Rosa, CA, Santa Clara, CA..., Santa Clara, California, and the Everett, Washington locations of Agilent Technologies, EEsof Division... workers from Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Santa Clara, California (TA-W-71,168B),...

  20. Design and Implementation of a Coupling Communication Board Based on EtherCAT Technology%一种基于EtherCAT技术的耦合通信板的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乾伟

    2016-01-01

    In terms of industrial automation, due to the presence of strict boundaries between different bus protocols, the data between different fieldbuses can not transmit high-speed effectively and real-time transmission. So People are getting more and more attention to industrial Ethernet. Under the research foundation of the understanding of the EtherCAT technology and learning to domestic chip processor, this paper designs a EtherCAT slave coupling communication board and does a simple test using the domestic processor SoC chip based on SPARC architecture and EtherCAT slaver controller ET1100.%在工业自动化方面,由于不同总线协议之间存在着严格的界限,导致不同的现场总线之间的数据不能高速有效地进行实时传输,使得人们越来越关注工业以太网。本文以对EtherCAT技术的了解和对国产处理器芯片的学习为研究基础,使用SPARC V8架构的国产处理器SoC芯片BM3105和EtherCAT从站控制器芯片ET1100,设计了一种能够实现EtherCAT主从站通信的耦合通信板,并做了简单测试。

  1. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  2. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.

  3. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C

    2012-08-01

    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats.

  4. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

  5. 近红外光谱技术在猫脑射频热凝毁损中的应用研究%Application of near-infrared spectroscopy technology in cat brain radiofrequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国; 杨天明; 钱志余; 潇笛; 郭凯; 刘华亭

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索近红外光谱(nears)技术用于立体定向靶点毁损术中实时监测的可行性.方法:利用猫脑建立体内不同毁损时间、温度下的毁损灶体积模型,通过病理检测及近红外光谱仪观察并记录脑组织靶点毁损时的NIRS尤其是优化散射系数()的变化情况.结果:不同温度、不同时间温度点下NIRS出现特征性变化曲线.并建立时间、温度及三维模型.结论:利用NIRS实时活体在位监测猫脑射频神经核团毁损术是科学、可行的,优化散射系数是监测的良好指标,比以往单凭经验的作法更科学、更准确.%Objective: To investigate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology i monitor real-time target in the stereotactic destruction technology. Methods: In vivo volume models of RF lesion with different lesion time and temperature were established (,adult cats in vivo ). The height and maximum lesion diameter of adult cats in vivo were detected by pathology testing and MRI. Target destruction in near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring: Changes in brain tissue, the changes of reduced scattering coefficient in particular, were detected by brain tissue spectroscopy. Results: Under the same lesion conditions, there was significant difference between the volume of in vivo (p<0.05), the volume which obtained frome in vivo was alerted regularly by the changes of the lesion time and lesion temperature. Conclusion: Real-time near infrared technology in vivo to monitor RF power in damaged nucleus of cats was scientific and feasible. In addition, the reduced scattering coefficient was good indicator for monitoring.

  6. Effective generation of cat and kitten states

    CERN Document Server

    Stobi'nska, M; Wodkiewicz, K; Stobi\\'nska, Magdalena; W\\'odkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We present an effective method of coherent state superposition (cat state) generation using single trapped ion in a Paul trap. The method is experimentally feasible for coherent states with amplitude $\\alpha \\le 2$ using available technology. It works both in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime.

  7. 78 FR 48468 - M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California; M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Long Beach, California; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... Solutions, including on-site leased workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California. The...

  8. Cat tongue Velcro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  9. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  10. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  11. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  12. Canadian entrepreneur looks to Utah oil sands : possible hurdles include gaining acceptance for a new technology, funding and regulatory approval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmeyer, P.

    2010-09-15

    Alberta-based Earth Energy Resources has chosen Utah for its first major oilsand development project. Utah has excellent oil sands resources, but most cannot be economically extracted using conventional methods. The president of Earth Energy Resources has proposed to use new technologies, processes and workflow methods to make resource extraction economically viable. The company currently holds a 100 percent interest in 3,170 hectares under lease from the State of Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA) in the PR Spring deposit. The recoverable high-quality bitumen is estimated at 250 million barrels. The oil sands in Utah are disaggregated and spread out over a relatively wide area. The bitumen quality is very similar to that found in the Athabasca deposit, but it has a much lower sulphur content. Earth Energy Resources plans on using the Ophus Process which involves a series of small 2,000 barrel per day production facilities that can be easily set up, and moved as the resources in one particular area are recovered. Production could be expanded as needed by the addition of more facilities. An environmentally sound citrus-based extraction chemical will replace much of the mechanical energy and caustic soda mixture used in the Clark Process. The new energy and water efficient process will significantly reduce the quantity of middlings produced in the process, thereby eliminating the need for tailings ponds and reducing environmental impacts. 1 fig.

  13. Body condition of feral cats and the effect of neutering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen C; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Newell, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the most appropriate methods for controlling feral cat populations, both from humane and logistical points of view. The physical condition of feral cats has not been reported, and it is not known if these cats benefit from neutering. This study investigates the body condition of feral cats by measuring body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS; Burkholder, 2000; Laflamme, Kealy, & Schmidt, 1994), and falciform fat pad. The study includes lateral abdominal radiographs taken at the time of neutering of 105 adult feral cats for measurement of falciform fat pad depth and area. At that time we also assessed BW and BCS. One year later we assessed the effects of neutering on body condition by evaluating a subsample of 14 cats. At the time of surgery, the cats were lean but not emaciated (BW 3.1 +/- 0.9 kg; BCS 4 +/- 1; based on a 1 to 9 scale ranging from 1 [emaciated] to 9 [grossly obese]). Falciform fat pad depth and area averaged 7.1 mm and 197.4 mm2, respectively, indicating a small amount of fat. Fourteen cats, reevaluated 1 year after neutering, increased 260% + 90% in falciform fat pad depth, 420% +/- 390% in fat pad area, 40% +/- 4% in BW, and 1 level in BCS ranking (1 to 9 scale; all differences p cats, feral cats gained significant weight and body fat after neutering.

  14. Hypofractionated radiation therapy of oral melanoma in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, John; Denman, David L; Hohenhaus, Ann E; Patnaik, Amiya K; Bergman, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Five cats with melanoma involving the oral cavity were treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Cobalt photons were used to administer three fractions of 8.0 Gray (Gy) for a total dose of 24 Gy. Four cats received radiation on days 0, 7, and 21 and one cat received radiation on days 0, 7, and 13. One of the cats received additional irradiation following the initial treatment course. Two cats received chemotherapy. Their age ranged from 11 to 15 years with a median age of 12 years. Three cats had a response to radiation, including one complete response and two partial responses. All five cats were euthanized due to progression of disease, with one cat having evidence of metastatic disease at the time of euthanasia. The median survival time for the five cats was 146 days (range 66-224 days) from the start of RT. The results of this study suggest that oral melanoma in cats may be responsive to hypofractionated RT, but response does not seem to be durable.

  15. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  16. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  17. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  18. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  19. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  20. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 77 FR 61468 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Balthus: Cats and Girls,'' imported from abroad for...

  2. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  3. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  4. The CATS Service: an Astrophysical Research Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhodanov, O V; Andernach, H; Chernenkov, V N

    2009-01-01

    We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system), a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) (http://cats.sao.ru) allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 10e9 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via web inte...

  5. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  6. Wehrl information entropy and phase distributions of Schrodinger cat and cat-like states

    CERN Document Server

    Miranowicz, A; Wahiddin, M R B; Imoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The Wehrl information entropy and its phase density, the so-called Wehrl phase distribution, are applied to describe Schr\\"odinger cat and cat-like (kitten) states. The advantages of the Wehrl phase distribution over the Wehrl entropy in a description of the superposition principle are presented. The entropic measures are compared with a conventional phase distribution from the Husimi Q-function. Compact-form formulae for the entropic measures are found for superpositions of well-separated states. Examples of Schr\\"odinger cats (including even, odd and Yurke-Stoler coherent states), as well as the cat-like states generated in Kerr medium are analyzed in detail. It is shown that, in contrast to the Wehrl entropy, the Wehrl phase distribution properly distinguishes between different superpositions of unequally-weighted states in respect to their number and phase-space configuration.

  7. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  8. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  9. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcoc...

  10. Optimizing CAT-ASVAB Item Selection Using Form Assembly Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Other tests that use a CAT include the GRE [e.g., Syvum 2006] and GMAT [e.g., Princeton Review 2006]. The CAT estimates an examinee’s ability...correspondence, September 2005. The Princeton Review, 2006, GMAT : A Computer-Adaptive Test, http://www.princetonreview.com, 19, May 2006, New York, NY. Sands

  11. Abdominal (liver, spleen) and bone manifestations of cat scratch disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, C.E.; Patrick, L.E. (Egleston Children' s Hospital, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.).

  12. New capabilities for space-based cloud and aerosols measurements: The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Palm, S. P.; Hart, W. D.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rodier, S. D.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Buchard-Marchant, V.

    2013-12-01

    Current uncertainties in cloud and aerosol properties limit our ability to accurately model the Earth's climate system and predict climate change. These limitations are due primarily to difficulties in adequately measuring aerosols and clouds on a global scale. NASA's A-Train satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to address these uncertainties. In particular, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provides vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties. The CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO has reached its seventh year of operation, well past its expected lifetime. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2016 or later. If the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational, there will be a gap in global lidar measurements. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), built at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a payload for the International Space Station (ISS), is set to launch in the summer of 2014. CATS is an elastic backscatter lidar with three wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm) and HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all three wavelengths. The ISS orbit is a 51 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of about 405 km. This orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three day repeat cycle. Thus, science applications of CATS include cloud and aerosol climate studies, air quality monitoring, and smoke/volcanic plume tracking. The primary science objectives of CATS include: continuing the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud vertical profile data record, providing near real time data to support operational applications such as air quality modeling, and advancing technology in support of future mission development using the HSRL channel. Furthermore, the vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties provided by CATS will complement current and future passive satellite

  13. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  14. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  15. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  16. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  17. Amputation for histiocytic sarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Takahiro; Hata, Takashi; Nezu, Yoko; Michishita, Masaki; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2012-02-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with a skin lesion of the left tarsus. The lesion was biopsied and, based on the microscopic appearance and immunohistochemical characteristics, histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed. Amputation was performed with improved demeanor seen postoperatively. However, between 44 and 60 days following the surgery, relapse of skin lesions appeared in multiple locations, including at the previous amputation site, and euthanasia was elected. This is the first report of a histiocytic sarcoma treated with amputation in a cat.

  18. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors.

  19. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  20. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  1. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  2. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  3. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  4. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations.

  5. Cat Scratch Disease: The Story Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Opavsky

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD, including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options.

  6. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  7. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  8. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  9. Cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  10. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in cats with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamoto, T; Ohno, K; Takahashi, M; Fukushima, K; Kanemoto, H; Fujino, Y; Tsujimoto, H

    2017-03-01

    In this study, plasma MMP-9 activity was evaluated in cats with lymphoma. Plasma samples were obtained from 26 cats with lymphoma before treatment. From 13 of the included 26 cats, plasma samples were obtained 4 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Plasma samples were also obtained from 10 healthy cats as a control. Plasma MMP-9 activity was examined by gelatin zymography and semi-quantitative value (arbitrary unit; a.u.) for each sample was calculated. Relatively high levels of MMP-9 were observed in cats with lymphoma compared with those in healthy control cats. MMP-9 quantification through zymography showed significantly higher activity in cats with lymphoma (median, 0.63 a.u.; range, 0.23-3.24 a.u.) than in healthy controls (0.22 a.u.; 0.12-0.46 a.u.; P cats with lymphoma may become an appropriate monitoring tool for feline lymphoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-09

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We undertook a pilot study to assess if lifelong feeding of dry extruded kibble or wet (canned and/or fresh meat combinations) diets to cats (n = 10) with variable oral health affected the microbiome. Oral microbiome composition was assessed by amplifying the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were sequenced using Illumina technology. This deep sequencing revealed the feline oral microbiome to be diverse, containing 411 bacterial species from 14 phyla. We found that diet had a significant influence on the overall diversity and abundance of specific bacteria in the oral environment. Cats fed a dry diet exclusively had higher bacterial diversity in their oral microbiome than wet-food diet cats (p microbiome between cats on the two diets assessed, the relationship between these differences and gingival health was unclear. Our preliminary results indicate that further analysis of the influence of dietary constituents and texture on the feline oral microbiome is required to reveal the relationship between diet, the oral microbiome and gingival health in cats.

  12. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K

    2011-07-01

    Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment and on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective non-lethal population control method but is limited in scope because of expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multiyear contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats.

  13. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  14. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  15. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  16. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    infection to other animals including human beings. The study was ... Eggs identified were those of hookworms found to be predominant (80%) followed by Taeniid eggs (40%) .... that the stray cat are potential source of tapeworm infection.

  17. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  18. Prospective evaluation of healthy Ragdoll cats for chronic kidney disease by routine laboratory parameters and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring.

  19. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  20. Use and perception of collars for companion cats in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, M; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use and utility of collars for companion cats in New Zealand, and to explore public perception of collar use. An online questionnaire was distributed using emails and social media to members of the general public in New Zealand. The questionnaire collected details of respondents, cat ownership status, and responses to a number of questions regarding collar use in cats. A total of 511 responses were collected. Of these, 393/511 (76.9%) reported owning ≥1 cat at the time of the survey, and 141/393 (35.9%) stated that ≥1 of their cats wore collars and 211/393 (53.7%) had ≥1 of their cats micro-chipped. Of the respondents with a pet cat, 351/393 (89.3%) allowed their cats some outdoor access. Respondents mainly used collars for identification and to reduce predation. Reasons for not using collars included cat intolerance of collars, repeated collar loss and concern over collar safety. Differences were found between cat owners and non-owners regarding whether they agreed that cats were important for pest control (43 vs. 25%, pownership and management may be of use to veterinarians to promote responsible pet ownership and to develop national policies and practices to improve cat welfare.

  1. Urinary cortisol/cortisone ratios in hypertensive and normotensive cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Syme, Harriet M

    2009-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, particularly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 predisposes to hypertension in human patients by allowing excessive stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that reduced conversion of cortisol to cortisone contributes to the development of systemic hypertension in some cats with CKD and idiopathic hypertension (iHT). The study included 60 client-owned cats: 21 clinically normal, 16 normotensive cats with CKD (NTCKD), 14 hypertensive cats with CKD (HTCKD) and nine iHTs. Urine cortisol and cortisone were extracted into dichloromethane and chloroform, respectively, prior to analysis by radioimmunoassay. Data are reported as median and range. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare cortisol:cortisone ratios between groups with post-hoc testing using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare results before and after treatment of hypertensive cats with amlodipine. The urinary cortisol:cortisone ratio was significantly higher in clinically normal cats (0.87; 0.46-1.39) when compared to NTCKD (0.60; 0.35-1.20; Pcortisone ratio was detected (P=0.327). Reduced urinary cortisol to cortisone conversion does not appear to be associated with systemic hypertension in cats. In fact, the cortisol to cortisone shuttle appears to be more effective in cats with CKD (hypertensive and normotensive) and iHT than clinically normal cats. The mechanism for this potentially adaptive response to kidney disease is not clear.

  2. Evaluation of routine hematology profile results and fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in lean, overweight, obese, and diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe; Traas, Anne M; Schaeffer, David J

    2013-11-01

    To compare results of hematologic testing in nondiabetic and diabetic cats to identify possible indicators of alterations in long-term glucose control. Cross-sectional study. 117 client-owned cats (76 nondiabetic cats [25 with normal body condition, 27 overweight, and 24 obese] and 41 naïve [n = 21] and treated [20] diabetic cats). Signalment and medical history, including data on feeding practices, were collected. A body condition score was assigned, and feline body mass index was calculated. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses, including determination of fructosamine, thyroxine, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations, were performed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed. Glucose and fructosamine concentrations were significantly higher in the naïve and treated diabetic cats than in the nondiabetic cats. Insulin and proinsulin concentrations were highest in the obese cats but had great individual variation. Few other variables were significantly different among cat groups. Most cats, even when obese or diabetic, had unlimited access to food. Results suggested that cats at risk of developing diabetes (ie, overweight and obese cats) could not be distinguished from cats with a normal body condition on the basis of results of isolated hematologic testing. A longitudinal study is indicated to follow nondiabetic cats over a period of several years to identify those that eventually develop diabetes. Findings also suggested that dietary education of cat owners might be inadequate.

  3. CAT — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAT gene product, catalase, occurs in the peroxisome of almost all respiring organismÃÆ'¢â‚¬â„¢s cells. Catalase is a heme enzyme that converts the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, diminishing the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide on the cell. Catalase promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with decreases in catalase activity but, to date, acatalasemia is the only disease known to be caused by this gene.

  4. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia in four cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Andrea; Penninck, Dominique; Webster, Cynthia; Hecht, Silke; Keating, John; Craig, Linden E

    2013-02-01

    Four cats with feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) are described. Clinical signs included decreased appetite, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Bloodwork abnormalities included mild neutrophilia (n = 2) and hyperglobulinemia with concurrent hyperproteinemia (n = 2). Ultrasonographically, a total of five solitary masses with mural thickening and loss of layering were identified in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon. In one cat a second, separate lesion was diagnosed 3 weeks following surgical resection of one mass. Histopathologically, lesions were characterized by collagen trabeculae and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates, predominantly eosinophils. Multiple areas of necrosis were also noted, which contained bacteria in 2/4 cats. In two cats, changes consistent with FGESF were also noted in the liver. All cats had surgical resection of their lesions. Two cats are still living at time of publication (43 and 24 months post-surgery). FGESF should be considered as a differential for intestinal masses in cats.

  5. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CT findings in two cats with broncholithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Byrne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary Chronic inflammatory airway disease with secondary broncholithiasis was diagnosed in two cats from CT and bronchoalveolar lavage cytological findings. In one cat with progressively worsening lower respiratory tract signs, more than 80 discrete, highly attenuating endobronchial opacities were detected on thoracic CT. The broncholiths were distributed throughout the right middle, and left and right caudal lung lobes, and the caudal part of the left cranial and accessory lobes. In the other cat broncholithiasis was an incidental finding on thoracic radiographs taken during diagnostic investigation of inappetence. On thoracic CT, 25 calcified endobronchial opacities were detected in the left caudal lung lobe in secondary and tertiary bronchi. CT features of chronic inflammatory airway disease were present in both cases, including bronchiectasis, atelectasis, flattening of the diaphragm and bronchial wall thickening. Relevance and novel information This is the first report to document CT features of broncholithiasis in cats. Feline broncholithiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any case where calcified endobronchial material is evident on thoracic radiographs or CT.

  7. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2013-01-31

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium. All cats were housed in enriched cages for at least one year prior to the experiment. Cats had daily play time and socialization outside of the cage, food treats and auditory enrichment. The daily husbandry schedule was maintained at a consistent time of day and cats were cared for by two familiar caretakers. During the test days, cats were exposed to multiple unpredictable stressors which included exposure to multiple unfamiliar caretakers, an inconsistent husbandry schedule, and discontinuation of play time, socialization, food treats, and auditory enrichment. Sickness behaviors (SB), including vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia or decreased food and water intake, fever, lethargy, somnolence, enhanced pain-like behaviors, decreased general activity, body care activities (grooming), and social interactions, were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning, before and after the stress period, for measurement of serum cortisol concentration, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil: lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and mRNA for the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Overall, the short term stressors led to a significant increase in SB in both healthy cats and cats with FIC, whereas lymphopenia and N:L changes occurred only in FIC cats. Daily monitoring of cats for SB may be a noninvasive and reliable way to assess stress responses and overall welfare of cats housed in cages.

  8. ServCat Document Selection Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ServCat document selection guidelines were developed for selecting appropriate documents to upload into ServCat. When beginning to upload documents into ServCat,...

  9. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Moniliella suaveolens in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Connole, M D; McGinnis, M R; Lepelaar, R

    1984-11-01

    Moniliella suaveolens was isolated in pure culture from histologically typical phaeohyphomycotic granulomas containing dematiaceous fungi in two cats. One cat had several slow-growing black lesions up to 2 cm in diameter in the abdominal subcutis. These lesions recurred after surgical excision was attempted. The second cat had a single black subcutaneous 0.5 X 1.5-cm lesion near one dewclaw. This lesion was successfully removed surgically without recurrence. M. suaveolens has not been isolated previously from lesions in animals including man.

  10. Prevalence of dental resorptive lesions in Swedish cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, A; Mannerfelt, T

    2003-09-01

    Ninety-six, randomly selected Swedish cats were evaluated for the presence of dental resorptive lesions. All cats were examined while receiving general anesthesia. Diagnosis was based on oral examination and full-mouth, intraoral dental radiographs. Information concerning age, sex, vaccination status, eating habits, food type, environment (indoor or outdoor housing), oral, discomfort, dental care, and medical treatment was recorded. Hematologic samples included analysis for FeLV, FIV, and calcivirus. Of the cats examined in this study, 32% had gross or radiographic signs of dental resorptive lesions. There was a positive relationship between the occurrence of dental resorptive lesions and increasing age.

  11. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  12. Clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcome in 77 cats with vestibular disease: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, Arianna; Cherubini, Giunio B; Lamb, Chris; Benigni, Livia; Adams, Vicky; Platt, Simon

    2010-04-01

    Medical records of 77 cats that had clinical signs of vestibular disease and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head were reviewed retrospectively. The aetiological, clinical and MRI characteristics were described and evaluated for a relationship with patient outcome. Forty cats (52%) had signs of central vestibular dysfunction (CVD), which was part of a multifocal disease in 17 cats (43%). The most frequent causes of CVD were inflammatory conditions (18 cats; 45%), including bacterial inflammation as an intracranial extension of otitis interna (five cats; 13%), feline infectious peritonitis (three cats; 8%) and toxoplasmosis (two cats; 5%). Neoplasia (12 cats; 30%) and vascular disease (four cats; 10%) were respectively the second and the third most frequent causes of CVD. Thiamine deficiency was diagnosed in one cat based on MRI findings and improvement following vitamin B(1) supplementation. Of 37 cats (48%) with peripheral vestibular dysfunction (PVD), idiopathic vestibular syndrome (IVS) was suspected in 16 (43%) and otitis media/interna was suspected in 16 (43%). Within the group of cats with evident MRI lesions, the location of the imaged lesions agreed with the clinical classification of vestibular dysfunction in 52/55 (95%) cats. Most of the cats (nine cases; 56%) with presumed IVS had rapid and complete recovery of their clinical signs. As most of these cats presented with progressive clinical signs over 3 weeks they were classified as having 'atypical' IVS to differentiate them from cats with the typical non-progressive IVS. No underlying systemic diseases were documented in any of these cases. Statistically significant predictors of survival included neurolocalisation (central or peripheral vestibular system), age and gender. No difference in survival was observed between cats with presumed idiopathic peripheral syndrome and cats with otitis media/interna.

  13. Placement of subcutaneous ureteral bypasses without fluoroscopic guidance in cats with ureteral obstruction: 19 cases (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livet, Véronique; Pillard, Paul; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle; Maleca, David; Cabon, Quentin; Remy, Denise; Fau, Didier; Viguier, Éric; Pouzot, Céline; Carozzo, Claude; Cachon, Thibaut

    2016-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perioperative and postoperative complications as well as short-term and long-term outcomes in cats with ureteral obstructions treated by placement of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device without imaging control. The second objective of this study was to compare cats treated by SUB device with cats treated by traditional surgical intervention. Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical records (2014-2016) of cats that underwent SUB placement (SUB cats) and cats that underwent traditional ureteral surgery (C cats). Nineteen SUB devices were placed without fluoroscopic, radiographic or ultrasonographic guidance in 13 cats. Fifteen traditional interventions (ureterotomy and neoureterocystostomy) were performed in 11 cats. Successful placement of the SUB device was achieved in all cats with only one major intraoperative complication (kinking of the kidney catheter) and one minor intraoperative complication (misplacement of the kidney catheter). Eleven SUB cats recovered from the surgical procedure; two SUB cats and three C cats died during the anaesthesia recovery period. Postoperative SUB complications included anaemia (n = 2), urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 4), non-infectious cystitis (n = 5) and SUB device obstruction (n = 1). Postoperative traditional surgery complications included anaemia (n = 7), UTIs (n = 6), non-infectious cystitis (n = 1), re-obstruction (n = 4) and ureteral stricture (n = 1). Median postoperative duration of hospitalisation (3 days) was significantly shorter for SUB cats than for C cats (P = 0.013). Ten SUB cats (76.9%) and four C cats (40%) were still alive at a median follow-up of 225 days and 260 days, respectively. Owners were completely (90%) or mostly (10%) satisfied with the SUB device placement. SUB device placement appears to be an effective and safe option for treating ureteral obstruction in cats, and this study has shown that fluoroscopic guidance is not essential in

  14. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  15. Oral masses in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.

  16. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  17. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  18. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  19. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  20. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OHD and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OHD, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OHD concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52 for cats with a serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OHD concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats.

  1. Hypocobalaminaemia is uncommon in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, Patricia; Blackwood, Laura; Graham, Peter A; Evans, Helen; German, Alexander J

    2005-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of cobalamin deficiency in cats with a range of alimentary tract diseases. The primary aim of our study was to determine the incidence of subnormal cobalamin concentrations in sick cats with and without alimentary system disorders. Firstly, serum cobalamin concentrations were measured in a population of cats, with and without gastrointestinal (GI) disease, evaluated at a referral hospital. In the second part of the study, the incidence of cobalamin deficiency was assessed in samples submitted to a commercial laboratory specifically for cobalamin measurement. For both studies, a validated radioimmunoassay was used to measure serum cobalamin concentrations (reference range: > 150 pg/ml). In the first part of the study, 132 cats were included and none of these cats had subnormal cobalamin concentrations (median=1,172; range: 278 to >2,000). There were no differences in cobalamin concentrations between cats with alimentary system disorders, and those with diseases of other organs. In the second part, 682 samples were submitted for cobalamin assay over a period of 3 years, and only one cat had a result below the reference range (median=794; range: 147 to >2,000). Cobalamin deficiency was rare in the population tested and this may suggest that the incidence of this biochemical abnormality is less common than reported in the USA.

  2. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Keiko; Masatani, Tatsunori

    2017-10-01

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalent than in the urban area of the island. This finding indicates a possible risk to wildlife of infection from free-ranging and feral cats. Therefore, management of cats is important for wildlife conservation.

  4. Postoperative Respiratory Function and Survival After Pneumonectomy in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephanie A; Steffey, Michele A; Mayhew, Philipp D; Hunt, Geraldine B; Holt, David E; Runge, Jeffrey J; Kass, Philip H; Mellema, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    To describe indications for, and outcomes after, pneumonectomy in dogs and cats, including assessment of immediate postoperative respiratory function in comparison to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n=16) and cats (n=7) with naturally occurring pulmonary disease. Medical records (1990-2014) of dogs and cats undergoing right or left pneumonectomy were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment, history, preoperative diagnostics, operative descriptions, postoperative data including respiratory function, and postdischarge outcomes. For respiratory function comparisons, medical records of dogs having undergone a single lung lobectomy via median sternotomy (n=15) or intercostal thoracotomy (n=15) were reviewed. Twenty-three cases (16 dogs, 7 cats) were included. Pneumonectomy was performed for congenital (1 dog, 1 cat), neoplastic (8 dogs, 1 cat), and infectious (7 dogs, 5 cats) disease. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia occurred in 2 dogs; 15 of 16 dogs (94%) and 6/7 cats (86%) survived to hospital discharge. After pneumonectomy, dogs had a significantly higher postoperative PaO2 on 21% oxygen (P=.033) and lower postoperative A-a gradient (P=.004) compared to dogs undergoing single lung lobectomy. Survival times (right-censored at last follow-up) for dogs ranged from 2 days to 7 years (estimated median=1,868 days) and for cats from 1-585 days. Dogs and cats have acceptable respiratory function immediately postoperatively and most have protracted long-term survival after pneumonectomy for a variety of pulmonary diseases. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Difficulties in administration of oral medication formulations to pet cats: an e-survey of cat owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivén, M; Savolainen, S; Räntilä, S; Männikkö, S; Vainionpää, M; Airaksinen, S; Raekallio, M; Vainio, O; Juppo, A M

    2017-03-11

    The purpose here was to determine the problems cat owners encounter in medicating their cats with orally administered drugs at home. The study was carried out as an open e-questionnaire survey addressed to cat owners in which the authors focused on the oral administration route. A total of 46 completed questionnaires were included in the survey. In the study, 46 cats received 67 orally administered drugs. Approximately half of the drugs were registered for use in cats by the European Medicines Agency (54 per cent), and there were also off-label drugs registered for human (36 per cent) and canine medication (7.4 per cent) and an ex tempore drug (3.0 per cent). The owners were unable to give the doses as prescribed for their cats for one-fourth of the medications (16/67). Drugs that were registered for feline medication were significantly more palatable than drugs registered for other species (odds ratio (OR) 4.9), and liquid formulations were significantly more palatable than solid formulations (OR 4.8). However, most of the owners (22/38) preferred a solid dosage form, while few (4/38) chose a liquid formulation. The results indicate that there is still a need for more palatable and easily administered oral drugs for cats.

  6. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  7. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  8. Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hobi

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are often suspected in cats. Cats with HD are reported to present with one or more of the following patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, self-induced symmetrical alopecia or head and/or neck excoriations. Previous reports on feline HD included small numbers of animals, took place in geographically restricted areas or did not compare these conditions with other causes of pruritus. The goal of the present study was to analyse 7...

  9. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Beatriz P; Klinck, Mary P; Moreau, Maxim; Guillot, Martin; Steagall, Paulo V M; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Gauvin, Dominique; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Troncy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA) from OA (n = 15) cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg) or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg) orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1) peak vertical force (PVF) after staircase exercise; 2) telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA); and 3) response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS). After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%. Phase 1: 1) PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD) was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5) than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7) (p = 0.005); 2) NMA (no unit) was not different between groups; 3) RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range)) was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30)] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28)] (p tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  10. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  11. From Pedigree Cats to Fluffy-Bunnies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-01

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first ``pedigree'' class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrödinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second ``fluffy-bunny'' class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us.

  12. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  13. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THYROID GLANDS IN EIGHT HYPERTHYROID CATS PRE- AND POSTMETHIMAZOLE TREATMENT COMPARED WITH SEVEN EUTHYROID CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jennifer L; Nemanic, Sarah; Gordon, Jana; Bobe, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is the most common feline endocrinopathy; thyroid computed tomography (CT) may improve disease detection and methimazole dose selection. Objectives of this experimental pre-post with historical case-control study were to perform thyroid CT imaging in awake or mildly sedated hyperthyroid cats, compare thyroid gland CT appearance in euthyroid and hyperthyroid cats pre- and postmethimazole treatment, and determine whether thyroid size or attenuation correlate with methimazole dose needed for euthyroidism. Premethimazole treatment, eight hyperthyroid cats received CT scans from the head to heart, which were compared to CT of seven euthyroid cats. Total thyroxine levels were monitored every 3-4 weeks. Postmethimazole CT was performed 30 days after achieving euthyroid status. Computed tomography parameters recorded included thyroid length, width, height, attenuation, and heterogeneity. Median time between CT was 70 days (53-213 days). Mild sedation was needed in five hyperthyroid cats premethimazole, and none postmethimazole. Thyroid volume was significantly larger in hyperthyroid cats compared to euthyroid cats (785.0 mm(3) vs. 154.9 mm(3) ; P = 0.002) and remained unchanged by methimazole treatment (-4.5 mm3; P = 0.50). Thyroid attenuation and heterogeneity decreased with methimazole treatment (96.1 HU vs. 85.9 HU; P = 0.02. 12.4 HU vs. 8.1 HU; P = 0.009). Methimazole dose ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg daily with a positive correlation between pretreatment thyroid gland volume and dose needed to achieve euthyroidism (P = 0.03). Euthyroid and hyperthyroid cats are easily imaged awake or mildly sedated with CT. Methimazole in hyperthyroid cats significantly lowers thyroid attenuation and heterogeneity, but not size. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Chlamydophila felis in cats--are the stray cats dangerous source of infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halánová, M; Sulinová, Z; Cisláková, L; Trbolová, A; Páleník, L; Weissová, T; Halán, M; Kalinová, Z; Holičková, M

    2011-11-01

    Chlamydophila felis is a causative agent of acute or chronic conjunctivitis, and pneumonia in cats. Natural transmission mostly occurs consequently to close contact with other infected cats, their aerosol and fomites. We have examined 93 cats with symptoms of acute or chronic conjunctivitis, from Košice region in Slovakia, during the period of 2 years. Conjunctival samples were obtained from 55 domestic cats (59.14%) and 38 stray cats (40.86%). Of the total number of 93 examined animals, 42 cats were positive, which represents 45.16% overall positivity. Out of the 42 positive cats, 25 cats were stray and 17 positive cats were classified as domestic, which means that of 38 stray cats, 25 were positive (which represented 65.78% positivity) and of 55 domestic cats, 17 were positive (positivity was 30.90%). Our results showed that cats, especially stray cats, could be a dangerous source of chlamydiosis for humans.

  15. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  16. Uncanny Schr\\"odinger cats in driven-dissipative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Minganti, F; Lolli, J; Casteels, W; Ciuti, C

    2016-01-01

    Since their conception, Schr\\"odinger's cats have captured the collective imagination. Photonic cat states are superpositions of two coherent states with opposite phases and with a significant number of photons. Recently, these states have been observed in the transient dynamics of a driven-dissipative resonator subject to engineered two-photon processes. Here we present an exact analytical solution of the steady-state density matrix for this class of systems by including one-photon losses, that are considered detrimental for the achievement of cat states. We demonstrate that the unique steady state is a statistical mixture of two cat-like states with opposite parity, in spite of significant one-photon losses. The transient dynamics to the steady-state depends dramatically on the initial state and can pass through a metastable regime lasting orders of magnitudes longer than the photon lifetime. By considering individual quantum trajectories in photon counting configuration, we find that the system intermitten...

  17. A Case for Adapting and Applying Continuance Theory to Education: Understanding the Role of Student Feedback in Motivating Teachers to Persist with Including Digital Technologies in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Noeline

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand schools, the adoption and persistent use of digital tools to aid learning is a growing but uneven, trend, often linked to the practices of early adopters and/or robust wifi infrastructure. The Technology Adoption Model is used internationally to gauge levels of uptake of technological tools, particularly in commerce and also in…

  18. Telebroadcasting of a Cat-like State via Local Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文海丹; 李传锋; 郭光灿

    2001-01-01

    The quantum telebroadcasting of a cat-like state in combination with the quantum teleportation and the local copying of entanglement is presented. This gives a general way of distributing entanglement among distant parties. All of the operations of our scenario are local and within the reach of current technology.

  19. MusiCat System Makes Library Searches More Fruitful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Per Hofman

    2002-01-01

    Describes MusiCat, an experimental user interface designed in Denmark that reflects the different ways that patrons think when searching for musical material on the Web. Discusses technology versus content; search trees that use a hierarchy of subject terms; and usability testing. (LRW)

  20. CAT bags orders worth Rs 90 Crore from EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Orders to the tune of Rs 90 crore have been received by Indore-based Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) from laboratories in the European Union (EU) and more orders are likely to follow in the near future, according to Pune-based Patel Analog and Digital Measurement Company (PADMCO) director Madhu Patel" (1/2 page).

  1. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  2. Prevalence and breed predisposition for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Steven; Warner, Anne-Sophie; Volk, Holger A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and possible breed predilections for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in cats. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD between January 2008 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the general hospital population. The association between type of IVDD (ie, intervertebral disc extrusion [IVDE] or intervertebral disc protrusion [IVDP]) and breed, age, sex, and duration and severity of clinical signs was also evaluated. Results Of 12,900 cats presented during the study period, 31 (0.24%) were diagnosed with IVDD, including 17 purebred and 14 non-purebred cats. Of all presented purebred cats, 0.52% were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD. More specifically, 1.29% of all British Shorthairs and 1.83% of all presented Persians were diagnosed with IVDD. Compared with the general hospital population, purebred cats ( P = 0.0001), British Shorthairs ( P cats were younger than affected non-purebred cats ( P = 0.02). Of 31 cats with IVDD, 19 were diagnosed with IVDE and 12 with IVDP. Cats with IVDE had a significantly shorter duration of clinical signs ( P = 0.0002) and demonstrated more severe neurological deficits ( P = 0.04) than cats with IVDP. Conclusions and relevance Although thoracolumbar IVDD is an uncommon condition in cats, purebred cats, British Shorthairs and Persians, were overrepresented. It is currently unclear if this represents a true breed predisposition or a higher likelihood of owners of purebred cats seeking referral for advanced diagnostic imaging procedures.

  3. Validity of aqueocentesis as a component of anterior uveitis investigation in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn-Pearl, Rose N; Powell, Roger M; Newman, Hayley A; Gould, David J

    2015-07-01

    To describe aqueocentesis cytopathology results from dogs and cats presenting for uveitis investigation and to determine whether this is a useful and safe procedure. Dogs and cats presenting for investigation of anterior uveitis (April 2008-December 2013). Aqueous was collected via limbal entry under sedation/general anesthesia, for cytopathology and occasionally bacterial culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Further workup included blood testing (hematology, biochemistry, and serology), diagnostic imaging, nonocular cytopathology, and available histopathology. Fifty-six dogs and 39 cats were included in the study. An aqueous cytopathologic diagnosis of lymphoma (or discrete cell neoplasia) was made in six dogs and seven cats, and a diagnosis of large cell carcinoma made in one dog. This diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by ocular histopathology in two dogs and one cat; nonocular cytopathology corroborated lymphoma in another three dogs and five cats. Lymphoma was not evident on aqueous cytopathology but confirmed on nonocular histopathology in two dogs and by cytopathology in one cat. Additionally, aqueous cytopathology in three cats suggested, but was not considered diagnostic of, lymphoma; one of these cats had a confirmatory diagnosis of lymphoma on subsequent clinical investigation. Aqueous humor cytopathology alone was not diagnostic in non-neoplastic anterior uveitis cases, but supplemented the clinical picture with other systemic diagnostic tests. No clinically important complications were reported in association with aqueocentesis. Aqueocentesis is performed readily with minimal risk. The results were primarily useful in aiding a diagnosis of lymphoma in both dogs and cats. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and managing...

  5. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  6. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  7. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Ethiopian feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Tilahun, G; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Zou, X; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies indicate greater genetic variability among isolates of Toxoplasma gondii worldwide than previously thought. However, there is no information on genetic diversity of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. In the present study, genotyping was performed on viable T. gondii isolates by bioassays in mice from tissues and feces of 27 cats from Ethiopia. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 26 cats, feces alone of 1 cat, and feces and tissues of 6 cats; in total there were 33 isolates. Genotyping was performed on DNA from cell-cultured derived T. gondii tachyzoites and by using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Four genotypes were recognized, including ToxoDB #1 (Type II clonal, nine isolates), ToxoDB #2 (Type III, five isolates), Toxo DB #3 (Type II variant, ten isolates), and ToxoDB #20 (nine isolates). Of interest is the isolation of different genotypes from tissues and feces of two cats, suggesting re-infection or mixed strain T. gondii infection. These findings are of epidemiological significance with respect to shedding of oocysts by cats. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nutritional Management of Overweight and Obesity in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Teodora MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common nutritional disorders are overweight and obesity, a proportion of approximately 59% of dogs and cats being affected. A permanent challenge for vets is weight management, including the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Corporeal score and body-weight loss in dogs and cats have been monitored by feeding various diets. The study was conducted on a total of 10 animals (6 dogs and 4 cats, monitoring the effect of three types of food for dogs and two types for cats suffering from overweight and obesity.  Cooked food, dry food diet and premium dry food were investigated. We determined the quality and gross chemical composition of food and we measured corporeal score, weekly weight loss percentage and the number of calories consumed daily. We also appreciated the quality of life and activity level of the animals at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Nutritional management of investigated diets for overweight and obesity in dogs and cats revealed that through the smallest caloric restriction, dry food diet presented the highest efficiency, dogs and cats loosing weight steadily without losing muscle mass. Although the satiety effect occurs when the animals reach their ideal weight, the Rebound effect was not present.

  9. Response of feral cats to vaccination at the time of neutering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah M; Quest, Cassie M; Dubovi, Edward J; Davis, Rolan D; Tucker, Sylvia J; Friary, John A; Crawford, P Cynda; Ricke, Teri A; Levy, Julie K

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether administration of inactivated virus or modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines to feral cats at the time of neutering induces protective serum antiviral antibody titers. Prospective study. 61 feral cats included in a trap-neuter-return program in Florida. Each cat received vaccines against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), FeLV, and rabies virus (RV). Immediately on completion of surgery, vaccines that contained inactivated RV and FeLV antigens and either MLV or inactivated FPV, FHV, and FCV antigens were administered. Titers of antiviral antibodies (except those against FeLV) were assessed in serum samples obtained immediately prior to surgery and approximately 10 weeks later. Prior to vaccination, some of the cats had protective serum antibody titers against FPV (33%), FHV (21%), FCV (64%), and RV (3%). Following vaccination, the overall proportion of cats with protective serum antiviral antibody titers increased (FPV [90%], FHV [56%], FCV [93%], and RV [98%]). With the exception of the FHV vaccine, there were no differences in the proportions of cats protected with inactivated virus versus MLV vaccines. Results suggest that exposure to FPV, FHV, and FCV is common among feral cats and that a high proportion of cats are susceptible to RV infection. Feral cats appeared to have an excellent immune response following vaccination at the time of neutering. Incorporation of vaccination into trap-neuter-return programs is likely to protect the health of individual cats and possibly reduce the disease burden in the community.

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-07-02

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  12. New approaches to non-surgical sterilization for dogs and cats: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2016-11-28

    Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control. The Michelson Prize and Grants (MPG) programme was initiated "to eliminate shelter euthanasia of healthy, adoptable companion animals and reduce populations of feral and free-roaming cats and dogs" offering a $25 million US prize for a non-surgical sterilant that is effective as a single treatment in both male and female dogs and cats. Michelson Prize and Grants programme has offered US $50 million in grant money for research and has attracted scientists worldwide. Approaches under study include gene therapy, small interfering RNA to inhibit reproductive targets and delivery of cytotoxins to pituitary gonadotrophs or GnRH producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Research in implant technology that could deliver compounds over an animal's lifetime is also underway. Details of funded grants and results to date can be found at: http://www.michelsonprizeandgrants.org/michelson-grants/research-findings. The next steps are translating the most promising research into products. The Alliance for Contraception of Cats and Dogs (ACC&D) is helping to research practical methods of marking sterilized animals to avoid costly retreatment and population modelling that will help guide field workers in use of resources for sterilization programmes.

  13. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  14. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K W; Fyfe, J; Cornetta, A; Sachs, A; Strauss-Ayali, D; Lamb, S V; Reimers, T J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the spectrum of diseases associated with subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin in cats undergoing investigation of suspected gastrointestinal problems. The solid-phase boil radioassay (RA) for cobalamin employed in the present study was immunologically specific, precise, and accurate, with a sensitivity of 15 pg/mL. The RA yielded results that strongly correlated with those obtained by bioassay (Spearmann rho = .805; P cats (range 900-2,800 pg/mL; mean +/- SD, 1,775 +/- 535 pg/mL; n = 33). Cats with subnormal cobalamin concentrations (mean +/- SD; 384 +/- 272 pg/mL, range 3-883 pg/mL) were middle-aged or older and were presented for weight loss. diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and thickened intestines. Definitive diagnoses in 22 cats included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal lymphoma, cholangiohepatitis or cholangits, and pancreatic inflammation. Serum concentrations of cobalamin were particularly low in cats with intestinal lymphoma, three-fifths of whom also had subnormal serum concentrations of folate (disease in the intestines, pancreas, or hepatobiliary system in many cats made it difficult to determine the cause of subnormal cobalamin concentrations. The circulating half-life of parenteral cyanocobalamin was shorter in 2 cats with IBD (5 days) than in 4 healthy cats (12.75 days). The presence of subnormal serum concentrations of cobalamin in 49 of 80 cats evaluated suggests that the measurement of serum cobalamin may be a useful indirect indicator of enteric or pancreatic disease in cats. The rapid depletion of circulating cobalamin in cats suggests that cats may be highly susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, the relationship of subnormal serum cobalamin concentrations to cobalamin deficiency and the effect of cobalamin deficiency on cats remain to be determined.

  15. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats.

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in dogs and cats and its prevalence is increasing in both species, probably due to an increase in obesity, although only in cats has obesity been clearly identified as a major risk factor for diabetes. While the classification of diabetes in dogs and cats has been modeled after that of humans, many aspects are different. Autoimmune destruction of beta cells, a feature of type 1 DM in people, is common in dogs; however, in contrast to what is seen in people, the disease occurs in older dogs. Diabetes also occurs in older cats but islet pathology in those species is characterized by the presence of amyloid, the hallmark of type 2 DM. Despite being overweight or obese, most naive diabetic cats, contrary to type 2 diabetic humans, present with low insulin concentrations. The physiology of carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes, including histopathologic findings, in dogs and cats are discussed in this chapter.

  18. In vitro fertilization and sperm cryopreservation in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) and sand cat (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J R; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-03-01

    Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) (BFCs) or sand cats (Felis margarita) (SCs). The objectives of this study were 1) to compare in vitro motility and acrosome status of fresh and cryopreserved (frozen in pellets on dry ice or in straws in liquid nitrogen vapor) BFC and SC spermatozoa cultured in feline-optimized culture medium (FOCM) or Ham F-10, 2) to assess ovarian responsiveness in BFCs and SCs following exogenous gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic oocyte recovery, and 3) to evaluate the fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from both species using homologous and heterologous (domestic cat oocytes) IVF in the two culture media. Motility and acrosomal integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from BFCs and SCs were similar (P > 0.05) in both media during 6 h of culture. Although effects were more pronounced in SCs, cryopreservation in straws was superior (P 80% of recovered oocytes were of optimal (grade 1) quality. The BFC and SC spermatozoa fertilized 60.0%-79.4% of homologous and 37.7%-42.7% of heterologous oocytes in both culture media, with increased (P < 0.05) cleavage of homologous (SC) and heterologous (BFC and SC) oocytes in FOCM. These results provide the first information to date on the gamete biology of two imperiled cat species and further our capacity to apply reproductive technologies for their conservation.

  19. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  20. Quality of life assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vøls, Kåre Kryger; Heden, Martin A.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2017-01-01

    comparative analysis of published papers on the effects of chemotherapy on QoL in dogs and cats were conducted. This was supplemented with a comparison of the parameters and domains used in veterinary QoL-assessments with those used in the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) questionnaire designed...... to assess QoL in toddlers. Each of the identified publications including QoL-assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy applied a different method of QoL-assessment. In addition, the veterinary QoL-assessments were mainly focused on physical clinical parameters, whereas the emotional (6/11), social...... (4/11) and role (4/11) domains were less represented. QoL-assessment of cats and dogs receiving chemotherapy is in its infancy. The most commonly reported method to assess QoL was questionnaire based and mostly included physical and clinical parameters. Standardizing and including a complete range...

  1. Quality of life assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vøls, Kåre K.; Heden, Martin A.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri;

    2016-01-01

    comparative analysis of published papers on the effects of chemotherapy on QoL in dogs and cats were conducted. This was supplemented with a comparison of the parameters and domains used in veterinary QoL-assessments with those used in the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) questionnaire designed...... to assess QoL in toddlers. Each of the identified publications including QoL-assessment in dogs and cats receiving chemotherapy applied a different method of QoL-assessment. In addition, the veterinary QoL-assessments were mainly focused on physical clinical parameters, whereas the emotional (6/11), social...... (4/11) and role (4/11) domains were less represented. QoL-assessment of cats and dogs receiving chemotherapy is in its infancy. The most commonly reported method to assess QoL was questionnaire based and mostly included physical and clinical parameters. Standardizing and including a complete range...

  2. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  3. A critically appraised topic (CAT) to compare the effects of single and multi-cat housing on physiological and behavioural measures of stress in domestic cats in confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats have evolved from solitary, asocial predators and whilst they may display social behaviours, they can still exist as solitary survivors. Over-population and relinquishment of pet cats are ubiquitous problems worldwide, and rehoming centres (also known as rescues/ shelters) aim to ameliorate this by holding cats in confinement for a variable period until a new home is found. The provision of optimal housing for large numbers of cats in close confinement, such as in rehoming centres, is therefore inherently difficult. Under these conditions there is the potential for individuals to develop signs of physical and psychological ill health, and thus experience compromised welfare. Available information regarding housing practices that maximise welfare currently provides conflicting results, and as a consequence there are no unanimous housing recommendations. The aim of this study was therefore to review the evidence on the impact of single housing compared to multi-cat housing on stress in confined cats, as measured by physiological and/or behavioural outcomes. The review was conducted using a Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) format. A systematic search of electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Zoological Records and Medline) was carried out to identify peer-reviewed literature comparing single and multi-cat housing in confined environments. Results A total of 959 papers were initially identified, six of which met sufficient criteria based on their relevance to be included within this review. All of the studies had significant limitations in design and methodology, including a lack of information on how groups were assigned, inconsistent handling and enrichment provision between groups, and lack of information on the socialisation status of cats. Conclusions Whilst some studies suggested that single housing may be less stressful for cats, others suggested group housing was less stressful. Several other important factors were however identified as

  4. Association of CAT-262C/T with the concentration of catalase in seminal plasma and the risk for male infertility in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousnane, Nour El Houda; May, Sadiq; Yahia, Mouloud; Abu Alhaija, Abed Alkarem

    2017-10-01

    Catalase (CAT) plays a central role in the protection of different cell types against the deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. In human, CAT is implicated in many physiological and pathological conditions including idiopathic male infertility. In this study we examined the association between CAT levels in seminal plasma with different sperm parameters and with CAT-262 C/T polymorphism and their risk for idiopathic male infertility in Algeria. Semen and blood samples were obtained from 111 infertile males and 104 fertile controls from the region of Eastern Algeria following informed consent. Standard semen parameters, DNA integrity, and CAT concentration in seminal plasma were evaluated. CAT-262C/T genotypes were screened using allele specific PCR. Seminal CAT activity was significantly different (pinfertile males and controls, it was also markedly decreased in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (pdirect association between CAT-262C/T polymorphism and general male infertility. However, the results presented in this study showed that CAT activity is remarkably associated with the CAT-262T allele (p=0.001) and the different CAT-262C/T genotypes. This study highlighted the major differences in the seminal plasma CAT content between infertile and fertile males and the differences of CAT concentration between different CAT-262C/T genotypes carriers.

  5. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  6. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  7. Bone marrow hypoplasia in a cat treated with griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, J B; English, R V; Breitschwerdt, E B; Duncan, D E

    1991-02-01

    Three weeks after initiation of griseofulvin treatment for dermatophytosis (40 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h), an 8-yr-old domestic shorthair cat developed depression, vomiting, and pyrexia. Abnormalities found during physical examination included bilateral mydriasis, visual impairment, grade-II/V systolic murmur and multiple areas of alopecia. The cat was pancytopenic; serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, and urinalysis revealed proteinuria, glycosuria, and bilirubinuria. Examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed profound hypoplasia of all precursors. Griseofulvin toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship of drug administration with onset of clinical, hematologic, and biochemical abnormalities and failure to identify an infective or neoplastic cause for the bone marrow hypoplasia. The condition was refractory to treatment and the cat was euthanatized. Pathologic changes in the bone marrow were consistent with severe hypoplasia of all bone marrow precursors.

  8. Reference values for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Riond, Barbara; Jud Schefer, Rahel; Kutter, Annette P N

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. The tubes were maintained at 37°C for a maximum of 30 minutes before coagulation testing. ROTEM tests included the EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays. In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration (Clauss method) were analyzed for each cat. Reference intervals for ROTEM were calculated using the 2.5-97.5(th) percentile for each parameter, and correlation with the standard coagulation profile was performed. Compared to people, clinically healthy cats had similar values for the EXTEM and INTEM assays, but had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations (0.9-2.2 g/L), resulting in weaker maximum clot firmness (MCF, 3-10 mm) in the FIBTEM test. In 18 cats, maximum lysis (ML) values in the APTEM test were higher than in the EXTEM test, which seems unlikely to have occurred in the presence of aprotinin. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people. In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  9. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.

  10. Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W

    2015-09-01

    Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary

  11. 基于FPGA的EtherCAT从站节点开发%FPGA- based Development of EtherCAT Slave Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昆; 杨建武

    2011-01-01

    随着实时工业以太网技术在工业自动化领域的发展和应用,德国倍福公司推出的EtherCAT技术尤其备受瞩目.EtherCAT技术的核心在于EtherCAT通信机制、EtherCAT主站和EtherCAT从站节点.EtherCAT从站节点通常是采用EtherCAT从站控制芯片和从站控制微处理器来设计实现的,对此提出了一种使用FPGA技术开发实现EtherCAT从站节点功能的方法,并验证了方法的可行性.%With the development and application of the real - time industrial Ethernet technology in industrial automation, EtherCAT technology introduced by Beckhoff is especially well received. The core of EtherCAT technology is the EtherCAT communication mechanisms, EtherCAT Master and EtherCAT Slave Node. EtherCAT slave node is usually designed by using EtherCAT slave controller chip and slave control microprocessor chip to achieve its function, this paper presents a method which is using FPGA technology to develop the EtherCAT slave node, and verifies the feasibility of it.

  12. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (NTIS No. AD-A115 334). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Uni- versity, Department of Psychology. Lord, F. M...two camps produced an adaptive testing battery (CAT- ASVAB) that achieved a remarkable balance between scientific empiricism and the drive to...of a CAT and placed CAT- Chapter 10 - CAT-ASVAB Operational Test and Evaluation 10-2 ASVAB in the 1980s’ group-paced, lock -step processing

  13. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  14. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  15. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein (LP

  16. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein

  17. Two-Phase Item Selection Procedure for Flexible Content Balancing in CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua; Yi, Qing

    2007-01-01

    Content balancing is an important issue in the design and implementation of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Content-balancing techniques that have been applied in fixed content balancing, where the number of items from each content area is fixed, include constrained CAT (CCAT), the modified multinomial model (MMM), modified constrained CAT…

  18. The ‘Feline Five’: An exploration of personality in pet cats (Felis catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Gillian; Tindle, Hayley; Chiera, Belinda; Kikillus, K. Heidy; Roetman, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The idea of animals possessing personalities was once dismissed by the scientific community, but has since gained traction with evidence for potential application to improve captive animal management and welfare. Although domestic cats are popular companion animals, research has tended to overlook the value of personality assessment for management and care of pet cats. The aim of this study was to investigate personality in a large sample of pet cats with a view to understanding practical implications for pet cats in the home. Personality of 2,802 pet cats, from South Australia and New Zealand, was rated by their owners utilising a survey measuring 52 personality traits. Five reliable personality factors were found using principal axis factor analysis: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Dominance, Impulsiveness and Agreeableness. Implications for the ‘Feline Five’ are discussed in relation to their potential application to improving the management and welfare of pet cats. Highly Impulsive cats for example, may be reacting to something stressful in their environment, whereas cats with low Agreeableness scores, showing irritability may indicate underlying pain or illness. Thus, the need for a systematic and holistic approach to personality that includes both the individual pet cat and its environment is recommended, and opens the door to future interdisciplinary intervention. PMID:28832622

  19. Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap-neuter-return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Rich, Catherine; Sullivan, Lauren M

    2009-08-01

    Many jurisdictions have adopted programs to manage feral cats by trap-neuter-return (TNR), in which cats are trapped and sterilized, then returned to the environment to be fed and cared for by volunteer caretakers. Most conservation biologists probably do not realize the extent and growth of this practice and that the goal of some leading TNR advocates is that cats ultimately be recognized and treated as "protected wildlife." We compared the arguments put forth in support of TNR by many feral cat advocates with the scientific literature. Advocates promoting TNR often claim that feral cats harm wildlife only on islands and not on continents; fill a natural or realized niche; do not contribute to the decline of native species; and are insignificant vectors or reservoirs of disease. Advocates also frequently make claims about the effectiveness of TNR, including claims that colonies of feral cats are eventually eliminated by TNR and that managed colonies resist invasion by other cats. The scientific literature contradicts each of these claims. TNR of feral cats is primarily viewed and regulated as an animal welfare issue, but it should be seen as an environmental issue, and decisions to implement it should receive formal environmental assessment. Conservation scientists have a role to play by conducting additional research on the effects of feral cats on wildlife and by communicating sound scientific information about this problem to policy makers.

  20. Comparison of how well conscious cats tolerate blood pressure measurement from the radial and coccygeal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Martha J; Brett, Jo

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is a common condition of older cats and acquiring clinically relevant and repeatable blood pressure (BP) measurements in conscious cats is important in its diagnosis and management. The most common sites for indirect BP measurement in the cat are the radial artery (RA) and the coccygeal artery (CA) but, to date, there are no published data comparing how conscious cats tolerate BP measurements from these sites. A high-definition oscillometric BP monitor was used to measure BP in 30 cats admitted to a cat-only veterinary clinic for reasons other than hypertension. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured using the RA and CA, alternating which site was used first. The number of failed attempts and total time to achieve six measurements was recorded. Measurement of BP using the CA was better tolerated than the RA, resulting in fewer failures and shorter total time required. SAP measurements were slightly higher from the CA compared with the RA, irrespective of which site was used first. There were no significant differences in MAP and DAP. The coccygeal artery appears to be the more appropriate site to use when measuring BP in conscious cats using this oscillometric machine. Further studies are required using alternative BP monitors, including Doppler machines, to establish whether this is a consistent finding. When measuring BP in cats the site used should be recorded and the same site used for all subsequent measurements from the same cat.

  1. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  2. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  3. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  6. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes are the main symptom of the disease, and the illness often is mild. If kids have other general ... Prevention If you're concerned about cat scratch disease, you do not need to get rid of the family pet . The illness is not common and usually is mild, and ...

  7. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  8. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.

  9. Retention performance of a learned delayed-alternation task after chemical lesions of the cats mediodorsal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, H J

    1982-03-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus was lesioned in cats, which had learned a spatial delayed-alternation task. Lesions were carried out with kainic acid or ibotenic acid. From altogether 29 cats, 9 cats with bilateral and 6 cats with unilateral lesions of the mediodorsal nucleus together with a control group of 4 cats, were included in the final data analysis. Lesions in the operated cats destroyed variable portions of the mediodorsal nucleus. Consistently, however, neither the midline nuclei, situated next to the damaged mediodorsal nucleus, nor fiber tracts traversing or by-passing the mediodorsal nucleus, were damaged. Furthermore, remote lesion effects were not detected either in the diazepam-pretreated cats with kainic acid-induced lesions or in the ibotenic acid-lesioned animals. Cats injected with ibotenic acid at a concentration 8-fold higher than the kainic acid solution, showed smaller thalamic lesions than kainic acid-injected cats. A direct correlation was found between the extent of neuronal damage within the mediodorsal nucleus and the degree of the behavioral impairment. Cats with complete or almost complete bilateral lesions of the mediodorsal nucleus manifested severe deficits in retention of the delayed-alternation task, while cats with small, bilateral lesions of the mediodorsal nucleus or with unilateral lesions were impaired less severely or even not at all.

  10. US Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A; Hossein, H

    2009-04-01

    Considering the role of parasites in contamination of human beings and domestic animals and lack of information in the region, the present study was performed to investigate the infection status of helminthes and protozoa of stray cats in central Iran. A cross - sectional study was conducted on 113 stray cats trapped from different geographic regions of Kashan during four seasons and were necropsied. Different organs including: kidney, heart, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and abdominal cavity were inspected for helminthes and protozoa infection. Animal's characters including: genus, weight, and season, location, microscopic and macroscopic findings were recorded in a special form. Data were classified and statistically analyzed with a confidence interval of 95%. Chi- Squire Test was used to show the relationship between different factors and parasitic infection. From a total 113 stray cats examined, 67(59.3%) were male and 46(40.7%) were female. Fifteen species of endoparasite including helminthes and protozoa were detected in intestine and fecal sample of the examined cats. There were six protozoa, five cestodes and four nematodes. All endoparasite were localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Overall 108 cats (95.6%) have been infected with at least one of the endoparasites. Prevalences of parasites found were Nematodea: Toxocara cati 13.3%, Physaloptera preputialis 39.8%, Rictularia 52.2% and Uncinaria stenocephala 1.8%; Cestodea: Mesocestoides lineatus 7.1%, Taenia taeniaformis 15%, Diplopylidium nolleri 64.6%, Dipylidium caninum 68.1% and Joyeuxiella echinorhyncoides 85%; Sporozoea: Isospora rivolta 5.3%, Isospora felis 5.3%, Sarcocystis spp 8%, Blastocystis spp 16.8% and Zoomastigophorea: Giardia felis 0.9% and Trichomonas spp 1.8%. Contamination rate for zoonotic parasites of cat was greater than expected in Kashan region. In this respect, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive

  12. Clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection in asymptomatic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, L; Genchi, C; Genchi, M; Grandi, G; Kramer, L H

    2008-12-10

    Clinical manifestations of heartworm disease in cats are variable; most cats seem to tolerate the infection well for extended periods. Heartworm-infected cats may undergo spontaneous self-cure due to the natural death of parasites without any symptomatology, or they may suddenly show dramatic and acute symptoms. Sudden death in apparently healthy cats is not a rare event. Thoracic radiographs are important tool for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. However, thoracic abnormalities are often absent or transient and highly variable in heartworm-infected cats. Findings, such as enlargement of the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries, with a varying degree of pulmonary parenchymal disease and hyperinflation, are the most typical features consistent with infection. A field study was performed for cats referred to the Veterinary Hospital Città di Pavia from January 1998 to December 2001 for routine health examinations and procedures to evaluate the clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection. Thirty-four asymptomatic cats diagnosed with feline heartworm infection by antibody and antigen tests together with an echocardiogram that allowed worm visualization were included in the follow-up study. Cats were routinely examined every 3 months from the time of heartworm diagnosis until the outcome (self-cure or death). Self-cure was defined as no positive serology for heartworm antigens and no visualization of worms by echocardiography. A final examination for antibodies was carried after 12 months as a final confirmation of self-cure. Twenty-eight cats (82.4%) self-cured; including 21 that showed no clinical signs of infection throughout the study. Six cats died. The most common clinical features observed were acute respiratory symptoms and sudden death. Infection lasted over 3 years in the majority of the cats enrolled in the study. Thoracic radiograph appearance was variable, and the most commonly observed findings were focal

  13. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  14. Use of adjunctive prednisolone in the management of a cat with bilateral quadriceps contracture following trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope LC Tisdall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 6-month-old cat was successfully treated for bilateral quadriceps contracture. Conventional treatments including surgery, dynamic flexion apparatus and physical therapy along with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted in temporary clinical improvement that was relapsing. The initiation of supplementary corticosteroid treatment with prednisolone coincided with an immediate and sustained clinical improvement and long-term resolution. Relevance and novel information Successful treatment of bilateral quadriceps contracture has not previously been reported in a cat. Quadriceps contracture remains a challenging condition to treat with some cases unresponsive to therapy. Systemic prednisolone treatment appeared to be of benefit in the management of this case and may have a role in some cats where muscle contracture appears relapsing in nature. Further prospective investigations in cats with muscle contracture, including muscle biopsies of affected cats, are warranted.

  15. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  16. Optic neuropathy secondary to cat scratch disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optic neuropathy due to cat scratch disease is a relatively infrequent occurrence associated with macular star formation and is characterized by sudden painless loss of vision mostly unilateral. Bartonella henselae is well recognized as the etiologic agent in cat scratch disease. Ocular complications of the disease occur in up to 10% of patients and include neuroretinitis. Ocular bartonelosis is usually self-limited with complete or near-complete recovery of vision in otherwise healthy patients. A case of a boy with neuroretinitis caused by B. henselae is reported.

  17. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  18. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  19. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  20. Japanese Bobtail: vertebral morphology and genetic characterization of an established cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Rachel E; Koehne, Amanda L; Peterson, Carlyn B; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    Several cat breeds are defined by morphological variation of the tail. The Japanese Bobtail is a breed that has been accepted for registration only within the past 50 years; however, the congenital kinked tail variants defining this breed were documented in the Far East centuries ago and the cats are considered 'good luck' in several Asian cultures. The recent discovery of the mutation for the tailless Manx phenotype has demonstrated that the Japanese Bobtail does not have a causative mutation in the same gene (T-Box). Here, a simple segregation analysis of cats bred from a pedigreed Japanese Bobtail demonstrated a simple autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with variable expression of the tail length and kink placement. Unexpectedly, radiological examinations of the entire vertebral column of kink-tailed cats indicated variation from the normal vertebral feline formula (C7, T13, L7, S3, Cd20-24), including cats with mostly one reduction of thoracic vertebrae (C7, T12, L7, S3), and an average of 15.8 caudal vertebrae. A few cats had variation in the number of cervical vertebrae. Several transitional vertebrae and anomalous ribs were noted. One cat had a bifid vertebra in the tail. Most cats had hemivertebrae that were usually included in the tail kink, one of which was demonstrated by gross pathology and histopathology. The abnormal vertebral formula or the placement of the kink in the tail did not coincide with morbidity or mortality.

  1. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E; Caires, Kyle C; Bohannon, Lisa A; Parsons, Elizabeth I; Hilburn, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  2. Free-Ranging Farm Cats: Home Range Size and Predation on a Livestock Unit In Northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E.; Caires, Kyle C.; Bohannon, Lisa A.; Parsons, Elizabeth I.; Hilburn, Katharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife. PMID:25894078

  3. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  4. The Neutrosophic Logic View to Schroedinger's Cat Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Neutrosophic Logic interpretation of the Schrodinger's cat paradox. We argue that this paradox involves some degree of indeterminacy (unknown which Neutrosophic Logic could take into consideration, whereas other methods including Fuzzy Logic could not. For a balanced discussion, other interpretations have also been discussed.

  5. Ventricular and extraventricular ependymal tumors in 18 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, L; de Lahunta, A; Baiker, K; Dobson, E; Summers, B A

    2013-03-01

    Ependymal tumors are reported rarely in domestic animals. The aims of this study were to examine the clinical and pathologic features of ventricular and extraventricular ependymomas and subependymomas in 18 domestic cats examined between 1978 and 2011. Parameters examined included age, sex, breed, clinical signs, and macroscopic and histopathologic features. The mean age of affected cats was 9 years, 4 months; median age, 8.5 years. There were 8 female and 4 male cats, and 6 cats for which sex was not recorded. Breeds included 10 domestic shorthaired, 2 domestic longhaired, 1 Persian, and 1 Siamese. Clinical signs included altered mentation or behavior, seizures, circling, propulsive gait, generalized discomfort, and loss of condition. The tumors often formed intraventricular masses and usually arose from the lining of the lateral or third ventricles, followed by the fourth ventricle, mesencephalic aqueduct, and spinal cord central canal. Three tumors were extraventricular, forming masses within the cerebrum and adjacent subarachnoid space. Histologically, 15 tumors were classified as variants of ependymomas (classic, papillary, tanycytic, or clear cell) and 3 as subependymomas. Tumors were generally well demarcated; however, 6 ependymomas focally or extensively infiltrated the adjacent neural parenchyma. Characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes were observed in all ependymomas; true rosettes were less common. Some tumors had areas of necrosis, mineralization, cholesterol clefts, and/or hemorrhage. This cohort study of feline ependymal tumors includes subependymoma and primary extraventricular ependymoma, variants not previously described in the veterinary literature but well recognized in humans.

  6. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  7. Outcome of Donor Cats After Unilateral Nephrectomy as Part of a Clinical Kidney Transplant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kelson C; Hardie, Robert J; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2015-10-01

    To compare 1) complications between 2 ureteral harvest techniques (ureteral papilla harvest [UPH] and ureteral transection [UT]); 2) to investigate the prevalence of kidney failure in a population of kidney donors; and 3) to evaluate owner satisfaction with commercially sourced cats adopted after kidney donation. Retrospective case series. Cats (n = 72) that had unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation. Medical records were reviewed and information on short- and long-term complications and evidence of kidney failure was recorded. Clients were interviewed by telephone to ascertain their satisfaction with the adopted donor cats as pets. Seventy-two cats had unilateral nephrectomy. Forty-two owners were able to be contacted for survey data. Twenty-eight cats had complete medical records including serum BUN, creatinine, and urine specific gravity. For these 28 cats, mean age at nephrectomy was 1.9 years (median, 1.1 years; range, 0.5-9.3 years) and mean age at follow-up was 6.8 years (median, 5.1 years; range, 1.0-18.7 years). There was no difference in major or minor complication rates between UPH and UT techniques. Kidney failure occurred in 17.8% of cats. All owners were satisfied with the adopted donor cats, which were obtained from commercial facilities. UPH is a safe technique in cats being used for kidney donation. Commercially sourced cats make suitable pets after kidney donation. The prevalence of kidney failure in the donor population appears to be higher than that in the general population, but definitive conclusions cannot be made based on this study. Further, prospective study is needed to identify the true prevalence of kidney failure in cats after unilateral nephrectomy. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Who Let the CAT Out of the Bag? Accurately Dealing with Substitutional Heterogeneity in Phylogenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Nathan V; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2016-09-14

    As phylogenetic datasets have increased in size, site-heterogeneous substitution models such as CAT-F81 and CAT-GTR have been advocated in favor of other models because they purportedly suppress long-branch attraction (LBA). These models are two of the most commonly used models in phylogenomics, and they have been applied to a variety of taxa, ranging from Drosophila to land plants. However, many arguments in favor of CAT models have been based on tenuous assumptions about the true phylogeny, rather than rigorous testing with known trees via simulation. Moreover, CAT models have not been compared to other approaches for handling substitutional heterogeneity such as data partitioning with site-homogeneous substitution models. We simulated amino acid sequence datasets with substitutional heterogeneity on a variety of tree shapes including those susceptible to LBA. Data were analyzed with both CAT models and partitioning to explore model performance; in total over 670,000 CPU hours were used, of which over 97% was spent running analyses with CAT models. In many cases, all models recovered branching patterns that were identical to the known tree. However, CAT-F81 consistently performed worse than other models in inferring the correct branching patterns, and both CAT models often overestimated substitutional heterogeneity. Additionally, reanalysis of two empirical metazoan datasets supports the notion that CAT-F81 tends to recover less accurate trees than data partitioning and CAT-GTR. Given these results, we conclude that partitioning and CAT-GTR perform similarly in recovering accurate branching patterns. However, computation time can be orders of magnitude less for data partitioning, with commonly used implementations of CAT-GTR often failing to reach completion in a reasonable time frame (i.e., for Bayesian analyses to converge). Practices such as removing constant sites and parsimony uninformative characters, or using CAT-F81 when CAT-GTR is deemed too

  10. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level......, and independent evidence sought to confirm the remaining signals. Some chance associations are expected and confounding by indication is possible.......AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...... of Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification) and chemical subgroup (4th level) were analysed using a 50% false detection rate. After excluding antiepileptics, antidiabetics, antiasthmatics and SSRIs/psycholeptics already under investigation, 27 associations were evaluated. If evidence for a signal...

  11. Myeloproliferative disease in a cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, R.W.; Weller, R.E.; Feldman, B.F.

    1984-10-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders, a complex of cytologic abnormalities arising in the bone marrow, are among domestic animals most frequently recognized in cats but are relatively uncommon. A 4-year-old female Siamese, with splenomegaly and weight loss, was listless, anorectic, pale and dehydrated. A hemogram showed severe, macrocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis and reticulocytosis, with abnormally high numbers of nucleated RBC and undifferentiated blast cells. Bone marrow smears contained predominantly undifferentiated blast cells, RBC precursors and myeloblasts. The fluorescent antibody test for FeLV was positive. The cat died 66 days later despite a blood transfusion and chemotherapy. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of myeloproliferative disease, with hepatic and splenic invasion. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  13. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. PMID:23122180

  14. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations), but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medici...

  15. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel - The characteristics and the behavior of fission products in nuclear fuels including DUPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Hun [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this research can be divided into 2 parts; the problems related to f.p.`s up to the stage of producing DUPIC fuels and the effects of f.p.`s on the performance of nuclear fuels including DUPIC. The dose rate study of fresh and spent DUPIC fuels is done. Ba-137 m is major gamma-ray source in spent nuclear fuels after five year cooling time. Cs-137 makes a secular equilibrium with Ba-137 m, and elimination of Cs induces the disappearance of Ba-137 m, in an hour. Hence, care should be taken in collecting Cs during OREOX process. A defect model of irradiated nuclear fuels for the oxygen potential based on the defect structure of pure urania is devised. This model can give the oxygen pressure of ambient gas during the sintering of DUPIC fuels. The thermal conductivity decreases with the content of f.p.`s. The temperature distribution of DUPIC fuels is calculated from the thermal conductivity. The higher operating temperature of DUPIC fuels urges us to study the fuel performance difference. O/M shift due to steep temperature gradient is expected. However, the shift is negligible if the non-stoichiometry is small. 55 refs., 22 tabs., 52 figs. (author)

  16. Chronic maladaptive pain in cats: A review of current and future drug treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Derek; Papich, Mark; Baynes, Ron; Murrell, Jo; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-08-20

    Despite our increasing understanding of the pathophysiology underlying chronic or maladaptive pain, there is a significant gap in our ability to diagnose and treat the condition in domestic cats. Newer techniques being used to identify abnormalities in pain processing in the cat include validated owner questionnaires, measurement of movement and activity, and measurement of sensory thresholds and somatomotor responses. While some data are available evaluating possible therapeutics for the treatment of chronic pain in the cat, most data are limited to normal cats. This review details our current understanding of chronic or maladaptive pain, techniques for the detection and measurement of the condition and the associated central nervous changes, as well as an overview of the data evaluating potential therapeutics in cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Critically appraised topics (CATs): a new publishing opportunity in Radiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C

    2013-09-01

    Physicians need fast access to quality information about the best diagnostic tests and treatments in each case. To meet this need, a new publishing format has emerged. Critically appraised topics (CATs) are elaborated following the five steps of evidence-based medicine. CATs are structured summaries of research articles that deal with a specific clinical query, presenting a critical evaluation of the best evidence available to support the validity of the available options. CATs have proven useful in teaching evidence-based radiology and this publishing format is becoming more common. Radiology CATs can be found on medical websites and in journals, including those dedicated to general medicine as well as those specifically dedicated to radiology. Radiología encourages the publication of CATs because we consider that they can be useful for daily decision making.

  18. Pathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in naturally occurring virulent systemic feline calicivirus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; MacLachlan, N J; Dillard-Telm, L; Grant, C K; Hurley, K F

    2004-05-01

    Infection with feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory and oral disease in cats. FCV infection is rarely fatal, however, virulent, systemic strains of FCV (VS-FCV) that cause alopecia, cutaneous ulcers, subcutaneous edema, and high mortality in affected cats have recently been described. Seven cats with natural VS-FCV infection all had subcutaneous edema and ulceration of the oral cavity, with variable ulceration of the pinnae, pawpads, nares, and skin. Other lesions that were present in some affected cats included bronchointerstitial pneumonia, and pancreatic, hepatic, and splenic necrosis. Viral antigen was present within endothelial and epithelial cells in affected tissues as determined by immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody to FCV. Mature intranuclear and intracytoplasmic virions in necrotic epithelial cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy. VS-FCV infection causes epithelial cell cytolysis and systemic vascular compromise in susceptible cats, leading to cutaneous ulceration, severe edema, and high mortality.

  19. Bacterial pericarditis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole LeBlanc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Oregon State University cardiology service for suspected pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade was documented and pericardiocentesis yielded purulent fluid with cytologic results supportive of bacterial pericarditis. The microbial population consisted of Pasteurella multocida, Actinomyces canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species. Conservative management was elected consisting of intravenous antibiotic therapy with ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium and metronidazole for 48 h followed by 4 weeks of oral antibiotics. Re-examination 3 months after the initial incident indicated no recurrence of effusion and the cat remained free of clinical signs 2 years after presentation. Relevance and novel information Bacterial pericarditis is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in cats. Growth of P multocida, A canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species has not previously been documented in feline septic pericarditis. Conservative management with broad-spectrum antibiotics may be considered when further diagnostic imaging or exploratory surgery to search for a primary nidus of infection is not feasible or elected.

  20. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  1. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  2. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  3. Collaborative Assessment Tool (CAT) - Assessing scientific practices in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An important learning goal of Projects and Practices in Physics (P3) , the transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University, is the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course construction, made clear attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (e.g., learning to work productively in a group) by developing a collaborative assessment tool (CAT). The CAT is a formative assessment tool that provides students with a numerical grade for how they participated in their learning group on a weekly basis while also providing feedback in the form of written commentary and suggestions on how they might improve at a particular collaborative practice. In this presentation, we demonstrate the CAT tool from two perspectives: 1) how the CAT tool is used within the P3 context and 2) how the formative feedback has affected changes in student interactions in class. We will present the case studies of 3 students who had differing reactions to the feedback they received. We will explore the role the feedback had in their interactions over a four-week period from an in-class perspective and a reflected perspective through interviews and observations. The analysis will also be presented from a tutor and group perspective, which will highlight the affordances the CAT can have in creating a productive learning group. The research on the CAT shows promise in encouraging growth in students' collaborative skills, but this research is still in its infancy and needs to be expanded to include different contexts.

  4. An Evaluation of Feral Cat Management Options Using a Decision Analysis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie Anne T. Loyd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The feral domestic cat (Felis catus is a predatory invasive species with documented negative effects on native wildlife. The issue of appropriate and acceptable feral cat management is a matter of contentious debate in cities and states across the United States due to concerns for wildlife conservation, cat welfare, and public health. Common management strategies include: Trap-Neuter-Release, Trap-Neuter-Release with removal of kittens for adoption and Trap-Euthanize. Very little empirical evidence exists relevant to the efficacy of alternative options and a model-based approach is needed to predict population response and extend calculations to impact on wildlife. We have created a structured decision support model representing multiple stakeholder groups to facilitate the coordinated management of feral cats. We used a probabilistic graphical model (a Bayesian Belief Network to evaluate and rank alternative management decisions according to efficacy, societal preferences, and cost. Our model predicts that Trap-Neuter-Release strategies would be optimal management decisions for small local populations of less than fifty cats while Trap-Euthanize would be the optimal management decision for populations greater than 50 cats. Removal is predicted to reduce feral cat populations quickly and prevent cats from taking a large number of wildlife prey.

  5. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J; Takeuchi, Gary T; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-07

    Pantherine felids ('big cats') include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A 'total evidence' phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats.

  6. Evaluation for association between urolithiasis and chronic kidney disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléroux, Andréanne; Alexander, Kate; Beauchamp, Guy; Dunn, Marilyn

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether urolithiasis is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 126 cats (59 and 67 with and without urolithiasis, respectively). PROCEDURES Medical records from June 2006 to July 2013 were searched to identify cats that underwent abdominal or focal urinary tract ultrasonography and for which serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity data were obtained ≤ 14 days before or after the examination. In cats with (urolithiasis group) and without (control group) urolithiasis, the presence of CKD was determined according to International Renal Interest Society guidelines. Information recorded included signalment, body weight, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity; when present, the location and number of uroliths were noted. Differences between groups and associations between group and categorical variables were analyzed statistically. RESULTS Age, weight, sex, and breed did not differ between groups. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in cats with urolithiasis than in the control group. Among cats with urolithiasis, there was a negative association between CKD and presence of cystoliths. There was no association between urolithiasis and the stage of CKD or between presence of CKD and location of nephroliths in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed a positive association between urolithiasis and CKD in the feline population studied and suggested that cats with urolithiasis should be evaluated for CKD. Further research is warranted to assess the nature of the relationship between CKD and urolithiasis in cats.

  7. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  8. Characterization of the cutaneous mycobiota in healthy and allergic cats using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Johnson, Timothy J; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies have demonstrated a diverse skin-associated microbiota and microbial dysbiosis associated with atopic dermatitis in people and in dogs. The skin of cats has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. We hypothesized that the fungal microbiota of healthy feline skin would be similar to that of dogs, with a predominance of environmental fungi, and that fungal dysbiosis would be present on the skin of allergic cats. Eleven healthy cats and nine cats diagnosed with one or more cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders, including flea bite, food-induced and nonflea nonfood-induced hypersensitivity. Healthy cats were sampled at twelve body sites and allergic cats at six sites. DNA was isolated and Illumina sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi. Sequences were processed using the bioinformatics software QIIME. The most abundant fungal sequences from the skin of all cats were classified as Cladosporium and Alternaria. The mucosal sites, including nostril, conjunctiva and reproductive tracts, had the fewest number of fungi, whereas the pre-aural space had the most. Allergic feline skin had significantly greater amounts of Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes, and significantly less Epicoccum compared to healthy feline skin. The skin of healthy cats appears to have a more diverse fungal microbiota compared to previous studies, and a fungal dysbiosis is noted in the skin of allergic cats. Future studies assessing the temporal stability of the skin microbiota in cats will be useful in determining whether the microbiota sequenced using NGS are colonizers or transient microbes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Low seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from northern Portugal based on DAT and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sherry, Kate; Schallig, Henk; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2010-11-24

    Cats have been considered playing a role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, an endemic zoonosis in countries of the Mediterranean basin. The present study assessed the prevalence of antibodies to L. infantum in 316 domestic cats from northern Portugal, by means of the direct agglutination test (DAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seroreactivity to DAT was found in six cats, and nine cats were positive in the ELISA, including the six DAT-positive animals. The overall seroprevalence of Leishmania infection was 2.8%, based on ELISA and DAT. A substantial agreement (99%; κ value=0.80) was found between DAT and ELISA results. The difference between seroprevalence values in females (0.7%) and males (4.7%) was statistically significant (p=0.045). The age of seropositive cats ranged from 31 to 84 months. Cats with 5-6 years (60-71 months) and 6-7 years (72-83 months) presented the highest level of seropositivity (15.4% and 33.3%, respectively). A significant difference was found comparing the seroprevalences in cats aged less than 24 months (0.0%) and in those with 24 months or more (7.3%) (p=0.022). Seroprevalences in cats living in a rural environment (10.5%) or in urban areas (0.0%) were also found to be significantly different (pfeline Leishmania infection in Portugal. The seroprevalence of Leishmania infection was low in cats living in northern Portugal, a region where canine leishmaniasis is endemic. Nevertheless, Leishmania infection must not be underestimated and leishmaniasis may be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous or systemic clinical signs in cats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  11. Sequence Variants and Haplotype Analysis of Cat ERBB2 Gene: A Survey on Spontaneous Cat Mammary Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Bastos, Estela; Baptista, Cláudia S.; Sá, Daniela; Caloustian, Christophe; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Gärtner, Fátima; Gut, Ivo G.; Chaves, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The human ERBB2 proto-oncogene is widely considered a key gene involved in human breast cancer onset and progression. Among spontaneous tumors, mammary tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer death in cats and second most frequent in humans. In fact, naturally occurring tumors in domestic animals, more particularly cat mammary tumors, have been proposed as a good model for human breast cancer, but critical genetic and molecular information is still scarce. The aims of this study include the analysis of the cat ERBB2 gene partial sequences (between exon 17 and 20) in order to characterize a normal and a mammary lesion heterogeneous populations. Cat genomic DNA was extracted from normal frozen samples (n = 16) and from frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mammary lesion samples (n = 41). We amplified and sequenced two cat ERBB2 DNA fragments comprising exons 17 to 20. It was possible to identify five sequence variants and six haplotypes in the total population. Two sequence variants and two haplotypes show to be specific for cat mammary tumor samples. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that four of the sequence variants can produce alternative transcripts or activate cryptic splicing sites. Also, a possible association was identified between clinicopathological traits and the variant haplotypes. As far as we know, this is the first attempt to examine ERBB2 genetic variations in cat mammary genome and its possible association with the onset and progression of cat mammary tumors. The demonstration of a possible association between primary tumor size (one of the two most important prognostic factors) and the number of masses with the cat ERBB2 variant haplotypes reveal the importance of the analysis of this gene in veterinary medicine. PMID:22489125

  12. The Value of Cat Ownership to Elderly Women Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalski, Pauline A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed elderly women in two New Zealand cities; one allowed pet cats, one did not. Attitudes toward pet cats were more positive in city allowing pets and among pensioners who owned, or wished to own, cats. Since positive attitudes outweighed negative ones, City Authority banning cats reversed its policy. Found conflicting evidence about cats'…

  13. Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y-S; Hopper, K; Epstein, S E

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and causes of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats have not been fully investigated. To describe the incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic alkalosis in dogs and cats undergoing blood gas analysis at a veterinary teaching hospital. Dogs and cats at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Acid-base and electrolyte results for dogs and cats measured during a 13-month period were retrospectively collected from a computer database. Only the first measured (venous or arterial) blood gas analyzed in a single hospitalization period was included. Animals with a base excess above the reference range for the species were included. A total of 1,805 dogs and cats were included. Of these, 349 (19%) were identified as having an increased standardized base excess, 319 dogs and 30 cats. The mixed acid-base disorder of metabolic alkalosis with respiratory acidosis was the most common abnormality identified in both dogs and cats. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more common in animals with metabolic alkalosis compared to animals without metabolic alkalosis. The 4 most commonly identified underlying diseases were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, furosemide administration, and renal disease. Metabolic alkalosis was less common than metabolic acidosis in the same population of animals. Evidence of contraction alkalosis was present in many patients in this study. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were more frequent in patients with metabolic alkalosis and suggest the importance of evaluation of acid-base status in conjunction with serum electrolyte concentrations. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the

  15. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-12-09

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  17. Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class.

  18. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  19. Outbreak of thiamine deficiency in cats associated with the feeding of defective dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Pei; Chiu, Po-Yu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Liu, I-Hsuan; Liu, Chen-Hsuan

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine disease progression, association between neurological signs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and long-term outcome in feline thiamine deficiency associated with defective dry food. Methods The clinical records of 17 cats diagnosed with thiamine deficiency related to a defective dry food were examined and data collected. The thiamine level in the food was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The thiamine level in the food was below the recommendation of the National Research Council. Fifteen cats were fed the food exclusively. Prior to the acute development of neurological signs, most cats displayed non-specific signs such as anorexia, lethargy or vomiting. Vestibular signs of varying severity were observed in 94% of the cats, and all but one of these presented with bilateral dysfunction. Other main neurological signs included altered mentation (76%), blindness (59%) and seizures (59%). Moreover, 80% of the cats with seizures presented with cluster seizures or status epilepticus. MRI abnormalities consistent with findings reported in the previous literature were detected in five cases. MRI was unremarkable in one cat with ongoing severe neurological signs even though thiamine had been administered. Most surviving cats recovered rapidly within 2 weeks of treatment and had either returned to normal or had minimal neurological signs at the 2 month follow-up. One cat recovered slowly over 6 months. Most cats with seizures in the initial stage of the disease remained seizure free at the 24 month follow-up. Conclusions and relevance This study documented the association between feline thiamine deficiency and defective dry food. MRI examination provided valuable information in the diagnosis. However, normal MRI findings do not exclude the diagnosis of feline thiamine deficiency, especially once thiamine has been supplemented. MRI findings also may not always reflect the

  20. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  1. Evaluation of acute traumatic coagulopathy in dogs and cats following blunt force trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Dara L; Prittie, Jennifer; Buriko, Yekaterina; Lamb, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in dogs and cats following blunt trauma and to relate coagulation variables with injury severity and admission variables. Prospective, single center, observational study from 2013 to 2014. Urban private referral hospital. Eighteen and 19 client-owned dogs and cats, respectively, sustaining blunt trauma within 8 hours of presentation without prior resuscitation; 17 healthy staff and client-owned control cats METHODS: Blood samples were collected upon presentation for measurement of blood gas, lactate, blood glucose, ionized calcium, PCV, total plasma protein, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, platelet count, and thromboelastography. ATC was diagnosed in 1 dog and 1 cat on presentation. Hypercoagulability was documented in 4/18 (22%) of dogs and 1/19 (5.3%) of cats. In dogs, prolongation of PT (P = 0.018), aPTT (P = 0.013) and decrease in maximum amplitude (MA) (P = 0.027) were significantly associated with injury severity as measured by the animal trauma triage (ATT) score. In cats, PT, aPTT, MA, and clot strength (G) were not associated with injury severity. In cats, increasing blood glucose and lactate were significantly associated with decreasing MA (P = 0.041, P = 0.031) and G (P = 0.014, P = 0.03). In both dogs (P = 0.002) and cats (P = 0.007), fibrinogen concentration was significantly correlated with G. ATC is rare in minimally injured dogs and cats following blunt trauma. In dogs, ATT score is significantly associated with PT, aPTT, and MA, suggesting an increased risk of ATC in more severely injured animals. ATT score does not appear to predict coagulopathies in cats. Future studies including more severely injured animals are warranted to better characterize coagulation changes associated with blunt trauma. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  2. OntoCAT--simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamusiak, Tomasz; Burdett, Tony; Kurbatova, Natalja; Joeri van der Velde, K; Abeygunawardena, Niran; Antonakaki, Despoina; Kapushesky, Misha; Parkinson, Helen; Swertz, Morris A

    2011-05-29

    Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups. OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application. OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases. http://www.ontocat.org.

  3. OntoCAT -- simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapushesky Misha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups. Results OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application. Conclusions OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases. Availability http://www.ontocat.org

  4. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  5. Computed tomography, radiology and echocardiography in cats naturally infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, Giuseppe; Zini, Eric; Marchesotti, Federica; Domenech, Oriol; Romano, Francesca; Manzocchi, Simone; Venco, Luigi; Auriemma, Edoardo

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic features in cats naturally infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, and to identify signs of pulmonary hypertension with echocardiography. Methods Fourteen cats positive on Baermann test for A abstrusus were included in the study. All cats underwent thoracic radiography, CT and echocardiography. Results The most common clinical signs were coughing (10/14) and dyspnoea (5/14). Radiographic findings included a generalised unstructured interstitial pulmonary pattern (8/14), mixed bronchointerstitioalveolar pattern (3/14) and bronchointerstitial pattern with bronchial wall thickening (3/14). Sternal lymphadenopathy was detected on thoracic radiographs in six cats. On CT, features were mixed bronchointerstitioalveolar pattern with ground-glass appearance in six cats, interstitioalveolar with multiple pulmonary nodules in five, interstitial ground-glass infiltrates in three, regional lymph node enlargement in 11 (10 sternal, three cranial mediastinal and three tracheobronchial lymph nodes) and subpleural thickening in four. None of the thoracic radiographs revealed subpleural thickening. In all cases, pulmonary vessels were normal in terms of size, shape and attenuation on both radiography and CT. Pulmonary hypertension and cardiac abnormalities were not observed in any cat during echocardiography. Conclusions and relevance CT provided a more thorough characterisation of pulmonary and mediastinal lesions compared with thoracic radiographs in cats naturally infected with A abstrusus. Although feline aelurostrongylosis has been previously associated with histopathological lesions in lung arteries, in this cohort clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension was not documented.

  6. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  7. Endoparasites in dogs and cats in Germany 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutzki, D; Schaper, R

    2003-07-01

    Infections with endoparasites in dogs and cats have been determined by analysing the results of faecal examinations (Flotation, MIFC, sedimentation, Baermann, smear, ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay). Samples of 8438 dogs and 3167 cats from the years 1999 until 2002 have been included in the investigation. 2717 dogs (32.2%) and 771 cats (24.3%) have been infected with endoparasites. In the infected dogs the following parasites have been identified: Class Nematodea: Toxocara canis: 22.4%, Toxascaris leonina: 1.8%, Ancylostomatidae: 8.6%, Trichuris vulpis: 4.0%, Capillaria spp.: 2.3%, Crenosoma vulpis: 0.9%, Angiostrongylus vasorum: 0.3%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 1.2%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.4%, Diplopylidium/Joyeuxiella: 0.1%, Mesocestoides: 0.2%, Diphyllobothrium latum: canis: 8.0%, C. ohioensis: 17.0%, Hammondia/Neospora: 1.7%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%. In the 771 infected cats the following prevalences of parasites have been found: Class Nematodea: Toxocara mystax: 26.2%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme: 0.3%, Capillaria spp.: 7.0%, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: 2.7%; Class Cestodea: Taeniidae: 2.6%, Dipylidium caninum: 0.1%; Class Sporozoea: Sarcocystis spp.: 2.2%, Cystoisospora spp.: 21.9%, C. felis: 15.3%, C. rivolta: 7.9%, Toxoplasma/Hammondia: 4.5%; Class Zoomastigophorea: Giardia spp.: 51.6%.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of cardiac silhouette in healthy Maine Coon cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Sabino de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the size of the heart is important for evaluating cardiac patients, because the increase of the cardiac silhouette in the chest radiography can be indicative of heart disease. The vertebral heart size (VHS method is useful because it allows objective assessment of the limits of cardiac silhouette, and can help assess cardiomegaly and document changes in heart size in response to treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to compare VHS values of Maine Coon cats (MCC with values cited in the literature (7.5 ± 0.3 vertebrae obtained in non Maine Coon cats (NMCC. Sixty three MCC underwent the physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, laboratory tests (blood count, biochemistry, including liver and kidney function, and total T4, as well as measurement of blood pressure. Faced with normal results, the cats were positioned in right lateral decubitus (right laterallateral projection, to perform chest radiography. The radiographic examinations were performed using the Fuji computed radiography system. The values of VHS found in the animals of this study were 7.61 ± 0.34 vertebrae with a minimum of 6.9 and of maximum 8.5 vertebrae. Statistical analysis performed by Student’s t test identified a significant difference between the values obtained in this study with those in the literature (p = 0.03 for non Maine Coon cats. The highest values of VHS obtained in MCC may be associated with the size of this giant breed.

  9. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  10. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  11. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept as Pets Key Messages ... L. Feline Bartonellosis. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice. 2010 Nov;40(6):1073- ...

  12. Use of lomustine to treat cutaneous nonepitheliotropic lymphoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Shinobu; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2005-01-15

    A 17-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of severe skin lesions, including ulceration, nodule formation, erythema, and alopecia. Cutaneous nonepitheliotropic lymphoma was diagnosed histologically. There was no evidence of visceral organ involvement, but renal function was decreased. The cat was treated with lomustine (45.5 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d), and skin lesions resolved after administration of the third dose. No severe toxicoses were identified. Results suggest that lomustine may be useful for treatment of cutaneous nonepitheliotropic lymphoma in cats; however, optimal dosage, efficacy, and potential adverse effects must be determined.

  13. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  15. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  16. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading What to Do ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  18. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading 7 Videos: Kids ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  20. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  1. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  2. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...

  3. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  4. Is cryptosporidiosis an underestimated disease in cats?

    OpenAIRE

    L da Silveira-Neto; S Inácio; Oliveira, L. N.; KDS Bresciani

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats are still scarce. In this literature review, we address epidemiological and clinical aspects, as well as diagnostic methods, therapeutic behavoiur, and control and prevention measures for this disease in cats, with the aim of investigating if cryptosporidiosis is an underestimated disease in the laboratory routine and in small animal medical clinics.

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Kid's Guide to Fever Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de ... of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  6. In Vitro Fertilization and Sperm Cryopreservation in the Black-Footed Cat (Felis nigripes) and Sand Cat (Felis margarita)1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.R. Herrick; M. Campbell; G. Levens; T. Moore; K. Benson; J. D'Agostino; G. West; D.M. Okeson; R. Coke; S.C. Portacio; K. Leiske; C. Kreider; P.J. Polumbo; W.F. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) (BFCs) or sand cats (Felis margarita) (SCs...

  7. In Vitro Fertilization and Sperm Cryopreservation in the Black-Footed Cat (Felis nigripes) and Sand Cat (Felis margarita)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.R. Herrick; M. Campbell; G. Levens; T. Moore; K. Benson; J. D'Agostino; G. West; D.M. Okeson; R. Coke; S.C. Portacio; K. Leiske; C. Kreider; P.J. Polumbo; W.F. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Studies of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and sperm cryopreservation have been conducted in several small cat species, but virtually no data exist for black-footed cats ( Felis nigripes ) (BFCs) or sand cats ( Felis margarita ) (SCs...

  8. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  9. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  10. Diverse Clinical Signs of Ocular Involvement in Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Merih; Önal, Sumru; Koç Akbay, Aylin; Tuğal Tutkun, İlknur

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe ocular manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of cat scratch disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of patients with ocular cat scratch disease were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10 patients (7 female, 3 male) with a mean age of 26.9±18.5 years were included. Nine patients had a history of cat contact and had systemic symptoms associated with cat scratch disease 2-90 days prior to the ocular symptoms. Ocular signs were: neuroretinitis in 4 eyes (associated with serous retinal detachment in the inferior quadrant in 1 eye), optic neuropathy in 2 eyes (1 papillitis and optic disc infiltration, 1 optic neuritis), retinal infiltrates in 6 eyes, retinochoroiditis in 1 eye, branch retinal arteriolar occlusion in 3 eyes, and endophthalmitis in 1 eye. Visual acuities at presentation were 1.0 in 7 eyes, 0.3 in 1 eye, ≤0.1 in 4 eyes, and light perception in 1 eye. Bartonella henselae immunoglobulin (Ig) M and/or IgG were positive in all patients. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients. Systemic corticosteroid treatment (15-40 mg/day) was added to the therapy in 4 patients, following 5 days of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone in 2 patients. Treatment was ongoing for 1 patient and the mean treatment duration of the other 9 patients was 47±14.5 days. Visual acuities at final visit were 1.0 in 9 eyes, 0.8 in 1 eye, 0.4 in 1 eye, and no light perception in 1 eye. Conclusion: Cat scratch disease may present with different ocular signs and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with such presentations. PMID:28182175

  11. Distal polyneuropathy in an adult Birman cat with toxoplasmosis

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    Lorenzo Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 6-year-old female spayed Birman cat presented with a history of weight loss, stiff and short-strided gait in the pelvic limbs and reluctance to jump, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis over 6 weeks. Poor body condition, dehydration and generalised muscle wastage were evident on general examination. Neurological examination revealed mildly depressed mental status, non-ambulatory flaccid tetraparesis and severely decreased proprioception and spinal reflexes in all four limbs. The neuroanatomical localisation was to the peripheral nervous system. Haematology, feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus serology, serum biochemistry, including creatine kinase and thyroxine, thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound did not reveal significant abnormalities. Electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in axial and appendicular muscles. Decreased motor conduction velocities and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were detected in ulnar and sciatic–tibial nerves. Residual latency was increased in the sciatic–tibial nerve. Histologically, several intramuscular nerve branches were depleted of myelinated fibres and a few showed mononuclear infiltrations. Toxoplasma gondii serology titres were compatible with active toxoplasmosis. Four days after treatment initiation with oral clindamycin the cat recovered the ability to walk. T gondii serology titres and neurological examination were normal after 11 and 16 weeks, respectively. Clindamycin was discontinued after 16 weeks. One year after presentation the cat showed mild relapse of clinical signs and seroconversion, which again resolved following treatment with clindamycin. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of distal polyneuropathy associated with toxoplasmosis in a cat. This case suggests the inclusion of toxoplasmosis as a possible differential diagnosis for acquired polyneuropathies in

  12. Uncommon mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana

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    de Farias Marconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocardiosis is an unusual infection in companion animals characterized by suppurative to pyogranulomatous lesions, localized or disseminated. Cutaneous-subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic signs are observed in feline nocardiosis. However, osteomyelitis is a rare clinical manifestation in cats. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (formerly N. asteroides sensu stricto, Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia nova are the most common pathogenic species identified in cats, based on recent molecular classification (16S rRNA gene. The present report is, to our knowledge, the first case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of methods, including molecular techniques. Case presentation A one-year-old non-neutered female cat, raised in a rural area, was admitted to the Companion Animal Hospital-PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil, with a history a progressive facial lesion, difficulty apprehending food, loss of appetite, apathy and emaciation. Clinical examination showed fever, submandibular lymphadenitis, and a painless, 8 cm diameter mass, which was irregularly-shaped, of firm consistency, and located in the region of the left mandible. The skin around the lesion was friable, with diffuse inflammation (cellulitis, multiple draining sinuses, and exudation of serosanguinous material containing whitish “sulfur” granules. Diagnosis was based initially in clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological, and histopathological findings, and radiographic images. Molecular sequencing of 16S rRNA of isolate allowed diagnosis of Nocardia africana. Despite supportive care and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing the animal died. Conclusion The present report describes a rare clinical case of feline osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of clinical signs, microbiological

  13. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

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    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  14. Histologic, Clinical, and Radiologic Findings of Alveolar Bone Expansion and Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C M; Soukup, J W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize clinical, radiologic, and histologic patterns of alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats. Based on case materials submitted as surgical biopsy specimens, alveolar bone pathology was diagnosed in 28 cats. These cats had a total of 37 oral lesions with clinical and radiologic changes that involved bone and/or teeth, including periodontitis, bone expansion, tooth resorption, and/or chronic osteomyelitis; 32 lesions were evaluated by histopathology. Canine teeth were affected in 19 cats (27 affected teeth), with bilateral lesions in 5 (26.3%) cats. The caudal premolar and/or molar regions were affected in 10 cats (10 affected sites). All biopsy sites evaluated by a review of clinical images and/or radiographs had evidence of periodontitis. Clinical photographs showed expansion of alveolar bone in 13 of 16 (81%) biopsy sites evaluated. Radiologically, rarifying osseous proliferation of alveolar bone was seen at 26 of 27 (96%) biopsy sites, and tooth resorption occurred at 15 of 18 (83%) sites. Histologically, the tissue samples from canine sites had compressed trabeculae of mature remodeled bone, loose fibrous stroma with paucicellular inflammation, and mild proliferation of woven bone. Tissue samples from the premolar/molar biopsy sites were often highly cellular with mixed lymphoplasmacytic and chronic suppurative inflammation, ulceration with granulation tissue, and robust proliferation of woven bone. Alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats occurs in conjunction with periodontal inflammation and frequently with tooth resorption.

  15. Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z. Jack; Wang, Xiaoming; Slater, Graham J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Li, Qiang; Liu, Juan; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-01-01

    Pantherine felids (‘big cats’) include the largest living cats, apex predators in their respective ecosystems. They are also the earliest diverging living cat lineage, and thus are important for understanding the evolution of all subsequent felid groups. Although the oldest pantherine fossils occur in Africa, molecular phylogenies point to Asia as their region of origin. This paradox cannot be reconciled using current knowledge, mainly because early big cat fossils are exceedingly rare and fragmentary. Here, we report the discovery of a fossil pantherine from the Tibetan Himalaya, with an age of Late Miocene–Early Pliocene, replacing African records as the oldest pantherine. A ‘total evidence’ phylogenetic analysis of pantherines indicates that the new cat is closely related to the snow leopard and exhibits intermediate characteristics on the evolutionary line to the largest cats. Historical biogeographic models provide robust support for the Asian origin of pantherines. The combined analyses indicate that 75% of the divergence events in the pantherine lineage extended back to the Miocene, up to 7 Myr earlier than previously estimated. The deeper evolutionary origin of big cats revealed by the new fossils and analyses indicate a close association between Tibetan Plateau uplift and diversification of the earliest living cats. PMID:24225466

  16. Rush allergen specific immunotherapy protocol in feline atopic dermatitis: a pilot study of four cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Ann M; Griffin, Craig E; Boord, Mona J; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2005-10-01

    Rush immunotherapy has been shown to be as safe as conventional immunotherapy in canine atopic patients. Rush immunotherapy has not been reported in the feline atopic patient. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine a safe protocol for rush immunotherapy in feline atopic patients. Four atopic cats diagnosed by history, physical examination and exclusion of appropriate differential diagnoses were included in the study. Allergens were identified via liquid phase immunoenzymatic testing (VARL: Veterinary Allergy Reference Labs, Pasadena, CA). Cats were premedicated with 1.5 mg triamcinolone orally 24 and 2 h prior to first injection and 10 mg hydroxyzine PO 24, 12 and 2 h prior to first injection. An intravenous catheter was placed prior to first injection. Allergen extracts (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, North Carolina) were all administered subcutaneously at increasing protein nitrogen units (pnu) every 30 minutes for 5 h to maintenance dose of 15,000 pnus ml-1. Vital signs were assessed every 15 minutes. Two cats developed mild pruritus and the subsequent injection was delayed 30 minutes. No changes in either cat's vital signs were noted, nor was there any further pruritus. All four cats successfully completed rush immunotherapy. Two cats developed a dermal swelling on the dorsal neck one week later. In these four cats, this protocol appeared to be a safe regimen to reach maintenance therapy. A larger sample of feline patients is needed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions and to follow the success of ASIT based upon this method of induction.

  17. Severe Psychomotor Delay in a Severe Presentation of Cat-Eye Syndrome

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    Guillaume Jedraszak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.

  18. Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heui Man; Park, Eun Hye; Yum, Jung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. We compared the infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. Viruses were shed in the nose and rectum of cats and in the nose of dogs. Viruses were detected in brain, lung, kidney, intestine, liver, and serum in the infected cats, but only in the lung in the infected dogs. Genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Toll-like receptors, and apoptotic factors were more highly expressed in the lungs of cats than in those of dogs. Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats.

  19. Effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on Schirmer tear test I results of clinically normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Simona; Macrì, Francesco; Bonarrigo, Tiziana; Giudice, Elisabetta; Palumbo Piccionello, Angela; Pugliese, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on tear production of clinically normal cats by use of the Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 before and during anesthesia and after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole. 40 client-owned crossbred domestic shorthair cats (23 males and 17 females; age range, 6 to 24 months). A complete physical examination, CBC, and ophthalmic examination were performed on each cat. Cats with no abnormalities on physical and ophthalmic examinations were included in the study. Cats were allocated into 2 groups: a control group (n = 10 cats) anesthetized by administration of a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (80 μg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and an experimental group (30) anesthetized with the medetomidine-ketamine combination and reversal by administration of atipamezole. Tear production of both eyes of each cat was measured by use of the STT I before anesthesia, 15 minutes after the beginning of anesthesia, and 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole. Anesthesia with a medetomidine-ketamine combination of cats with no ophthalmic disease caused a significant decrease in tear production. The STT I values returned nearly to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after reversal with atipamezole, whereas the STT I values for the control group were still low at that point. Results indicated that a tear substitute should be administered to eyes of cats anesthetized with a medetomidine-ketamine combination from the time of anesthetic administration until at least 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole.

  20. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  1. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  2. Accidental alfaxalone overdose in a mature cat undergoing anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging

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    Wendy Bayldon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This case report describes the clinical signs and treatment of an alfaxalone 10 times overdose in a 12-year-old cat undergoing anaesthesia for MRI. The cat was discharged from hospital following a prolonged recovery including obtunded mentation and cardiorespiratory depression for several hours following cessation of anaesthesia. The cat received supportive therapy that included supplemental oxygen via a face mask, intravenous crystalloid fluids and active rewarming. The benefits of using alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia, its pharmacokinetics and previously reported lethal doses are discussed. Strategies for reducing the incidence of medication errors are presented. Relevance and novel information An unintentional overdose of alfaxalone by continuous rate infusion has not been reported previously in a cat. Treatment is supportive and directed towards maintenance of the cardiorespiratory systems. Whenever possible, smart pumps that have been designed to reduce human error should be used to help prevent medication errors associated with continuous rate infusions.

  3. The Changing Patterns in Referral Rates of Geriatric Cats and Dogs to an University Clinic

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    Sinem ÜLGEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving quality of care and nutrition of pet animals and advanced diagnosis and treatment by developing technologies, lead to an increase in survival rate. As the present authors were unaware of finding documented reports for several diseases, it was aimed to investigate the number and health status of geriatric cats and dogs which were brought to Internal Medicine clinics of our faculty’s training and research hospital within six years. Twenty-four cats and 10 dogs enrolled in the study were found to be healthy, whereas multiple health concerns were diagnosed in totally 1354 animals (n=403 for cats, n=951 for dogs. Increase in survival rate within 6 years was determined as 27.7% increase for cats and as 5.3% increase for dogs. The urinary system diseases for cats and cardiovascular system diseases for dogs were found to be the most frequent diagnosis. Geriatric animal rates varied between 4.2 and 12.3% for cats and 6.2 and 15.7% for dogs within years which were not expected as higher.

  4. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas.

  5. Case Reports of Cat Scratch Disease with Typical and Atypical Clinical Manifestations: A Literature Review

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    Gulshan Umbreen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation

  6. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats

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    Grahn Robert A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK. Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs.

  8. Factors associated with anesthetic-related death in dogs and cats in primary care veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nora S; Mohn, Thomas J; Yang, Mingyin; Spofford, Nathaniel; Marsh, Alison; Faunt, Karen; Lund, Elizabeth M; Lefebvre, Sandra L

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for anesthetic-related death in pet dogs and cats. DESIGN Matched case-control study. ANIMALS 237 dogs and 181 cats. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records from 822 hospitals were examined to identify dogs and cats that underwent general anesthesia (including sedation) or sedation alone and had death attributable to the anesthetic episode ≤ 7 days later (case animals; 115 dogs and 89 cats) or survived > 7 days afterward (control animals [matched by species and hospital]; 122 dogs and 92 cats). Information on patient characteristics and data related to the anesthesia session were extracted. Conditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death for each species. RESULTS The anesthetic-related death rate was higher for cats (11/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.11%]) than for dogs (5/10,000 anesthetic episodes [0.05%]). Increasing age was associated with increased odds of death for both species, as was undergoing nonelective (vs elective) procedures. Odds of death for dogs were significantly greater when preanesthetic physical examination results were not recorded (vs recorded) or when preanesthetic Hct was outside (vs within) the reference range. Odds of death for cats were greater when intra-anesthesia records for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry were absent. Underweight dogs had almost 15 times the odds of death as nonunderweight dogs; for cats, odds of death increased with increasing body weight (but not with overweight body condition). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several factors were associated with anesthetic-related death in cats and dogs. This information may be useful for development of strategies to reduce anesthetic-related risks when possible and for education of pet owners about anesthetic risks.

  9. The influence of diet and other factors on owner-perceived obesity in privately owned cats from metropolitan Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I D

    1999-05-31

    A randomly selected group of cat-owning households (n = 458) were interviewed to determine the diet of their cats (n = 644) in the week prior to the survey and to identify dietary and other factors which were associated with obesity. All cats were categorised by their owners as underweight, correct-weight or overweight and the weight of 127 cats was also recorded. Nearly all cats were fed commercially prepared dry pet food (90.5%) or canned pet food (84.6%) in the week prior to the survey. Nineteen percent of cats were classified as overweight. Although the make-up of a cat's diet was found not to be associated with its weight or weight category, cats fed dietary supplements or those which had not received a specific kitten diet when effect of putative risk factors on obesity while controlling for other factors. Overweight cats were more likely to be cross-bred (OR = 2.1), neutered (OR = 2.8), living in houses with only one or two cats (OR = 1.8), male (OR = 1.4) and predominantly confined inside a house (OR = 1.4). Obesity is influenced by a variety of factors including host, dietary and management factors and these must be considered when developing weight control programmes for cats.

  10. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Information about medication safety in pregnancy is inadequate. We aimed to develop a signal detection methodology to routinely identify unusual associations between medications and congenital anomalies using data collected by 15 European congenital anomaly registries. METHODS: EUROmedi....... The methodology was evaluated by considering the detection of well-known teratogens. RESULTS: The most common exposures were genitourinary system medications and sex hormones (35.2%), nervous system medications (28.0%) and anti-infectives for systemic use (25.7%). Fifty-two specific medication anomaly......). CONCLUSIONS: Medication exposure data in the EUROmediCAT central database can be analyzed systematically to determine a manageable set of associations for validation and then testing in independent datasets. Detection of teratogens depends on frequency of exposure, level of risk and teratogenic specificity....

  11. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. Overall Toxocara prevalence was 7.2 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that young age and living in rural areas were significant risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs. Moreover, the more time a cat was allowed to roam outdoors, the higher was its risk to shed Toxocara as compared to cats with no outdoor access at all. For 199 cats (81.6 % of cats subjected to a deworming regimen) owners provided the reason for treatment. The main reason for routine deworming (80.4 %) concerned the cat's health and only 10.6 % of the cats were treated for public health reasons. Moreover, the generally advocated four-times-a-year deworming advice was applied on only 24.5 % of cats. We concluded that free roaming is a key factor in the acquisition of patent Toxocara infections leading to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs. Additionally, the knowledge of cat owners is still insufficient to expect them to make sound decisions on routine deworming.

  13. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J

    2006-07-01

    Obesity is defined as an accumulation of excessive amounts of adipose tissue in the body, and is the most common nutritional disorder in companion animals. Obesity is usually the result of either excessive dietary intake or inadequate energy utilization, which causes a state of positive energy balance. Numerous factors may predispose an individual to obesity including genetics, the amount of physical activity, and the energy content of the diet. The main medical concern of obesity relates to the many disease associations that accompany the adiposity. Numerous studies demonstrated that obesity can have detrimental effects on the health and longevity of dogs and cats. The problems to which obese companion animals may be predisposed include orthopedic disease, diabetes mellitus, abnormalities in circulating lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory disease, urinary disorders, reproductive disorders, neoplasia (mammary tumors, transitional cell carcinoma), dermatological diseases, and anesthetic complications. The main therapeutic options for obesity in companion animals include dietary management and increasing physical activity. Although no pharmaceutical compounds are yet licensed for weight loss in dogs and cats, it is envisaged that such agents will be available in the future. Dietary therapy forms the cornerstone of weight management in dogs and cats, but increasing exercise and behavioral management form useful adjuncts. There is a need to increase the awareness of companion animal obesity as a serious medical concern within the veterinary profession.

  14. Lack of genetic association among coat colors, progressive retinal atrophy and polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2006-10-01

    An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.

  15. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss.

  16. 液压CAT系统测试误差分析%Error Analysis of the Hydraulic CAT System Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡森; 胡晓波

    2011-01-01

    本文对液压CAT技术的发展现状和趋势进行了探讨,并对液压元件CAT系统误差来源进行了分析,介绍一些液压CAT系统误差处理办法.%The development status and trends of hydraulic CAT technology are discussed, and the error sources of hydraulic component CAT system were analyzed, and some approaches are introduced in this paper.

  17. Adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R

    2011-03-01

    Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Paitaki, C G; Rallis, T S; Tontis, D

    2001-03-01

    A Persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. Ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. The animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. Urine culture revealed Aspergillus species cystitis. Antibodies against Aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. Fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg, q 12 h) for 10 consecutive weeks. The azotaemia was resolved, the kidney concentrating ability was recovered and the cat has remained healthy without similar problems.

  19. The Analysis of Network Expand Solution is Based on Family Environment of Cat Power Technology%基于电力猫技术的家庭环境网络拓展解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 钟成军

    2015-01-01

    随着三网融合的推进,广电网络公司的双向业务受到网络机顶盒、OTT 虚拟运营商及直播卫星愈演愈烈的竞争,只有实现双向数字化改造才能充分发挥广电网络的优势,并逐步满足家庭用户对宽带互联网、VOD 视频点播、多屏互动等业务的需求。目前伴随着多媒体移动终端的普及,越来越多的家庭通过有线或无线网络进行网上冲浪,有线网的优势是带宽较为稳定,可以满足任何应用,但是需要提前规划设计网线的布局,否则将造成部分区域没有网线接入而无法上网,因此产生了一种新型的家庭双向网络接入方式———电力猫,这种方式可以解决当前某些特殊情况下双向网络无法开通的问题。%Along with the “triple play”promotion,radio and television network company gradually by intensi-fied competition from the network set-top boxes,OTT virtual operators and direct broadcast satellite in the two-way network services.Only by achieving two-way digital transformation,to take full advantage of radio and tel-evision networks,and gradually meet the family users of broadband Internet,VOD(Video On Demand),multi-screen interactive and other business needs.At present,with the development and popularization of multime-dia mobile terminals,more and more families through home wired or wireless network to surf the Internet,to meet the growing spiritual and cultural needs.Advantage of the cable network is more stable bandwidth to meet any application,but you need to plan the layout of the network cable in advance,otherwise it will result in some areas because there is no network cable and no Internet access.Therefore,created a new type of fami-ly two-way network access-Cat Power,it could solve unable to open a two-way network problems under some special cases currently.

  20. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  1. Enteric parasites of free-roaming, owned, and rural cats in prairie regions of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Jessica; Hill, Janet E; Polley, Lydden; Fernando, Champika; Wagner, Brent; Schurer, Janna; Jenkins, Emily

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, intensity, and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and pet cats in urban areas of Saskatchewan (SK) and a rural region in southwestern Alberta (AB). Fecal samples were analyzed using a modified double centrifugation sucrose flotation to detect helminth eggs and coccidian oocysts, and an immunofluorescence assay to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Endoparasite prevalence was higher in samples from rural AB cats (41% of 27) and free-roaming SK cats (32% of 161) than client-owned SK cats (6% of 31). Parasites identified using morphological and molecular techniques included Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris-type eggs, Eucoleus aerophilus, Taenia taeniaeformis, Isospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and zoonotic genotype A of Giardia duodenalis. This study demonstrates significant differences in endoparasite prevalence in feline populations, and the value of molecular techniques in fecal-based surveys to identify and determine parasite zoonotic potential.

  2. Molecular survey of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infection of domestic cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiromi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Sakata, Yoshimi; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma in 1764 DNA samples extracted from feline peripheral blood from all 47 prefectures in Japan was evaluated by screening real-time PCR, genus-specific PCR, and DNA nucleotide sequencing. The survey revealed that all cats were negative for Rickettsia infection. Two cats were positive for Ehrlichia or Anaplasma based on the screening PCR assay. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA including the divergent region near the 3'-end revealed that the 2 positives were most similar to Anaplasma bovis with percent identities of 99.8% and 99.2%. This was the first detection of A. bovis DNA fragments in cats. Although these 2 cats showed stomatitis, both were also infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. The relationship between A. bovis carriage and clinical disease is not yet understood.

  3. Enteric parasites of free-roaming, owned, and rural cats in prairie regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Jessica; Hill, Janet E.; Polley, Lydden; Fernando, Champika; Wagner, Brent; Schurer, Janna; Jenkins, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, intensity, and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and pet cats in urban areas of Saskatchewan (SK) and a rural region in southwestern Alberta (AB). Fecal samples were analyzed using a modified double centrifugation sucrose flotation to detect helminth eggs and coccidian oocysts, and an immunofluorescence assay to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Endoparasite prevalence was higher in samples from rural AB cats (41% of 27) and free-roaming SK cats (32% of 161) than client-owned SK cats (6% of 31). Parasites identified using morphological and molecular techniques included Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris-type eggs, Eucoleus aerophilus, Taenia taeniaeformis, Isospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and zoonotic genotype A of Giardia duodenalis. This study demonstrates significant differences in endoparasite prevalence in feline populations, and the value of molecular techniques in fecal-based surveys to identify and determine parasite zoonotic potential. PMID:25969584

  4. Survey of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae and some aspects impacting its conservation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukherjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is a medium sized cat that is widely but patchily distributed across Asia and strongly associated with wetlands. It is among the 15 felid species that inhabit India and like other smaller cat species it is very poorly understood. Apart from a few recent surveys in specific locations, no concerted effort has been made to assess its current distribution and threats to its persistence within India. In this study we collected scats from natural habitats, through six states including five protected areas throughout India and performed informal interviews with locals to get a better overview of the current distribution and threats for Fishing Cats in India. Of the 114 scats used for molecular analysis, 37% were assigned to felids, including 19 Fishing Cats. We confirmed that Fishing Cat populations persisted in all locations where they were recorded before, including Keoladeo Ghana, from where it was reported in recent years that fishing cats are possibly extinct. Most populations face imminent threats with the worst being in the Howrah District of West Bengal where 27 dead individuals were traced during the study period of only one year. The major threats across populations include ecologically unbalanced land policies and land uses, direct persecution due to human-Fishing Cat conflicts as well as ritual hunts. To address these threats we recommend a stronger dialogue among scientists, policy makers, administrators, locals and other stake holders such as commercial fish and prawn cultivators. Further awareness campaigns for stakeholders, and surveys for monitoring fishing cat populations, studying their ecology and estimating economic losses to local people due to the Fishing Cat predation on livestock and poultry, is needed in order to design effective conservation strategies.

  5. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  6. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  7. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  8. Paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, Laura; Albanese, Francesco; Viacava, Paolo; Marchetti, Veronica; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-08-01

    A 15-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical signs, which had commenced 6 months previously, included loss of appetite, loss of weight, and depression. As reported by the owner, the cat developed alopecia a week before referral. The hair loss was localized to the ventral aspect of the thorax and abdomen, medial aspect of front and hind limbs, and ventral aspect of the tail, and was associated with histological features consistent with paraneoplastic alopecia. At necropsy, multiple hepatic nodules were observed, and subsequent histopathological investigation showed cords and sheets of hepatocyte-like neoplastic cells positive for the hepatocyte marker (Hep Par 1), thereby demonstrating the hepatocellular origin of the tumour, which was diagnosed as a hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by the Hep Par 1 marker.

  9. Embryonic thymic development in fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Agreste

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During fetal life, and during the neonatal period, the thymus is a very important immune organ, and is the largest lymphatic organ, which exhibits high lymphopoietic activity as a precursor of lymphopoiesis. Morphological studies on the development of the thymus are rare and only include general information. Given the above, this study aimed to characterize the morphological development of the thymus of embryos and fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus, from natural pregnancy, using macroscopic dissection techniques and light microscopy. The thymus of the cats was pale pink and was resting in the region of the cranial mediastinum, medially to the lungs and dorsally to the base of the heart. Histologically, two distinct regions were observed (cortical and medullar. The medullary region had reticular epithelial cells with large nuclei and dendritic extensions. The fetuses had exponential growth and were more pronounced starting on the 35th day of gestation.

  10. Orchitis in a cat associated with coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardóttir, O G; Kolbjørnsen, O; Lutz, H

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe, pyogranulomatous and necrotizing orchitis in a cat, which later succumbed to systemic feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), is described. The 3.5-year-old cat, positive for feline immunodeficiency virus infection, presented with a left testicular enlargement. A few months after castration the animal was humanely destroyed due to declining health. Post-mortem examination revealed inflammatory lesions in abdominal organs and in the brain compatible with FIP. Infection was confirmed with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test and by immunohistochemical demonstration of coronavirus antigen in the affected tissues, including the left testicle. FIP is usually a systemic disease. However, lesions and presenting clinical signs in a single organ system such as the brain are not uncommon. The results of this case study indicate that orchitis, although rare, should be on the list of lesions of FIP.

  11. Red eyes in the necropsy floor: twenty cases of hyphema in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie Beck Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyphema (hemorrhage within the anterior chamber of the eye can be caused by several mechanisms and can easily be detected in routine ophthalmic or necroscopic examination as discolored red eye(s. The purpose of this study is to report the cause of hyphema diagnosed as a postmortem finding in dogs and cats. Twenty cases, 14 dogs and six cats of several ages and breeds and of both sexes were included in the study. Hyphema presented as a unilateral (14 cases out of 20 or bilateral (6/20 disorder in dogs and cats and extension of hemorrhage varied from minimal to diffuse. Hyphema was secondary to systemic disease (15/20 or occurred as a primary ocular lesion (5/20 in four dogs and one cat. Primary hyphema was always unilateral. In four of these cases, the cause of hyphema was trauma and remaining case was caused by phacoclastic uveitis in a dog with bilateral hypermature cataract. Various causes of bleeding disorders were found related to secondary hyphema: in decreasing order of frequency, they included vasculitis (8/15, systemic hypertension (5/15, and acquired coagulopathies (2/15. Vasculitis due to feline infectious peritonitis accounted for half of the cases (n=3 of systemic hyphema in cats. The various pathological aspects and pathogenesis of hyphema in dogs and cats are described and discussed.

  12. Effect of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Analogue Exenatide Extended Release in Cats with Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, A; Zini, E; Salesov, E; Fracassi, F; Padrutt, I; Macha, K; Stöckle, T M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Exenatide extended release (ER) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue that increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion and induces satiation in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of exenatide ER is safe and stimulates insulin secretion in healthy cats. The objective of this study is to assess the safety of exenatide ER and its effect on body weight, remission and metabolic control in newly diagnosed diabetic cats receiving insulin and a low-carbohydrate diet. Thirty client-owned cats. Prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cats were treated with exenatide ER or 0.9% saline, administered SC, once weekly. Both groups received insulin glargine and a low-carbohydrate diet. Exenatide ER was administered for 16 weeks, or in cats that achieved remission it was given for 4 weeks after discontinuing insulin treatment. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Cats in the exenatide ER and placebo groups had transient adverse signs including decreased appetite (60% vs. 20%, respectively, P = .06) and vomiting (53% vs. 40%, respectively, P = .715). Body weight increased significantly in the placebo group (P = .002), but not in cats receiving exenatide ER. Cats on exenatide ER achieved remission or good metabolic control in 40% or 89%, respectively, whereas in control cats percentages were 20% or 58% (P = .427 and P = .178, respectively). Exenatide ER is safe in diabetic cats and does not result in weight gain. Our pilot study suggests that, should there be an additional clinically relevant beneficial effect of exenatide ER in insulin-treated cats on rate of remission and good metabolic control, it would likely approximate 20% and 30%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Valérie J; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara; Vail, David M; Straw, Rodney C

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common feline oral tumor. Standard radiation protocols have been reported to achieve tumor control durations of 1.5-5.5 months (45-165 days). The purpose of this study was to describe the efficacy and toxicity of an accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol in cats with oral SCC. Twenty-one cats with histologically confirmed oral SCC and T1-3N0M0 were treated with 10 once-daily fractions (Monday-Friday) of 4.8 Gy. Seventeen cats had macroscopic disease and four were microscopic after incomplete excision. Acute toxicity consisted of grade 2 mucositis in all cats and this was effectively managed using esophageal or gastric tube feeding, pain medication, and antibiotics. Late toxicity effects for cats with available follow-up data included alopecia (4 cats), leukotricia (6), tongue ulceration (1), and oronasal fistula (1). Response could be assessed in 17 cats (seven complete response and five partial response). Four cats (19%) developed metastatic disease without evidence of local progression. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 105 days (1 year PFS of 23%), median local progression-free survival (LPFS) was 219 days (1 year LPFS of 41%), and median overall survival (OS) was 174 days (1 year OS of 29%). Only tumor stage was prognostic, with T1 having a median PFS of 590 days. Findings indicated that this accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy protocol was well tolerated in cats with oral SCC, with manageable adverse events. Tumor response was observed in most cats and long tumor control durations were achieved in some cats.

  14. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Gruen

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM.Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period.Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001 compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034. The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042.Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.

  15. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma in cats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    cats in different age groups. The presence was detected by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood samples as well as by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The study revealed a prevalence of 14.9% Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum positive cats and 1.5% Mycoplasma haemofelis...... positive cats. No cats were found positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. The results showed a statistically significant higher prevalence in older (>8 years) cats compared to younger cats and a higher prevalence among domestic cats compared to purebred cats. As part of this study, we developed...... a cloning strategy to obtain Danish positive controls of haemoplasma 16S rRNA. Conclusion From convenience-sampled cats in Denmark, we found that 16.4% were carriers of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasma was mostly found in older and domestic cats. The prevalence found in Denmark is similar...

  16. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. ParCAT

  17. Cloning, Expression and Bioinformatics Analysis of Porcine CatSperB and CatSperG Genes%猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的克隆、表达及生物信息学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成义; 周家庆; 冯晓军; 谢雨琇; 李庆平; 吴晗; 高波; 王霄燕

    2012-01-01

    [目的]揭示猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的存在、蛋白的结构特征、进化关系及时空表达特性.[方法]利用电子和分子克隆技术鉴定猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因全长cDNA,并利用定性RT-PCR和荧光定量RT-PCR进行CatSperB和CatSperG基因的时空表达研究.[结果]①分别获得了3 508 bp CatSperB和3 715 bp CatSperG电子转录子,分别包含3 3 30和3 483 bp开放阅读框,并经TA克隆测序验证,其CDS序列与人、牛、马和狗等的CatSperB和CatSperG基因的序列相似性在80%以上;②CatSperB分子质量为125.79 kD,为稳定蛋白;CatSperG分子质量为133.40 kD,为不稳定蛋白;③CatSperB和CatSperG都包含7个通道蛋白保守的跨膜结构域,CatSperG蛋白C端含一个超螺旋结构,而CatSperB蛋白无明显的超螺旋结构信号;猪CatSperB和CatSperG与牛、狗和马的CatSperB和CatSperG蛋白同源关系较近,与人和小鼠的同源关系较远;④RT-PCR分析表明,CatSperB和CatSperG基因主要在辜丸中表达,但CatSperB在其它组织也有表达信号;⑤CatSperB和CatSperG基因mRNA表达水平在猪性发育的重要阶段,精子发生(60日龄)、初情期(90日龄)和性成熟(150日龄)前后都有显著提高(P< 0.05).[结论]获得了猪CatSperB和CatSperG基因的cDNA克隆及其一系列生物信息学参数,揭示了CatSperB和CatSperG蛋白含7个保守的跨膜结构域及不同物种间的进化关系,证实CatSperB和CatSperG基因主要在睾丸表达,且其mRNA表达变化与公猪的性发育相一致.%[Objective] The aim of the current study is to confirm the existence of porcine CatSperB and CatSperG genes, and investigate the protein structures, evolutionary relationship and the spatial-temporal expression profiles of CatSperB and CatSperG. [Method] The in silico and molecular cloning was used to identify the full length cDNAs of porcine CatSperB and CatSperG, and the spatial-temporal expression profile was investigated by qualitative and

  18. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  19. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald

    2010-01-01

    severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands...

  20. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  1. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  2. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  3. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  4. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and ... kind of problems do tapeworms cause for the dog? Tapeworms are not usually harmful to your pet. ...

  5. Pancytopenia in a cat with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Ricardo; Santos, Marta; Malhão, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Fernandes, Ana Cristina; Montenegro, Luís; Roccabianca, Paola

    2009-06-01

    A 4-year-old, domestic shorthair, female spayed cat was presented for decreased appetite and depression. Severe pancytopenia with erythrocyte autoagglutination was found. The cat was seronegative for feline immunodeficiency and leukemia viruses. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia was suspected but no response to treatment with a blood transfusion, enrofloxacin, and prednisone was observed. Blood and bone marrow smears obtained 11 days later contained Leishmania amastigotes in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Serologic and PCR testing of peripheral blood confirmed infection with Leishmania infantum. Despite treatment, the cat worsened clinically and was euthanized. At necropsy, visceral dissemination of the parasite was confirmed. The findings in this case indicate that visceral leishmaniasis should be considered as a differential diagnoses in cats with pancytopenia in areas endemic for Leishmania. In addition, amastigotes may be observed in peripheral blood neutrophils.

  6. Technical note: Detection of cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues in food and animal feed using species-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, I; García, T; Fajardo, V; Rojas, M; Hernández, P E; González, I; Martín, R

    2007-10-01

    A PCR method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the 12S ribosomal RNA, mitochondrial gene has been developed for the specific and qualitative detection and identification of cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissue in food and feedstuffs. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 108, 101, and 96 bp in length for cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues, respectively. Specificity of the primers was tested against 32 nontarget species including mammals, birds, fish, and plant species. This PCR method allowed detection of raw and heated cat, dog, and rat or mouse tissues in meat/oats mixtures even when the concentration of the target species was reduced to 0.1%. Furthermore, the performance of the method was not affected by prolonged heat-treatment (up to 133 degrees C for 20 min at 300 kPa), and consequently, it could be very useful to verify the origin of raw materials in food and feedstuffs submitted to denaturing technologies, for which other methods cannot be applied.

  7. Mandibular Osteosarcoma in Cat: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The primary malignant bone tumors are uncommon in cats. Osteosarcoma is the most frequently observed in old animals. This tumors affects the appendicular skeleton, however the axial skeleton is also affected, but the bones of the head and pelvis frequent sites of injury. This paper reports a case of a cat with a history of progressive swelling in the left mandible, with follow-up period of four months. The presumptive diagnosis of osteopathy, signed by clinical and radiographic observations w...

  8. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  9. Detector Imperfections of Schrödinger Cat Generation with Ancillary Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuta; Inoue, Shuichiro; Komatsu, Shinichi

    2016-12-01

    Measurement-induced nonlinear operation in linear optics is a promising technique to realize quantum computation and communications. Such an operation has been demonstrated via the generation of photon-subtracted squeezed states, namely, Schrödinger-cat states. Nielsen and Mølmer have proposed an efficient scheme to generate the cat states with larger amplitudes relative to previous experimental results. We present a simple experimental implementation of their scheme and analyze it while considering experimental imperfections. Our study indicates that the current photon detection technology meets the conditions necessary for their operation.

  10. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  11. Strength of evidence for the effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: The Club Med Syndrome Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Various types of evidence have been promulgated as proof for the effects of feral cats on wildlife, typically including numerous studies on predation inferred from diet, mortality attributed to pathogens, and photographic or videographic documentation. The strength of these types of evidence is often short of conclusive. For example, studies of predation inferred from diet provide weak evidence for two reasons: 1) they cannot differentiate depredation from scavenging by feral cats, and 2) they cannot address population-level effects on wildlife because it is rarely understood if mortality acts in compensatory or additive manner. Likewise, pathogens may cause mortality of individuals, but population-level effects of pathogens are rarely known. Photographic or videographic documentation provides direct ‘smoking gun’ evidence that may be useful for positive identification of depredation by cats, or identification of prey designated as threatened or endangered species. However, the most direct and compelling evidence comes from examples where feral cats have been entirely removed from islands. In many cases, several species of seabirds as well as other wildlife have recovered after the complete removal of cats. Where possible, the experimental removal of cats would provide the most conclusive proof of effects on wildlife populations. In other cases where cat removal is not feasible, modeling based on predation rates and life history parameters of species may be the only means of assessing population-level effects on wildlife. Understanding population-level effects of feral cats on wildlife will ultimately be necessary to resolve long-standing wildlife management issues.

  12. Clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in 70 cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Rachel E; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Van Winkle, Thomas J; Goldstein, Richard E; Serfilippi, Laurie M

    2008-09-01

    To document clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid. Case series. 70 cats from a single cattery inadvertently fed contaminated food that was the subject of a March 2007 recall. Clinical signs, clinicopathologic and histopathologic findings, and results of toxicologic analyses were recorded. Clinical signs were identified in 43 cats and included inappetence, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, and lethargy. Azotemia was documented in 38 of the 68 cats for which serum biochemical analyses were performed 7 to 11 days after consumption of the contaminated food. One cat died, and 13 were euthanized. Histologic examination of kidney specimens from 13 cats revealed intratubular crystalluria, tubular necrosis with regeneration, and subcapsular perivascular inflammation characterized by perivascular fibroplasia or fibrosis and inflammation with intravascular fibrin thrombi. Toxicologic analyses revealed melamine and cyanuric acid in samples of cat food, vomitus, urine, and kidneys. In cats unintentionally fed pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid, the most consistent clinical and pathologic abnormalities were associated with the urinary tract, specifically tubular necrosis and crystalluria.

  13. Outcome After Pneumonectomy in 17 Dogs and 10 Cats: A Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavreille, Vincent; Boston, S E; Souza, C; Ham, K; Chanoit, G; Rossetti, D; Takacs, J; Milner, R

    2016-08-01

    To report the signalment, presenting clinical signs, surgical complications, histologic diagnosis, postoperative complications, and outcome of dogs and cats undergoing pneumonectomy. Retrospective case series; multicenter study. Client-owned dogs (n=17) and cats (n=10). Signalment, clinical signs, side affected, surgical data, preoperative diagnostic tests (including complete blood count, serum biochemistry, cytologic diagnosis, chest radiographs, and computed tomography), histologic diagnosis, surgical complications, adjunctive therapy, and date and cause of death were collected from records of dogs and cats that underwent pneumonectomy. Survival estimates and complication were assessed. Seventeen animals had a left-sided pneumonectomy performed (12 dogs, 5 cats) and 10 animals had a right-sided pneumonectomy (5 dogs, 5 cats). Fourteen animals were diagnosed with neoplasia (52%). The overall incidence of complications for dogs and cats were 76 and 80%, respectively, with major complications in 41 and 50%, respectively. Respiratory complications (persistent pleural effusion, oxygen dependence, persistent increased respiratory rate, or coughing) were the most frequent complications. No animals died or were euthanatized intraoperative or within the first 24 hours postoperative. One dog (6%) and 2 cats (20%) died, or were euthanatized in the first 2 weeks postoperative. Based on this case series, right and left pneumonectomy can be performed with low perioperative mortality in dogs and cats, with some animals experiencing prolonged survival. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Safety of a topically applied metaflumizone spot-on formulation for flea control in cats and kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, K; Lindahl, R G

    2007-12-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted in cats of various ages to evaluate the safety of a novel low-volume topical spot-on containing 20% metaflumizone (ProMeris for Cats, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) when used in cats according to the recommended minimum dosage of 40mg metaflumizonekg(-1) delivered via fixed volume doses of 0.8ml for cats 4.0kg. Study parameters included body weight, food consumption, clinical, physical and neurological examinations, and clinical pathology including complete hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry and urinalysis. Exaggerated and repeated topical applications of metaflumizone at 1x, 3x and 5x the proposed recommended dose in adult cats and kittens 8 weeks of age had no effect on mortality, body weight, food consumption, clinical, physical or neurological examinations, or clinical pathology parameters. Transient salivation was sporadically noted following some, but not all treatment applications. It occurred and resolved within minutes of treatment application in all groups, including cats treated with placebo. Consequently, it was not considered a direct result of treatment with the active ingredient, metaflumizone. Cats orally administered 10% of the recommended topical dose exhibited considerable avoidance behaviors including spitting, head shaking, and salivation. Therefore, voluntary oral exposure is unlikely. No other adverse signs were observed. Repeated use of metaflumizone caused no adverse health effects when administered at 5x the recommended dose and is safe when used as directed, even on kittens as young as 8 weeks of age.

  15. Demodex gatoi -associated contagious pruritic dermatosis in cats - a report from six households in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaniemi Riitta-Liisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demodex gatoi is unique among demodectic mites. It possesses a distinct stubby appearance, and, instead of residing in the hair follicles, it dwells in the keratin layer of the epidermis, causing a pruritic and contagious skin disease in cats. Little is known of the occurrence of D. gatoi in Europe or control of D. gatoi infestation. Case presentation We describe D. gatoi in 10 cats, including five Cornish Rex, two Burmese, one Exotic, one Persian and one Siamese, living in six multi-cat households in different locations in Finland containing 21 cats in total. Intense pruritus was the main clinical sign. Scaling, broken hairs, alopecia and self-inflicted excoriations were also observed. Diagnosis was based on finding typical short-bodied demodectic mites in skin scrapings, skin biopsies or on tape strips. Other pruritic skin diseases, such as allergies and dermatophytoses, were ruled out. In one household, despite finding several mites on one cat, all six cats of the household remained symptomless. Amitraz used weekly at a concentration of 125-250 ppm for 2-3 months, proved successful in three households, 2% lime sulphur weekly dips applied for six weeks in one household and peroral ivermectin (1 mg every other day for 10 weeks in one household. Previous trials in four households with imidacloprid-moxidectin, selamectin or injected ivermectin given once or twice a month appeared ineffective. Conclusion D. gatoi-associated dermatitis is an emerging contagious skin disease in cats in Finland. Although pruritus is common, some cats may harbour the mites without clinical signs. In addition, due to translucency of the mites and fastidious feline grooming habits, the diagnosis may be challenging. An effective and convenient way to treat D. gatoi infestations has yet to emerge.

  16. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (Pseason and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094).

  17. Prediction of systolic blood pressure using peripheral pulse palpation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Erica L; Rees, Colleen; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of peripheral pulse palpation to predict systolic blood pressure (SBP) in cats presenting as emergencies. Prospective observational study performed over an 8-month period. University veterinary teaching hospital. One hundred two cats presenting to the emergency service. Eligibility for inclusion in the study included a physical examination and a SBP via Doppler technique performed prior to treatment. None. Femoral and metatarsal pulses were digitally palpated and the quality of the pulses was assessed as either strong, moderate, poor, or absent. A concurrent SBP was also recorded. The median SBP for all cats was 92.5 mm Hg (range, 30-240 mm Hg). Femoral pulse quality was found to strongly correlate with the admission SBP (P cats with either absent or strong pulses was significantly different (P Cats with absent metatarsal and femoral pulses had a median SBP of 30 mm Hg (range, 30-105 mm Hg), whereas cats with strong metatarsal pulses had a median SBP of 135 mm Hg (range, 58-210 mm Hg). Absent metatarsal pulses correctly identified cats with a blood pressure of 75 mm Hg or less 84% the time (area under the curve: 0.89, confidence interval 0.81, 0.97). In cats, peripheral pulse quality assessment by emergency room veterinarians correlates with SBP. With progressive decreases in blood pressure, metatarsal pulses will disappear and it is only with severe hypotension that femoral pulses are absent. An assessment of both dorsal metatarsal pulse and femoral pulse quality during triage may be useful in identifying abnormalities in blood pressure. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  18. Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1996-09-01

    Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, and to determine their opinions toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. The percentage of animals receiving analgesics postoperatively ranged from 84% of dogs and 70% of cats following orthopedic surgery to 10% of dogs and 9% of cats following castration. In general, with the exception of orthopedic surgery, roughly equal percentages of dogs and cats received postoperative analgesics. Opioids were used almost exclusively to provide postoperative analgesia, with butorphanol the most commonly administered drug to both dogs and cats. Analgesics were usually administered either once or twice postoperatively. With regard to the administration of potent opioid agonists, the 3 major concerns included respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation in dogs, and excitement, respiratory depression, and bradycardia in cats. Seventy-seven percent of veterinarians considered their knowledge of issues related to the recognition and control of postoperative pain to be inadequate. Experience in practice is currently the major source of knowledge, with undergraduate veterinary school and research articles in journals ranked as the least important sources. Lectures or seminars delivered at the regional level were the preferred format for continuing education.

  19. Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in cats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano H. Giovaninni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of sporotrichosis in dogs and cats (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nazaretian Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study retrospectively characterized canine and feline sporotrichosis in male and female individuals of various ages. The patients had been attended at the Dermatology Service of a university veterinary hospital and the diagnosis had been confirmed by isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp in culture media. The study obtained and analyzed medical records from a period of 19 years (1993- 2011. From the evaluated sample, 37 animals were considered for the study, including eight (21.6% dogs and 29 (78.4% cats. The patients were mostly male (30/37-86.5% and had mean ages of 79.5 months for dogs and 36.3 months for cats. Most of the patients had no defined breed (25/37-67.6%. The localized cutaneous form of the disease was most prevalent (25/37-67.6%, and all cases presented positive histopathological diagnoses. Among the cats with sporotrichosis, infection was also observed in animals and/or humans that lived with these cats in 17/37 (45.9% cases. However, none of the affected dogs appeared to spread the infection, as there were no clinical signs that were consistent with the disease. Sporotrichosis was most prevalent among male mixed-breed cats, most of which had a clinical presentation that was consistent with the localized cutaneous form of the disease. In the studied sample, cats constituted an important source of infection for animals and humans living in the same household.

  1. Generation of optical `Schrödinger cats' from photon number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a `cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger `kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the `dead' and `alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.

  2. Generation of optical 'Schrödinger cats' from photon number states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-16

    Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.

  3. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CVI]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  4. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia.

  5. Effect of deslorelin on testicular function, serum dihydrotestosterone and oestradiol concentrations during and after suppression of sexual activity in tom cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültiken, Nilgün; Aslan, Selim; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Gülbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Thuróczy, Julianna; Koldaş, Ece; Kaya, Duygu; Fındık, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant in tom cats. Methods Nine mature male cats were included in the deslorelin group and five cats in the control group. Before the study started, all cats were confirmed to have distinct sexually dimorphic behaviour. Blood samples were taken on the implantation day, at day 7 and at day 15, then monthly, in order to measure serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta(β)-oestradiol concentrations. The deslorelin group (n = 9) was divided into two subgroups: five cats (cats 1-5) were neutered in the postimplantation period during suppression of sexually dimorphic behaviour, and four cats (cats 6-9) were neutered after re-expression of sexually dimorphic behaviour. The control group cats (n = 5) were castrated without administration of the implant. Results Sexually dimorphic behaviours ceased within a mean ± SD of 13-58 days (23.30 ± 14.17) after implantation. DHT concentration decreased within 30 days. The mean duration of suppression was 26.5 ± 7.42 months and reactivation coincided with increased DHT values reaching preimplantation concentrations within 1 month. 17β-oestradiol concentrations significantly correlated with DHT concentrations ( P tom cats without any side effects and with full reversibility; however, duration of suppression is highly individual.

  6. A review of histiocytic diseases of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P F

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic proliferative disorders are commonly observed in dogs and less often cats. Histiocytic disorders occur in most of the dendritic cell (DC) lineages. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma originates from Langerhans cells (LCs) indicated by expression of CD1a, CD11c/CD18, and E-cadherin. When histiocytomas occur as multiple lesions in skin with optional metastasis to lymph nodes and internal organs, the disease resembles cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis of humans. Langerhans cell disorders do not occur in feline skin. Feline pulmonary LCH has been recognized as a cause of respiratory failure due to diffuse pulmonary infiltration by histiocytes, which express CD18 and E-cadherin and contain Birbeck's granules. In dogs and cats, histiocytic sarcomas (HS) arise from interstitial DCs that occur in most tissues of the body. Histiocytic sarcomas begin as localized lesions, which rapidly disseminate to many organs. Primary sites include spleen, lung, skin, brain (meninges), lymph node, bone marrow, and synovial tissues of limbs. An indolent form of localized HS, progressive histiocytosis, originates in the skin of cats. Hemophagocytic HS originates in splenic red pulp and bone marrow macrophages in dogs and cats. In dogs, histiocytes in hemophagocytic HS express CD11d/CD18, which is a leuko-integrin highly expressed by macrophages in splenic red pulp and bone marrow. Canine reactive histiocytic diseases, systemic histiocytosis (SH) and cutaneous histiocytosis, are complex inflammatory diseases with underlying immune dysregulation. The lesions are dominated by activated interstitial DCs and lymphocytes, which invade vessel walls and extend as vasocentric infiltrates in skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs (SH).

  7. Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S

    2017-01-01

    In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs. 1051 ± 9 PJ yr-1) and 33% ± 9% of the animal-derived energy (67 ± 17 PJ yr-1 vs. 206 ± 2 PJ yr-1). They produce about 30% ± 13%, by mass, as much feces as Americans (5.1 ± Tg yr-1 vs. 17.2 Tg yr-1), and through their diet, constitute about 25-30% of the environmental impacts from animal production in terms of the use of land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate, and biocides. Dog and cat animal product consumption is responsible for release of up to 64 ± 16 million tons CO2-equivalent methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Americans are the largest pet owners in the world, but the tradition of pet ownership in the US has considerable costs. As pet ownership increases in some developing countries, especially China, and trends continue in pet food toward higher content and quality of meat, globally, pet ownership will compound the environmental impacts of human dietary choices. Reducing the rate of dog and cat ownership, perhaps in favor of other pets that offer similar health and emotional benefits would considerably reduce these impacts. Simultaneous industry-wide efforts to reduce overfeeding, reduce waste, and find alternative sources of protein will also reduce these impacts.

  8. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells.

  9. Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: co-infestations and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats can be infested by a large range of parasite species. Parasitic infestations may cause very different clinical signs. Endoparasites and ectoparasites are rarely explored in the same study and therefore multiparasitism is poorly documented. The present survey aimed to improve knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with ecto- and endoparasite infestations in owned cats in Europe. Methods From March 2012 to May 2013, 1519 owned cats were included in a multicenter study conducted in 9 veterinary faculties throughout Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain). For each cat, ectoparasites were checked by combing of the coat surface associated with otoscopic evaluation and microscopy on cerumen samples. Endoparasites were identified by standard coproscopical examinations performed on fresh faecal samples. Risk factors and their influence on parasitism were evaluated by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (including center of examination, age, outdoor access, multipet status, and frequency of treatments as main criteria) with logistic regression models. Results Overall, 50.7% of cats resulted positive for at least one internal or one external parasite species. Ectoparasites were found in 29.6% of cats (CI95 27.3-32.0%). Otodectes cynotis was the most frequently identified species (17.4%), followed by fleas (15.5%). Endoparasites were identified in 35.1% of the cats (CI95 32.7-35.7%), including gastro-intestinal helminths in 25.7% (CI95 23.5-28.0), respiratory nematodes in 5.5% (CI95 4.2-7.0%) and protozoans in 13.5% (CI95 11.8-15.3%). Toxocara cati was the most commonly diagnosed endoparasite (19.7%, CI95 17.8-21.8%). Co-infestation with endoparasites and ectoparasites was found in 14.0% of the cats, and 11.9% harbored both ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminths. Age, outdoor access, living with other pets, and anthelmintic or insecticide treatments were significantly

  10. A comparison of serum and plasma cytokine values using a multiplexed assay in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Paradise, Hayley; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B D X

    2016-12-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is highly prevalent in cats, and pain contributes to morbidity. In humans, alterations of cytokine concentrations have been associated with joint deterioration and pain. Similar changes have not been investigated in cats. Cytokine concentrations can be measured using multiplex technology with small samples of serum or plasma, however, serum and plasma are not interchangeable for most bioassays. Correlations for cytokine concentrations between serum and plasma have not been evaluated in cats. To evaluate the levels of detection and agreement between serum and plasma samples in cats. Paired serum and plasma samples obtained from 38 cats. Blood was collected into anti-coagulant free and EDTA Vacutainer(®) tubes, serum or plasma extracted, and samples frozen at -80°C until testing. Duplicate samples were tested using a 19-plex feline cytokine/chemokine magnetic bead panel. Agreement between serum and plasma for many analytes was high, however correlation coefficients ranged from -0.01 to 0.97. Results from >50% of samples were below the lower limit of quantification for both serum and plasma for nine analytes, and for an additional three analytes for plasma only. While serum and plasma agreement was generally good, detection was improved using serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.

    2012-09-01

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  12. Contractile properties of extraocular muscle in Siamese cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerstrand, G

    1979-01-01

    Siamese cats are albinos with poor visual resolution and severely impaired binocular vision. Eey muscle phyiology was studied in Siamese cats as a part of a more extensive project on eye muscle properties in cats with deficient binocular vision. Isometric contractions of the inferior oblique muscle were recorded in response to single and repetitive muscle nerve stimulation. Speed of contraction, measured as twitch contraction time, fusion frequency and rate of tetanic tension rise, was lower in Siamese than in normal cats. Eye muscles of Siamese cats fatiqued more easily to continuous activation than normal cat eye mucle. These functional changes have also been found in cats with binocular defects from monocular lid suture, but were much more marked in Siamese cats. It is suggested that the eye muscle changes represent muscular adaptations to genetically caused impairments of binocular vision and visual resolution in Siamese cats.

  13. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Beloshapka, Alison N; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. Four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, Malayan tigers, jaguars, and Amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. Raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). All cats were acclimated to the diet for 16 days followed by a 4 day collection period, where total feces, including one fresh sample, were collected. All feces were scored on collection. Intake did not differ due to diet, but fecal output was greater when cats consumed the horse-based diet. Total tract apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher (Phorse-based diet. CP digestibility was similar in domestic cats and cheetahs, and greater (Phorse-based diet compared with the beef-based diet. Domestic cats had lower (Phorse-based diet. Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the beef-based diet. Our results suggest that the domestic cat serves as an appropriate model for large exotic felid species, but differences among the species exist. Decreased nutrient digestibility by tigers and jaguars should be considered when developing feeding recommendations for these species based on domestic cat data.

  14. Non-ocular melanomas in cats: a retrospective study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamel, Gabriel; Abadie, Jérôme; Albaric, Olivier; Labrut, Sophie; Ponce, Frédérique; Ibisch, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical outcome of 30 cats with non-ocular melanomas and to evaluate the association between clinical or pathological parameters and overall survival time. Methods The database of the animal histopathological laboratory of the National Veterinary School of Nantes (Oniris, Nantes, France) was retrospectively searched to identify cases of feline non-ocular melanomas between December 2009 and April 2014. For each case, clinical data, including signalment, location of the primary tumour, staging, treatment and outcome, were collected from the medical records or via interviews with referring veterinarians. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation included mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A and S100 immunostaining, and surgical margins. Univariate analysis to test the prognostic value of the different variables was performed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method using the log-rank test of significance. Results Thirty cats were included in the study. Eleven had a cutaneous non-auricular melanoma, six had a tumour located on the pinna and 13 had a tumour in the oral cavity. Cats with auricular melanomas were significantly younger than cats with tumours in other locations. Location and presence of clinical signs were not of prognostic significance, but the achromic phenotype was significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. Twenty cats were treated with surgery and survived significantly longer than cats that received only medical treatment or that did not receive any treatment. According to our data, mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A or S100 expression, and surgical margins were not associated with survival. Conclusions and relevance We show for the first time, in a large series, that the auricular form of melanoma affected significantly younger cats than other extraocular forms. Most feline non-ocular melanomas are malignant and achromic tumours

  15. Perspectives provided by leopard and other cat genomes: how diet determined the evolutionary history of carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Bhak, Jong; O’Brian, Stephen J.; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled humans to generate and investigate the genomes of wild species. This includes the big cat family, such as tigers, lions, and leopards. Adding the first high quality leopard genome, we have performed an in-depth comparative analysis to identify the genomic signatures in the evolution of felid to become the top predators on land. Our study focused on how the carnivore genomes, as compared to the omnivore or herbivore genomes, shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with nutrient metabolism, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for hunting and meat digestion. We found genetic evidence that genomes represent what animals eat through modifying genes. Highly conserved genetically relevant regions were discovered in genomes at the family level. Also, the Felidae family genomes exhibited low levels of genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, presumably because of their strict diet, suggesting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our findings can be used for human health enhancement, since we share the same genes as cats with some variation. This is an example how wildlife genomes can be a critical resource for human evolution, providing key genetic marker information for disease treatment. PMID:28042784

  16. Prevalence of feline heartworm infections among cats with respiratory and gastrointestinal signs: results of a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Plouch, C K; Dillon, A R; Brawner, W R; Guerrero, J

    2000-01-01

    Although heartworm infection in cats was first described in 1921, the diagnosis of the infection remains elusive in many cases. This is due to nonspecific clinical signs of feline heartworm disease, typically low worm burdens, unique pathophysiology in the cat, and the limitations of currently available heartworm tests. Consequently, knowledge about this disease is still limited. An objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and clinical presentation of feline heartworm infection among cats presenting with clinical signs consistent with heartworm disease. Two-hundred fifteen cases were submitted from 15 private practices in Florida, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. Cats entered in the study were at least 6 months of age and presented with one or more of the following clinical signs: respiratory signs, including tachypnea, dyspnea, or coughing; gastrointestinal signs, including a pattern of intermittent vomiting unrelated to eating; or sudden death of uncertain etiology, particularly associated with respiratory distress prior to death. Data collected included: history and indoor/ outdoor lifestyle; physical examination findings; thoracic radiography evaluations; Knott or DIFIL test results, DiroCHEK antigen test results, and antibody test results (Animal Diagnostics, Inc. and Heska Corporation); and CBC results. Recheck examinations were scheduled for any cat with positive heartworm serological test results and for cats with radiographic signs consistent with or suggestive of feline heartworm disease. Data from 215 cases were collected and analyzed: 94/215 (44%) tested antibody positive for one or both antibody tests that were performed; 18/94 (19%) of the antibody-positive cats were reported as living 100% indoors by their owners; (12%) of the antibody-positive cats spent less than or equal to 10% of their time outdoors. Eleven of 215 cats (5%) were DiroCHEK antigen positive on initial examination. One cat was both DiroCHEK and microfilariae positive

  17. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  18. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steed, Chad A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thornton, Peter E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  19. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  20. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti, which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  1. DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-10-15

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05–46.41. The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.

  3. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad T; Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Shokri, Azar; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Teshnizi, Saeed H; Mizani, Azade; Sharif, Mahdi

    2015-04-30

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations) was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05-46.41). The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.

  4. Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats ( Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Moura, L; Majumdar, D; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Kelly, P; Krecek, R C; Su, C

    2009-05-01

    Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test, and found in 71 of 96 (73.9%) of cats with titres of 1:10 in six, 1: 20 in six,1:40 in seven,1: 80 in three, 1: 160 in 10, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in nine, and 1:1,280 or higher in 17. Tissues of 10 cats were bio-assayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 7 cats; from hearts of 6, from tongue of 5, and brains of 3 cats. All 7 isolates were avirulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in the feces of 51 cats. Genotyping of these 7 T. gondii isolates by 10 multi-locus PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker, Apico, revealed 4 genotypes, including clonal Type II, Type III and 2 unique genotypes. Five of the 7 cats had infection with 2 genotypes, indicating high frequency of mixed infection in the cat population on the St Kitts island.

  5. A trial with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine and human interferon-α in cats naturally infected with feline leukaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetzer, Bianca; Brunner, Konstanze; Lutz, Hans; Hartmann, Katrin

    2013-08-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection is still one of the leading causes of infection-related deaths in domestic cats. Treatment with various drugs has been attempted, but none has resulted in cure or complete virus elimination. Human interferon-α2a (huIFN-α2a) and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) have been proven to decrease antigenaemia in cats infected experimentally with FeLV. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of huIFN-α2a, AZT and a combination of both drugs in cats infected naturally with FeLV in a placebo-controlled double-blinded trial. Fourty-four FeLV-infected cats in which free FeLV p27 antigen was detected in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were included in the study. Cats were assigned to one of four treatment groups that received either high dose huIFN-α2a (10(5) IU/kg q24h; 12 cats), AZT (5 mg/kg q12h; 10 cats, both of these treatments (12 cats) or placebo (10 cats). All cats were treated for 6 weeks. Clinical variables, including stomatitis, and laboratory parameters, such as CD4(+) and CD8(+) counts and serum FeLV p 27 antigen concentration, were recorded throughout the treatment period. No significant difference among the groups was observed during the treatment period for any of the parameters. Aside from anaemia in one cat treated with AZT, no adverse effects were observed. It was not possible to demonstrate efficacy of huIFN-α2a or AZT alone or together in cats infected naturally with FeLV when given according to this regimen for 6 weeks; however, no notable side effects were detected.

  6. CHP Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about CHP technologies, including reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, steam turbines, microturbines, fuel cells, and waste heat to power. Access the Catalog of CHP Technologies and the Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies.

  7. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Hunting for the Quantum Cheshire Cat

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The proposal of Aharonov, Popescu, and Skrzypczyk [arXiv:1202.0631] of disembodying physical properties from particles is analyzed. It is argued that: (1) in order to state that the cat is at one location and the smile at another, one should look at correlations, not mean values; (2) a weak value of one for the presence of the cat describes the average over a large number of trials, where the detector gives in each trial outputs that are not zero nor one, and that are much larger than unity (they can be large and negative as well); (3) once these issues are addressed, the specific model proposed does not provide evidence for disembodiment of physical properties. Here, the exact probability distribution and its characteristic function are derived for arbitrary coupling strength, preparation and post-selection. This allows to successfully hunt down the quantum Cheshire cat.

  9. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  10. Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Holger; Eriksen, Hege R

    2010-05-01

    The cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS) is based on a long series of experiments on animals and on humans, in the laboratory, and in real life situations. From the common sense coping concept formulated by Seymour Levine; coping is when my "tommy" does not hurt, we have advanced to a systematic theory for what is behind the relaxed and happy coping rat (and cat). We also cover the translational leap to humans, starting with the now classic parachutist study. The bridge is based on formal and symbolic definitions, a theoretical short cut that Levine actually never really accepted. The essential pathophysiological concept is the potential pathological effects of sustained activation, which may occur in the absence of coping (positive response outcome expectancy). We review the current status of CATS in Behavioural Medicine by discussing its potential explanatory power in epidemiology, prevention and treatment of "subjective health complaints".

  11. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  12. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  13. Efficacy of a barrier gel for reducing the development of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Carithers, Douglas S; Gross, Sheila J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the field efficacy of a professional and home-care barrier gel against the development of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, and gingivitis in client-owned cats over a 56-day period compared with negative controls. In a randomized, negative-controlled, outcome evaluator-blinded, client-owned animal clinical field study, 31 cats were evaluated to assess if the barrier gel dental product was effective in cats. Following an enrollment-qualification assessment and enrollment of each cat, all cats received a professional dental cleaning, including polishing and irrigation. Following cleaning, a post-cleaning assessment was performed by the evaluator. Then, using a pre-developed randomization schedule, cats were assigned to the treated or control group. The professional version of the barrier gel was applied to the treated group on day 0. The negative-control group patients did not receive any applications of the barrier gel following dental cleaning. Treated-group cats were brought back to the clinic for subsequent applications of the home-care version of the barrier gel, applied by a non-blinded trained assistant. The home-care version product applications began on day 14 and then were applied weekly (days, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56) through day 56. All cats enrolled in the study underwent full oral examinations and assessments by the blinded evaluator on or about their respective days 28 and 56. At these evaluations, the evaluator performed standardized assessments for plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding. Numeric scores were assigned for each assessment using predetermined target teeth to ensure consistency. Using these assessment scores, statistical analyses were performed to determine the efficacies against plaque and calculus deposition; additionally, measurements of gingivitis and gingival bleeding were assessed. Change in plaque score from baseline, for all teeth assessed (all 4 canine teeth, and all 4

  14. Three Different Ways to Skin a Cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Hedman, Jonas; Medaglia, Rony

    2017-01-01

    The growing phenomenon of financialization influences an array of societal dimensions that go beyond the economic realm, to include public policy-making and information technology (IT). This study presents a cross-country analysis of the emergence of national electronic identification (e-ID) solu...

  15. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  16. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disturbances, jaundice, or diarrhea), the Director may require prompt confinement and give the owner an... prevent transmission of rabies. (g) Disposal of excluded dogs and cats. A dog or cat excluded from the...

  17. Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Keep Your Dogs and Cats Safe From Holiday Hazards Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... leave your leftover tinsel, string, and ribbons. “Your cat may find these decorations irresistible because they look ...

  18. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  19. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But ... Fluffy the cat gets out of sorts and scratches you, it's possible you could get a bacterial ...

  20. Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped from Cat to Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu strain from cat to human, officials said. ...

  1. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  2. Refeeding syndrome in a cat with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Karen; KuKanich, Kate S; Smee, Nicole M

    2011-08-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by severe hypophosphatemia occurring in patients given enteral or parenteral nutrition after severe weight loss. There are few veterinary reports that describe this syndrome but it is well documented in human medicine. This report describes a case of a domestic shorthair cat diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis following a 4-week history of decreased appetite and weight loss and in whom refeeding syndrome was documented after initiation of enteral nutrition. Clinical findings, blood work abnormalities and disease progression in this patient are described from the time of diagnosis through to recovery. A review of the current literature pertinent to this clinical syndrome is included.

  3. SkyCat: Visualization and Catalog and Data Access Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO's Data Management; Very Large Telescope (VLT) Project Divisions; Canadian Astronomical Data Center (CADC)

    2011-09-01

    SkyCat is a tool that combines visualization of images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. The tool, developed in Tcl/Tk, was originally conceived as a demo of the capabilities of the class library that was developed for the VLT. The Skycat sources currently consist of five packages: Tclutil - Generic Tcl and C++ utilitiesAstrotcl - Astronomical Tcl and C++ utilitiesRTD - Real-time Display classes and widgetsCatlib - Catalog library and widgetsSkycat - Skycat application and library package All of the required packages are always included in the tarfile.

  4. Myocardial collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration in cats with pre-clinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, K H; Campbell, F E; Owen, H; Shiels, I A; Mills, P C

    2015-02-01

    The histological features of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been well documented, but there are no reports describing the histological features in mild pre-clinical disease, since cats are rarely screened for the disease in the early stages before clinical signs are apparent. Histological changes at the early stage of the disease in pre-clinical cats could contribute to an improved understanding of disease aetiology or progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological features of HCM in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of cats diagnosed with pre-clinical HCM. Clinically healthy cats with normal (n = 11) and pre-clinical HCM (n = 6) were identified on the basis of echocardiography; LV free wall dimensions (LVFWd) and/or interventricular septal wall (IVSd) dimensions during diastole of 6-7 mm were defined as HCM, while equivalent dimensions <5.5 mm were defined as normal. LV myocardial sections were assessed and collagen content and inflammatory cell infiltrates were quantified objectively. Multifocal areas of inflammatory cell infiltration, predominantly lymphocytes, were observed frequently in the left myocardium of cats with pre-clinical HCM. Tissue from cats with pre-clinical HCM also had a higher number of neutrophils and a greater collagen content than the myocardium of normal cats. The myocardium variably demonstrated other features characteristic of HCM, including arteriolar mural hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and, to a lesser extent, myocardial fibre disarray and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that an inflammatory process could contribute to increased collagen content and the myocardial fibrosis known to be associated with HCM.

  5. Occurrence of bacteriuria in 18 catheterised cats with obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugonnard, Marine; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Dernis, Jérémy; Pouzot-Nevoret, Céline; Barthélémy, Anthony; Vialard, Jacquemine; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in cats catheterised for an obstructive lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) has not previously been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of significant bacteriuria in cats with obstructive LUTD managed for 48 h with a closed urine collection system. Eighteen male cats admitted for a non-infectious obstructive LUTD were evaluated. This was a prospective study. A standard protocol was used for aseptic catheter placement and maintenance. Three urine samples were collected from each animal through the catheter immediately after placement, 24 h after placement and just before removal. All samples underwent complete urinalysis, including bacterial culture. Catheter tips were tested by bacterial culture. Six cats (33.3%) developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. The causative bacteria were common feline uropathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus species) in five cases, and Streptococcus bovis in one. One cat developed a fungal infection. The presence of bacteria in urinary sediment was correlated strongly with positive urine culture results. The catheter tips from 10/18 cats (55.5%) were positive for culture. The positive predictive value of a positive culture from the urinary catheter tip was 87.5%. The specificity was 53.8%. The same infectious agents were cultured from both urine and catheter tip in six cases. In summary, one-third of cats developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. Silent bacteriuria could not be clearly differentiated from true urinary tract infection. The presence of bacteria in the urinary sediment was strongly indicative of bacteriuria. The specificity of urinary catheter tip culture was low.

  6. Reference intervals and allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Morgan, Kyla L

    2015-12-01

    The Bengal is a relatively new hybrid breed, reported to develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats. Sixty-six apparently healthy Bengal cats. The study included a retrospective review of echocardiograms from 39 Bengal cats evaluated from March 2004 to June 2012 and reported to be normal by a board-certified cardiologist. An additional 27 cats were enrolled prospectively from June 2012 to June 2013. The effects of sex and body weight on linear cardiac dimensions were evaluated by regression analysis. Reference intervals were determined by the robust method with bootstrapping. Allometric equations scaled to body weight were derived for each echocardiographic variable. Intra- and interobserver variability were evaluated by coefficient of variation from 6 of the prospective studies. Reference intervals were determined from all 66 Bengal cats as no significant differences were observed between the retrospective and prospective data. An effect of sex, separate from body weight, was suggested and unique reference intervals for male and female cats were determined. Body weight was a significant co-variate and 95% prediction intervals for linear dimensions were determined by allometric scaling. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% for 2-dimensional variables and less than 18% for M-mode variables. These data provide reference intervals and weight-based 95% prediction intervals for echocardiographic measurements in the Bengal cat, potentially aiding cardiologists who screen this breed in detecting pathologic variants from normal dimensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Pinsky, L.; Li, L.; Jackson, D. R.; Chen, J.; Reed, H.; Moldwin, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, J.; Heine, T.; Case, A. W.; Stevens, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  8. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  9. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Use of pentosan polysulphate in cats with idiopathic, non-obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallius, Barbro M; Tidholm, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common clinical entity where different treatments, for example glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as pentosan polysulphate (PPS), are advocated. However, few treatments have been investigated by well-controlled clinical trials. This paper compares the use of PPS in FLUTD compared to placebo. Of the 18 cats in the experiment, nine were treated with PPS and nine were treated with placebo with subcutaneous injections of 3mg/kg PPS or placebo day 1, 2, 5 and 10. The study was double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. Revaluation was performed after 5 and 10 days, 2 weeks, 2, 6 and 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences concerning clinical signs between groups during treatment or at re-evaluation, except for pretreatment stressful events where PPS-treated cats had experienced significantly more stressful events compared to cats treated with placebo before entering the study. Six cats (33%) showed recurrence of clinical signs during the entire study period, and only one of these cats had more than one recurrent episode. One cat (placebo) was euthanased 7 days after initial treatment because of recurrence of clinical signs. Another cat (placebo) was euthanased due to other reasons after 6 months. At 2 weeks two cats (placebo and PPS) showed clinical signs. At 2 months re-evaluation one cat showed mild clinical signs. At 6 and 12 months all remaining 16 cats were healthy. Idiopathic, non-obstructive FLUTD is a self-limiting disease with good short-term and excellent long-term prognosis without treatment. Whether or not PPS may be beneficial in a subpopulation of cats with continuous or frequently recurring clinical signs may be elucidated in forthcoming double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trials including only this subpopulation of cats.

  11. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh W McGregor

    Full Text Available Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  12. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  13. Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats: a multicentre study on feline hypersensitivity-associated dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Sveta; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvie; Favrot, Claude

    2011-10-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are often suspected in cats. Cats with HD are reported to present with one or more of the following patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, self-induced symmetrical alopecia or head and/or neck excoriations. Previous reports on feline HD included small numbers of animals, took place in geographically restricted areas or did not compare these conditions with other causes of pruritus. The goal of the present study was to analyse 72 parameters covering signalment, clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics from a large group of pruritic cats from different geographical areas. Of the 502 cats, the following diagnoses were made: flea HD (29% of cases), food HD (12%) nonflea/nonfood HD (20%) and other diseases in which pruritus was a feature (24%). Cats with signs consistent with a HD but which did not complete a food trial were not analysed further (15% of cases). Most cats with nonflea HD exhibited signs compatible with one or more of the four typical lesional patterns, but none of these patterns was found to be pathognomonic for any specific diagnosis. Food HD and nonflea/nonfood HD were found to be clinically undistinguishable. Young adult, purebred and female cats appeared predisposed to nonflea/nonfood HD. As many diagnoses presented with similar lesional patterns, a thorough clinical work-up is required for establishment of a specific diagnosis.

  14. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae in coastal Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Janardhanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Cat in coastal Kerala through personal informal interviews with local people and molecular analysis of scats. The study failed to find any evidence of the occurrence of Fishing Cat in the coastal areas of Kerala. We discuss two possibilities - one, of the species existing earlier but driven to extinction in recent decades, due to high levels of land conversion through anthropogenic activities in these areas and the other of the Fishing Cat having never occurred in coastal Kerala. A speculative reasoning for its absence from the region could be related to the difference in salinity levels between the eastern and western coasts of India which has already been documented. Moreover, fewer freshwater sources merge into the sea in coastal areas of Kerala as compared to the eastern coast of India. This could limit the distribution of the Fishing Cat. The argument was also supported by the lack of any authentic report till date or of local names for the Fishing Cat in the region.

  15. Numbers and Characteristics of Cats Admitted to Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Shelters in Australia and Reasons for Surrender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Alberthsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite high numbers of cats admitted to animal shelters annually, there is surprisingly little information available about the characteristics of these cats. In this study, we examined 195,387 admissions to 33 Australian RSPCA shelters and six friends of the RSPCA groups from July 2006 to June 2010. The aims of this study were to describe the numbers and characteristics of cats entering Australian RSPCA shelters, and to describe reasons for cat surrender. Data collected included shelter, state, admission source, age, gender, date of arrival, color, breed, reproductive status (sterilized or not prior to admission, feral status and surrender reason (if applicable. Most admissions were presented by members of the general public, as either stray animals or owner-surrenders, and more kittens were admitted than adults. Owner-related reasons were most commonly given for surrendering a cat to a shelter. The most frequently cited owner-related reason was accommodation (i.e., cats were not allowed. Importantly, although the percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized (36% was the highest of any shelter study reported to date, this was still lower than expected, particularly among owner-surrendered cats (47%. The percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized was low even in jurisdictions that require mandatory sterilization.

  16. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Dogs and cats have been sharing our environment for a long time and as pets they bring major psychological well-being to our modern urbanized society. However, they still can be a source of human infection by various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Abstract Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  17. Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian influen

  18. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capill

  19. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  20. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  1. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  2. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  3. Mammary hypertrophy in an ovariohysterectomized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukay, B P; Stevenson, D A

    1983-05-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  4. Phenotypic variability of cat-eye syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric dupl

  5. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  6. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  7. Phenotypic variability of cat-eye syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric

  8. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  9. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  10. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

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    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  11. Halpern's Iteration in CAT(0 Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satit Saejung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Halpern's result, we prove strong convergence theorem of an iterative sequence in CAT(0 spaces. We apply our result to find a common fixed point of a family of nonexpansive mappings. A convergence theorem for nonself mappings is also discussed.

  12. Fatal Attraction Phenomenon in Humans – Cat Odour Attractiveness Increased for Toxoplasma-Infected Men While Decreased for Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Flegr; Pavlína Lenochová; Zdeněk Hodný; Marta Vondrová

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes i...

  13. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  14. A retrospective clinical and epidemiological study on feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelioglu, B K; Berriatua, E; Turan, N; Helps, C R; Kocak, M; Yilmaz, H

    2015-04-01

    The presence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), together with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen was investigated in 169 ill household and stray cats attending a veterinary surgery in Istanbul in 2009-14. The estimated FCoV and FIV seroprevalence (95% confidence intervals) were 37% (30-45%) and 11% (6-16%), respectively and FeLV prevalence was 1% (0-3%). FCoV seroprevalence increased until 2 years of age, was highest in 2014 and among household cats living with other cats and with outdoor access, and was lower in FIV seropositive compared to seronegative cats. Symptoms typically associated with wet feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) including ascites, abdominal distention or pleural effusion, coupled in many cases with non-antibiotic responsive fever, were observed in 19% (32/169) of cats, and 75% (24/32) of these cats were FCoV seropositive. FCoV seropositivity was also associated with a high white blood cell count, high plasma globulin, low plasma albumin and low blood urea nitrogen. The percentage of FCoV seropositive and seronegative cats that died in spite of supportive veterinary treatment was 33% (21/63) and 12% (13/106), respectively. These results indicate that FCoV is widespread and has a severe clinical impact in cats from Istanbul. Moreover, the incidence of FCoV infections could be rising, and in the absence of effective vaccination cat owners need to be made aware of ways to minimize the spread of this virus.

  15. Estimation of effectiveness of three methods of feral cat population control by use of a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert J; Levine, Stephen H; Reed, J Michael

    2013-08-15

    To predict effectiveness of 3 interventional methods of population control for feral cat colonies. Population model. Estimates of vital data for feral cats. Data were gathered from the literature regarding the demography and mating behavior of feral cats. An individual-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of trap-neuter-release (TNR), lethal control, and trap-vasectomy-hysterectomy-release (TVHR) in decreasing the size of feral cat populations. TVHR outperformed both TNR and lethal control at all annual capture probabilities between 10% and 90%. Unless > 57% of cats were captured and neutered annually by TNR or removed by lethal control, there was minimal effect on population size. In contrast, with an annual capture rate of ≥ 35%, TVHR caused population size to decrease. An annual capture rate of 57% eliminated the modeled population in 4,000 days by use of TVHR, whereas > 82% was required for both TNR and lethal control. When the effect of fraction of adult cats neutered on kitten and young juvenile survival rate was included in the analysis, TNR performed progressively worse and could be counterproductive, such that population size increased, compared with no intervention at all. TVHR should be preferred over TNR for management of feral cats if decrease in population size is the goal. This model allowed for many factors related to the trapping program and cats to be varied and should be useful for determining the financial and person-effort commitments required to have a desired effect on a given feral cat population.

  16. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lancaster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258 and cats (n = 6950 entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37% had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%, all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%, and the microchip not registered (14%. A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%. The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  17. Molecular identity and prevalence of Cryptococcus spp. nasal carriage in asymptomatic feral cats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Granato, Anna; Schivo, Alice; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects humans and animals worldwide. Inhalation of fungal particles from an environmental source can cause primary infection of the respiratory system. As animals can be considered a sentinel for human diseases, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and molecular identity of Cryptococcus spp. in the nasal cavity of feral cats. Cats from 162 urban and rural feral cat colonies were sampled over 3 years. Of 766 cats from which nasal swabs were obtained, Cryptococcus spp. were recovered from 95 (12.6%), including 37 C. magnus (4.8%), 16 C. albidus (2.0%), 15 C. carnescens (1.9%), 12 C. neoformans (1.6%), as well as C. oeirensis (n = 3), C. victoriae (n = 3), C. albidosimilis (n = 2), Filobasidium globisporum (n = 2), C. adeliensis (n = 1), C. flavescens (n = 1), C. dimnae (n = 1), C. saitoi (n = 1), and C. wieringae (n = 1) with prevalence feral cats may carry C. neoformans and other Cryptococcus species in their sinonasal cavity. Genotyping of the specific cryptococcal isolates provides a better understanding of the epidemiology of these yeasts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ultrasonographic appearance of histoplasmosis identified in the spleen in 15 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiee, Genna; Kvitko-White, Heather; Spaulding, Kathy; Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is the second most common fungal infection reported in the cat. The disseminated form involving lung, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow is a frequent manifestation of the disease. Limited information is available in the literature regarding the ultrasonographic appearance of the spleen in cats with disseminated or splenic histoplasmosis. A retrospective review of splenic ultrasound images from 15 cats confirmed to have histoplasmosis by splenic aspirates was performed. Size, echotexture, echogenicity, margin appearance, presence of nodules, and the overall shape of the spleen were reported in each case. Splenomegaly was documented in all cases (15/15) and a hypoechoic appearance of the spleen was documented in 14/15 of cases. The spleen was diffusely and uniformly affected in 14/15 (six homogenous and eight with a subtle mottled appearance) and had discrete nodules in 1/15 cats. Histoplasmosis should be included in the differential list for an enlarged and hypoechoic spleen in cats with consistent clinical findings. Additionally, ultrasound guided splenic aspirate may be a useful method to obtain a cytology sample for diagnosis.

  19. Induction of abortion with aglepristone in cats on day 45 and 46 after mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, P; Bostedt, H; Goericke-Pesch, S; Dimitrov, M; Petkov, P; Stojanthev, K; Tsoneva, V; Wehrend, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test for the efficacy and safety of the use of aglepristone for pregnancy termination on day 45 in cats. Six healthy cats were treated with 10 mg/kg aglepristone sc on day 45 and 46 after mating; six other cats served as untreated controls. The effect of treatment was monitored by general examination, vaginal cytology, ultrasonography and blood sampling for haematology and progesterone determination. Besides, interoestrus interval and next pregnancy including litter size were recorded. The efficacy of treatment was approximately 67% (4/6) with abortion occurring 4-7 days after the first injection and a sanguineous discharge and erythrocytes in vaginal smears for at least 6 days afterwards. The two treated cats that did not abort gave birth to two kittens on day 67 and had a stillbirth of a single kitten on day 71, respectively. As expected enlargement of the mammary glands and lactation were observed in all treated cats. No other treatment-induced side effects were observed. Progesterone levels at abortion were high (30-140 nmol/l), but were decreased on day 55. Aglepristone treatment did not affect fertility in following cycles. Finally, it can be concluded that late-term pregnancy termination with aglepristone is possible but due to a success rate of 67% an ultrasonographical examination 7 days after treatment is an inherent necessity to control the effect of treatment.

  20. Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in eleven cats with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindner, Julia K; Bielecki, Malgorzata J; Scharvogel, Stefan; Meiler, Diane

    2016-11-23

    To report the surgical procedure, intra- and postoperative complications, and short-term follow-up of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) in feline patients with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture using a 2.0 or 2.4 mm Synthes(®) TPLO plate. Prospective study. Eleven cats with a CrCL rupture were included in the study. Inspection of intra-articular structures was carried out via arthroscopy or arthrotomy. Each patient was re-examined one and 10 days after surgery. Orthopaedic examination and follow-up radiographs were obtained four to 12 weeks postoperatively. Two meniscopathies and one partial CrCL rupture were detected. Minor intra-operative complications occurred in five cats (suboptimal positioning of the plate [n = 3], proximal fibular fracture [n = 1], a visible osteotomy gap [n = 1]). Postoperatively, minor complications were detected in three cats (mild patellar desmitis [n = 2], superficial wound infection [n = 1]). No additional surgical reintervention, graded as major complication, was necessary. Four to eight weeks postoperatively, all cats showed no to mild intermittent lameness. Complete bone union was apparent within four to 12 weeks. Owners reported a high level of comfort and mobility during the last follow-up. The preliminary results of this study support the use of TPLO in cats, but larger case numbers are needed to evaluate its practicability, as well as long-term outcome (>1 year), especially evaluating the development and the clinical relevance of osteoarthritis.

  1. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  2. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J

    2015-05-01

    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. SNP Miniplexes for Individual Identification of Random-Bred Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ashley; Creighton, Erica K; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the cat can be obtained from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyses of fur. This study developed miniplexes using SNPs with high discriminating power for random-bred domestic cats, focusing on individual and phenotypic identification. Seventy-eight SNPs were investigated using a multiplex PCR followed by a fluorescently labeled single base extension (SBE) technique (SNaPshot(®) ). The SNP miniplexes were evaluated for reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity, species specificity, detection limitations, and assignment accuracy. Six SNPplexes were developed containing 39 intergenic SNPs and 26 phenotypic SNPs, including a sex identification marker, ZFXY. The combined random match probability (cRMP) was 6.58 × 10(-19) across all Western cat populations and the likelihood ratio was 1.52 × 10(18) . These SNPplexes can distinguish individual cats and their phenotypic traits, which could provide insight into crime reconstructions. A SNP database of 237 cats from 13 worldwide populations is now available for forensic applications.

  4. Detection of Babesia vogeli in stray cats of metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simking, Patcharathorn; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2010-10-11

    The combination of a rapidly growing stray animal population and the lack of animal control in Bangkok has resulted in a unique opportunity to evaluate the potential role of companion animals as sentinels and reservoirs of infectious diseases, including several of those caused by vector-borne parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the distribution of Babesia species infections among stray cats in Bangkok. Blood samples were collected from 1490 stray cats residing in 140 monasteries of 50 metropolitan districts of Bangkok, and assayed with light microscopy and PCR for evidence of Babesia spp. Pear-shaped merozoites were observed microscopically from two (0.13%) of these cats, while a nested 18S rDNA-based PCR assay detected babesial infections in 21 (1.4%) of the cats tested. The prevalence of infection was significantly different between sexes (ppopulations in Thailand, and suggest that the presence of pet companion animals could be a risk factor for exposure of stray cats to vector-borne parasites.

  5. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  6. Hepatic encephalopathy in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidbury, Jonathan A; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    To comparatively review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in dogs and cats. The Medline database was searched for articles related to HE in people, dogs, and cats. Articles published within the last 5 years were given special importance. The pathogenesis of HE is complex and incompletely understood, but ammonia appears to play a central role. Hyperammonemia leads to accumulation of glutamine in astrocytes, with subsequent astrocyte swelling and neurological dysfunction. The development of HE in patients with hepatic cirrhosis is a poor prognostic indicator. The fermentable disaccharide lactulose and the antimicrobial rifaximin are US Food and Drug Administration approved treatments for human HE. Severe protein restriction is no longer recommended for patients with this condition. HE is often associated with portosystemic shunting in dogs and cats. Ammonia plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HE in dogs and cats, but other factors such as manganese and endogenous benzodiazepines may also contribute. Recently, a soy protein-based diet was found to be beneficial in treating canine HE. Severe dietary protein restriction is likely to be detrimental in affected animals. There have been no clinical trials of drugs routinely used in the management HE in veterinary medicine, but lactulose and antimicrobials such as metronidazole are well-established treatments. HE is a potentially life-threatening condition that is probably underdiagnosed in companion animals. Although various treatment recommendations have been proposed, there is a lack of evidence in the veterinary literature regarding optimal strategies for the management of this condition. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of HE in dogs and cats evolves, novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents may become available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  7. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  8. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  9. Bilateral Dentate Gyrus Structural Alterations in a Cat Associated With Hippocampal Sclerosis and Intraventricular Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, A; Thaller, D; Schmidt, P; Kovacs, G G; Halasz, P; Pakozdy, A

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old cat had a history of seizures for 3 years that resembled temporal lobe epilepsy. Histologic examination of the brain revealed bilateral hippocampal alterations, including hypergyration and broadening of the dentate gyrus associated with hippocampal sclerosis and an intraventricular meningioma near the hippocampal region. The findings in the dentate gyrus were interpreted as a congenital malformation; however, it could not be ruled out that the alterations were induced by the seizures. Similar changes of the dentate gyrus have not been previously described in cats. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The domestic cat representation in different socio-cultural settings and the connections with animal ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Clemente Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat has been symbolically represented over time in a very different way, with connotations sometimes positive and sometimes negative. It is also paradoxical the way that society historically interacts with this feline so, its symbolic representation and its direct interaction with the human seem to go together. In the present, the cat suffers a lot with cruelty acts, abandonment and death, including reduced rate of adoption. Thus, this paper aims to briefly describe the beliefs and ritual uses of cats in different cultures, reflecting on how the symbolism of this feline relates to ethical issues. Education programs and the proper implementation of the laws are identified as important factors to modify this anthropocentric and speciesist paradigm inconsistent with the animal ethics perspectives. 

  11. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  12. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  13. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  14. Costs and benefits of trap-neuter-release and euthanasia for removal of urban cats in Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Cox, Linda J; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to determine whether it is more cost-effective to control feral cat abundance with trap-neuter-release programs or trap and euthanize programs. Using STELLA 7, systems modeling software, we modeled changes over 30 years in abundance of cats in a feral colony in response to each management method and the costs and benefits associated with each method . We included costs associated with providing food, veterinary care, and microchips to the colony cats and the cost of euthanasia, wages, and trapping equipment in the model. Due to a lack of data on predation rates and disease transmission by feral cats the only benefits incorporated into the analyses were reduced predation on Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus). When no additional domestic cats were abandoned by owners and the trap and euthanize program removed 30,000 cats in the first year, the colony was extirpated in at least 75% of model simulations within the second year. It took 30 years for trap-neuter-release to extirpate the colony. When the cat population was supplemented with 10% of the initial population size per year, the colony returned to carrying capacity within 6 years and the trap and euthanize program had to be repeated, whereas trap-neuter-release never reduced the number of cats to near zero within the 30-year time frame of the model. The abandonment of domestic cats reduced the cost effectiveness of both trap-neuter-release and trap and euthanize. Trap-neuter-release was approximately twice as expensive to implement as a trap and euthanize program. Results of sensitivity analyses suggested trap-neuter-release programs that employ volunteers are still less cost-effective than trap and euthanize programs that employ paid professionals and that trap-neuter-release was only effective when the total number of colony cats in an area was below 1000. Reducing the rate of abandonment of domestic cats appears to be a more effective solution for reducing the abundance of feral cats.

  15. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J; Johnson, Christopher N

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  16. A New Family of Generalized 3D Cat Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yue; Noonan, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s chaotic cat maps are widely used in data encryption, for their very complicated dynamics within a simple model and desired characteristics related to requirements of cryptography. The number of cat map parameters and the map period length after discretization are two major concerns in many applications for security reasons. In this paper, we propose a new family of 36 distinctive 3D cat maps with different spatial configurations taking existing 3D cat maps [1]-[4] as special cases. Our analysis and comparisons show that this new 3D cat maps family has more independent map parameters and much longer averaged period lengths than existing 3D cat maps. The presented cat map family can be extended to higher dimensional cases.

  17. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnen, Rosemary; Tuft, Katherine; McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Radford, Ian J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account. PMID:27655024

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. GeoNetwork powered GI-cat: a geoportal hybrid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Alessio; Boldrini, Enrico; Santoro, Mattia; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    according to the interface protocols exposed by GI-cat into the multiple query dialects spoken by the resource service providers. Currently, a number of well-accepted catalog and inventory services are supported, including several OGC Web Services, THREDDS Data Server, SeaDataNet Common Data Index, GBIF and OpenSearch engines. A GeoNetwork powered GI-cat has been developed in order to exploit the best of the two frameworks. The new system uses a modified version of GeoNetwork web interface in order to add the capability of querying also the specified GI-cat catalog and not only the GeoNetwork internal database. The resulting system consists in a geoportal in which GI-cat plays the role of the search engine. This new system allows to distribute the query on the different types of data sources linked to a GI-cat. The metadata results of the query are then visualized by the Geonetwork web interface. This configuration was experimented in the framework of GIIDA, a project of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) focused on data accessibility and interoperability. A second advantage of this solution is achieved setting up a GeoNetwork catalog amongst the accessors of the GI-cat instance. Such a configuration will allow in turn GI-cat to run the query against the internal GeoNetwork database. This allows to have both the harvesting and the metadata editor functionalities provided by GeoNetwork and the distributed search functionality of GI-cat available in a consistent way through the same web interface.

  20. Absence of DNA sequence diversity of the intergenic spacer 1 region in Malassezia nana isolates from cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Filippo; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier; Bond, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Malassezia nana is a recently-described lipophilic yeast that has been isolated from the ear canals and skin of cats in Japan and Europe and from Brazilian cattle with or without otitis externa. Previous reports have demonstrated that significant intra-species variability exists in the DNA sequence of the intergenic spacer 1 region (IGS1), particularly amongst M. globosa, M. restricta and M. pachydermatis, and that certain IGS genotypes are associated with various epidemiological factors, including host disease status. In the present study, we demonstrated that the IGS1 sequences of 12 UK isolates of M. nana from cats and of six isolates from Spain (5 cat, 1 dog) were identical to each other and to CBS 9557, the M. nana type culture originally obtained from a Japanese cat with otitis externa. Further studies are needed to determine whether other genotypes of M. nana can be identified and associated with geographical regions and the species and disease status of mammalian hosts.