WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies include methods

  1. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups... Moosic, PA, Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased... of MetLife, Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups, Moosic, Pennsylvania...

  2. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  3. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  4. Ferrari's Method and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoen, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…

  5. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  6. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  7. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Including Assistive Technology in Teacher Preparation: Exploring One Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Elissa Wolfe; Wood, Jackie; Schmidt, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is specifically addressed in the most recent reauthorization of IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004). The law insures that assistive devices and services

  9. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  10. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  11. Forecasting methods for computer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    How well the computer site manager avoids future dangers and takes advantage of future opportunities depends to a considerable degree on how much anticipatory information he has available. People who rise in management are expected with each successive promotion to concern themselves with events further in the future. It is the function of technology projection to increase this stock of information about possible future developments in order to put planning and decision making on a more rational basis. Past efforts at computer technology projections have an accuracy that declines exponentially with time. Thus, precisely defined technology projections beyond about three years should be used with considerable caution. This paper reviews both subjective and objective methods of technology projection and gives examples of each. For an integrated view of future prospects in computer technology, a framework for technology projection is proposed.

  12. Forecasting methods for computer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    How well the computer site manager avoids future dangers and takes advantage of future opportunities depends to a considerable degree on how much anticipatory information he has available. People who rise in management are expected with each successive promotion to concern themselves with events further in the future. It is the function of technology projection to increase this stock of information about possible future developments in order to put planning and decision making on a more rational basis. Past efforts at computer technology projections have an accuracy that declines exponentially with time. Thus, precisely defined technology projections beyond about three years should be used with considerable caution. This paper reviews both subjective and objective methods of technology projection and gives examples of each. For an integrated view of future prospects in computer technology, a framework for technology projection is proposed.

  13. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including... Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The worker group includes on-site leased... Company, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who were engaged in employment...

  14. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  15. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  16. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  17. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing...

  18. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  19. Technological Innovation and Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboli, Maria Cristina

    The wide diffusion of information technology brins generally changes in any field of society. In universities, the teaching approach must conform itself to these new needs adding the information technology tools into the learning process. A multi-disciplinary technical team of Florence University was set up a project involving technical staff developer, educational technologist and web developer and has pointed out issues concerning hardware, software, technical methods and knowledge required by these innovations.

  20. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Greenville... International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, including on-site...

  1. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  2. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including... Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 2, 2012, applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance... that workers of Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, including on-site...

  3. On the Methods of Technology Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    Technology article has the characteristics as clearness, accurateness, conciseness and strictness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in translating the technology articles. This paper analyzes the methods used usually in technology articles translation.

  4. 76 FR 35474 - UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., Detroit, MI; UAW-Chrysler Technical Training Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Including... Center, Technology Training Joint Programs Staff, Detroit, Michigan (TA-W-71,047) and Warren, Michigan..., Technology Training Joint Programs Staff. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  5. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  6. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  7. Examining Philosophy of Technology Using Grounded Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark David Webster

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to examine the philosophy of technology of K-12 technology leaders, and explore the influence of their thinking on technology decision making. The research design aligned with CORBIN and STRAUSS grounded theory methods, and I proceeded from a research paradigm of critical realism. The subjects were school technology directors and instructional technology specialists, and data collection consisted of interviews and a written questionnaire. Data analysis involved the use of grounded theory methods including memo writing, open and axial coding, constant comparison, the use of purposive and theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation of categories. Three broad philosophy of technology views were widely held by participants: an instrumental view of technology, technological optimism, and a technological determinist perspective that saw technological change as inevitable. Technology leaders were guided by two main approaches to technology decision making, represented by the categories Educational goals and curriculum should drive technology, and Keep up with technology (or be left behind. The core category and central phenomenon that emerged was that technology leaders approached technology leadership by placing greater emphasis on keeping up with technology, being influenced by an ideological orientation to technological change, and being concerned about preparing students for a technological future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160252

  8. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  9. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including... Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The negative... competitive articles) in 2011 and 2012, loss of business with a firm that employed a worker group eligible...

  10. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-21

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  11. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload; Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks AGENCY:...

  12. Pvd Growth Method:. Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2004-06-01

    In this review, the foundation of thin film technology namely fabrication, characterization and application is described. Classification of physical vapor deposition (PVD) is presented based on evaporation and sputtering methods. The physics and technology of three main branches of PVD deposition techniques including sputtering, pulse laser deposition (PLD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) along with their characteristic differences are compared. The application of bias sputtering in producing thin films with modified properties is presented. A correlation between deposition variables and parameters of nucleation and growth is discussed. The initial stages of PVD growth modes such as layer by-layer, island, and mixed layer-island growth mechanisms are reviewed. At the end, the applications of PVD in microelectronics with several recent examples especially in the metallization process are presented.

  13. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)]. E-mail: espen.nystad@hrp.no

    2006-07-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  14. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  15. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    reveals limitations of designers’ knowledge of prospected users. The article explores how to approach participants who cannot express themselves verbally and how to recognise play that may not look familiar to the designer. The article finally presents a participatory design method that allows for non......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  16. [An Introduction to Methods for Evaluating Health Care Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2015-06-01

    The rapid and continual advance of healthcare technology makes ensuring that this technology is used effectively to achieve its original goals a critical issue. This paper presents three methods that may be applied by healthcare professionals in the evaluation of healthcare technology. These methods include: the perception/experiences of users, user work-pattern changes, and chart review or data mining. The first method includes two categories: using interviews to explore the user experience and using theory-based questionnaire surveys. The second method applies work sampling to observe the work pattern changes of users. The last method conducts chart reviews or data mining to analyze the designated variables. In conclusion, while evaluative feedback may be used to improve the design and development of healthcare technology applications, the informatics competency and informatics literacy of users may be further explored in future research.

  17. Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...

  18. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  19. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  20. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... information processing, computer software services, and business solutions, to the financial services... Employment and Training Administration DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a...

  1. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  2. Scientometric methods for identifying emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2015-11-03

    Provided is a method of generating a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain.

  3. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  4. A comparative analysis of Photovoltaic Technological Innovation Systems including international dimensions: the cases of Japan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasseur, V.; Kamp, L.M.; Negro, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development and diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Japan and The Netherlands. Both cases are analysed with the Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework, which focuses on a particular technology and includes all those factors that influence the developmen

  5. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  6. Implementation of Relevant Methods in Assessing Traffic-Technological Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Barić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of investment traffic-technological projectsmeans a set of activities whose basic aim is to determine the justificationand feasibility of the projects. The decision-makingprocess, including the decision-making on investments is an extremelycomplex process, and the decision-maker has to have avision of the future and make decisions accordingly in a modemand flexible manner. Therefore, the decisions need to be theresult of a planning and research process based on relevant scientificmethods. The work includes the selected, analysed andpresented methods of cost-benefit analysis, methods of multi-criteria decision-making and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threats analysis methods. Regarding thebasic characteristics, the mentioned methods have been compared,the order of their implementation has been determined,and then they have been implemented in assessing the traffic-technological projects of reconstmction with the aim of selectingthe optimal variant solution.

  7. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Quest Diagnostics, Inc... on-site at the West Norriton, Pennsylvania location of Quest Diagnostics, Inc.,...

  8. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  9. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  10. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  11. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-08-01

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  12. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-01-24

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  13. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Ultrasonic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Roberts, Scott N. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using ultrasonic welding. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: ultrasonically welding at least one ribbon to a surface; where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface has a thickness of less than approximately 150.mu.m; and where at least one ribbon that is ultrasonically welded to a surface includes a metallic glass-based material.

  14. Method for measuring the alignment between information technology strategic planning and actions of information technology governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Lúcio Melre da; Souza Neto, João

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance...

  15. Method for Measuring the Alignment Between Information Technology Strategic Planning and Actions of Information Technology Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcio Melre da Silva; João Souza Neto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance...

  16. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  17. Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses in such...

  18. [Michigan Technological University Pre-Service Teacher Enhancement Program]. [Includes a copy of the Student Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.S.; Yarroch, W.L.

    1993-04-27

    The Michigan Technological University Teacher Education Program received funding from the US Department of Energy for the purpose of providing capable and suitably inclined, MTU Engineering and Science students a chance to explore high school level science and mathematics teaching as a career option. Ten undergraduate students were selected from nominations and were paired with mentor teachers for the study. This report covers the experience of the first ten nominees and their participation in the program.

  19. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  20. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms...

  1. Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.

  2. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations, including projections oriented relative to pylons, and associated systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter. Projections near a support pylon and/or associated heat shield can have particular configurations, including greater flow immersion than other projections.

  3. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  4. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  5. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  6. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based

  7. Towards optimal education including self-regulated learning in technology-enhanced preschools and primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Dijkstra, Elma; Walraven, Amber; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    At the start of preschool, four-year-old pupils differ in their development, including the capacity to self-regulate their playing and learning. In preschool and primary school, educational processes are generally adapted to the mean age of the pupils in class. The same may apply to ICT-based pupil-

  8. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  9. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  10. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  11. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  12. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  13. Lightning Surge Analysis Including Diagonal Wires Based on the FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iki, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents an arbitrary diagonal wire on an rectangular surface composing a cubic cell in an electromagnetic analysis based on the orthogonal FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) Algorithm. One of the numerical electromagnetic analyzing algorithms is the FDTD method based on Maxwell’s equation. The basic FDTD method divides the analyzed space into cubic cells and directly calculates the electrical and magnetic fields of the cells by discretizing the Maxwell’s equation of electromagnetic fields, where the derivatives with respect to time and space are replaced by a numerical difference. The development of computer performance brings about an actual execution of the FDTD method on a usual personal computer recently. In dealing with a diagonal and curved wire, the boundaries of which do not coincide with the finite-difference grid lines, the staircase approximation has been commonly used. However, the approximation causes the large error in a resonant frequency and a propagation time of a system including the diagonal or curved wire. The proposed method can express a diagonal and curved wires on a rectangular surface composing a cubic cell by transforming the general integral form of Maxwell’s equation to the different integral form around the wires. This proposed method is also useful to calculate surge propagation on an arbitrary three-dimensional skeleton structure including a diagonal or curved grid such as a tower model and so on.

  14. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  15. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  16. Smart Voyage Planning Model Sensitivity Analysis Using Ocean and Atmospheric Models Including Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ATMOSPHERIC MODELS INCLUDING ENSEMBLE METHODS Scott E. Miller Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., University of South Carolina, 2000 B.S...Typical gas turbine fuel consumption curve and relationship to sea state .......51  Figure 16.  DDG 58 speed reduction curves for bow seas...Day Time Group ECDIS-N Electronic Chart Display and Information System – Navy ECMWF European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts EFAS

  17. 极高分辨变包含角平面光栅单色器关键技术及检测方法研究%Key technologies and the performance measuring methods in variable included angle plane grating monochromator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢启鹏; 宋源; 龚学鹏; 马磊

    2016-01-01

    the optical elements to decrease the effect of heat load on monochromator.The results indicated that the slope error of plane mirror declined from 8.1 μrad to 3 μrad.Lastly,we studied the testing methods of the variables-included-angle grating mono-chromator with the resolution of already reaching 5 ×1 04 .And the measuring accuracy of angel is 0.026″. Those studies will provide some help for designing the monochromator with ultra-high resolution in the third generation synchrotron radiation.

  18. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  19. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  20. DSP Technology and Methods for OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Murtaza; Ahmad, Adeel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    Medical imaging devices are continually changing and evolving. In recent years, these devices have been evolving towards portable and handheld point-of-care systems. Innovations in the semiconductor technologies have been a major driving factor for such evolution. Today, optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are mostly cart-based or desktop systems. Portable and hand-held OCT systems will open up new opportunities for their use. Recent advances in optics and scanning techniques have led to miniaturization of the optics used to acquire the raw data and at the same time, allow very high data acquisition rate. The signal processing chain to convert this raw acquired data into useful structural images is computationally intensive. The semiconductor industry, however, has a class of embedded processor technologies, known as digital signal processors (DSP), designed to take on such computations with very low power and size. DSP technology is a crucial enabler to create low power, low cost, handheld and portable OCT systems.

  1. Principles and methods of quantum information technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Semba, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the research and development-related results of the “FIRST” Quantum Information Processing Project, which was conducted from 2010 to 2014 with the support of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation of the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. The project supported 33 research groups and explored five areas: quantum communication, quantum metrology and sensing, coherent computing, quantum simulation, and quantum computing. The book is divided into seven main sections. Parts I through V, which consist of twenty chapters, focus on the system and architectural aspects of quantum information technologies, while Parts VI and VII, which consist of eight chapters, discuss the superconducting quantum circuit, semiconductor spin and molecular spin technologies.   Readers will be introduced to new quantum computing schemes such as quantum annealing machines and coherent Ising machines, which have now arisen as alternatives to standard quantum computers and are designed to successf...

  2. Promoting Innovative Methods in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasra, Moayyad M.

    2012-01-01

    The engineering profession is very sensitive to the new changes in the engineering job market demand. The engineering job market is changing in a much faster rate than the engineering/engineering technology education. A 13-year study will be presented. The study focuses on the factors affecting the survival rate, student academic performance,…

  3. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  4. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  6. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  7. A New Method for Calculation of Single Seismic Phase of Cylindrically Multilayered Media Including Liquid Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ruo-Long; WANG Ke-Xie; ZHANG Hong-Bing; HAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    A new method based on generalized reflection and transmission (R/T) coefficients method is proposed to calculate the single seismic phase (SSP) of cylindrically multilayered media including liquid interlayer. The use of normalization factors and normalized Lame coefficients makes the algorithm stable numerically. Using the modified R/T matrices, we derive the iterative expressions of generalized R/T matrices, and by using the iterative relation we determine the SSP of each interface and the full waveforms. To show the superiority of this new approach for investigating of reflection and transmission properties of cylindrically multilayered media, we simulate the full waveforms and SSPs of cased hole model with annulus Ⅰ (casing-cement interface) channelling (or,cross-flow). The generalized reflection coefficient spectra and SSPs of interfaces obtained show the propagation mechanism of each component of full waveform clearly.

  8. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, L.; Rabenstein, R.

    2004-12-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  9. Does the Total Soil N Determined by Kjeldahl Method Include Fixed NH4+?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chong-yu; LI Sheng-xiu

    2005-01-01

    Forty soils from top layer (0-20 cm) were sampled in different regions of China and Kjeldahl, HF-Kjeldahl and double treatment methods were used to determine total N, total N plus fixed ammonium, and total N and the residual fixed ammonium left in soil after determination of total N, respectively, to evaluate if Kjeldahl's method could include the fixed N by soil minerals. The fixed N by soil minerals was measured by Silva-Bremner procedure to make comparison. Results showed that total N determined by Kjeldahl's method averaged 1.622 g kg-1, while that by HF- Kjeldahl's method 1.633 g kg-1, and that by double procedure 1.666 g kg-1. Obviously results obtained by the last two methods, particularly the double treatment method, were higher than Kjeldahl's, showing that Kjeldahl's method could not or not fully release N fixed by 2:1 minerals in soil, and therefore the determined results would not be the true "total N" for soils that contained large amount of the fixed N. The mineral fixed N averaged 166 mg kg-1, accounting for 10.1% of the total N while the residual fixed N amounted to 30.4 mg kg-1, equivalent to 1.9% of the total N or 18.3% of the total fixed N. The residual fixed N was correlated neither to organic matter nor to total N, but closely related to the total fixed N with a correlation coefficient of 0.598 (n=40), showing that the fixed N was the sole source of the residues. Soils having high residues of the fixed N were just those containing high fixed N, and soils containing high fixed N were just those containing high amount of 2:1minerals. As a result, Kjeldahl's method could not give a true value of the total N for such soils. However, for those containing small or little amount of 2:1 minerals, there was no significant difference in results measured by these methods.

  10. Improved Riccati Transfer Matrix Method for Free Vibration of Non-Cylindrical Helical Springs Including Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free vibration equations for non-cylindrical (conical, barrel, and hyperboloidal types helical springs with noncircular cross-sections, which consist of 14 first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, are theoretically derived using spatially curved beam theory. In the formulation, the warping effect upon natural frequencies and vibrating mode shapes is first studied in addition to including the rotary inertia, the shear and axial deformation influences. The natural frequencies of the springs are determined by the use of improved Riccati transfer matrix method. The element transfer matrix used in the solution is calculated using the Scaling and Squaring method and Pad'e approximations. Three examples are presented for three types of springs with different cross-sectional shapes under clamped-clamped boundary condition. The accuracy of the proposed method has been compared with the FEM results using three-dimensional solid elements (Solid 45 in ANSYS code. Numerical results reveal that the warping effect is more pronounced in the case of non-cylindrical helical springs than that of cylindrical helical springs, which should be taken into consideration in the free vibration analysis of such springs.

  11. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  12. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustics FDTD method including Frequency Power Law Attenuation for Soft Tissue Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Camarena, Francisco; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation through absorbing and weakly dispersive media, and its numerical solution by means of finite differences in time domain method (FDTD). The attenuation is based on multiple relaxation processes, and provides frequency dependent absorption and dispersion without using computational expensive convolutional operators. In this way, by using an optimization algorithm the coefficients for the relaxation processes can be obtained in order to fit a frequency power law that agrees the experimentally measured attenuation data for heterogeneous media over the typical frequency range for ultrasound medical applications. Our results show that two relaxation processes are enough to fit attenuation data for most soft tissues in this frequency range including the fundamental and the first ten harmonics. Furthermore, this model can fit experimental attenuation data that do not follow exactly a frequency power law over the frequency range of interest. The main...

  14. Future Technology Workshop: A Collaborative Method for the Design of New Learning Technologies and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavoula, Giasemi N.; Sharples, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We describe the future technology workshop (FTW), a method whereby people with everyday knowledge or experience in a specific area of technology use (such as using digital cameras) envision and design the interactions between current and future technology and activity. Through a series of structured workshop sessions, participants collaborate to…

  15. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  16. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional transformation method (FTM is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  17. Development of methods for reducing energy consumption in relation to the drying process involved in packaging production. Explanation of process technology in relation to flexography, serigraphy and photogravure including the laminating and varnishing processes which follow. Udvikling af metoder til nedsaettelse af energiforbruget ved toerring i emballagekonvertering. Indfoering i procesteknik inden for flexo-, dyb- og silketryk samt de efterfoelgende laminerings- og lakeringsprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, P.; Nielsen, K.

    1985-02-01

    Three package printing processes, including the drying processes, are described, and it is concluded that ''nip roll coating'' could be used to help reduce overall energy consumption. It is also suggested that processes utilized in the Danish packaging industry need serious further investigation. (AB).

  18. Simplified method for including spatial correlations in mean-field approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Deborah C.; Simpson, Matthew J.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2013-06-01

    Biological systems involving proliferation, migration, and death are observed across all scales. For example, they govern cellular processes such as wound healing, as well as the population dynamics of groups of organisms. In this paper, we provide a simplified method for correcting mean-field approximations of volume-excluding birth-death-movement processes on a regular lattice. An initially uniform distribution of agents on the lattice may give rise to spatial heterogeneity, depending on the relative rates of proliferation, migration, and death. Many frameworks chosen to model these systems neglect spatial correlations, which can lead to inaccurate predictions of their behavior. For example, the logistic model is frequently chosen, which is the mean-field approximation in this case. This mean-field description can be corrected by including a system of ordinary differential equations for pairwise correlations between lattice site occupancies at various lattice distances. In this work we discuss difficulties with this method and provide a simplification in the form of a partial differential equation description for the evolution of pairwise spatial correlations over time. We test our simplified model against the more complex corrected mean-field model, finding excellent agreement. We show how our model successfully predicts system behavior in regions where the mean-field approximation shows large discrepancies. Additionally, we investigate regions of parameter space where migration is reduced relative to proliferation, which has not been examined in detail before and find our method is successful at correcting the deviations observed in the mean-field model in these parameter regimes.

  19. Dose computation in conformal radiation therapy including geometric uncertainties: Methods and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Mihaela

    The aim of any radiotherapy is to tailor the tumoricidal radiation dose to the target volume and to deliver as little radiation dose as possible to all other normal tissues. However, the motion and deformation induced in human tissue by ventilatory motion is a major issue, as standard practice usually uses only one computed tomography (CT) scan (and hence one instance of the patient's anatomy) for treatment planning. The interfraction movement that occurs due to physiological processes over time scales shorter than the delivery of one treatment fraction leads to differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Due to the influence of these differences on tumors and normal tissues, the tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities are likely to be impacted upon in the face of organ motion. In this thesis we apply several methods to compute dose distributions that include the effects of the treatment geometric uncertainties by using the time-varying anatomical information as an alternative to the conventional Planning Target Volume (PTV) approach. The proposed methods depend on the model used to describe the patient's anatomy. The dose and fluence convolution approaches for rigid organ motion are discussed first, with application to liver tumors and the rigid component of the lung tumor movements. For non-rigid behavior a dose reconstruction method that allows the accumulation of the dose to the deforming anatomy is introduced, and applied for lung tumor treatments. Furthermore, we apply the cumulative dose approach to investigate how much information regarding the deforming patient anatomy is needed at the time of treatment planning for tumors located in thorax. The results are evaluated from a clinical perspective. All dose calculations are performed using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to ensure more realistic and more accurate handling of tissue heterogeneities---of particular importance in lung cancer treatment planning.

  20. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Summary Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    as high speed machining. Except for the abrasive aluminum alloys like A356 which must be machined with carbide, either carbide or high speed steel...Shear Forging Processes for Missile 82 Primary Structure Project 376 3230 - Manufacturing Methods for High Speed Machining of 85 Aluminum Project 376 3231...Production Methods for Squeeze Castings 88 Projects 471 4312 and 472 4312 - Hard Face Coating to Aluminum Com- 91 ponents Project 576 6759

  1. Strategic framework and methodical bases of technological package development management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Artyukhov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article deals with the problem of technological package management. Based on the concept of integrated innovation we consider the evolutionary approach for technology package management. Directions of evaluation process of package are presented. Scheme of improving of technological package is proposed. The process of technological package development is considered in case of development of granulation equipment that includes a variety of technologies, which are incorporated into the technological package “Granulator”. For technological package development the technology package lifecycle, technology map of package and technology trajectory are interrelated considered. The results of the analysis. The technology package we propose to consider as a kind of system, the development of which is evolutionary. According to UNIDO recommendations [8] analysis of acceptability of technology includes an assessment of technical and economic features of technology package in context of production in national environment. As a basic tool of technology package development authors propose to consider technology transfer as part of integrated innovation approach. Enterprises of modern sectors, especially high-tech, at the same time use a large number of technologies, distributed according to functional application, but only some of these technologies are critical in terms of specialization. Therefore, for management technology package authors propose to divide into the classes with appropriate management instruments (optimization object and development strategy. The authors investigated such key product indicators of granulation systems technological trajectory analysis: – dimensions and performance, reliability and ease of operation; – product criterias; – versatility – one granulator may be established to work with different performance and wide range of products; – ecological purity – waste formation during

  2. Hands-on workshops as an effective means of learning advanced technologies including genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Stearman, Robert; Kechris, Katerina; Phang, Tzu Lip; Reisdorph, Richard; Prenni, Jessica; Erle, David J; Coldren, Christopher; Schey, Kevin; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Geraci, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Genomics and proteomics have emerged as key technologies in biomedical research, resulting in a surge of interest in training by investigators keen to incorporate these technologies into their research. At least two types of training can be envisioned in order to produce meaningful results, quality publications and successful grant applications: (1) immediate short-term training workshops and (2) long-term graduate education or visiting scientist programs. We aimed to fill the former need by providing a comprehensive hands-on training course in genomics, proteomics and informatics in a coherent, experimentally-based framework. This was accomplished through a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 10-day Genomics and Proteomics Hands-on Workshop held at National Jewish Health (NJH) and the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCD). The course content included comprehensive lectures and laboratories in mass spectrometry and genomics technologies, extensive hands-on experience with instrumentation and software, video demonstrations, optional workshops, online sessions, invited keynote speakers, and local and national guest faculty. Here we describe the detailed curriculum and present the results of short- and long-term evaluations from course attendees. Our educational program consistently received positive reviews from participants and had a substantial impact on grant writing and review, manuscript submissions and publications.

  3. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Francisco (El Paso, TX); Wicker, Ryan (El Paso, TX); Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Don W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  4. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  5. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  6. Integration of Technology in Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Examination of Mathematics Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Laski, Elida

    2013-01-01

    Instructors (N = 204) of elementary mathematics methods courses completed a survey assessing the extent to which they stay informed about research related to effective uses of educational technology and the kinds and numbers of educational technologies they include in their courses. Findings indicate that, while they view educational technology…

  7. Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included...

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  9. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  10. Persistence of Free Plasmid DNA in Soil Monitored by Various Methods, Including a Transformation Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Gerd; Lorenz, Michael G.; Sayler, Gary; Wackernagel, Wilfried

    1992-01-01

    The persistence and stability of free plasmid pUC8-ISP DNA introduced into 10-g samples of various soils and kept at 23°C were monitored over a period of 60 days. The soils were sampled at a plant science farm and included a loamy sand soil (no. 1), a clay soil (no. 2), and a silty clay soil (no. 3). Four different methods allowed monitoring of (i) the production of acid-soluble radioactive material from [3H]thymidine-labeled plasmid DNA, (ii) the decrease of hybridizing nucleotide sequences in slot blot analysis, (iii) the loss of plasmid integrity measured by Southern hybridization, and (iv) the decay of the biological activity as determined by transformation of Ca2+-treated Escherichia coli cells with the DNA extracted from soil. Acid-soluble material was not produced within the first 24 h but then increased to 45% (soil no. 1), 27% (soil no. 2), and 77% (soil no. 3) until the end of incubation. A quite parallel loss of material giving a slot blot hybridization signal was observed. Southern hybridization indicated that after 1 h in the soils, plasmid DNA was mostly in the form of circular and full-length linear molecules but that, depending on the soil type, after 2 to 5 days full-length plasmid molecules were hardly detectable. The transforming activity of plasmid DNA reextracted from the soils followed inactivation curves over 2 to 4 orders of magnitude and dropped below the detection limit after 10 days. The inactivation was slower in soil no. 2 (28.2-h half-life time of the transforming activity of a plasmid molecule) than in soils no. 3 (15.1 h) and no. 1 (9.1 h). The studies provide data on the persistence of free DNA molecules in natural bacterial soil habitats. The data suggest that plasmid DNA may persist long enough to be available for uptake by competent recipient cells in situ. Images PMID:16348772

  11. Microencapsulation: concepts, mechanisms, methods and some applications in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Teixeira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a process in which active substances are coated by extremely small capsules. It is a new technology that has been used in the cosmetics industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and food industries, being used in flavors, acids, oils, vitamins, microorganisms, among others. The success of this technology is due to the correct choice of the wall material, the core release form and the encapsulation method. Therefore, in this review, some relevant microencapsulation aspects, such as the capsule, wall material, core release forms, encapsulation methods and their use in food technology will be briefly discussed.

  12. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  13. Image Retrieval and Classification Method Based on Euclidian Distance Between Normalized Features Including Wavelet Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval method based on Euclidian distance between normalized features with their mean and variance in feature space is proposed. Effectiveness of the normalization is evaluated together with a validation of the proposed image retrieval method. The proposed method is applied for discrimination and identifying dangerous red tide species based on wavelet utilized classification methods together with texture and color features. Through experiments, it is found that classification performance with the proposed wavelet derived shape information extracted from the microscopic view of the phytoplankton is effective for identifying dangerous red tide species among the other red tide species rather than the other conventional texture, color information. Moreover, it is also found that the proposed normalization of features is effective to improve identification performance.

  14. Modification of Karl Fischer Method for Determination of Water in light Petroleum Products Including Aviation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Misra

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical Karl Fischer method has been modified so as to make it suitable for determining free and dissolved water present in aviation fuels in excess of 10 ppm which is considered as limiting concentration value for safe fueling of aircrafts particularly in the arduous climatic conditions as encountered in military operations. The modified method employed a special ethylene glyccl solvent mixture and another water saturated fuel sample as blank.

  15. A Novel Tetrahedral Mesh Generation Method for Rotating Machines Including End-Coil Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Hideo; Yamaji, Akihisa; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for generating tetrahedral finite-element meshes suitable for 3-D finite element analysis of rotating machines is presented. The proposed method enables the easy development of 3-D meshes for various rotating machines, especially in the end-coil region and the surrounding air region. Tessellation of the 3-D region is made possible by simple extension of a previously generated 2-D triangular mesh, used as a model mesh, into the third dimension.

  16. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...... with mesh definition, geometrical singularities and treatment of closed cavities. These issues are specific of the BEM with losses. Using examples, some strategies are presented that can alleviate shortcomings and improve performance....

  17. Selected Methods for Locking Screw Joints, Including the Use of Adhesives, Used in the Helicopter Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Cisz, Sławomir; Warda, Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the problems of preventing screw joints from self-loosening on one of helicopter. The research examines selected locking methods used in aircraft produced by different manufacturers. Experimental tests were performed to investigate the loosening torque of screw joints locked by various devices: cotter pin, locknut, centre punching, self-locking nut and adhesive. A comparative analysis of the investigated locking methods is made with respect to their locking strength and efficiency.

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Coloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was demonstrated at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Rock Flats Plant (RFP) as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund and Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. ...

  19. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  20. 78 FR 18585 - Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Technology Savings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Technology Savings LLC's application for...

  1. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  2. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including tooth elements for alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2016-11-22

    Examples are described including assay platforms having tooth elements. An impinging element may sequentially engage tooth elements on the assay platform to sequentially align corresponding detection regions with a detection unit. In this manner, multiple measurements may be made of detection regions on the assay platform without necessarily requiring the starting and stopping of a motor.

  3. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  4. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  5. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996-1501 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  6. Canadian entrepreneur looks to Utah oil sands : possible hurdles include gaining acceptance for a new technology, funding and regulatory approval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmeyer, P.

    2010-09-15

    Alberta-based Earth Energy Resources has chosen Utah for its first major oilsand development project. Utah has excellent oil sands resources, but most cannot be economically extracted using conventional methods. The president of Earth Energy Resources has proposed to use new technologies, processes and workflow methods to make resource extraction economically viable. The company currently holds a 100 percent interest in 3,170 hectares under lease from the State of Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA) in the PR Spring deposit. The recoverable high-quality bitumen is estimated at 250 million barrels. The oil sands in Utah are disaggregated and spread out over a relatively wide area. The bitumen quality is very similar to that found in the Athabasca deposit, but it has a much lower sulphur content. Earth Energy Resources plans on using the Ophus Process which involves a series of small 2,000 barrel per day production facilities that can be easily set up, and moved as the resources in one particular area are recovered. Production could be expanded as needed by the addition of more facilities. An environmentally sound citrus-based extraction chemical will replace much of the mechanical energy and caustic soda mixture used in the Clark Process. The new energy and water efficient process will significantly reduce the quantity of middlings produced in the process, thereby eliminating the need for tailings ponds and reducing environmental impacts. 1 fig.

  7. Dynamics of energy systems: Methods of analysing technology change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, Lena

    1999-05-01

    Technology change will have a central role in achieving a sustainable energy system. This calls for methods of analysing the dynamics of energy systems in view of technology change and policy instruments for effecting and accelerating technology change. In this thesis, such methods have been developed, applied, and assessed. Two types of methods have been considered, methods of analysing and projecting the dynamics of future technology change and methods of evaluating policy instruments effecting technology change, i.e. market transformation programmes. Two methods are focused on analysing the dynamics of future technology change; vintage models and experience curves. Vintage models, which allow for complex analysis of annual streams of energy and technological investments, are applied to the analysis of the time dynamics of electricity demand for lighting and air-distribution in Sweden. The results of the analyses show that the Swedish electricity demand for these purposes could decrease over time, relative to a reference scenario, if policy instruments are used. Experience curves are used to provide insight into the prospects of diffusion of wind turbines and photo voltaic (PV) modules due to cost reduction. The results show potential for considerable cost reduction for wind-generated electricity, which, in turn, could lead to major diffusion of wind turbines. The results also show that major diffusion of PV modules, and a reduction of PV generated electricity down to the level of conventional base-load electricity, will depend on large investments in bringing the costs down (through R D and D, market incentives and investments in niche markets) or the introduction of new generations of PV modules (e.g. high-efficiency mass-produced thin-film cells). Moreover, a model has been developed for the evaluation of market transformation programmes, i.e. policy instruments that effect technology change and the introduction and commercialisation of energy

  8. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  9. Soil microbiome transfer method affects microbiome composition, including dominant microorganisms, in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mia M; Bell, Terrence H; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2017-06-15

    We show that choice of soil microbiome transfer method, i.e. direct soil transfers and a common soil wash procedure, dramatically influences the microbiome that develops in a new environment, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. After 3 weeks of incubation in commercial potting mix, microbiomes were most similar to the source soil when a greater volume of initial soil was transferred (5% v/v transfer), and least similar when using a soil wash. Abundant operational taxonomic units were substantially affected by transfer method, suggesting that compounds transferred from the source soil, shifts in biotic interactions, or both, play an important role in their success. © FEMS 2017.

  10. Theoretical study of electronic absorptions in aminopyridines - TCNE CT complexes by quantum chemical methods, including solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Pavel; Juhász, György; Kyseľ, Ondrej

    2013-11-01

    The geometric and electronic structure of donor-acceptor complexes of TCNE with aniline, o-, m- and p- aminopyridines and pyridine has been studied in gas phase and in solution using CC2, TDDFT and CIS methods. Concerning interaction energy between particular donor and TCNE acceptor it is fairly described by both CC2 (MP2) and DFT-D approaches. Transition energies in gas phase calculated by CC2 approach are in good agreement with available experimental data for aniline. TDDFT calculations with LC-BLYP functional (with standard value of range separation factor μ = 0.47) gives transition energies too high although not as high as CIS. The red solvent shifts, calculated by PCM model with CIS method are qualitative correct, but error in the range of 0.1-0.2 eV should be expected.

  11. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    -ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...

  12. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, David R. (Westlake, OH); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Arnaud, Guy (Morin Heights, CA); Bigler, Nicolas (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  13. R3GMRES: including prior information in GMRES-type methods for discrete inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Garde, Henrik; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lothar Reichel and his collaborators proposed several iterative algorithms that augment the underlying Krylov subspace with an additional low-dimensional subspace in order to produce improved regularized solutions. We take a closer look at this approach and investigate a particular Regularized Ra...... Range-Restricted GMRES method, R3GMRES, with a subspace that represents prior information about the solution. We discuss the implementation of this approach and demonstrate its advantage by means of several test problems....

  14. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  15. Extended one-dimensional method for coherent synchrotron radiation including shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sagan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent synchrotron radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on energy recovery LINAC or free-electron lasers, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate coherent synchrotron radiation, a one-dimensional formalism due to Saldin, Schneidmiller, and Yurkov has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code Bmad. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. Results from Bmad are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code elegant and the code of Agoh and Yokoya.

  16. Extended one-dimensional method for coherent synchrotron radiation including shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, David; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2009-04-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on energy recovery LINAC or free-electron lasers, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate coherent synchrotron radiation, a one-dimensional formalism due to Saldin, Schneidmiller, and Yurkov has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code Bmad. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. Results from Bmad are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code elegant and the code of Agoh and Yokoya.

  17. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  18. Atomistic spin dynamic method with both damping and moment of inertia effects included from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Nordström, Lars; Fransson, Jonas

    2012-02-03

    We consider spin dynamics for implementation in an atomistic framework and we address the feasibility of capturing processes in the femtosecond regime by inclusion of moment of inertia. In the spirit of an s-d-like interaction between the magnetization and electron spin, we derive a generalized equation of motion for the magnetization dynamics in the semiclassical limit, which is nonlocal in both space and time. Using this result we retain a generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, also including the moment of inertia, and demonstrate how the exchange interaction, damping, and moment of inertia, all can be calculated from first principles.

  19. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  20. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  1. Study of the Charge Density Control Method Including the Space Charge Effect in the Proton Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinichi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Okabe, Kota; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

    For high intensity proton accelerators, one of the beam loss sources is the incoherent tune spread caused by the space charge force. In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, beams are injected sequentially and shifted slightly from the central orbit in order to increase the beam size intentionally and suppress the charge density and incoherent tune spread. This injection method has been adopted and suppressed the beam loss. However, simulations clarified that beams did not spread as much as expected because of the space charge effect in the high current case. As simulation results of the optimized beam shift pattern when the space charge effect is considered, it was obtained that the incoherent tune spread could be suppressed to an extent that has not been achieved previously.

  2. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  3. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

  4. Development of Lab-to-Fab Production Equipment Across Several Length Scales for Printed Energy Technologies, Including Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll-to-roll m......We describe and review how the scaling of printed energy technologies not only requires scaling of the input materials but also the machinery used in the processes. The general consensus that ultrafast processing of technologies with large energy capacity can only be realized using roll...

  5. Non-orthogonal spin-adaptation of coupled cluster methods: A new implementation of methods including quadruple excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-02-01

    The theory of non-orthogonal spin-adaptation for closed-shell molecular systems is applied to coupled cluster methods with quadruple excitations (CCSDTQ). Calculations at this level of detail are of critical importance in describing the properties of molecular systems to an accuracy which can meet or exceed modern experimental techniques. Such calculations are of significant (and growing) importance in such fields as thermodynamics, kinetics, and atomic and molecular spectroscopies. With respect to the implementation of CCSDTQ and related methods, we show that there are significant advantages to non-orthogonal spin-adaption with respect to simplification and factorization of the working equations and to creating an efficient implementation. The resulting algorithm is implemented in the CFOUR program suite for CCSDT, CCSDTQ, and various approximate methods (CCSD(T), CC3, CCSDT-n, and CCSDT(Q)).

  6. [Cognitive function and its evaluation methods in Parkinson's disease--a study including RCPM and ERP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, M; Kitamura, S; Nagazumi, A; Terashi, A

    1993-11-01

    In order to investigate features of cognitive impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and suitable methods for the cognitive evaluation of patients with PD, 23 PD patients and 15 normal control subjects were studied using neuropsychological tests and auditory event-related potential (ERP). The two groups did not differ from each other in age or education. Clinical severity of the patients based on Hoehn & Yahr's staging ranged from stage I to IV: 7 patients at stage I, 8 at stage II, 7 at stage III and 1 at stage IV. All patients achieved the Mini-Mental State test (MMS) scores of 24 or greater, and none of the patients showed middle or serious grade of dementia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Third edition-Revised (DSM-III-R). All patients and controls underwent MMS, the Hasegawa's Dementia Screening Scale (HDS), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM), The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT). Auditory ERPs by standard oddball paradigm (two-choice reaction time task) were elicited (band-pass 0.1-50 Hz) from Cz electrode sites on all subjects with a random series of binaural 1,000 (standard; 80%) or 2,000 (target; 20%) Hz tones presented every 2 sec at 70 dB SPL. In RCPM, N100 peak latencies of ERP (target and standard), performance-IQ of WAIS-R (especially block design and digit symbol subtests) and in error scores of BVRT there were striking differences between the two groups (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Power Network Parameter Estimation Method Based on Data Mining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-ping; WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-fian

    2008-01-01

    The parameter values which actually change with the circumstances, weather and load level etc.produce great effect to the result of state estimation. A new parameter estimation method based on data mining technology was proposed. The clustering method was used to classify the historical data in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) database as several types. The data processing technology was impliedto treat the isolated point, missing data and yawp data in samples for classified groups. The measurement data which belong to each classification were introduced to the linear regression equation in order to gain the regression coefficient and actual parameters by the least square method. A practical system demonstrates the high correctness, reliability and strong practicability of the proposed method.

  8. Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, there has been much dialogue, and debate, about the conduct of educational technology research and development. In this brief volume, the author helps clarify that dialogue by theoretically and empirically charting the research methods used in the field and provides much practical information on how to conduct…

  9. Optimization of Nanostructuring Burnishing Technological Parameters by Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. P.; Dmitriev, A. I.; Anisimova, G. S.; Semenova, Yu V.

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of application of Taguchi optimization method, an approach for researching influence of nanostructuring burnishing technological parameters, considering the surface layer microhardness criterion, is developed. Optimal values of burnishing force, feed and number of tool passes for hardened steel AISI 420 hardening treatment are defined.

  10. English for Science and Technology - Stylistics and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    The book covers basic methods for summarizing and editing of EST writing (English for Science and Technology). In addition, translation of basically technically oriented texts is covered with a view to an evaluation of formality, complexity and audience recognition in connection with different text...

  11. English for Science and Technology - Stylistics and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe

    The book covers basic methods for summarizing and editing of EST writing (English for Science and Technology). In addition, translation of basically technically oriented texts is covered with a view to an evaluation of formality, complexity and audience recognition in connection with different text...

  12. Educational Technology Media Method in Teaching and Learning Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad A. Sakat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the level of understanding and students interest in Jawi education, after educational technology media was used in teaching and learning at primary schools. This study emphasizes with more detail on the aspects of usage and effectiveness media-aided teaching system. Exploring the notion of instrument, recognized positive attitude and students associated with the use of educational technology media in teaching and learning process. Approach: A total of 52 students taken as a respondent at National School of Changgai Kelantan, reviewed the Educational Technology Media as a teaching method. Purpose of this study was to compare the scoring percentage, after using the ordinary method and educational technology media as a teaching aid. In order to realize the ultimate objective, field studies, questionnaire and survey libraries were implemented. Results: Proceeds from the research found that teaching and learning process with the use of Jawi in Educational Technology Media had a positive effect on students. The results showed that more than 63.4% student achievement increased in Jawi education after using this instrument. Conclusion: Computer usage can stimulate effective learning and improve the performance of Jawi education, enhancing the high level of interactivity among students.

  13. Use of ab initio quantum chemical methods in battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiss, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Ab initio quantum chemistry can nowadays predict physical and chemical properties of molecules and solids. An attempt should be made to use this tool more widely for predicting technologically favourable materials. To demonstrate the use of ab initio quantum chemistry in battery technology, the theoretical energy density (energy per volume of active electrode material) and specific energy (energy per mass of active electrode material) of a rechargeable lithium-ion battery consisting of a graphite electrode and a nickel oxide electrode has been calculated with this method. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  14. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China.

  15. Program Review - Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program; Including a Report of the Reservoir Engineering Technical Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L., ed.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, The Division of Geothermal Energy of the Department of Energy established the Geothermal Exploration and Assessment Technology Program. The purpose of this program is to ''provide assistance to the Nation's industrial community by helping to remove technical and associated economic barriers which presently inhibit efforts to bring geothermal electric power production and direct heat application on line''. In the near term this involves the adaptation of exploration and assessment techniques from the mineral and petroleum industry to geothermal applications. In the near to far term it involves the development of new technology which will improve the cost effectiveness of geothermal exploration.

  16. Biosensors in the small scale: methods and technology trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru U; Tigli, Onur

    2013-03-01

    This study presents a review on biosensors with an emphasis on recent developments in the field. A brief history accompanied by a detailed description of the biosensor concepts is followed by rising trends observed in contemporary micro- and nanoscale biosensors. Performance metrics to quantify and compare different detection mechanisms are presented. A comprehensive analysis on various types and subtypes of biosensors are given. The fields of interest within the scope of this review are label-free electrical, mechanical and optical biosensors as well as other emerging and popular technologies. Especially, the latter half of the last decade is reviewed for the types, methods and results of the most prominently researched detection mechanisms. Tables are provided for comparison of various competing technologies in the literature. The conclusion part summarises the noteworthy advantages and disadvantages of all biosensors reviewed in this study. Furthermore, future directions that the micro- and nanoscale biosensing technologies are expected to take are provided along with the immediate outlook.

  17. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities – Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    representative of runoff from roads is suggested, as well as relevant concentration ranges. The method was used for adding contaminants to three different STFs including a curbstone extension with filter soil, a dual porosity filter, and six different permeable pavements. Evaluation of the method showed......% in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers....

  18. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Westlake Village, CA, Santa Rosa, CA, Santa Clara, CA..., Santa Clara, California, and the Everett, Washington locations of Agilent Technologies, EEsof Division... workers from Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Santa Clara, California (TA-W-71,168B),...

  19. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends...... on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  20. Managing electronic records methods, best practices, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate guide to electronic records management, featuring a collaboration of expert practitioners including over 400 cited references documenting today's global trends, standards, and best practices Nearly all business records created today are electronic, and are increasing in number at breathtaking rates, yet most organizations do not have the policies and technologies in place to effectively organize, search, protect, preserve, and produce these records. Authored by an internationally recognized expert on e-records in collaboration with leading subject matter experts worldwide

  1. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  2. Integrated technologies instructional method to enhance bilingual undergraduate engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Abdul Majid

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Mathematics permeates almost every aspect of human life and it is a skill much needed by the increasingly complex technological world. It is necessary that this essential skill must be properly developed among students to prepare them for future academic and professional careers. An assessment of the research-based instructional strategies blending with old traditional methods with t...

  3. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

  4. Progress in Energy Storage Technologies: Models and Methods for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Schuyler W.

    Climate change and other sustainability challenges have led to the development of new technologies that increase energy efficiency and reduce the utilization of finite resources. To promote the adoption of technologies with social benefits, governments often enact policies that provide financial incentives at the point of purchase. In their current form, these subsidies have the potential to increase the diffusion of emerging technologies; however, accounting for technological progress can improve program success while decreasing net public investment. This research develops novel methods using experience curves for the development of more efficient subsidy policies. By providing case studies in the field of automotive energy storage technologies, this dissertation also applies the methods to show the impacts of incorporating technological progress into energy policies. Specific findings include learning-dependent tapering subsidies for electric vehicles based on the lithium-ion battery experience curve, the effects of residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries on emerging technology cost competitiveness, and a cascading diffusion assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle subsidy programs. Notably, the results show that considering learning rates in policy development can save billions of dollars in public funds, while also lending insight into the decision of whether or not to subsidize a given technology.

  5. METHOD OF HIGH-LEVEL TECHNOLOGY MAPPING BASED ON KNOWLEDGE(RULE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Cong; Wang Zuojian; Liu Mingye

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the linkage problem between the result of high-level synthesis and back-end technology, presents a method of high-level technology mapping based on knowl edge, and studies deeply all of its important links such as knowledge representation, knowledge utility and knowledge acquisition. It includes: (1) present a kind of expanded production about knowledge of circuit structure; (2) present a VHDL-based method to acquire knowledge of tech nology mapping; (3) provide solution control strategy and algorithm of knowledge utility; (4)present a half-automatic maintenance method, which can find redundance and contradiction of knowledge base; (5) present a practical method to embed the algorithm into knowledge system to decrease complexity of knowledge base. A system has been developed and linked with three kinds of technologies, so verified the work of this paper.

  6. An approximate method for lateral stability analysis of wall-frame buildings including shear deformations of walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanat Burak Bozdogan; Duygu Ozturk

    2010-06-01

    This study presents an approximate method based on the continuum approach and transfer matrix method for lateral stability analysis of buildings. In this method, the whole structure is idealized as an equivalent sandwich beam which includes all deformations. The effect of shear deformations of walls has been taken into consideration and incorporated in the formulation of the governing equations. Initially the stability differential equation of this equivalent sandwich beam is presented, and then shape functions for each storey is obtained by the solution of the differential equations. By using boundary conditions and stability storey transfer matrices obtained by shape functions, system buckling load can be calculated. To verify the presented method, four numerical examples have been solved. The results of the samples demonstrate the agreement between the presented method and the other methods given in the literature.

  7. Accessing Data: methods for understanding mobile technology use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hagen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices, applications and services have become integrated into people’s daily lives on a personal and professional level. Although traditional research methods are being used to understand the use of mobile devices and applications, methodological challenges still exist. Researchers have responded to these challenges in a variety of ways, with an emphasis on developing methods that enable new ways of accessing, making available and collecting data about mobile technology use. This paper identifies, defines, describes and presents, a preliminary framework for understanding the methodological responses emerging in current Mobile Human Computer Interaction (Mobile HCI research

  8. Two-point estimate method for probabilistic optimal power flow computation including wind farms with correlated parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Cao, Jia; Du, Dajun [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) calculation including wind farms with correlated parameters which contains nodal injections. The two-point estimate method (2PEM) is employed to solve the POPF. Moreover, the correlation samples between nodal injections and line parameters are generated by Cholesky Factorization method. Simulation results show that 2PEM is feasible and effective to solve the POPF including wind farms with correlated parameters, while the 2PEM has higher computation precision and consume less CPU time than Monte Carlo Simulation.

  9. Electrospinning versus fibre production methods: from specifics to technological convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C J; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Stride, E; Pelan, E; Edirisinghe, M

    2012-07-07

    Academic and industrial research on nanofibres is an area of increasing global interest, as seen in the continuously multiplying number of research papers and patents and the broadening range of chemical, medical, electrical and environmental applications. This in turn expands the size of the market opportunity and is reflected in the significant rise of entrepreneurial activities and investments in the field. Electrospinning is probably the most researched top-down method to form nanofibres from a remarkable range of organic and inorganic materials. It is well known and discussed in many comprehensive studies, so why this review? As we read about yet another "novel" method producing multifunctional nanomaterials in grams or milligrams in the laboratory, there is hardly any research addressing how these methods can be safely, consistently and cost-effectively up-scaled. Despite two decades of governmental and private investment, the productivity of nanofibre forming methods is still struggling to meet the increasing demand. This hinders the further integration of nanofibres into practical large-scale applications and limits current uses to niche-markets. Looking into history, this large gap between supply and demand of synthetic fibres was seen and addressed in conventional textile production a century ago. The remarkable achievement was accomplished via extensive collaborative research between academia and industry, applying ingenious solutions and technological convergence from polymer chemistry, physical chemistry, materials science and engineering disciplines. Looking into the present, current advances in electrospinning and nanofibre production are showing similar interdisciplinary technological convergence, and knowledge of industrial textile processing is being combined with new developments in nanofibre forming methods. Moreover, many important parameters in electrospinning and nanofibre spinning methods overlap parameters extensively studied in industrial

  10. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  11. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  12. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  13. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  14. 78 FR 48468 - M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California; M/A-Com Technology Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Long Beach, California; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... Solutions, including on-site leased workers of Kelly Temps and Aerotek CE, Torrance, California. The...

  15. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  16. Fast MR Spectroscopic Imaging Technologies and Data Reconstruction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGMin; LUSong-tao; LINJia-rui; ZHANYing-jian

    2004-01-01

    MRSI plays a more and more important role in clinical application. In this paper, we compare several fast MRSI technologies and data reconstruction methods. For the conventional phase encoding MRSI, the data reconstruction using FFT is simple. But the data acquisition is very time consuming and thus prohibitive in clinical settings. Up to now, the MRSI technologies based on echo-planar, spiral trajectories and sensitivity encoding are the fastest in data acquisition, but their data reconstruction is complex. EPSI reconstruction uses shift of odd and even echoes. Spiral SI uses gridding FFT. SENSE-SI, a new approach to reducing the acquisition time, uses the distinct spatial sensitivities of the individual coil elements to recover the missing encoding information. These improvements in data acquisition and image reconstruction provide a potential value of metabolic imaging as a clinical tool.

  17. [Advances of studies on new technology and method for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilin; Guo, Baolin; Zhang, Guijun; Yan, Zhuyun; Luo, Guangming; Sun, Suqin; Wu, Hezhen; Huang, Linfang; Pang, Xiaohui; Chen, Jianbo

    2012-04-01

    In this review, the authors summarized the new technologies and methods for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials, including molecular identification, chemical identification, morphological identification, microscopic identification and identification based on biological effects. The authors introduced the principle, characteristics, application and prospect on each new technology or method and compared their advantages and disadvantages. In general, new methods make the result more objective and accurate. DNA barcoding technique and spectroscopy identification have their owner obvious strongpoint in universality and digitalization. In the near future, the two techniques are promising to be the main trend for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials. The identification techniques based on microscopy, liquid chromatography, PCR, biological effects and DNA chip will be indispensable supplements. However, the bionic identification technology is just placed in the developing stage at present.

  18. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  19. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  20. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  1. The Study on Educational Technology Abilities Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Duan

    The traditional methods used to evaluate the test, the test did not really measure that we want to measuring things. Test results and can not serve as a basis for evaluation, so it was worth the natural result of its evaluation of weighing. This system is full use of technical means of education, based on education, psychological theory, to evaluate the object-based, evaluation tools, evaluation of secondary teachers to primary and secondary school teachers in educational technology as the goal, using a variety of evaluation of side France, from various angles established an informal evaluation system.

  2. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  3. Solid dispersions in pharmaceutical technology. Part I. Classification and methods to obtain solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolewicz, Bozena; Górniak, Agata; Probst, Sandra; Owczarek, Artur; Pluta, Janusz; Zurawska-Płaksej, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods to increase solubility of a substance. These include, inter alia, preparation of solid dispersions, i.e. eutectic mixtures, solid solutions, glassy solutions and suspensions. When compared to the individual constituents prior to dispersion formation solid dispersion components are better soluble in water. Therefore, solid solutions became one of the most promising ways to modify solubility, ensuring improved bioavailability and consequently therapeutic efficacy of a substance. In this part of the publication solid dispersions were classified and described in regard to their properties and preparation methods, i.e. melting method, melt evaporation and melt extrusion methods, lyophilisation technique, melt agglomeration process as well as SCF technology and electrospinning.

  4. Technology-based self-care methods of improving antiretroviral adherence: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parya Saberi

    Full Text Available As HIV infection has shifted to a chronic condition, self-care practices have emerged as an important topic for HIV-positive individuals in maintaining an optimal level of health. Self-care refers to activities that patients undertake to maintain and improve health, such as strategies to achieve and maintain high levels of antiretroviral adherence.Technology-based methods are increasingly used to enhance antiretroviral adherence; therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to examine technology-based self-care methods that HIV-positive individuals utilize to improve adherence. Seven electronic databases were searched from 1/1/1980 through 12/31/2010. We included quantitative and qualitative studies. Among quantitative studies, the primary outcomes included ARV adherence, viral load, and CD4+ cell count and secondary outcomes consisted of quality of life, adverse effects, and feasibility/acceptability data. For qualitative/descriptive studies, interview themes, reports of use, and perceptions of use were summarized. Thirty-six publications were included (24 quantitative and 12 qualitative/descriptive. Studies with exclusive utilization of medication reminder devices demonstrated less evidence of enhancing adherence in comparison to multi-component methods.This systematic review offers support for self-care technology-based approaches that may result in improved antiretroviral adherence. There was a clear pattern of results that favored individually-tailored, multi-function technologies, which allowed for periodic communication with health care providers rather than sole reliance on electronic reminder devices.

  5. Calcium phosphate composite materials including inorganic powders, BSA or duplex DNA prepared by W/O/W interfacial reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Masahiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kansai Center, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: m-fujiwara@aist.go.jp; Shiokawa, Kumi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Nakahara, Yoshiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kansai Center, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-10

    We reported before that inorganic reaction occurring at the interface of W/O/W emulsion is advantageous to produce hollow spheres (microcapsules) of inorganic matrices such as silica. This process enables us to include various materials into inorganic matrices directly. Calcium phosphates were also produced from NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and Ca(OH){sub 2} by this interfacial reaction method. Various biomaterials are directly incorporated into crystalline calcium phosphate matrices, when the biomaterials are added to the inner water phase of the W/O/W emulsion. ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were effectively encapsulated in calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). The images of backscattered electron of FE-SEM observations indicated that ZrO{sub 2} particles were included in HAp, while they adhered to the surface of HAp in the case of a simple precipitation method. Biomacromolecules such as BSA and duplex DNA were also included in HAp using the inner water phases dissolving them. Fluorescent microscopy observations revealed that biomacromolecules incorporated in HAp localized in some domains of the HAp matrices. Biomacromolecules thus included were scarcely liberated into deionized water, indicating their strong encapsulation in HAp. This general and simple methodology will provide various composite materials of calcium phosphates, which are applicable to regenerative medicine, DDS, GDS and more.

  6. A Method and Its Practice for Teaching the Fundamental Technology of Communication Protocols and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuji

    The education of information and communication technologies is important for engineering, and it includes terminals, communication media, transmission, switching, software, communication protocols, coding, etc. The proposed teaching method for protocols is based on the HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) procedures using our newly developed software “HDLC trainer” , and includes the extensions for understanding other protocols such as TCP/IP. As for teaching the coding theory that is applied for the error control in protocols, we use both of a mathematical programming language and a general-purpose programming language. We have practiced and evaluated the proposed teaching method in our college, and it is shown that the method has remarkable effects for understanding the fundamental technology of protocols and coding.

  7. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes.

  8. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  9. Software Reuse Methods to Improve Technological Infrastructure for e-Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    Social computing has the potential to contribute to scientific research. Ongoing developments in information and communications technology improve capabilities for enabling scientific research, including research fostered by social computing capabilities. The recent emergence of e-Science practices has demonstrated the benefits from improvements in the technological infrastructure, or cyber-infrastructure, that has been developed to support science. Cloud computing is one example of this e-Science trend. Our own work in the area of software reuse offers methods that can be used to improve new technological development, including cloud computing capabilities, to support scientific research practices. In this paper, we focus on software reuse and its potential to contribute to the development and evaluation of information systems and related services designed to support new capabilities for conducting scientific research.

  10. NEW BIOTESTING METHOD WITH THE APPLICATION OF MODERN IMPEDANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibirtsev V.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with new concepts of biotesting method updating. Modern conductometric technologies and the analysis of microbial «growth curves» are used. The registration occurs in a real time mode for the set of parallel samples. Results are shown for comparison of the proposed impedance biotesting technique with standard cultural determination method for total amount of microorganismes in the tested samples. Results are presented for practical application of the proposed impedance biotesting technique to the analysis as inhibitory action of clorhexidine disinfectant on the vital activity of Escherichia coli, as milk ripening process at the presence of various microorganisms species and protein preparations. The impedance biotesting method, proposed in the present work, provides high level of its own data convergence with the data, being received as a result of application of standard cultural biotesting techniques. Thus, the proposed method has such advantages, as: an opportunity of the detailed information reception about dynamics change of magnitude of population and intensity of test microorganisms metabolism, significant reduction of the culture media amount used, as well as researcher's temporary and labor efforts while the analyses realization, and the growth of analysis objectivity.

  11. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Regenerative medicine: advances in new methods and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Hyuk; Eve, David J

    2009-11-01

    The articles published in the journal Cell Transplantation - The Regenerative Medicine Journal over the last two years reveal the recent and future cutting-edge research in the fields of regenerative and transplantation medicine. 437 articles were published from 2007 to 2008, a 17% increase compared to the 373 articles in 2006-2007. Neuroscience was still the most common section in both the number of articles and the percentage of all manuscripts published. The increasing interest and rapid advance in bioengineering technology is highlighted by tissue engineering and bioartificial organs being ranked second again. For a similar reason, the methods and new technologies section increased significantly compared to the last period. Articles focusing on the transplantation of stem cell lineages encompassed almost 20% of all articles published. By contrast, the non-stem cell transplantation group which is made up primarily of islet cells, followed by biomaterials and fetal neural tissue, etc. comprised less than 15%. Transplantation of cells pre-treated with medicine or gene transfection to prolong graft survival or promote differentiation into the needed phenotype, was prevalent in the transplantation articles regardless of the kind of cells used. Meanwhile, the majority of non-transplantation-based articles were related to new devices for various purposes, characterization of unknown cells, medicines, cell preparation and/or optimization for transplantation (e.g. isolation and culture), and disease pathology.

  13. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  14. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ettenberger; Helen Odell-Miller; Cátherine Rojas Cárdenas; Sergio Torres Serrano; Mike Parker; Sandra Milena Camargo Llanos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states a...

  15. An evolutionary method for synthesizing technological planning and architectural advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bjorn Forstrom

    In the development of systems with ever-increasing performance and/or decreasing drawbacks, there inevitably comes a point where more progress is available by shifting to a new set of principles of use. This shift marks a change in architecture, such as between the piston-driven propeller and the jet engine. The shift also often involves an abandonment of previous competencies that have been developed with great effort, and so a foreknowledge of these shifts can be advantageous. A further motivation for this work is the consideration of the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) project, which aims to develop very small (final graph-based genetic algorithm. This algorithm is then implemented in a design code called Sindri, which leverages a commercial design tool named Pacelab. The first chapters of this thesis provide context and a philosophical background to the studies and research that was conducted. In particular, the idea that technology progresses in a fundamentally gradual way is developed and supported with previous historical research. The import of this is that the future can to some degree be predicted by the past, provided that the appropriate technological antecedents are accounted for in developing the projection. The third chapter of the thesis compiles a series of observations and philosophical considerations into a series of research questions. Some research questions are then answered with further thought, observation, and reading, leading to conjectures on the problem. The remainder require some form of experimentation, and so are used to formulate hypotheses. Falsifiability conditions are then generated from those hypotheses, and used to get the development of experiments to be performed, in this case on a computer upon various conditions of use of a genetic algorithm. The fourth chapter of the thesis walks through the formulation of a method to attack the problem of strategically choosing an architecture. This method is designed to

  16. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  18. Method for Measuring the Alignment Between Information Technology Strategic Planning and Actions of Information Technology Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Melre da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance. A survey of IT governance maturity at the High Courts and the Supreme Court was carried out in order to reach this aim. The Attribute Table of the COBIT 4.1 was used both as a model for maturity analysis as for the degree of alignment of IT strategic plans of these bodies with the IT Strategic Planning established by the National Judiciary Council (CNJ. It was assessed the maturity of thirty four processes, according to six attributes, in the four COBIT domains. The proposed method, named COMPLAN-GTI, allows the linking of the guidelines of the strategic planning to the COBIT processes. The field research above mentioned shows that the alignment between the planning established by the CNJ and those established by the High Courts and Supreme Court is around 68%, leading to the conclusion that the policies and actions established by the National Council of Justice for the Judiciary are being followed. The application of the method is also used to confirm whether the management practices and the IT Governance are consistent with the strategic plan established by the organization. It was observed in the research carried out in the Courts that the average convergence between PETIs and management practices and Governance lies around 70%, leading to the conclusion that the strategic plans exerted influence on the action planning of these organizations.

  19. Numerical modeling of dam-break flood through intricate city layouts including underground spaces using GPU-based SPH method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建松; 张辉; 杨锐

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies the meshfree Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computing technique to investigate the highly complex 3-D dam-break flow in urban areas including underground spaces. Taking the advantage of GPUs parallel computing techniques, simulations involving more than 107 particles can be achieved. We use a virtual geometric plane boundary to handle the outermost solid wall in order to save considerable video card memory for the GPU computing. To evaluate the accuracy of the new GPU-based SPH model, qualitative and quantitative comparison to a real flooding experiment is performed and the results of a numerical model based on Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) is given with good accu- racy. With the new GPU-based SPH model, the effects of the building layouts and underground spaces on the propagation of dam- break flood through an intricate city layout are examined.

  20. Simulation Technology of Environmental Impacts by Zero-energy Residential Buildings Based on Emergy Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhou; XiaoLong Xue; WangShu Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation technology of environmental impact for the building. By emergy analysis method, emergy costs of building( or construction engineering) can be calculated in the life cycle. It includes the engineering cost, environmental cost and social cost of building. Through integrating GIS technology with multi-agent technology, life cycle substance and energy metabolism of building ( construction engineering) can be simulated and their environmental influence can be dynamically displayed. Based on the case study of entries works ‘Sunny Inside’ by Xiamen University in 2013 China International Solar Decathlon Competition, we discovered the changing pattern of surrounding environmental impact from waste streams of the zero-energy building and ordinary construction. The simulation results verified and showed the Odum principles of maximum power. This paper provides a new research perspective and integration approach for the environmental impact assessment in building and construction engineering. The result will help decision-making in design and construction engineering scheme.

  1. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies: Method and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing a sustainability assessment framework for assessing the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge based on the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (LFPPFAHP) and extension theory. LFPPFAHP was employed...... to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration......, and resource utilization) was studied by the proposed method, and compositing, incineration, and resource utilization are recognized as "Moderately Sustainable", "Not Sustainable", and "Highly Sustainable", respectively. The sustainability sequence in the descending order is resource utilization, compositing...

  2. Integration of the BSCS 5E instructional method and technology in an anatomy and physiology lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi

    This research provides an understanding of how the 5E instructional method combined with educational technology tools can be used in teaching undergraduate college level anatomy and physiology laboratory classes. The 5E instructional model is the exemplary instructional model in teaching biology for high school students. The phases in the 5E learning cycle are Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. In every step of the learning cycle, the researcher used appropriate technology tools to enhance the teaching and learning processes. The researcher used the Dynamic Instructional Design model to identify the appropriate technology tools for instruction. The topics selected for modification were 'The Heart' and 'The Vascular System.' The researcher chose these two topics based on results of the preliminary survey that the researcher conducted during summer 2008. The existing topics identified on the syllabus were followed but the teaching method was changed. In order to accomplish this, the researcher created a class Website and included tools including pronunciation, spelling, an Interactive Tool, and Web links. In addition, the researcher also created teacher resources for the Pronunciation Corner and Spelling Bee, so that any teacher can customize and use these tools for their classes. The results indicated that the students took advantage of the technology provided.

  3. Music Therapy With Premature Infants and Their Caregivers in Colombia – A Mixed Methods Pilot Study Including a Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ettenberger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a three-arm mixed methods pilot study of music therapy with premature infants and their caregivers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU in Bogotá, Colombia. The study included 19 medically stable babies born between the 30th and 37th week of gestation and their caregivers. Two intervention groups were compared with a control group. The objectives were to find out whether music therapy could help the neonates to stabilize their physiological states and help mothers to reduce anxiety and strengthen the relationship with their baby. The data collection included the babies´ weight gain, heart rate, oxygen saturation, size, cephalic perimeter and length of hospitalization. Mothers filled out the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-C and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS before the first and after the last intervention. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained through questionnaires. A trend towards an increased weight gain for both intervention groups and a shorter length of hospitalization for one of the intervention groups was noticed. Anxiety and bonding in mothers appears not to follow linear trends, as new challenges arise for parents at different stages during hospitalization. Mothers stated that music therapy was helpful for them, their baby and their relationship with the baby. Mothers across the groups think that music therapy should be a regular offer in the NICU and that music therapy helps to humanize the NICU environment.

  4. Integration of biotechnology, robot technology and visualisation technology for development of methods for automated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    . The method is, for several plant species, the preferred basis for development of additional biotechnological breeding technologies as e.g. genetic transformation. Elite clones can be stored over extended periods in liquid nitrogen at -196°C However, commercial application of the technology has until now been...... of plants for the forestry industry based on robot- and visualisation technology. The commercial aspect of the project aims at: 1) the market for cloned elite plants in the forestry sector and 2) the market for robot technology in the production of plants for the forestry sector....... are produced from single cells without sexual reproduction. SE has some particular advantages for the development of cost effective methods for clonal mass propagation of elite plants: It is a very effective and fast method for clonal propagation. The method is suitable for automatisation and robot technology...

  5. A regression method including chronological and bone age for predicting final height in Turner's syndrome, with a comparison of existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teunenbroek, A; Stijnen, T; Otten, B; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Naeraa, R W; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, S

    1996-04-01

    A total of 235 measurement points of 57 Dutch women with Turner's syndrome (TS), including women with spontaneous menarche and oestrogen treatment, served to develop a new Turner-specific final height (FH) prediction method (PTS). Analogous to the Tanner and Whitehouse mark 2 method (TW) for normal children, smoothed regression coefficients are tabulated for PTS for height (H), chronological age (CA) and bone age (BA), both TW RUS and Greulich and Pyle (GP). Comparison between all methods on 40 measurement points of 21 Danish TS women showed small mean prediction errors (predicted minus observed FH) and corresponding standard deviation (ESD) of both PTSRUS and PTSGP, in particular at the "younger" ages. Comparison between existing methods on the Dutch data indicated a tendency to overpredict FH. Before the CA of 9 years the mean prediction errors of the Bayley and Pinneau and TW methods were markedly higher compared with the other methods. Overall, the simplest methods--projected height (PAH) and its modification (mPAH)--were remarkably good at most ages. Although the validity of PTSRUS and PTSGP remains to be tested below the age of 6 years, both gave small mean prediction errors and a high accuracy. FH prediction in TS is important in the consideration of growth-promoting therapy or in the evaluation of its effects.

  6. INTERACTIVE METHODS AND INFORMATIVE-COMMUNICATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AS THE PROCEDURE AND MEANS OF MODERN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Borisovich Gundyrev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural and genetic analysis of the engineering education has been performed. It is shown that interactive methods are part of the educational activity procedure, while informative-communicative technologies are its means. Increasing of information flow accompanied by simultaneous reduction of a technology lifetime as compared to a specialist lifetime makes it important to investigate questions of increasing educational activity and making it more intensive. The problem of continuous education becomes of high importance, which requires changes in the educational process. It is shown that one of ways to solve this problem is switching to interactive methods of executing studies as well as applying informative-communicative technologies. Using the activity-related approach we have performed analysis of engineering education. Six key elements have been identified in its structure. They include the routine and the means of activity. Five stages have also been identified in the genesis of engineering education. It was shown that moving fom one stage to the next one happens when one or several structural elements experience qualitative changes. Examples of applying interactive methods and informative-communicative technologies in the high engineering education are provided.

  7. Medication administration technologies and patient safety: a mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kelly; Cummings, Greta G; Marck, Patricia; Yurtseven, Ozden

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare leaders need evidence-based information on nursing medication administration technologies to guide the design of improvements to patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the research evidence on relationships between the use of medication administration technologies and incidence of medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events to inform decision-making about existing technology options. Thirteen electronic databases and seven relevant patient safety websites were searched for the years 1980-2009. A mixed-method systematic literature review of research on medication administration technologies and associated links to patient safety, operationalized as medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events, was conducted. Twelve studies (two qualitative, five pre- and postinterventions and five correlational) met the inclusion criteria. All were assessed as medium quality with low generalizability of study findings. Only two studies sampled more than one hospital and none of the studies was driven by an explicit theoretical framework. The studies included in this review are generally positive towards medication administration technologies and their potential benefits, yet the level of evidence overall is equivocal. The majority of studies pointed to the development of workarounds by nurses following medication administration technology implementation that could compromise patient safety. More theoretically driven research is needed to determine which medication administration technologies should be implemented in what ways to most effectively reduce medication administration incidents and preventable adverse drug events and minimize the development of potentially unsafe workarounds. Further evidence is required to accurately assess the actual contribution of medication administration technologies for improving patient safety. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell

  8. TREATING DISCUS HERNIA USING A SELF DEVELOPED METHOD - A NEW TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT SURGICAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrička Stardelova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an experiment that was performed on a hundred patients by using our self-developed methods during a two year period. The treatment of discus hernia was carried out by using our self-developed methods combined with a completely new technology, as well as clinical biomechanics, chiropractics, massotherapy, thermotherapy, cryotherapy and various other specific exercises practiced in esthetic and orthopedic kinesiology - kinesitherapy.50 females and 50 males aged 35 to 55 underwent our therapy and the results we obtained display very high curative effects.

  9. A comparison of standard cultural methods for the detection of foodborne Salmonella species including three new chromogenic plating media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenbrücher, Vanessa; Mallinson, Edward T; Bülte, Michael

    2008-03-31

    In this study the draft of the horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella species from human food and animal feed (ISO 6579:2002) was compared to the European gold standard (DIN EN 12824:1998), including the three new chromogenic plating media AES Salmonella Agar Plate (ASAP), Oxoid Salmonella Chromogen Media (OSCM) and Miller-Mallinson agar (MM). First the growth and appearance of 36 bacterial type strains (Salmonella and other 21 species) on ASAP, OSCM and MM were compared to those on the three traditional agars Brilliant Green Agar according to Edel and Kampelmacher (BGA), Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD) and Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 Agar (XLT4). Only on MM agar, did all of 36 tested type strains produce typical colonies, especially strains of S. Senftenberg, Salmonella arizonae, S. Dublin and S. Derby. Artificial inoculation experiments using raw pork ground meat (n=92) were subsequently conducted. A shortened incubation time of 24 h in RVS broth yielded a Salmonella species recovery of 100% from spiked meat samples. Finally, 286 naturally contaminated raw porcine and bovine minced meat samples and raw poultry meat samples were investigated. Forty-three strains from a total of 39 Salmonella-positive samples were found. S. Typhimurium (n=21), with DT 104 L, DT 012 and RDNC being the most prevalent subtypes isolated. D-tartrate-positive S. Paratyphi B (n=2) and S. Saint-Paul (n=3) were also recovered. They were cultured from poultry meat and were multi-resistant against antibiotics including nalidixic acid. Rappaport Vassiliadis broth with soypeptone (RVS) yielded the highest recovery of Salmonella spp. (97,4%) compared to Tetrathionate broth with Novobiocin according to Muller and Kauffman (MKTTn, 94,9%) and Selenite Cystine broth (SC, 38,5%). However, no significant difference was obtained by comparing the ISO 6579:2002 draft to the gold standard.

  10. Models of optimal technology for removing oil by secondary methods of developing highly viscous oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents research on developing several methods of optimal technology for removing oil in highly viscous oil fields from the following wells: Lubno-3, Kharklova-Gvaretstvo 154 and Vetzhno (heavy oil). The problem connected with preparing the displacement fluids, with special emphasis on the authors patented technology for producing micellar solutions are discussed. The studies of dislocation fluids (including modified ones) were conducted at 3 temperatures: 293, 308, and 323/sup 0/K and with and without micellar solutions. The tests were used to idetify static regressive models of oil removal from oil fields. The model is satisfactorily accurate in predicting the amount of oil yield by using various secondary methods. Practical conclusions are reached based on an analysis of the studies. These conclusions provide the basis for industrial tests to increase the effectiveness of waterflooding highly viscous oil fields. They can also be used to develop old (gased) oil fields, an advantage considering the current fuel-energy situation.

  11. Emerging methods, technologies and process management in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrucci, Filomena; Tortora, Genny; Tucci, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    A high-level introduction to new technologies andmethods in the field of software engineering Recent years have witnessed rapid evolution of software engineering methodologies, and until now, there has been no single-source introduction to emerging technologies in the field.

  12. WLAN Positioning Methods and Supporting Learning Technologies for Mobile Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonyan, Arsen

    2013-01-01

    Location technologies constitute an essential component of systems design for autonomous operations and control. The Global Positioning System (GPS) works well in outdoor areas, but the satellite signals are not strong enough to penetrate inside most indoor environments. As a result, a new strain of indoor positioning technologies that make use of…

  13. Video Tutorials: A Sustainable Method for Campus Technology Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John; Dent, Julie; Barnes, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Technology training is a resource-intensive endeavor with inherent potential for waste. Such training is commonly offered in live, face-to-face workshops on campus, without charge, by colleges and universities who value technology skills in their faculty, staff, and students. The true cost to the institution begins with the space used for…

  14. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. Results: The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or “frosties,” show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50–85%). Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol. PMID:27512686

  15. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  16. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  17. Methods and technologies to improve efficiency of water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G.; Sadler, E. John

    2008-07-01

    The competition for existing freshwater supplies will require a paradigmatic shift from maximizing productivity per unit of land area to maximizing productivity per unit of water consumed. This shift will, in turn, demand broad systems approaches that physically and biologically optimize irrigation relative to water delivery and application schemes, rainfall, critical growth stages, soil fertility, location, and weather. Water can be conserved at a watershed or regional level for other uses only if evaporation, transpiration, or both are reduced and unrecoverable losses to unusable sinks are minimized (e.g., salty groundwater or oceans). Agricultural advances will include implementation of crop location strategies, conversion to crops with higher economic value or productivity per unit of water consumed, and adoption of alternate drought-tolerant crops. Emerging computerized GPS-based precision irrigation technologies for self-propelled sprinklers and microirrigation systems will enable growers to apply water and agrochemicals more precisely and site specifically to match soil and plant status and needs as provided by wireless sensor networks. Agriculturalists will need to exercise flexibility in managing the rate, frequency, and duration of water supplies to successfully allocate limited water and other inputs to crops. The most effective means to conserve water appears to be through carefully managed deficit irrigation strategies that are supported by advanced irrigation system and flexible, state-of-the-art water delivery systems. Nonagricultural water users will need to exercise patience as tools reflecting the paradigmatic shift are actualized. Both groups will need to cooperate and compromise as they practice more conservative approaches to freshwater consumption.

  18. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Lühmann, Dagmar; Neumann, Ulrike; Bartelmes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-acc...

  19. COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. The technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. This mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and rad...

  20. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction and...

  1. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  2. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  3. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  4. Method for Stereo Mapping Based on Objectarx and Pipeline Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, T.; Lin, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Stereo mapping is an important way to acquire 4D production. Based on the development of the stereo mapping and the characteristics of ObjectARX and pipeline technology, a new stereo mapping scheme which can realize the interaction between the AutoCAD and digital photogrammetry system is offered by ObjectARX and pipeline technology. An experiment is made in order to make sure the feasibility with the example of the software MAP-AT (Modern Aerial Photogrammetry Automatic Triangulation), the experimental results show that this scheme is feasible and it has very important meaning for the realization of the acquisition and edit integration.

  5. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  6. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  7. Development of vibration style ladle slag detection methods and the key technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ladle slag carry-over detection technology (SCDT) is of important practical significance to steel continuous casting production (CCP),which can effectively improve the casting blank quality,increase molten steel yield ratio,and protract the service life of tundish.The current SCDT realization methods and their application circumstance were summarized,and their main problems during the course of factual production were pointed out.The difficult technical points of detection principle,digital signal processing for vibration style SCDT development were described.To aim at the problems of vibration style SCDT,such as low recognition stability and long applied adjustment time,its key technologies including water model experimental platform establishment,two-phase sink vortex entrapment mechanism,forced vibration response of shroud nozzle and steel stream shock vibration signal processing optimization were analyzed deeply,and the corresponding research route and advices were given.

  8. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  9. Continuous-Flow Biochips: Technology, Physical Design Methods and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Araci, Ismail Emre; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    This article is a tutorial on continuous-flow biochips where the basic building blocks are microchannels, and microvalves, and by combining them, more complex units such as mixers, switches, and multiplexers can be built. It also presents the state of the art in flow-based biochip technology...... and emerging research challenges in the areas of physical design and testing techniques....

  10. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  11. 77 FR 7095 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definition of Technological Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Patents-- Definition of Technological Invention AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office..., Covered Business Method Patent Review Proposed Definition for Technological Invention.'' Comments may also... preamble of this notice sets forth in detail the definition of technological invention that the Board...

  12. A computational method for designing diverse linear epitopes including citrullinated peptides with desired binding affinities to intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Rob; Norel, Raquel; Prill, Robert J; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lorenz, Peter; Steinbeck, Felix; Ziems, Bjoern; Luštrek, Mitja; Barbarini, Nicola; Tiengo, Alessandra; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-04-08

    Understanding the interactions between antibodies and the linear epitopes that they recognize is an important task in the study of immunological diseases. We present a novel computational method for the design of linear epitopes of specified binding affinity to Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg). We show that the method, called Pythia-design can accurately design peptides with both high-binding affinity and low binding affinity to IVIg. To show this, we experimentally constructed and tested the computationally constructed designs. We further show experimentally that these designed peptides are more accurate that those produced by a recent method for the same task. Pythia-design is based on combining random walks with an ensemble of probabilistic support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, and we show that it produces a diverse set of designed peptides, an important property to develop robust sets of candidates for construction. We show that by combining Pythia-design and the method of (PloS ONE 6(8):23616, 2011), we are able to produce an even more accurate collection of designed peptides. Analysis of the experimental validation of Pythia-design peptides indicates that binding of IVIg is favored by epitopes that contain trypthophan and cysteine. Our method, Pythia-design, is able to generate a diverse set of binding and non-binding peptides, and its designs have been experimentally shown to be accurate.

  13. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  14. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  15. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  16. Exploiting molecular methods to explore endodontic infections: Part 1--current molecular technologies for microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2005-06-01

    Endodontic infections have been traditionally studied by culture-dependent methods. However, as with other areas of clinical microbiology, culture-based investigations are plagued by significant problems, including the probable involvement of viable but uncultivable micro-organisms with disease causation and inaccurate microbial identification. Innumerous molecular technologies have been used for microbiological diagnosis in clinical microbiology, but only recently some of these techniques have been applied in endodontic microbiology research. This paper intended to review the main molecular methods that have been used or have the potential to be used in the study of endodontic infections. Moreover, advantages and limitations of current molecular techniques when compared to conventional methods for microbial identification are also discussed.

  17. A New Method of Theodolite Calibration Based on Image Processing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hong-Bing; Chen, Di

    Aiming at improving the theodolite calibration method for space tracking ship, a calibration device which consists of hardware and software is designed in this paper. Hereinto, the hardware part is a set of optical acquisition system that includes CCD, lens and 0.2" collimator, while the software part contains image acquisition module, image processing module, data processing module and interface display module. During the calibration process, the new methods of image denoising and image character extraction are applied to improve the precision of image measure. The result of the experiment shows that the calibration criteria of the theodolite errors was met by applying the image processing technology of the theodolite calibration device, it is more accurate than the manual reading method under the same situation in dock.

  18. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  19. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

  20. Research on the statistics index system and evaluation method of high and new technology industry development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 张霞

    2004-01-01

    During the evolution of the global economic, high and new technology industry has become the maindriver to impel the global economy growth via technological advancement, and the main means to guarantee the sustainable development of the global economy. In the view of China's situation, this article analyzes the experiences of OECD in high and new technology industry and gives a statistics index system along with the evaluation method to estimate the development of high and new technology industry.

  1. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...... ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each...... fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production...

  2. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  3. A split-step method to include electron–electron collisions via Monte Carlo in multiple rate equation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huthmacher, Klaus [Department of Physics and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Molberg, Andreas K. [Department of Chemistry and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Rethfeld, Bärbel [Department of Physics and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Gulley, Jeremy R., E-mail: jgulley@kennesaw.edu [Department of Physics, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A split-step numerical method for calculating ultrafast free-electron dynamics in dielectrics is introduced. The two split steps, independently programmed in C++11 and FORTRAN 2003, are interfaced via the presented open source wrapper. The first step solves a deterministic extended multi-rate equation for the ionization, electron–phonon collisions, and single photon absorption by free-carriers. The second step is stochastic and models electron–electron collisions using Monte-Carlo techniques. This combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches is a unique and efficient method of calculating the nonlinear dynamics of 3D materials exposed to high intensity ultrashort pulses. Results from simulations solving the proposed model demonstrate how electron–electron scattering relaxes the non-equilibrium electron distribution on the femtosecond time scale.

  4. A split-step method to include electron-electron collisions via Monte Carlo in multiple rate equation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huthmacher, Klaus; Molberg, Andreas K.; Rethfeld, Bärbel; Gulley, Jeremy R.

    2016-10-01

    A split-step numerical method for calculating ultrafast free-electron dynamics in dielectrics is introduced. The two split steps, independently programmed in C++11 and FORTRAN 2003, are interfaced via the presented open source wrapper. The first step solves a deterministic extended multi-rate equation for the ionization, electron-phonon collisions, and single photon absorption by free-carriers. The second step is stochastic and models electron-electron collisions using Monte-Carlo techniques. This combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches is a unique and efficient method of calculating the nonlinear dynamics of 3D materials exposed to high intensity ultrashort pulses. Results from simulations solving the proposed model demonstrate how electron-electron scattering relaxes the non-equilibrium electron distribution on the femtosecond time scale.

  5. Validation of an extended method for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids in sports, including new hydroxylated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, P; Van Eenoo, P; Van Thuyne, W; Geyer, H; Schänzer, W; Delbeke, F T

    2008-12-15

    Endogenous steroids are amongst the most misused doping agents in sports. Their presence poses a major challenge for doping control laboratories. Current threshold levels do not allow for the detection of all endogenous steroid misuse due to great interindividual variations in urinary steroid concentrations. A method has been developed and validated to screen for traditionally monitored endogenous steroids in doping control as well as specific hydroxylated/oxygenated metabolites in order to enhance the detection capabilities for the misuse of endogenous steroids.

  6. Modification of the Kjeldahl noncasein nitrogen method to include bovine milk concentrates and milks from other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of our research was to modify the current indirect casein method for bovine milk to enable it to be applied to bovine milk, bovine milk concentrates, and milks of other species that contain a protein concentration up to 9% (wt/wt). Our work used a series of bovine milk concentrates from about 3 to 9% protein with the same casein as a percentage of true protein to determine the amount of buffer required and pH of the noncasein nitrogen (NCN) filtrate to achieve consistent estimates of casein and casein as percent of true protein. As the concentration of protein in milk increased (either in bovine milk concentrates or in milks of other species), the amount of buffer needed for the NCN sample preparation method to achieve a filtrate pH of 4.6 increased. In the first part of the study using a series of bovine milk concentrates, it was demonstrated that the method gave more consistent predictions of casein as a percentage of true protein when the final NCN filtrate pH was between 4.5 and 4.6 at 38°C. When the amount of buffer added to the sample was not sufficient (i.e., the filtrate pH was too high), the filtrates were not clear. A polynomial equation was developed for prediction of the amount of acetic acid or sodium acetate buffer required to achieve pH 4.5 to 4.6 for milk protein concentrations from 3 to 9% protein using bovine milk and milk concentrates. When the equation developed using cow milk was applied to goat, sheep, and water buffalo milks, it correctly predicted the volume of reagents needed to achieve a final NCN filtrate pH of 4.6 at 38°C. We also verified as part of this work that the ability to measure NPN content of milk was not influenced by protein content of milk in the range from 3 to 9% protein. The results of this study will be used as the basis for proposed changes in the official methods for measurement of the casein content of milk to expand the scope of the method so it can be used to achieve accurate results for milk

  7. The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kaltenthaler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues to consider when selecting an appropriate method. Methods Three recently completed systematic review short reports produced for the UK National Institute for Health Research were examined. Different approaches to rapid review methods were used in the three reports which were undertaken to inform the commissioning of services within the NHS and to inform future trial design. We describe the methods used, the reasoning behind the choice of methods and explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Results Rapid review methods were chosen to meet the needs of the review and each review had distinctly different challenges such as heterogeneity in terms of populations, interventions, comparators and outcome measures (PICO and/or large numbers of relevant trials. All reviews included at least 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs, each with numerous included outcomes. For the first case study (sexual health interventions, very diverse studies in terms of PICO were included. P-values and summary information only were presented due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and outcomes measured. For the second case study (premature ejaculation treatments, there were over 100 RCTs but also several existing systematic reviews. Data for meta-analyses were extracted directly from existing systematic reviews with new RCT data added where available. For the final case study (cannabis cessation therapies, studies included a wide range of interventions and considerable variation in study populations and outcomes. A brief summary of the key findings for each study was presented and

  8. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  9. Teaching Methods Influencing the Sustainability of the Teaching Process in Technology Education in General Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobik, Mart

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of technology education is related to a traditional understanding of craft and the methods used to teach it; however, the methods used in the teaching process have been influenced by the innovative changes accompanying the development of technology. In respect to social and economic development, it is important to prepare young…

  10. Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mahbubur Rahman, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of advanced distance education delivers academic courses across time and distance, allowing educators and students to participate in a convenient learning method. "Methods and Applications for Advancing Distance Education Technologies: International Issues and Solutions" demonstrates communication technologies, intelligent…

  11. Development of seismic sloshing analysis method of liquid coolant sodium in the KALIMER reactor vessel including several cylindrical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Yoo, Bong

    2000-11-01

    It is important to establish a highly accurate technique of evaluating the sloshing behavior of liquid sodium coolant during earthquake for structural integrity of KALIMER reactor vessel and internals. The analysis procedure of sloshing behaviors is established using finite element computer program ANSYS, and the effectiveness of the procedure is confirmed by comparison with theoretical and experimental results in the literature. The analysis results agree well with experimental ones. Based on the procedure, the sloshing characteristics of liquid sodium coolant in the KALIMER reactor vessel including reactor internal components are evaluated. The maximum response height of sodium free surface at the reactor vessel is about 55cm when subjected to horizontal safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) of 0.3g for seismically isolated reactor building.

  12. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method

    CERN Document Server

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Tarek, Merzouki; Hambli, Ridha; Ali, Mkaddem

    2014-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand its mechanical behaviour and its remodelling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network computation and homogenisation equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained neural network simulation. Finite element (FE) calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house neural network program; (iii) in steps 2 to 10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenisation equations are used to perform the computation at the higher s...

  13. Drying Using Supercritical Fluid Technology as a Potential Method for Preparation of Chitosan Aerogel Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Rana M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Bayan, Mohammad F; Al Bustami, Rana T; Alnaief, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Supercritical fluid technology offers several advantages in preparation of microparticles. These include uniformity in particle size, morphology, and drug distribution without degradation of the product. One of the recent advantages is preparation of porous aerogel carrier with proper aerodynamic properties. In this study, we aimed to prepare chitosan aerogel microparticles using supercritical fluid (SCF) technology and compare that with microparticles produced by freeze drying (FD). Loading the prepared carriers with a model drug (salbutamol) was also performed. Comparisons of the particle properties and physicochemical characterizations were undertaken by evaluating particle size, density, specific surface area, and porosity. In vitro drug release studies were also investigated. The effect of many variables, such as molecular weight of chitosan oligomers, concentrations of chitosan, and concentrations of tripolyphosphate on the release, were also investigated. Chitosan aerogels were efficiently produced by SCF technology with an average particle size of 10 μm with a tapped density values around 0.12 g/mL, specific surface area (73-103) m(2)/g, and porosity (0.20-0.29) cc/g. Whereas, microparticles produced by FD method were characterized as cryogels with larger particle size (64 microns) with clear cracking at the surface. Sustained release profile was achieved for all prepared microparticles of salbutamol produced by the aforementioned methods as compared with pure drug. The results also demonstrates that chitosan molecular weight, polymer concentration, and tripolyphosphate concentration affected the release profile of salbutamol from the prepared microparticles. In conclusion, SCF technology was able to produce chitosan aerogel microparticles loaded with salbutamol that could be suitable for pulmonary drug delivery system.

  14. Spectrophotometric method for the quantitative assay of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters including extinction coefficients and reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentini, Rivo

    2017-05-15

    A quantitative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), a chromophore with a maximum absorbance at 268 nm. The extinction coefficients were determined between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and found to vary in a nonlinear manner. This spectrophotometric profile is not present in its esters which however release an equimolar amount of sulfo-NHS when they react with nucleophilic groups or hydrolyze in aqueous solution. This fact facilitates the determination in solution of the concentration and purity of bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) used as a model, as well as the examination of hydrolysis and aminolysis half-lives in different reaction conditions, these parameters being valuable in optimization of the use of the active esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  16. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  17. Development of GIS Technologies and Methods in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medjon Hysenaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal is to analyze GIS opportunities as constructive pillar for student performance. We introduce a web-gis platform which improves both student collaboration and individual strategy highlighting their skills and potentialities. The analyzed project claims to reduce the gap between theoretical assignments and real world issues. We try to introduce a new standard of learning based on two directives, spatial error evaluation and spatial data management. The followed methodology aims to explain spatial evaluation techniques through geo-tools, which could turn into a comprehensive strategy for student education. The paper aims to emphasize the vigor influence visual impact release on error checking. We firmly belief that image perception requires minimum time evaluation, higher probability in error detection, better management of decision-making process, compared to standard analytical environment. Talking about visual impact means we deal with spatial extension and mapping evaluation. Further we tend to reorder concepts by disseminating strict policy to deploy map usage in academicals areas, government institutions, research entities, etc. The followed analyses aim to create an optimized methodology toward a sustainable development process. Spatial tools as executable units and geo-databases as storage units are the future of modern technologies whose embracement leads the analyst into a higher level of control. Due to vast implementation in multiple fields and life routines GIS technology comes as an attractive discipline toward students’ curiosity, easily to be absorbed and subject to further development.

  18. Novel Method Of Preparing Vaccines | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention from the NCI Cancer and Inflammation Program describes methods to prepare vaccines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer and Inflammation Program seeks parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods of preparing vaccines.

  19. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  20. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  1. A method for modifying two-dimensional adaptive wind-tunnel walls including analytical and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical development of a simple and consistent method for removing the interference in adaptive-wall wind tunnels is reported. A Cauchy integral formulation of the velocities in an imaginary infinite extension of the real wind-tunnel flow is obtained and evaluated on a closed contour dividing the real and imaginary flow. The contour consists of the upper and lower effective wind-tunnel walls (wall plus boundary-layer displacement thickness) and upstream and downstream boundaries perpendicular to the axial tunnel flow. The resulting integral expressions for the streamwise and normal perturbation velocities on the contour are integrated by assuming a linear variation of the velocities between data-measurement stations along the contour. In an iterative process, the velocity components calculated on the upper and lower boundaries are then used to correct the shape of the wall to remove the interference. Convergence of the technique is shown numerically for the cases of a circular cylinder and a lifting and nonlifting NACA 0012 airfoil in incompressible flow. Experimental convergence at a transonic Mach number is demonstrated by using an NACA 0012 airfoil at zero lift.

  2. Nanoparticle therapeutics: Technologies and methods for overcoming cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Brenda Brenner S; Lasham, Annette; Shelling, Andrew N; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2015-11-01

    It is anticipated that by 2030 approximately 13 million people will die of cancer. Common cancer therapy often fails due to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), resulting in high morbidity and poor patient prognosis. Nanotechnology seeks to use drug delivery vehicles of 1-100 nm in diameter, made up of several different materials to deliver anti-cancer drugs selectively to cancer cells and potentially overcome MDR. Several technologies exist for manufacturing and functionalizing nanoparticles. When functionalized appropriately, nanoparticles have been shown to overcome several mechanisms of MDR in vivo and in vitro, reduce drug side effects and represent a promising new area of anti-cancer therapy. This review discusses the fundamental concepts of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and explores the mechanisms proposed to enhance preferential "retention" in the tumour. The overall objective of this review was to enhance our understanding in the design and development of therapeutic nanoparticles for treatment of cancer.

  3. Noise Radar Technology as an Interference Prevention Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspare Galati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In some applications, such as automotive and marine/navigation, hundreds of radars may operate in a small environment (e.g., a road complex or a strait and in an allocated frequency band with limited width. Therefore, a compatibility problem between different radars arises that is not easily solved by time, frequency, space, or polarization diversity. The advent of fast digital signal processing and signal generation techniques makes it possible to use waveform diversity to solve this problem that will be exacerbated in the next future. Ideal waveforms for the diversity are supplied by Noise Radar Technology (NRT, whose application is promising in some military applications as well as in the civilian applications considered in this paper. In addition to being orthogonal as much as possible, the random signals to be transmitted have to satisfy requirements concerning side lobe level and crest factor, calling for novel, original design and generation processes.

  4. A new knowledge discovery method for scientific and technologic database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for the knowledge discovery based on statistic induction logic is proposed, and the validity of the method is verified by examples. The method is suitable for a large range of knowledge discovery applications in the studying of causal relation, uncertainty knowledge acquisition and principal factors analyzing. The language field description of the state space makes the algorithm robust in the adaptation with easier understandable results, which are isomotopy with natural language in the topologic space.

  5. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  6. Living Brain Optical Imaging: Technology, Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Bernardelli, Chad; Maslov, Konstantin I.

    2017-01-01

    Within the last few decades, optical imaging methods have yielded revolutionary results when applied to all parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to analyze research possibilities and limitations of several novel imaging techniques and show some of the most interesting achievements obtained by these methods. Here we covered intrinsic optical imaging, voltage-sensitive dye, photoacoustic, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy and some other techniques. All of them are mainly applicable for experimental neuroscience but some of them also suitable for the clinical studies.

  7. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  8. Discussion on "proportional solidification technology" for nodular iron casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gen

    2006-01-01

    The Proportional Solidification Technology believes that advancing the expansion of graphite precipitation is favorable for fully utilizing the expansion to offset the contraction and minimizing feeder size. But this author has proved that advancing the expansion is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion. On contrary, advancing the contraction is favorable for both kinds of feeding and favorable for avoiding shrinkage. The feeding efficiency of feeders cannot be increased by advancing the expansion of the casting, but can only be increased by accelerating cooling and contraction of the casting, and (or) by delaying the freezing of the feeders. In order to fully utilize the expansion to offset the contraction, it is a must to ensure that all inlets and outlets of a casting being poured are blocked rapidly at the moment when pouring is finished. It is pointed out that blocking at the earlier frozen feeder neck is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion; whereas blocking at earlier frozen ingates is favorable for both kinds of feeding.

  9. Development of fuel alcohol technology. Development of flash fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    This is an annual report for 1984 on the development of fuel alcohol fermentation technology. (1) Continuous operation (total 6,000 hours) with a compact fermentation unit (1 l/d alcohol production) increased the productivity up to 1.5 times by a flush fermentation for a high density bacillus. (2) Salt resistance of the bacillus stock for flush fermentation was examined for the selection of the stock to be used in the operation of the test plant. (3) Zaimomonus-mobilis stock was utilized to examine the influence of high-density condition of a light-curing resin on the fermentation characteristics. (4) For a high density bacillus to be loaded in a test plant, a condition for the stable storage for more than 3 months was selected. (5) A test plant with 5 kl/d alcohol production was installed at Izumi Alcohol Plant of NEDO. (6) A unit for preparing high density bacillus granules for loading in the test plant was installed at Kinuura Laboratory of NIKKI K.K..

  10. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND METHODS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF PELED (СOREGONUS PELED GMELIN (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peled as a food product, raw material for processing and analyze traditional methods of its technological processing. Findings. The paper contains an analysis of the chemical composition of peled meat and its difference compared to other fish of pond aquaculture of Ukraine. According to the parameters of the biochemical composition of the meat of peled reared in the conditions of pond aquaculture, including: contents of fats, proteins, and moisture, belongs to the category of fish from medium to high fat content with medium protein content as well as to fish of increased nutritional value and assimilability based on water-protein, fat-protein, and water-fat balance, and based on amino-acid composition in percent, according to Score standard. Unlike cyprinids — objects of pond aquaculture, general indices of the biochemical composition and peculiarities of anatomical structure of peled as a coregonid representative, contribute to the formation of organoleptic features of native origin that are inherent to gourmet types of the products of traditional processing. It was found that unlike other coregonids, the biochemical indices of peled meat, which define the type and directions of its processing and its regime, first of all, the content of fat, protein, and moisture аre relatively stable for different age groups under conditions of pond aquaculture and they change less during the biological cycle. Main product requirements to the methods of technological processing of peled are summarized, namely: drying, smoking, salting. Full technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods taking into account biochemical peculiarities of raw material and requirements for the finished product are presented and analyzed. Practical value. The summarized information is useful for further development of domestic aquaculture and processing. Different indices of biochemical composition and high output indices of peled meat

  11. Advanced hydrogen/method utilization technology demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, F.; Fulton, J. [Hydrogen Consultants, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The overall objective of the work was to seek homogeneous blend ratios of hydrogen:methane that provide ``leverage`` with respect to exhaust emissions or engine performance. The leverage sought was a reduction in exhaust emissions or improved efficiency in proportions greater than the percentage of hydrogen energy in the blended fuel gas mixture. The scope of the study included the range of air/fuel mixtures from the lean limit to slightly richer than stoichiometric. This encompasses two important modes of engine operation for emissions control; lean burn pre-catalyst (some natural gas engines have no catalyst) and post-catalyst; and stoichiometric with three-way catalyst. The report includes a brief discussion of each of these modes.

  12. Krylov subspace method based on data preprocessing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The performance of adaptive beamforming techniques is limited by the nonhomogeneous clutter scenario. An augmented Krylov subspace method is proposed, which utilizes only a single snapshot of the data for adaptive processing. The novel algorithm puts together a data preprocessor and adaptive Krylov subspace algorithm, where the data preprocessor suppresses discrete interference and the adaptive Krylov subspace algorithm suppresses homogeneous clutter. The novel method uses a single snapshot of the data received by the array antenna to generate a cancellation matrix that does not contain the signal of interest (SOI) component, thus, it mitigates the problem of highly nonstationary clutter environment and it helps to operate in real-time. The benefit of not requiring the training data comes at the cost of a reduced degree of freedom (DOF) of the system. Simulation illustrates the effectiveness in clutter suppression and adaptive beamforming. The numeric results show good agreement with the proposed theorem.

  13. A Case for Adapting and Applying Continuance Theory to Education: Understanding the Role of Student Feedback in Motivating Teachers to Persist with Including Digital Technologies in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Noeline

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand schools, the adoption and persistent use of digital tools to aid learning is a growing but uneven, trend, often linked to the practices of early adopters and/or robust wifi infrastructure. The Technology Adoption Model is used internationally to gauge levels of uptake of technological tools, particularly in commerce and also in…

  14. Manufacturing Methods & Technology Project Execution Report. Second Half CY 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    U.S. ARMY MATER-IEL DEVELOP AND READINESS COMMAND Lu ti MAANUFACTURING METHODS & 0 ~ ECHNOLOGY ELECTE, hAY 4 19 81 PROJECT EXECUTION REPORTautw w...Armament Materiel Readiness Command (Ammunition) . ... 83 Armament R&D Cormtand Armament Materiel Readiness Command (Weapons) .. . . . 105 Mobility ... MOBILIZATION PRODUCTION RATES ARE ESTIMATED TO BE S1t6 6000 PER YEAR. 5 78 4288 EXPLOSIVE SAFE SEPARATION AND SENSITIVITY CRITERIA ZERO PALLET SPACING

  15. Advanced Durability and Damage Tolerance Design and Analysis Methods for Composite Structures: Lessons Learned from NASA Technology Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    Aerospace vehicles are designed to be durable and damage tolerant. Durability is largely an economic life-cycle design consideration whereas damage tolerance directly addresses the structural airworthiness (safety) of the vehicle. However, both durability and damage tolerance design methodologies must address the deleterious effects of changes in material properties and the initiation and growth of microstructural damage that may occur during the service lifetime of the vehicle. Durability and damage tolerance design and certification requirements are addressed for commercial transport aircraft and NASA manned spacecraft systems. The state-of-the-art in advanced design and analysis methods is illustrated by discussing the results of several recently completed NASA technology development programs. These programs include the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program demonstrating technologies for large transport aircraft and the X-33 hypersonic test vehicle demonstrating technologies for a single-stage-to-orbit space launch vehicle.

  16. Method of Choosing the Information Technology System Supporting Management of the Military Aircraft Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the information technology system, the task of which is to support the management process of the military aircraft operation. The proposed method is based on surveys conducted among direct users of IT systems used in aviation of the Polish Armed Forces. The analysis of results of the surveys was conducted using statistical methods. The paper was completed with practical conclusions related to further usefulness of the individual information technology systems. In the future, they can be extremely useful in the process of selecting the best solutions and integration of the information technology systems

  17. Borehole testing methods using a new temporary polyacrylamide packers technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Selker, John

    2017-04-01

    Range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we propose a new temporary polyacrylamide packers (TAMP) technology that uses soft grains of polyacrylamide gel as a borehole sealing material and discuss its possible applications. Polyacrylamide gel, also called hydrogel or water-absorbing polymer, consists of long chains of molecules that can absorb over a hundred times their weight in liquids. Soft gel grains are mainly made of water, but the water inside these particles does not contribute to the flow of the suspension. The gel packing (permeability similar to open gravel) placed to a well suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel. Minimizing the effect of free convection within the well column would be beneficial for active thermal tests where free convection often dominate flow and create thermal disequilibrium between the water in the borehole and the surrounding media. Preliminary laboratory experiments and the literature suggests that as the polyacrylamide pack is subject to modest compressive stress to the gel media (of order 0.1 ATM), the permeability transitions from of the order of 10 to 7 millidarcys to 0.01 millidarcys, illustrating the remarkable ability to transition from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Though yet to be confirmed in the field, by locally injecting water at pressure greater than the compressive stress, local voids can be formed which can act as local pump test sources, with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated where local response pressure from the formation can be measured. This arrangement could be valuable for tomographic study of aquifers wherein hundreds of injection zones could be tested by simply pulling an injection pipe vertically through the packed borehole. The gel grains can be of the scale of cm, so do not pass

  18. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Execution Report, Second CY 81

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-15

    RESPECTIVELY UNSuITED AND INADEQUATE OR nARD TO BE ADAPTED Tu LN-L1NE PRUDoCTlON TESTING USAGE . NLABS 81 8063 IMPROVED METHODS OF MFR Of BUTYL...IMPACT NON-METALLIC FUEL TANK. T 8^ 5075 MILITARY ELASTOMERS FDR TkACK VEHICLES (PHASE 11) TRACK LIFE IS HELD AT ITS PRESENT LEVEL BY FAILURE OF...INCREASES COST DUE TD LONG LEAD TIMES, SCHEDULE LNTtRRUPTlDNS AND SnDRTAGtS DF MACHINE AVAILABILTY , LABOR AND MATERIALS. 6 B<L BB’tl HOLLDW

  19. Architecture and method for a burst buffer using flash technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelnic, Percy; Faibish, Sorin; Gupta, Uday K.; Bent, John; Grider, Gary Alan; Chen, Hsing-bung

    2016-03-15

    A parallel supercomputing cluster includes compute nodes interconnected in a mesh of data links for executing an MPI job, and solid-state storage nodes each linked to a respective group of the compute nodes for receiving checkpoint data from the respective compute nodes, and magnetic disk storage linked to each of the solid-state storage nodes for asynchronous migration of the checkpoint data from the solid-state storage nodes to the magnetic disk storage. Each solid-state storage node presents a file system interface to the MPI job, and multiple MPI processes of the MPI job write the checkpoint data to a shared file in the solid-state storage in a strided fashion, and the solid-state storage node asynchronously migrates the checkpoint data from the shared file in the solid-state storage to the magnetic disk storage and writes the checkpoint data to the magnetic disk storage in a sequential fashion.

  20. Mathematical analysis and numerical methods for science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dautray, Robert

    These 6 volumes - the result of a 10 year collaboration between the authors, two of France's leading scientists and both distinguished international figures - compile the mathematical knowledge required by researchers in mechanics, physics, engineering, chemistry and other branches of application of mathematics for the theoretical and numerical resolution of physical models on computers. Since the publication in 1924 of the "Methoden der mathematischen Physik" by Courant and Hilbert, there has been no other comprehensive and up-to-date publication presenting the mathematical tools needed in applications of mathematics in directly implementable form. The advent of large computers has in the meantime revolutionised methods of computation and made this gap in the literature intolerable: the objective of the present work is to fill just this gap. Many phenomena in physical mathematics may be modeled by a system of partial differential equations in distributed systems: a model here means a set of equations, which ...

  1. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan B. Yoganathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC, a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL, a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend the applicability of dense CO2 to the biomedical industry and polymer blend processing, the impregnation of ibuprofen into the blend was conducted and subsequent dissolution characteristics were observed.

  2. The Montessori Method: The Origins of an Educational Innovation: Including an Abridged and Annotated Edition of Maria Montessori's The Montessori Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutek, Gerald Lee

    2004-01-01

    An essential resource for all students and scholars of early childhood education, this book offers a rich array of material about Maria Montessori and the Montessori Method. Distinguished education scholar Gerald Gutek begins with an in-depth biography of Montessori, exploring how a determined young woman overcame the obstacles that blocked her…

  3. COMPUTER MODELING AS ONE OF CONTEMPORARY METHODS OF FORECASTING IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Losenkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents researches devoted to the forecasting of compatibility of additive and drug substances with a method of computer modeling for its use in composition elaboration and technology of transdermal therapeutic systems.

  4. Problems of method of technology assessment. A methodological analysis; Methodenprobleme des Technology Assessment; Eine methodologische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, V.

    1993-03-01

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members` mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical `skeleton` of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Studie stellt sich die Aufgabe, die theoretische und methodische Struktur des Technology Assessment (TA) zu analysieren. Sie fusst auf Erhebungen, die bei Technology-Assessment-Studien vorgenommen wurden und die wesentliche Voraussetzungen fuer

  5. Color management systems: methods and technologies for increased image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretti, Maria

    1997-02-01

    All the steps in the imaging chain -- from handling the originals in the prepress to outputting them on any device - - have to be well calibrated and adjusted to each other, in order to reproduce color images in a desktop environment as accurate as possible according to the original. Today most of the steps in the prepress production are digital and therefore it is realistic to believe that the color reproduction can be well controlled. This is true thanks to the last years development of fast, cost effective scanners, digital sources and digital proofing devices not the least. It is likely to believe that well defined tools and methods to control this imaging flow will lead to large cost and time savings as well as increased overall image quality. Until now, there has been a lack of good, reliable, easy-to- use systems (e.g. hardware, software, documentation, training and support) in an extent that has made them accessible to the large group of users of graphic arts production systems. This paper provides an overview of the existing solutions to manage colors in a digital pre-press environment. Their benefits and limitations are discussed as well as how they affect the production workflow and organization. The difference between a color controlled environment and one that is not is explained.

  6. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  7. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmes, Marc; Neumann, Ulrike; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schönermark, Matthias P; Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-05

    Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA) which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare) are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a technology and

  8. Methods for assessment of innovative medical technologies during early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Health Technology Assessment (HTA is usually conducted at a point in time at which the development of the respective technology may no longer be influenced. By this time developers and/or purchasers may have misinvested resources. Thus the demand for Technology Assessment (TA which incorporates appropriate methods during early development stages of a technology becomes apparent. Against this health political background, the present report describes methods for a development-accompanying assessment of innovative medical technologies. Furthermore, international research programmes set out to identify or apply such methods will be outlined. A systematic literature search as well as an extensive manual literature search are carried out in order to obtain literature and information. The greatest units of the identified methods consist of assessment concepts, decision support methods, modelling approaches and methods focusing on users and their knowledge. Additionally, several general-purpose concepts have been identified. The identified research programmes INNO-HTA and MATCH (Multidisciplinary-Assessment-of-Technology-Centre-for-Healthcare are to be seen as pilot projects which so far have not been able to generate final results. MATCH focuses almost entirely on the incorporation of the user-perspective regarding the development of non-pharmaceutical technologies, whereas INNO-HTA is basically concerned with the identification and possible advancement of methods for the early, socially-oriented technology assessment. Most references offer only very vague descriptions of the respective method and the application of greatly differing methods seldom exceeds the character of a pilot implementation. A standardisation much less an institutionalisation of development-accompanying assessment cannot be recognized. It must be noted that there is no singular method with which development-accompanying assessment should be carried out. Instead, a

  9. The Business Engineering Surgical Technologies (BEST) teaching method: incubating talents for surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, V; Halvax, P; Dallemagne, B; Swanström, L; Marescaux, J; Perretta, S

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation in surgical science and healthcare is vital and calls for close collaboration between engineering and surgery. To meet this objective, BEST was designed as a free sustainable innovative teaching method for young professionals, combining surgery, engineering, and business in a multidisciplinary, high-quality, low-cost, and learning-by-doing philosophy. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions of this innovative educational method. BEST educational method is delivered in two parts: the first component consisting of live streaming or pre-recorded online lectures, with an interdisciplinary profile focused on surgery, engineering, and business. The second component is an annual 5-day on-site course, organized at IRCAD-IHU, France. The program includes workshops in engineering, entrepreneurship team projects, and in-depth hands-on experience in laparoscopy, robotic surgery, interventional radiology, and flexible endoscopy with special emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the training. A panel of surgeons, engineers, well-established entrepreneurs, and scientists assessed the team projects for potential patent application. From November 2011 till September 2013, 803 individual and institutional users from 79 different countries attended the online course. In total, 134 young professionals from 32 different countries applied to the onsite course. Sixty participants were selected each year for the onsite course. In addition, five participants were selected for a web-based team. Thirteen provisional patents were filed for the most promising projects. BEST proved to be a global talent incubator connecting students to high-quality education despite institutional and economical boundaries. Viable and innovative ideas arose from this revolutionary approach which is likely to spin-off significant technology transfer and lead the way for future interdisciplinary hybrid surgical

  10. An innovative method to produce green table olives based on "pied de cuve" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The technology of "pied de cuve" (PdC) is applied in food process only to produce wines with an enriched community of pro-technological yeasts. PdC promotes the growth of the desirable microbial strains in a small volume of grape must acting as a starter inoculums for higher volumes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the use of partially fermented brines, a technology known as PdC, developed with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of green fermented table olives during two consecutive campaigns. The experimental plan included two trials based on different PdCs: trial A, PdC obtained with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13; trial B, PdC obtained through a spontaneous fermentation. Two control additional trials without PdC were included for comparison: trial C, spontaneous fermentation; trial D, direct inoculation of L. pentosus OM13. The use of PdCs favoured the rapid increase of LAB concentrations in both trials A and B. These trials showed levels of LAB higher than trial C and almost superimposable to that of trial D. Trial B was characterized by a certain diversity of L. pentosus strains and some of them dominated the manufacturing process. These results indicated PdC as a valuable method to favour the growth of autochthonous L. pentosus strains. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) visibly discriminated olive processes fermented with the two experimental PdCs. Interestingly, on the basis of microbial and pH variables, both approaches showed that the olives produced with PdC technology are closely related to those of trial D, with the advantages of reducing the amount of starter to inoculate (trial A) and a higher LAB biodiversity (trial B). Volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and sensory analysis showed trials A and B different from the trials with no PdC added, in both years. Furthermore, the trial B showed the highest scores of green olive aroma and

  11. Review of methods for forecasting the market penetration of new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilshannon, S.T.; Brown, D.R.

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) initiated a program called Quality Metrics. Quality Metrics was developed to measure the costs and benefits of technologies being developed by EE R&D programs. The impact of any new technology is directly related to its adoption by the market. The techniques employed to project market adoption are critical to measuring a new technology`s impact. Our purpose was to review current market penetration theories and models and develop a recommended approach for evaluating the market penetration of DOE technologies. The following commonly cited innovation diffusion theories were reviewed to identify analytical approaches relevant to new energy technologies: (1) the normal noncumulative adopter distribution method, (2) the Bass Model, (3) the Mansfield-Blackman Model, (4) the Fisher-Pry Model, (5) a meta-analysis of innovation diffusion studies. Of the theories reviewed, the Bass and Mansfield-Blackman models were found most applicable to forecasting the market penetration of electricity supply technologies. Their algorithms require input estimates which characterize the technology adoption behavior of the electricity supply industry. But, inadequate work has been done to quantify the technology adoption characteristics of this industry. The following energy technology market penetration models were also reviewed: (1) DOE`s Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) Model, (2) DOE`s Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (3) the Assessment of Energy Technologies (ASSET) model by Regional Economic Research, Inc., (4) the Market TREK model by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The two DOE models were developed for electricity generation technologies whereas the Regional Economic Research and EPRI models were designed for demand- side energy technology markets. Therefore, the review and evaluation focused on the DOE models.

  12. ENGAGING SCIENCE STUDENTS WITH HANDHELD TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS BY RE-VISITING THE THAYER METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Paredes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemistry instructors integrate handheld technology and applications into course lecture and lab to engage students with tools and techniques students use in the modern world. This technology and applications enable instructors to re-visit the Thayer Method of teaching and learning to create an updated method that works with 21st century students. The Thayer Method is based on the premise that students are willing and capable of making substantial preparation before coming to class and lab in order to maximize efficiency of student-instructor contact time. During this student preparation phase, we engage students with handheld technology and content applications including smart phone viewable course administrative materials; “flashcards” containing basic organic chemistry nomenclature, molecular structures, and chemical reactions; mini-lectures prepared using the Smart Board Airliner Interactive Tablet for upcoming class periods and laboratory technique videos demonstrating tasks they will perform as part of laboratory experimentation. Coupled with a student friendly course text, these handheld applications enable substantial student preparation before class and lab. The method, in conjunction with handheld technology and applications, has been used with positive results in our organic chemistry courses.

  13. ENGAGING SCIENCE STUDENTS WITH HANDHELD TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS BY RE-VISITING THE THAYER METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Paredes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemistry instructors integrate handheld technology and applications into course lecture and lab to engage students with tools and techniques students use in the modern world. This technology and applications enable instructors to re-visit the Thayer Method of teaching and learning to create an updated method that works with 21st century students. The Thayer Method is based on the premise that students are willing and capable of making substantial preparation before coming to class and lab in order to maximize efficiency of student-instructor contact time. During this student preparation phase, we engage students with handheld technology and content applications including smart phone viewable course administrative materials; “flashcards” containing basic organic chemistry nomenclature, molecular structures, and chemical reactions; mini-lectures prepared using the Smart Board Airliner Interactive Tablet for upcoming class periods and laboratory technique videos demonstrating tasks they will perform as part of laboratory experimentation. Coupled with a student friendly course text, these handheld applications enable substantial student preparation before class and lab. The method, in conjunction with handheld technology and applications, has been used with positive results in our organic chemistry courses.

  14. Bridges between science, society and policy technology assessment : methods and impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Ladikas, Miltos

    2004-01-01

    This book summarises the results of the project TAMI (Technology Assessment in Europe; between Method and Impact). This was a two-year project that brought together the main institutes of technology assessment in Europe, both parliamentary and non-parliamentary. TAMI created a structured dialogue between technology assessment experts and policymakers on current methodologies and their impact on policymaking. The TAMI team explored and assessed the whole spectrum of methodologies from the "classical" to the "interactive/participatory" and "communicative," identified good practices in project implementation and set the stage for impact evaluation based on objective criteria. Finally this report offers a series of policy recommendations based on the findings of the project. Science, Society and Policy, are three areas that technology assessment functions within and works for; this book is an attempt to improve the interaction amongst them for a more socially and economically sustainable Science and Technology p...

  15. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research...... and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural...

  16. NASA Langley Research and Technology-Transfer Program in Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Caldwell, James L.; Carreno, Victor A.; Holloway, C. Michael; Miner, Paul S.; DiVito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of NASA Langley research program in formal methods. The major goals of this work are to make formal methods practical for use on life critical systems, and to orchestrate the transfer of this technology to U.S. industry through use of carefully designed demonstration projects. Several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of five NASA civil servants and contractors from Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, and VIGYAN Inc.

  17. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  18. Comparing Traditional and Technological Methods for Studying English as a Second Language (ESL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Barbara Ann

    2010-01-01

    While there are many options available for studying English as a second language (ESL), students and instructors may not be aware of which learning strategy would be most effective. To help them make informed choices about their education, this study compared traditional classroom methods with online technological methods for studying ESL at…

  19. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  20. An Application of Flipped Classroom Method in the Instructional Technologies and Material Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpinar, Ilknur; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan; Gökçe, Semirhan

    2016-01-01

    A natural outcome of change in technology, new approaches towards teaching and learning have emerged and the applicability of the flipped classroom method, a new educational strategy, in the field of education has started to be discussed. It was aimed with the study to examine the effect of using flipped classroom method in academic achievements…

  1. Searching for DFT-based methods that include dispersion interactions to calculate the physisorption of H2 on benzene and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; López, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    Simulations of the hydrogen storage capacities of nanoporous carbons require an accurate treatment of the interaction of the hydrogen molecule with the graphite-like surfaces of the carbon pores, which is dominated by the dispersion forces. These interactions are described accurately by high level quantum chemistry methods, like the Coupled Cluster method with single and double excitations and a non-iterative correction for triple excitations (CCSD(T)), but those methods are computationally very expensive for large systems and for massive simulations. Density functional theory (DFT)-based methods that include dispersion interactions at different levels of complexity are less accurate, but computationally less expensive. In order to find DFT-methods that include dispersion interactions to calculate the physisorption of H2 on benzene and graphene, with a reasonable compromise between accuracy and computational cost, CCSD(T), Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory method, and several DFT-methods have been used to calculate the interaction energy curves of H2 on benzene and graphene. DFT calculations are compared with CCSD(T) calculations, in the case of H2 on benzene, and with experimental data, in the case of H2 on graphene. Among the DFT methods studied, the B97D, RVV10, and PBE+DCACP methods yield interaction energy curves of H2-benzene in remarkable agreement with the interaction energy curve obtained with the CCSD(T) method. With regards to graphene, the rev-vdW-DF2, PBE-XDM, PBE-D2, and RVV10 methods yield adsorption energies of the lowest level of H2 on graphene, very close to the experimental data.

  2. Technology Acceptance and Course Completion Rates in Online Education: A Non-experimental, Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Colelia

    As the need for quality online courses increase in demand, the acceptance of technology and completion rates become the focus of higher education. The purpose of this non-experimental, mixed method study was to examine the relationship between the university students' perceptions and acceptance of technology and learner completion rates with respect to the development of online courses. This study involved 61 participants from two universities regarding their perceived usefulness (PU) of technology, intent to use technology, and intent to complete a course. Two research questions were examined regarding student perceptions regarding technology employed in an online course and the relationship, if any, between technology acceptance and completion of an online university course. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to collect data on the usefulness of course activities and student intent to complete the course. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information concerning student perceptions of course activities. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics, which indicated there was not a significant relationship between technology acceptance and course completion (p = .154). Qualitative data were examined by pattern matching to create a concept map of the theoretical patterns between constructs. Pattern matching revealed many students favored the use of the Internet over Canvas. Furthermore, data showed students enrolled in online courses because of the flexibility and found the multimedia used in the courses as helpful in course completion. Insight was investigated to offer reasons and decisions concerning choice that were made by the students. Future recommendations are to expand mixed methods studies of technology acceptance in various disciplines to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of technology uses, intent to use, and course completion.

  3. Methods of computer experiment in gamma-radiation technologies using new radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I; Rozhkov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Presented id the methodology of computer modeling application for physical substantiation of new irradiation technologies and irradiators design work flow. Modeling tasks for irradiation technologies are structured along with computerized methods of their solution and appropriate types of software. Comparative analysis of available packages for Monte-Carlo modeling of electromagnetic processes in media is done concerning their application to irradiation technologies problems. The results of codes approbation and preliminary data on gamma-radiation absorbed dose distributions for nuclides of conventional sources and prospective Europium-based gamma-sources are presented.

  4. The Containers Approach : An Inductive Method to look at Cultural Difference in a Technological Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Basile

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this presentation is to suggest an inductive way of looking at the idea of cultural difference in a technological environment. The proposal has three characteristics 1) it blurs the gap between natural sciences and human/social sciences, 2) it is extremely simple and down-to-earth, 3) the data that illustrates the method comes from recent field research in China (August 2008) in the realm of technology studies. The broader theoretical framework is provided by recent advances ...

  5. THE IMPACT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ORGANISATION AND TEACHING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečo Zakrajšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess and explain the importance and impact of modern technologies on organisational and operational level of elementary education system. It analyses and presents the current situation and possibilities, vision, guidelines and strategies of the EU in the field of introduction of modern technologies to primary education. Proposal for modern primary school teaching methods, with some suggestions for specific solutions and actions, is shown.

  6. A primer of economic methods of assessment of medical imaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, C. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiological Sciences

    1997-12-01

    A number of methods of economic assessment that can be applied to medical technology are described. Two, in particular Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - are applied to medical imaging technology. An outline of a Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and the cost effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging is given. Copyright (1997) Australian Institute of Radiography 17 refs.

  7. International Diffusion of Open Path FTIR Technology and Air Monitoring Methods: Taiwan (Republic of China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Bogdan, Stefan It; Levine, Steven P

    1996-08-01

    International cooperation and diffusion of environmental technologies is a central goal of the U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Initiative, and is of great interest to many countries. One objective is to exchange knowledge and skills concerning new monitoring technologies. In this case, the technology was open path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (op-FTIR). Taiwan is a high-technology, newly industrialized country. Because of air pollution problems, it is interested in obtaining skills, knowledge, and instrumentation for monitoring air pollutants. In April 1994, the Industrial Technology Research Institute, Center for Industrial Safety and Health Technology (ITRI/CISH) in Hsinchu, Taiwan, requested intensive training in op-FTIR. Training was held between September 30,1994 and October 29,1994. During the stay, the instructor provided intensive training on op-FTIR theory as well as an introduction to available instrumentation and software. The training concluded with a field demonstration of the instrumentation in a manufacturing facility. This report gives an overview of the training methods, structure, and materials in the op-FTIR training course. It will also address various problems encountered while teaching this course. In addition, the potential use for this technology in industry as well as by the Taiwanese government will be explained.

  8. Method for 3D Object Reconstruction Using Several Portion of 2D Images from the Different Aspects Acquired with Image Scopes Included in the Fiber Retractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Method for 3D object reconstruction using several portions of 2D images from the different aspects which are acquired with image scopes included in the fiber retractor is proposed. Experimental results show a great possibilityfor reconstruction of acceptable quality of 3D object on the computer with several imageswhich are viewed from the different aspects of 2D images.

  9. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  10. Evaluating core technology capacity based on an improved catastrophe progression method: the case of automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijia; Liu, Zongwei; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Subjectivity usually causes large fluctuations in evaluation results. Many scholars attempt to establish new mathematical methods to make evaluation results consistent with actual objective situations. An improved catastrophe progression method (ICPM) is constructed to overcome the defects of the original method. The improved method combines the merits of the principal component analysis' information coherence and the catastrophe progression method's none index weight and has the advantage of highly objective comprehensive evaluation. Through the systematic analysis of the influencing factors of the automotive industry's core technology capacity, the comprehensive evaluation model is established according to the different roles that different indices play in evaluating the overall goal with a hierarchical structure. Moreover, ICPM is developed for evaluating the automotive industry's core technology capacity for the typical seven countries in the world, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Modification of the BAX Salmonella test kit to include a hot start functionality (modification of AOAC Official Method 2003.09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, F Morgan; DiCosimo, Deana; Farnum, Andrew; Tice, George; Andaloro, Bridget; Davis, Eugene; Burns, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella was modified to include a hot start functionality designed to keep the reaction enzyme inactive until PCR begins. To validate the assay's Official Methods of Analysis status to include this procedure modification, an evaluation was conducted on four food types that were simultaneously analyzed with the BAX System and either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method for detecting Salmonella. Identical performance between the BAX System method and the reference methods was observed. Additionally, lysates were analyzed using both the BAX System Classic and BAX System Q7 instruments with identical results using both platforms for all samples tested. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 34 samples were positive for both the BAX System and reference methods, and 66 samples were negative by both the BAX System and reference methods, demonstrating 100% correlation. No instrument platform variation was observed. Additional inclusivity and exclusivity testing using the modified test kit demonstrated the test kit to be 100% accurate in evaluation of test panels of 352 Salmonella strains and 46 non-Salmonella strains.

  12. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  13. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  14. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-06-11

    Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a

  15. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  16. Choosing a new CD4 technology: Can statistical method comparison tools influence the decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley E; Kestens, Luc; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Sukapirom, Kasma; Stevens, Wendy S

    2017-03-10

    Method comparison tools are used to determine the accuracy, precision, agreement, and clinical relevance of a new or improved technology versus a reference technology. Guidelines for the most appropriate method comparison tools as well as their acceptable limits are lacking and not standardized for CD4 counting technologies. Different method comparison tools were applied to a previously published CD4 dataset (n = 150 data pairs) evaluating five different CD4 counting technologies (TruCOUNT, Dual Platform, FACSCount, Easy CD4, CyFlow) on a single specimen. Bland-Altman, percentage similarity, percent difference, concordance correlation, sensitivity, specificity and misclassification method comparison tools were applied as well as visualization of agreement with Passing Bablock and Bland-Altman scatter plots. The FACSCount (median CD4 = 245 cells/µl) was considered the reference for method comparison. An algorithm was developed using best practices of the most applicable method comparison tools, and together with a modified heat map was found useful for method comparison of CD4 qualitative and quantitative results. The algorithm applied the concordance correlation for overall accuracy and precision, then standard deviation of the absolute bias and percentage similarity coefficient of variation to identify agreement, and lastly sensitivity and misclassification rates for clinical relevance. Combining method comparison tools is more useful in evaluating CD4 technologies compared to a reference CD4. This algorithm should be further validated using CD4 external quality assessment data and studies with larger sample sizes. © 2017 Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. THE METHOD OF FORMING THE PIGGYBACK TECHNOLOGIES USING THE AUTOMATED HEURISTIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Nahornyi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to choose a rational piggyback technology there was offered a method that envisages the automated system improvement by giving it a heuristic nature. The automated system is based on a set of methods, techniques and strategies aimed at creating optimal resource saving technologies, which makes it possible to take into account with maximum efficiency the interests of all the participants of the delivery process. When organizing the piggyback traffic there is presupposed the coordination of operations between the piggyback traffic participants to minimize the cargo travel time.

  18. Study on the partner selecting method of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏起; 唐宇; 迟运领

    2004-01-01

    A successful and effective strategic alliance involves many factors, of which selecting a proper partner is the most important factor to achieve the success of the alliance. In view of the characteristics of strategic alliance in high and new technology enterprises and according to the analysis on the standards of partner selecting and the factors of the success of alliance, this paper does some deeper research on the partner selecting and the alliance evaluation process from the perspective of different strategic levels by using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluating method, thus providing a method to select the alliance partner for high and new technology enterprises in China.

  19. A mixed methods study of foreign language teachers implementing technology-enhanced multimedia instructio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Ketsman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology-enhanced multimedia instruction offers benefits for foreign language learners. Despite having much potential, technology itself is neither effective or nor effective, but teachers play a key role in determining its effectiveness because they are in charge of making instructional decisions and choose whether and how to use technology. This article fills a gap in the literature by reporting findings of a mixed methods study of technology- enhanced multimedia instruction in middle and high school foreign language classrooms. Convergent parallel mixed methods design was applied in this study and data was collected through quantitative survey and qualitative semi-structured interviews with teachers. Results from the study indicated a significant positive correlation between variables that contribute to the use of technology-enhanced multimedia instruction in foreign language classrooms and described effective technology-enhanced multimedia practices. The findings of the study have implications for teachers, administrators and faculty of teacher preparation programs as well as state teacher education policy makers.

  20. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  1. Quantum Ring-Polymer Contraction Method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab-initio molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    John, Chris; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method, which facilitates ab-initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. This development permits to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Internet of Things technology-based management methods for environmental specimen banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Wang, Qian; Yu, Ang

    2015-02-01

    The establishment and management of environmental specimen banks (ESBs) has long been a problem worldwide. The complexity of specimen environment has made the management of ESB likewise complex. Through an analysis of the development and management of ESBs worldwide and in light of the sophisticated Internet of Things (IOT) technology, this paper presents IOT technology-based ESB management methods. An IOT technology-based ESB management system can significantly facilitate ESB ingress and egress management as well as long-term storage management under quality control. This paper elaborates on the design of IOT technology-based modules, which can be used in ESB management to achieve standardized, smart, information-based ESB management. ESB management has far-reaching implications for environmental management and for research in environmental science.

  3. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  4. Envelope periodic solutions for a discrete network with the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala-Tebue, E.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D. C.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Kofane, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    Using the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative ( G'/ G-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation, we derive exact soliton solutions for a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line in (2+1) dimension. More precisely, these methods are general as they lead us to diverse solutions that have not been previously obtained for the nonlinear electrical transmission lines. This study seeks to show that it is not often necessary to transform the equation of the network into a well-known differential equation before finding its solutions. The solutions obtained by the current methods are generalized periodic solutions of nonlinear equations. The shape of solutions can be well controlled by adjusting the parameters of the network. These exact solutions may have significant applications in telecommunication systems where solitons are used to codify or for the transmission of data.

  5. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  6. Methods of Formation of Students Technological Competence in the Speciality "Garment Industry and Fashion Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholdasbekova, S.; Karataev, G.; Yskak, A.; Zholdasbekov, A.; Nurzhanbaeva, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the major components of required technological skills (TS) for future designers taught during the academic process of a college. It considers the choices in terms of the various logical operations required by the fashion industry including fabric processing, assembly charts, performing work operations, etc. The article…

  7. Inclusive design and anthropological methods to create technological support for societal inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Jansen, Y.J.F.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Schouten, D.; Kayal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. They include ageing people, people with low literacy skills, non-natives, but also children. They could all be supported by information and communication technology (ICT), but on

  8. Aspects concerning verification methods and rigidity increment of complex technological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casian, M.

    2016-11-01

    Any technological process and technology aims a quality and precise product, something almost impossible without high rigidity machine tools, equipment and components. Therefore, from the design phase, it is very important to create structures and machines with high stiffness characteristics. At the same time, increasing the stiffness should not raise the material costs. Searching this midpoint between high rigidity and minimum expenses leads to investigations and checks in structural components through various methods and techniques and sometimes quite advanced methods. In order to highlight some aspects concerning the significance of the mechanical equipment rigidity, the finite element method and an analytical method based on the use Mathcad software were used, by taking into consideration a subassembly of a grinding machine. Graphical representations were elaborated, offering a more complete image about the stresses and deformations able to affect the considered mechanical subassembly.

  9. Developing and evaluating a technology enhanced interaction framework and method that can enhance the accessibility of mobile learning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of a Technology Enhanced Interaction Framework and Method that can help with designing accessible mobile learning interactions involving disabled people. This new framework and method were developed to help design technological support for communication and interactions between people, technology, and objects particularly when disabled people are involved. A review of existing interaction frameworks showed that none of them helped technolog...

  10. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Kubicz; Mateusz Hämmerling; Natalia Walczak

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exp...

  11. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  12. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  13. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three innovative…

  14. FODEM: A Multi-Threaded Research and Development Method for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Jarkko; de Villiers, M. Ruth; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Formative development method (FODEM) is a multithreaded design approach that was originated to support the design and development of various types of educational technology innovations, such as learning tools, and online study programmes. The threaded and agile structure of the approach provides flexibility to the design process. Intensive…

  15. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR LASER HARDENING OF INTERNAL CONTACT SURFACES OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BRAKE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers pertaining to higher wear resistance of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanisms details are considered. Properties of ВЧ-50-cast iron are investigated due to laser hardening while using various technological methods.

  17. Using traditional methods and indigenous technologies for coping with climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, C.J.; Zheng Dawei,; Onyewotu, L.O.Z.; Mei Xurong,

    2005-01-01

    In agrometeorology and management of meteorology related natural resources, many traditional methods and indigenous technologies are still in use or being revived for managing low external inputs sustainable agriculture (LEISA) under conditions of climate variability. This paper starts with the intr

  18. Technology Adoption in Secondary Mathematics Teaching in Kenya: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Leonard Mwathi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the factors related to technology adoption by secondary mathematics teachers in Nyandarua and Nairobi counties in the Republic of Kenya. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, I collected qualitative data from interviews and classroom observations of six teachers to better understand statistical results from the…

  19. The Use of 3D Printing Technology in the Ilizarov Method Treatment: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzyńska, Karolina; Morasiewicz, Piotr; Filipiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in additive manufacturing technology have occurred in recent years. 3D printing techniques can also be helpful in the Ilizarov method treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3D printing technology in the Ilizarov method treatment. Physical models of bones used to plan the spatial design of Ilizarov external fixator were manufactured by FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) spatial printing technology. Bone models were made of poly(L-lactide) (PLA). Printed 3D models of both lower leg bones allow doctors to prepare in advance for the Ilizarov method treatment: detailed consideration of the spatial configuration of the external fixation, experimental assembly of the Ilizarov external fixator onto the physical models of bones prior to surgery, planning individual osteotomy level and Kirschner wires introduction sites. Printed 3D bone models allow for accurate preparation of the Ilizarov apparatus spatially matched to the size of the bones and prospective bone distortion. Employment of the printed 3D models of bone will enable a more precise design of the apparatus, which is especially useful in multiplanar distortion and in the treatment of axis distortion and limb length discrepancy in young children. In the course of planning the use of physical models manufactured with additive technology, attention should be paid to certain technical aspects of model printing that have an impact on the accuracy of mapping of the geometry and physical properties of the model. 3D printing technique is very useful in 3D planning of the Ilizarov method treatment.

  20. The HTA core model: a novel method for producing and reporting health technology assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Kristian; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Garrido, Marcial Velasco

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and test a generic framework to enable international collaboration for producing and sharing results of health technology assessments (HTAs). METHODS: Ten international teams constructed the HTA Core Model, dividing information contained in a compr...

  1. A new and improved method for the preparation of drug nanosuspension formulations using acoustic mixing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Dennis H; Lamberto, David J; Liu, Lina; Kwong, Elizabeth; Nelson, Todd; Rhodes, Timothy; Bak, Annette

    2014-10-01

    Drug discovery and development is a challenging area. During the drug optimization process, available drug compounds often have poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, making the proper in vivo evaluation of these compounds difficult. To address these challenges, drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble compounds have emerged as a promising formulation approach. Herein, we report on a new drug sparing technology utilizing low shear acoustic mixing to rapidly identify optimized nanosuspension formulations for a wide range of compounds with dramatically improved material and time efficiencies. This approach has several key advantages over typical methods of preparing nanoparticles, including miniaturization of the milling process, the ability to evaluate multiple formulation conditions in a high throughput manner, and direct translation to optimized formulation scale-up for in vivo studies. Furthermore, there are additional benefits obtained with this new approach resulting in nanosuspension formulations with significant stability and physical property enhancements over those obtained using traditional media milling techniques. These advantages make this approach highly suitable for the rapid evaluation of potential drug candidates in the discovery and development space.

  2. Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Technology andDynamic Rating method of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line dynamic rating method as an important part of the inteligent transmission technical system can effectively solve the problem of insufficient power supply capacity of transmission lines. In this paper,the overal scheme of the dynamic rating method is briefly ilustrated. Next,transmission lines real-time monitoring technology and transmission line dynamic rating method are described respectively. Finaly,the influence of external factors on carrying capacity of transmission lines is analysed. Numerical results show that the proposed dynamic rating method is very effective.

  3. The Study of New Technology of Tempered Glass--Using Microwave Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Xiao; Wang, Li-Zhong; Zhong, Pei-Ze; Liu, Quan-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Effective heating method is one of the critical technologies to influence the quality of tempered glass. The three dimensional thermal-structural tempering of glass has been simulated by using ANSYS software. The temperature and stress distribution of tempered glass using microwave heating method has been compared with distribution using traditional infrared radiation heating method. Considering the efficiency and effect of heating, and the routine of increasing heat transfer coefficient to enhance strength of tempered glass in practical, a more effective heating method -microwave heating has been introduced.

  4. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  5. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Susana Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, “magneto-priming” and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (...

  6. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    OpenAIRE

    Susana eAraújo; Stefania ePaparella; Antonio eBentivoglio; Daniele eDondi; Daniela eCarbonera; Alma eBalestrazzi

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the ...

  7. Critical thinking instruction and technology enhanced learning from the student perspective: A mixed methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a general method for estimating the unbalanced magnetic pull in mixed eccentricities motion including sufficiently large eccentricities in a hydropower generator and their validation against EM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing; Jauregui, Ricardo; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations.

  9. Dual-frequency grating method based research on phase measurement profilometry (PMP) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Liang, Yijun; Deng, Hu

    2014-11-01

    With more than three decades of development, three-dimensional optical measurement technology has reached a mature stage in commercial applications, meanwhile new ones have continually arisen. Due to the development of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) array camera and digital projection technology, the applications of Phase Measurement Profilometry (PMP) become more and more broad. Among these, dual-frequency grating method has drawn many attentions because of its simplicity in principle and optical path, low requirement of equipment, high accuracy and level of automation comparing with other methods. The phase calculation is one of the key technologies in PMP. However, phase unwrapping algorithm in PMP is a difficult issue. A lot of new algorithm have been proposed, but neither one can solve all the problems, so how to set up new phase unwrapping algorithm becomes urgent. In this chapter, we systematically investigate the phase unwrapping method in dual-frequency grating method, and experimentally set up the system. To verify our method, we experimentally measure a three dimensional object which possesses complicated stair shapes on its surface. The results show that our dual-frequency grating method could achieve phase unwrapping without doing conventional phase unwrapping calculations, and it could also detect the detailed stair shapes on the surface of this three dimensional object automatically.

  10. Integration of biotechnology, robot technology and visualisation technology for development of methods for automated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    hampered by two essential problems: The production costs per plant must be reduced. Labour costs are low in the early steps of the process whereas they increase dramatically during the later stages (Fig. 1). Improved methods must be developed for transfer and acclimatisation of plants from sterile in vitro...... conditions to non sterile (ex vitro/in vivo) conditions at the nursery. Fig. 1. Predicted labour cost by clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis.   The labour costs are very low in the early steps of the production, whereas they increase dramatically during the later stages: 'embryo selection...... & germination' and 'ex-vitro acclimatization'). The aim of the present project is to reduce labour costs associated with the late stages of the production of cloned plants through development of robot- and visualisation technologies. (From Afreen & Zobayed, p. 96, 2005)   The presentation will report on two...

  11. A method for selection of appropriate assistive technology for computer access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, Mojca; Matjacic, Zlatko; Vidmar, Gaj; Bester, Janez; Pogacnikb, Matevz; Zupan, Anton

    2010-12-01

    Assistive technologies (ATs) for computer access enable people with disabilities to be included in the information society. Current methods for assessment and selection of the most appropriate AT for each individual are non standardized, lengthy, subjective, and require substantial clinical experience of a multidisciplinary team.This manuscript presents and evaluates an objective approach to test and select an appropriate AT for computer access for people with disabilities. Six user interfaces(standard keyboard, mini and large joystick, mini and large trackball, and head-operated mouse and keyboard) were tested on the control group of 29 people without disabilities and on 63 people with neuromuscular and muscular diseases, using purpose-built software for testing the speed of sentence typing. Different criteria for selecting the optimal AT were tested and compared with the skilled clinician's choice. The learning curves of the people with disabilities proved to follow those of the healthy controls, but with lower performance. Daily computer use was not associated with AT selection, but corresponded nearly perfectly to the level of functional ability of upper limbs. Agreement between clinician's choice and learning-based AT selection was noteworthy,but far from perfect. If partial agreement was taken into account, that is, AT was considered as an ordinal variable based on the corresponding functional ability level, and the second best learning-based choice was taken into account,the agreement was high for highest median typing speed as AT selection criterion. In conclusion, the developed method for AT assessment and selection seems to be an efficient guide for an unskilled clinician to choose an appropriate AT.

  12. Method and device for electroextraction of heavy metals from technological solutions and wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalemsky, Aron Mikhailov; Payusov, Sergei Abramovic; Kelner, Leonid; Jo, Jae

    2005-05-03

    The basic principles of the method for heavy metals electroextraction from technological solutions and wastewater includes pretreating to remove Chromium-6 and high concentrations of heavy metals and periodically treating in a six-electrode bipolar cylindrical electroreactor made of non-conducting material to achieve lower accepted levels of impurities. Six cylindrical steel electrodes form two triode stacks and are fed with three-phase alternating current of commercial frequency (50-60 Hz), which can be pulsed. Each phase of the three-phase current is connected to three electrodes of one triode stack or in parallel to two triode stacks. The parallel connection of three-phase current to two triode stacks is performed so that the same phase of the three phase current is connected in parallel with each two opposite electrodes of six electrodes located along the periphery, or with two adjacent electrodes. A bipolar stationary aluminum electrode is situated in the inter-electrode space. In one of the embodiments, the bipolar electrode is made of a perforated heat-resistant plastic container filled with secondary aluminum and duralumin scrap. In another embodiment, the bipolar electrode of aluminum or duralumin scrap may be made without a perforated container and is placed in the inter-electrode space as a bulk scrap. In this case, to prevent shorts, each of six steel electrodes is placed in isolated perforated plastic shell with holes of 5 mm in diameter. Non-ferrous metals are extracted in a form of ferrite-chromites, and aluminates as well as hydroxyl salts deposited in the inter-electrode space without electrolysis deposits on electrodes. Deposits are separated from solution by known methods of filtration.

  13. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...... the fatty acid profiles including total trans in other tissues....

  14. International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA: does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR HTA Special Interest Group (SIG1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1 organizational information and process, (2 primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3 HTA application and dissemination, and (4 quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3, Canada (n = 2, Europe (n = 17, Latin America (n = 2, and the United States (n = 6. The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence

  15. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  16. Method of technological control of proportional electromagnets for control systems of their production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, A. M.; Lankin, M. V.; Lankina, M. Y.

    2017-02-01

    This article describes the algorithm of the method of technological control of proportional solenoids to control their production process. An important element in the process of production of proportional solenoids is to identify deviations from the nominal mode of its occurrence. This situation shows the relevance of developing a method of technological control of proportional solenoids providing information on process control in a short time. The proposed algorithm consists of four steps: measuring the dynamic characteristics of the magnetization of electromagnet testing, the use of principal component analysis to reduce the dimension of the analyzed information, the classification of products by the condition and sub-standards, the definition of the numerical values of the manufacturing process variations using a calibration method. This approach allows us to determine the type and the degree of impairment of the mode of the process that will lead to effective management of the production process of the electromagnetic actuators.

  17. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural......This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research...... of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed...

  18. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were......Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...

  19. The Method and Key Technology of Dynamic RS-GIS Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Xiang, Jie; Tarolli, Paolo; Lai, Zili

    2016-04-01

    Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization have resulted in excessive exploitation and exerted increasing pressure on limited resources and the fragile ecological environment in China. There is an urgent need for theory and technology to achieve the comprehensive evaluation of environment. Remote sensing is one of the most important technology to monitor and evaluate environment. This study summed up dynamic RS (Remote Sensing)-GIS (Geographic Information System) environment monitoring theory, and established a dynamic monitoring system, adopting comprehensive methods of multi-source, multi-scale and multi-temporal remote sensing data acquisition. A software system is developed based on RS-GIS analysis method to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory. The main work and results obtained are as follows: 1)Summarized the evaluation theory of dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring, using remote sensing technology as the main method to monitor environment; 2) established an advanced space-air-ground digital terrain data acquisition and processing technology (advanced satellite constellations, airborne and terrestrial laser scanner, low-cost Structure from Motion (SfM), photogrammetry, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground camera surveys); 3) Deeply study the application of quantitative digital terrain analysis in the assessment of environment, which successfully position geological disaster information and automatically extracted information; 4) Developed the RESEE software to support the whole dynamic monitoring and evaluation theory based on 4D-GIS; 5) A demonstration study of the dynamic monitoring environment is carried out in Beijing Miyun Iron Mine. Results show that the space-air-ground integrated and dynamic RS-GIS environment monitoring method and key technology can realize the positioning and quantitative monitoring the environment problem, and realize the risk assessment of the geological hazard.

  20. Selecting method of districts with science and technology program's priority support and its positive analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qi; WANG Xue-yuan

    2008-01-01

    According to growth pole theory, this paper puts forward that when allocating regional science and technology (S&T) innovation resources based on S&T program, should abide the principle that important are areceives priority support; Meanwhile, it designs method to ascertain district S&T advantage and S&T innovation resources utilizing efficiency as well as S&T developing speed by using component analysis and DEA method, and then constructs three-dimension selecting model ,by which a positive research on Heilongjiang is made, the purpose of which is to offer scientific method support and decision-making foundation for making regional S&T program.

  1. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian-xin Shi; Shu Yan; Ming-sheng Chen; Jun-mei Fu [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-06-15

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several electromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient electromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homogeneous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the homogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measurement show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xian-xin; YAN Shu; CHEN Ming-sheng; FU Jun-mei

    2009-01-01

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several elec-tromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient elec-tromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homoge-neous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the ho-mogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measure-ment show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face.

  3. THE METHOD OF FORMING CAE MODELS ON THE EXAMPLE OF DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL ELABORATION OF THE PLUNGER OF FORCED HYDROMACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Puzanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing on the manufacturability with ensuring the functionality requirements of the product determines the analysis of a large number of designs. The paper proposed a method of forming CAE models from CAD models, taking into account simplification models (with the exception of nonfunctional elements, the use of symmetry, etc., add the missing data (including the use of the properties of materials differ from the CAD model, the possibility of a multidisciplinary analysis in one or more software systems. An example of design and technological elaboration of the plunger of forced hydraulic machine is shown.

  4. Statistical methods for meta-analyses including information from studies without any events-add nothing to nothing and succeed nevertheless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, O

    2015-03-30

    Meta-analyses with rare events, especially those that include studies with no event in one ('single-zero') or even both ('double-zero') treatment arms, are still a statistical challenge. In the case of double-zero studies, researchers in general delete these studies or use continuity corrections to avoid them. A number of arguments against both options has been given, and statistical methods that use the information from double-zero studies without using continuity corrections have been proposed. In this paper, we collect them and compare them by simulation. This simulation study tries to mirror real-life situations as completely as possible by deriving true underlying parameters from empirical data on actually performed meta-analyses. It is shown that for each of the commonly encountered effect estimators valid statistical methods are available that use the information from double-zero studies without using continuity corrections. Interestingly, all of them are truly random effects models, and so also the current standard method for very sparse data as recommended from the Cochrane collaboration, the Yusuf-Peto odds ratio, can be improved on. For actual analysis, we recommend to use beta-binomial regression methods to arrive at summary estimates for the odds ratio, the relative risk, or the risk difference. Methods that ignore information from double-zero studies or use continuity corrections should no longer be used. We illustrate the situation with an example where the original analysis ignores 35 double-zero studies, and a superior analysis discovers a clinically relevant advantage of off-pump surgery in coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. An empirical comparison of four technology-mediated travel survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Safi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for advanced modelling methods, which can reflect complex travel activities of individuals, requires enhanced travel data collection methods. The introduction of GPS-assisted data collection methods has provided an alternative to the conventional methods of travel data collection. GPS-assisted data collection methods improve the accuracy of data collection and enable capturing more details of individuals' travel behaviour. Recent technological advancements in smartphone-based positioning technologies and communication facilities have opened up new opportunities to apply smartphones as the media of GPS-assisted data collection. Although, different GPS-assisted methods have been employed recently, their performance has not been widely evaluated in real-world experiments compared to traditional data collection methods. Accordingly, this paper evaluates the performance of three GPS-assisted methods, namely handheld GPS tracking, smartphone-based GPS tracking and smartphone-based prompted-recall data collection methods, in conjunction with the web-based data collection to shed light on different aspects of GPS-assisted data collection methods. These methods are compared in terms of the quality and accuracy of the collected data, the demographic attributes of participants and the specifications of labelled trips. The results show that an appropriate employment of smartphones enhances the accuracy of data collection. It is also found that putting an extra burden on participants during a travel data collection survey results in lower trip-rates and poor data quality. Finally, it is found that the application of smartphone-assisted data collection methods help reporting non-motorised trips more accurately.

  6. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel - The characteristics and the behavior of fission products in nuclear fuels including DUPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Hun [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this research can be divided into 2 parts; the problems related to f.p.`s up to the stage of producing DUPIC fuels and the effects of f.p.`s on the performance of nuclear fuels including DUPIC. The dose rate study of fresh and spent DUPIC fuels is done. Ba-137 m is major gamma-ray source in spent nuclear fuels after five year cooling time. Cs-137 makes a secular equilibrium with Ba-137 m, and elimination of Cs induces the disappearance of Ba-137 m, in an hour. Hence, care should be taken in collecting Cs during OREOX process. A defect model of irradiated nuclear fuels for the oxygen potential based on the defect structure of pure urania is devised. This model can give the oxygen pressure of ambient gas during the sintering of DUPIC fuels. The thermal conductivity decreases with the content of f.p.`s. The temperature distribution of DUPIC fuels is calculated from the thermal conductivity. The higher operating temperature of DUPIC fuels urges us to study the fuel performance difference. O/M shift due to steep temperature gradient is expected. However, the shift is negligible if the non-stoichiometry is small. 55 refs., 22 tabs., 52 figs. (author)

  7. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  8. The Design of WORKER'S Behavior Analysis Method in Workplace Using Indoor Positioning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, K.; Konno, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a method for analyzing workers' behavior using indoor positioning technology and field test in the workplace. Recently, various indoor positioning methods, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth low energy (BLE), visible light communication, Japan's indoor messaging system, ultra-wide band (UWB), and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), have been investigated. The development of these technologies allows tracking of movement of both people and/or goods in indoor spaces, people and/or goods behavior analysis is expected as one of the key technologies for operation optimization. However, when we use these technologies for human tracking, there are some problem as follows. 1) Many cases need to use dedicated facilities (e.g. UWB). 2) When we use smartphone as sensing device, battery depletion is one of the big problem (especially using PDR). 3) the accuracy is instability for tracking (e.g. Wi-Fi). Based on these matters, in this study we designed and developed an indoor positioning system using BLE positioning. And, we adopted smartphone for business use as sensing device, developed a smartphone application runs on android OS. Moreover, we conducted the field test of developed system at Itoki Corporation's ITOKI Tokyo Innovation Center, SYNQA, office (Tokyo, Japan). Over 40 workers participated in this field test, and worker tracking log data were collected for 6 weeks. We analyzed the characteristics of the workers' behavior using this log data as a prototyping.

  9. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  10. Therapeutic monitoring of opioids: a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of several opioids including hydrocodone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Loralie J; Korman, Eric; Stauble, M Elaine; Boswell, Mark V; Baumgartner, Richard N; Jortani, Saeed A

    2013-06-01

    For pain management, opioid therapy is a mainstay for treating acute pain and relieving moderate to severe chronic pain. Quantitative measurement of opioids and their metabolites in urine is used mainly for confirmation of screened results obtained for clinical and forensic purposes. Due to limitations in interpretation of urine results for pain management testing purposes, the use of blood or serum to assess opioids and their metabolites may be of benefit. This report describes a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of hydrocodone and its metabolites hydromorphone, norhydrocodone, and dihydrocodeine, and other common opiates that patients may be taking, including morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in a single extraction. The method uses solid-phase extraction of 500 µL of sample with quantitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The assay is linear from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL and has a between-day coefficient of variation of <10%. The major advantage of this method is that a single extraction can detect hydrocodone and its metabolites and other opiates or opioids that patients frequently use simultaneously with hydrocodone.

  11. Development of a high-throughput LC/APCI-MS method for the determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including gut microbial metabolites in human urine and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, Ciska; Bolca, Selin; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-04-15

    The investigation into the potential usefulness of phytoestrogens in the treatment of menopausal symptoms requires large-scale clinical trials that involve rapid, validated assays for the characterization and quantification of the phytoestrogenic precursors and their metabolites in biological matrices, as large interindividual differences in metabolism and bioavailability have been reported. Consequently, a new sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS) for the quantitative determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including their most important gut microbial metabolites (genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, coumestrol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, isoxanthohumol, xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin) in human urine and serum within one single analytical run was developed. The method uses a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of enzymatic deconjugation followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-phase extraction (SPE) for urine or serum, respectively. The phytoestrogens and their metabolites are detected with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), operating both in the positive and the negative mode. This bioanalytical method has been fully validated and proved to allow an accurate and precise quantification of the targeted phytoestrogens and their metabolites covering the lower parts-per-billion range for the measurement of relevant urine and serum levels following ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich dietary supplements.

  12. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  13. Plant Methods: putting the spotlight on technological innovation in the plant sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Michael R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant Methods is a new journal for plant biologists, specialising in the rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles with a focus on technological innovation in the plant sciences. The aim of Plant Methods is to stimulate the development and adoption of new and improved techniques and research tools in plant biology. We hope to promote more consistent standards in the plant sciences, and make readily accessible laboratory and computer-based research tools available to the whole community. This will be achieved by publishing Research articles, Methodology papers and Reviews using the BioMed Central Open Access publishing model. The journal is supported by a prestigious editorial board, whose members all recognise the importance of technological innovation as a driver for basic science.

  14. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

    This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

  15. Low-noise multiple watermarks technology based on complex double random phase encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Lu, Rongwen; Sun, Liujie; Zhuang, Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Based on double random phase encoding method (DRPE), watermarking technology may provide a stable and robust method to protect the copyright of the printing. However, due to its linear character, DRPE exist the serious safety risk when it is attacked. In this paper, a complex coding method, which means adding the chaotic encryption based on logistic mapping before the DRPE coding, is provided and simulated. The results testify the complex method will provide better security protection for the watermarking. Furthermore, a low-noise multiple watermarking is studied, which means embedding multiple watermarks into one host printing and decrypt them with corresponding phase keys individually. The Digital simulation and mathematic analysis show that with the same total embedding weight factor, multiply watermarking will improve signal noise ratio (SNR) of the output printing image significantly. The complex multiply watermark method may provide a robust, stability, reliability copyright protection with higher quality printing image.

  16. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades.Design Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews.Data sources Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data.Data extraction For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors.Main outcomes measures We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively.Results We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment.Conclusions Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation and

  17. The method of manufacture of nylon dental partially removable prosthesis using additive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, R. N.; Korobkina, A. I.; Platonov, E. V.; Saleeva, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The article is devoted to the topic of creating new methods of dental prosthesis. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of using additive technology to create nylon prosthesis. As a result of experimental studies, was made a sample of nylon partially removable prosthesis using 3D printing has allowed to simplify, accelerate and reduce the coat of manufacturing high-precision nylon dentures.

  18. Cathode including a non fluorinated linear chain polymer as the binder, method of making the cathode, and lithium electrochemical cell containing the cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Edward J.; Salomon, Mark

    1986-08-01

    A cathode suitable for use in a lithium electrochemical cell is made from a mixture of active cathode material, carbon, and non fluorinated linear chain polymer by a method including the following steps: (1) dissolving the non fluorinated linear polymer in a non polar solvent at a temperature near the melting point of the polymer; (2) adding the active cathode material and carbon and evaporating the solvent; and (3) grinding the dried mixture into a fine powder and making it into a cathode by pressing the powdered mixture onto both sides of an expanded metal screen and then cutting to the desired dimensions. The cathode can be combined with lithium as the anode and a solution of 0.8 mol/cu dm LiAlCl4 in a mixed organic solvent of 24 mass percent 4-butyrolactone in 1, 2 dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte to provide a mechanically stable, relatively inexpensive lithium electrochemical cell having good cell performance.

  19. Evaluation of a Mixed Method Approach for Studying User Interaction with Novel Building Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Painter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms of data collection methods and procedures. This paper describes and critiques the design of a mixed methods approach for occupant behaviour research. It reviews the methodology developed for a longitudinal study in a real-world office environment where occupants’ experience with a novel facade technology (electrochromic glazing was investigated. The methodology integrates objective physical measurements, observational data and self-reported experience data. Using data from one day of the study, this paper illustrates how the different sources can be combined in order to derive an in-depth understanding of the interplay between external daylight conditions, characteristics of the facade technology, occupant interaction with the technology and the resulting occupant experience. It was found that whilst the individual methods may be affected by practical limitations, these can be partially offset by combining physical measurements and observations with self-reported data. The paper critically evaluates the individual techniques, as well as the benefits of their integration and makes recommendations for the design of future occupant behaviour studies in real-world settings.

  20. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  1. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  2. High spatial resolution shortwave infrared imaging technology based on time delay and digital accumulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology attracts more and more attention by its fascinating ability of penetrating haze and smoke. For application of spaceborne remote sensing, spatial resolution of SWIR is lower compared with that of visible light (VIS) wavelength. It is difficult to balance between the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Some conventional methods, such as enlarging aperture of telescope, image motion compensation, and analog time delay and integration (TDI) technology are used to gain SNR. These techniques bring in higher cost of satellite, complexity of system or other negative factors. In this paper, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) method is proposed to achieve higher spatial resolution. The method can enhance the SNR and non-uniformity of system theoretically. A prototype of SWIR imager consists of opto-mechanical, 1024 × 128 InGaAs detector, and electronics is designed and integrated to prove TDDA method. Both of measurements and experimental results indicate TDDA method can promote SNR of system approximated of the square root of accumulative stage. The results exhibit that non-uniformity of system is also improved by this approach to some extent. The experiment results are corresponded with the theoretical analysis. Based on the experiments results, it is proved firstly that the goal of 1 m ground sample distance (GSD) in orbit of 500 km is feasible with the TDDA stage of 30 for SWIR waveband (0.9-1.7 μm).

  3. The Using of the Teaching Methods and Techniques by Science and Technology Teachers and Class Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohit Gunesa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine which teaching strategies, techniques and methods are used by teachers in science and technology classes and also to determine the shortcomings they have. A questionnaire was conducted to a total of 95 teachers, 45 of whom were science and technology teachers and 50 of whom were class teachers, and 33 teachers were interviewed. It was found out that the teachers did not have enough information about teaching strategies, methods and techniques and thus were not able to make a precise distinction between them. It was determined that although the teachers were aware that the most convenient teaching technique is experiment technique, they used direct instruction or question and answer technique more and they sometimes used methods and techniques such as laboratory, trip-observation and drama. It was stated that the teachers were not able to implement teaching methods and techniques in which the students could actively participate due to reasons such as insufficient time, intensive curriculum and overcrowded classes. It was also determined that the teachers who were not able to practice different teaching methods although they knew how useful they were needed in-service training.

  4. Methods of Assessment of Variants of Technical and Technological Renovation under Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchuk Larysa M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out stages of planning of the moment of renovation, considers an algorithm of selection of the best variant of renovation out of alternative variants with consideration of such aspects as the degree of risk of each investment project, financial capabilities and economic efficiency of renovation. The article studies the scheme of analysis of alternative variants of technical and technological renovation, which includes preliminary, financial and economic, technical and other types of analysis. The article forms an economic model of assessment of introduction of a new technology at an enterprise moving by the technological scheme of development and realisation of novelty; it calculates expenses (engineering and design, material, technical and personnel training costs and identifies economic possibilities of an enterprise on the conduct of renovation. In the result it allocates the indicator of realisation of a new technology in general by an aggregate group of factors. Due to absence of indicators of assessment of efficiency of renovation adapted to market conditions, the article offers to calculate the indicator of assessment of efficiency of investing into renovation, showing what portion of the investment is returned in the form of profit during one period of planning.

  5. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  6. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  7. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  8. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  9. Hydrogen Production Technologies Evaluation Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiattribute Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a decision making model for evaluating hydrogen production technologies in China, based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. First of all, we propose a series of interaction interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators comparing them with some widely used and cited aggregation operators. In particular, we focus on the key issue of the relationships between the proposed operators and existing operators for clear understanding of the motivation for proposing these interaction operators. This research then studies a group decision making method for determining the best hydrogen production technologies using interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy approach. The research results of this paper are more scientific for two reasons. First, the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy approach applied in this paper is more suitable than other approaches regarding the expression of the decision maker’s preference information. Second, the results are obtained by the interaction between the membership degree interval and the nonmembership degree interval. Additionally, we apply this approach to evaluate the hydrogen production technologies in China and compare it with other methods.

  10. A method for the analysis of the benefits and costs for aeronautical research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Hoy, H. H.; Anderson, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple, consistent, and reasonable methodology for performing cost-benefit analyses which can be used to guide, justify, and explain investments in aeronautical research and technology is presented. The elements of this methodology (labeled ABC-ART for the Analysis of the Benefits and Costs of Aeronautical Research and Technology) include estimation of aircraft markets; manufacturer costs and return on investment versus aircraft price; airline costs and return on investment versus aircraft price and passenger yield; and potential system benefits--fuel savings, cost savings, and noise reduction. The application of this methodology is explained using the introduction of an advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft in the medium range market in 1978 as an example.

  11. Examining of slurries and production of moulds by spraying method in lost wax technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigation centred around the selection of a ceramic slurry composition if ceramic fibre is applied as a component of moulding material used for the lost wax technology. Producing a ceramic material of assumed parameters demands for changing the surface properties of the mineral grains. The critical concentration of solid particles or the gel point depends on the size of mineral particles, their shape and ability to aggregate. This ability has been achieved by modifying their surface properties by adding some polymer and the wetting agent (surfactant, which are adsorbed. Using the fibre material has required developing a method of its applying to the pattern set. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been recognised as the most advantageous one. The performed laboratory experiments have allowed for determining both the material composition and the parameters of its applying, such as air pressure, nozzle diameter, and the spraying distance for gravity pneumatic spraying gun.

  12. Technology and complete set of the equipment of air-plasma method for synthesis of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytin, Yurii D.; Novikov, O. G.

    2004-02-01

    The paper is aimed at studying synthesis and construction, as well as physical-chemical characteristics of nanoaerosols. The technology and product line of the Air-plasma method for synthesis of metal oxide nanopowders to obtain high-performance ceramics (PSNP) is hot and set at manufacturing different-types zirconium ceramics stabilized by yttrium and magnesium oxides, as well as other dopes. For the available equipment, the technologies of producing nanopowders of other metal oxides alongside with circonium oxide and composite oxides (Al203, Ti02, CuO, SiO2, Fe2O2, ZnO, CoO, Cr2O3, PbO, MnO, MgO, CaO, CeO, etc.) are developed and adapted.

  13. International Conference on Modern Mathematical Methods and High Performance Computing in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, HM; Venturino, Ezio; Resch, Michael; Gupta, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses important results in modern mathematical models and high performance computing, such as applied operations research, simulation of operations, statistical modeling and applications, invisibility regions and regular meta-materials, unmanned vehicles, modern radar techniques/SAR imaging, satellite remote sensing, coding, and robotic systems. Furthermore, it is valuable as a reference work and as a basis for further study and research. All contributing authors are respected academicians, scientists and researchers from around the globe. All the papers were presented at the international conference on Modern Mathematical Methods and High Performance Computing in Science & Technology (M3HPCST 2015), held at Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India, from 27–29 December 2015, and peer-reviewed by international experts. The conference provided an exceptional platform for leading researchers, academicians, developers, engineers and technocrats from a broad range of disciplines ...

  14. Older patients' use of technology for a post-discharge nutritional intervention - A mixed-methods feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove; Nielsen, M H

    2017-01-01

    . This is a barrier for their access to many current and future health care offers. OBJECTIVES: To test the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of technology-supported energy- and protein-enforced homedelivered meals for older patients discharged from hospital. DESIGN: Mixed method design including...... a quasi-experimental controlled feasibility trial and embedded qualitative interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Older medical patients (mean age 79.4 years; women 66.7%) at nutritional risk and discharged to own home were included consecutively to first the control group (n=18) and later the intervention group (n=18...... treated as usual. Data collection was done at baseline, and at six and 12 weeks follow-up. Feasibility evaluation focused on 1) inclusion and retention and 2) acceptability and functionality of the intervention. Efficacy primary endpoint: Muscle strength and BMI. Secondary: Health related quality of life...

  15. Stepwise threshold clustering: a new method for genotyping MHC loci using next-generation sequencing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Stutz

    Full Text Available Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC are of great interest to biologists because of their important role in immunity and disease, and their extremely high levels of genetic diversity. Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies are quickly becoming the method of choice for high-throughput genotyping of multi-locus templates like MHC in non-model organisms. Previous approaches to genotyping MHC genes using NGS technologies suffer from two problems:1 a "gray zone" where low frequency alleles and high frequency artifacts can be difficult to disentangle and 2 a similar sequence problem, where very similar alleles can be difficult to distinguish as two distinct alleles. Here were present a new method for genotyping MHC loci--Stepwise Threshold Clustering (STC--that addresses these problems by taking full advantage of the increase in sequence data provided by NGS technologies. Unlike previous approaches for genotyping MHC with NGS data that attempt to classify individual sequences as alleles or artifacts, STC uses a quasi-Dirichlet clustering algorithm to cluster similar sequences at increasing levels of sequence similarity. By applying frequency and similarity based criteria to clusters rather than individual sequences, STC is able to successfully identify clusters of sequences that correspond to individual or similar alleles present in the genomes of individual samples. Furthermore, STC does not require duplicate runs of all samples, increasing the number of samples that can be genotyped in a given project. We show how the STC method works using a single sample library. We then apply STC to 295 threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus samples from four populations and show that neighboring populations differ significantly in MHC allele pools. We show that STC is a reliable, accurate, efficient, and flexible method for genotyping MHC that will be of use to biologists interested in a variety of downstream applications.

  16. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  17. A Novel Method for Technology Forecasting and Developing R&D Strategy of Building Integrated Photovoltaic Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jing Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of global warming, renewable energy technologies have become more essential currently, with solar energy technology advancing worldwide. Therefore, interdisciplinary integration is an important trend, and building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV is an emerging technology involving the photovoltaic and building fields. The purpose of this study is to understand the technology evolution of BIPV and to determine the R&D planning direction. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to explore the life cycle of BIPV technology and develop the R&D strategy of related industries. The proposed approach comprises the following submodules. First, patent analysis is employed to transform patent documents into structured data. Second, the logistic growth model is used to explore the life cycle of BIPV technology. Third, a patent matrix map analysis is used to develop the R&D strategy of the BIPV industry. Through the analysis by the logistic model, the BIPV technology is transformed from the emerging stage to the growth stage of a long-term life cycle. The other important result is created by the three-dimensional matrix for R&D strategies in this paper.

  18. Evidence Combination Method Based on Included Angle Cosine%基于夹角余弦的证据组合方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡嘉骥; 李新德; 王丰羽

    2015-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence combination is widely used in the field of information fusion. However, it has a counter intuitive problem in highly conflictive evidence combination. Aiming at this problem, the source of evidence is analyzed, and then an evidence combination method based on cosine is proposed. Firstly, Pignistic probability is utilized to analyze the evidence source. Next, conflictive evidence is identified by comparing the included angle cosine with the threshold. Conflictive evidence is revised according to the variable correction factor generated from the relationship among evidences and the probability assignment of non-conflictive evidences. Finally, Dempster-Shafer rule is utilized to combine evidences. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in handing highly conflictive evidences and the combination result obtained in the case of multi-conflictive evidences is good. The proposed method can be widely used in the field of multi-source information fusion, pattern recognition and uncertain information decision-making.%Dempster-Shafer证据合成理论广泛应用于信息融合领域,但在证据高度冲突时存在反直观问题。针对此问题,文中从证据源展开分析,提出基于夹角余弦的冲突证据合成方法。该方法首先利用Pignistic概率分析证据源,然后通过夹角余弦与阈值比较识别冲突证据,并利用证据间关系生成可变修正因子和非冲突证据的概率分配,对冲突证据进行修正。最后利用Dempster-Shafer规则完成证据合成。实验表明,该方法可有效处理高冲突证据,尤其在多个冲突证据时也能获得较好的合成效果,可应用于多源信息融合、模式识别、不确定信息决策等领域。

  19. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  20. Composite titanium nitride layers produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by a hybrid method including hydrothermal modification of the layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacikowski, M.; Grzonka, J.; Płociński, T.; Jakieła, R.; Pisarek, M.; Wierzchoń, T.

    2015-08-01

    The microstructure and properties of the composite TiN-Ti-Al type titanium nitride surface layer with a sub-layer of titanium and aluminium produced on AZ91D magnesium alloy using a hybrid PVD method including final sealing by hydrothermal treatment were investigated. The results were analysed in terms of the microstructure-properties correlation, to approach the role of the sub-layers and the mechanisms involved in the properties improvement. The microstructure investigations indicate that the composite titanium nitride layers are tight and have nano-crystalline, diffusive character and multi zone microstructure of the type TixOy-TiN-Ti-Al-Al3Mg2-Al12Mg17. The significant corrosion resistance improvement of the AZ91D alloy obtained using the sealed composite titanium nitride layers was found to be the result of a synergistic mechanism which combined hydrothermal treatment of the layer with an action of aluminium sub-layer which is critical to make the sealing effective. The diffusive bonding via Mg-Al zone improves adhesion and the load bearing capacity of titanium nitride layers in wear conditions.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  2. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  3. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  4. Technology Gap Analysis for the Detection of Process Signatures Using Less Than Remote Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, John S.; Atkinson, David A.; Lind, Michael A.; Maughan, A. D.; Kelly, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Although remote sensing methods offer advantages for monitoring important illicit process activities, remote and stand-off technologies cannot successfully detect all important processes with the sensitivity and certainty that is desired. The main scope of the program is observables, with a primary focus on chemical signatures. A number of key process signatures elude remote or stand-off detection for a variety of reasons (e.g., heavy particulate emissions that do not propagate far enough for detection at stand-off distances, semi-volatile chemicals that do not tend to vaporize and remain in the environment near the source, etc.). Some of these compounds can provide persistent, process-specific information that is not available through remote techniques; however, the associated measurement technologies have their own set of advantages, disadvantages and technical challenges that may need to be overcome before additional signature data can be effectively and reliably exploited. The main objective of this report is to describe a process to identify high impact technology gaps for important less-than-remote detection applications. The subsequent analysis focuses on the technology development needed to enable exploitation of important process signatures. The evaluation process that was developed involves three interrelated and often conflicting requirements generation activities: • Identification of target signature chemicals with unique intelligence value and their associated attributes as mitigated by environmentally influenced fate and transport effects (i.e., what can you expect to actually find that has intelligence value, where do you need to look for it and what sensitivity and selectivity do you need to see it) • Identification of end-user deployment scenario possibilities and constraints with a focus on alternative detection requirements, timing issues, logistical consideration, and training requirements for a successful measurement • Identification of

  5. The method of parallel-hierarchical transformation for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPGPU technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Leonid; Yarovyi, Andrii; Kokriatskaya, Nataliya; Nakonechna, Svitlana; Abramenko, Ludmila; Ławicki, Tomasz; Popiel, Piotr; Yesmakhanova, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a method of parallel-hierarchical transformations for rapid recognition of dynamic images using GPU technology. Direct parallel-hierarchical transformations based on cluster CPU-and GPU-oriented hardware platform. Mathematic models of training of the parallel hierarchical (PH) network for the transformation are developed, as well as a training method of the PH network for recognition of dynamic images. This research is most topical for problems on organizing high-performance computations of super large arrays of information designed to implement multi-stage sensing and processing as well as compaction and recognition of data in the informational structures and computer devices. This method has such advantages as high performance through the use of recent advances in parallelization, possibility to work with images of ultra dimension, ease of scaling in case of changing the number of nodes in the cluster, auto scan of local network to detect compute nodes.

  6. Unidirectional coating technology for organic field-effect transistors: materials and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huabin; Wang, Qijing; Qian, Jun; Yin, Yao; Shi, Yi; Li, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential for developing organic electronics. The encouraging development in solution-processed OFETs has attracted research interest because of their potential in low-cost devices with performance comparable to polycrystalline-silicon-based transistors. In recent years, unidirectional coating technology, featuring thin-film coating along only one direction and involving specific materials as well as solution-assisted fabrication methods, has attracted intensive interest. Transistors with organic semiconductor layers, which are deposited via unidirectional coating methods, have achieved high performance. In particular, carrier mobility has been greatly enhanced to values much higher than 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. Such significant improvement is mainly attributed to better control in morphology and molecular packing arrangement of organic thin film. In this review, typical materials that are being used in OFETs are discussed, and demonstrations of unidirectional coating methods are surveyed.

  7. Application of ICME Methods for the Development of Rapid Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald-Immer, T.; Göhler, T.; Fischersworring-Bunk, A.; Körner, C.; Osmanlic, F.; Bauereiß, A.

    Rapid manufacturing technologies are lately gaining interest as alternative manufacturing method. Due to the large parameter sets applicable in these manufacturing methods and their impact on achievable material properties and quality, support of the manufacturing process development by the use of simulation is highly attractive. This is especially true for aerospace applications with their high quality demands and controlled scatter in the resulting material properties. The applicable simulation techniques to these manufacturing methods are manifold. The paper will focus on the melt pool simulation for a SLM (selective laser melting) process which was originally developed for EBM (electron beam melting). It will be discussed in the overall context of a multi-scale simulation within a virtual process chain.

  8. Prediction Technology of Buried Water-Bearing Structures in Coal Mines Using Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-hai; YUE Jian-hua; LIU Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    Buried water-conducting and water-bearing structures in front of the driving head may easily lead to water bursts in coal mines. Therefore, it is very important for the safety of production to make an accurate and timely forecast about water bursts. Based on the smoke ring effect of transient electromagnetic fields, the principle of transient electromagnetic method used in detecting buried water-bearing structures in coal mines in advance, is discussed. Small multi-turn loop configurations used in coal mines are proposed and a field procedure of semicircular sector scanning is presented. The application of this method in one coal mine indicates that the technology has many advantages compared with others. The method is inexpensive, highly accurate and efficient. Suggestions are presented for future solutions to some remaining problems.

  9. Stepping beyond the paradigm wars: pluralist methods for research in learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a problem we have found in our own practice when we have been developing new researchers at post-graduate level. When students begin research training and practice, they are often confused between different levels of thinking when they are faced with methods, methodologies and research paradigms. We argue that this confusion arises from the way research methods are taught, embedded and embodied in educational systems. We set out new ways of thinking about levels of research in the field of learning technology. We argue for a problem driven/pragmatic approach to research and consider the range of methods that can be applied as diverse lenses to particular research problems. The problem of developing a coherent approach to research and research methods is not confined to research in learning technology because it is arguably a problem for all educational research and one that also affects an even wider range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary subject areas. For the purposes of this paper we will discuss the problem in relation to research in learning technologies and make a distinction between developmental and basic research that we think is particularly relevant in this field. The paradigms of research adopted have real consequences for the ways research problems are conceived and articulated, and the ways in which research is conducted. This has become an even more pressing concern in the challenging funding climate that researchers now face. We argue that there is not a simple 1 to 1 relationship between levels and most particularly that there usually is not a direct association of particular methods with either a philosophical outlook or paradigm of research. We conclude by recommending a pluralist approach to thinking about research problems and we illustrate this with the suggestion that we should encourage researchers to think in terms of counterpositives. If the researcher suggests one way of doing research in an

  10. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  11. High-precision pose measurement method in wind tunnels based on laser-aided vision technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of position and attitude parameters for the isolated target from a high-speed aircraft is a great challenge in the field of wind tunnel simulation technology. In this paper, firstly, an image acquisition method for small high-speed targets with multi-dimensional movement in wind tunnel environment is proposed based on laser-aided vision technology. Combining with the trajectory simulation of the isolated model, the reasonably distributed laser stripes and self-luminous markers are utilized to capture clear images of the object. Then, after image processing, feature extraction, stereo correspondence and reconstruction, three-dimensional information of laser stripes and self-luminous markers are calculated. Besides, a pose solution method based on projected laser stripes and self-luminous markers is proposed. Finally, simulation experiments on measuring the position and attitude of high-speed rolling targets are conducted, as well as accuracy verification experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient for measuring the pose parameters of rolling targets in wind tunnels.

  12. Physical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Paparella, Stefania; Dondi, Daniele; Bentivoglio, Antonio; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2016-01-01

    In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical invigoration treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, "magneto-priming" and irradiation with microwaves (MWs) or ionizing radiations (IRs) are the most promising pre-sowing seed treatments. "Magneto-priming" is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigor and crop yield. IRs, as γ-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual 'priming' treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to MWs and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed invigoration agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV) radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination, and seedling vigor. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed invigoration treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed invigoration, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and advantages. The future perspectives related to

  13. Physical methods for seed vigourization: advantages and challenges in seed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eAraújo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of seed technology, the use of physical methods for increasing plant production offers advantages over conventional treatments based on chemical substances. The effects of physical vigourization treatments in seeds can be now addressed at multiple levels, ranging from morpho-structural aspects to changes in gene expression and protein or metabolite accumulation. Among the physical methods available, magneto-priming and irradiation with microwaves or ionizing radiations are the most promissory pre-sowing seed treatments. Magneto-priming is based on the application of magnetic fields and described as an eco-friendly, cheap, non-invasive technique with proved beneficial effects on seed germination, vigour and crop yield. Ionizing radiations, as gamma-rays and X-rays, have been widely regarded as a powerful tool in agricultural sciences and food technology. Gamma-rays delivered at low dose have showed to enhance germination percentage and seedling establishment, acting as an actual ‘priming’ treatment. Different biological effects have been observed in seeds subjected to microwaves and X-rays but knowledge about their impact as seed vigourization agent or stimulatory effects on germination need to be further extended. Ultraviolet (UV radiations, namely UV-A and UV-C have shown to stimulate positive impacts on seed health, germination and seedling vigour. For all mentioned physical treatments, extensive fundamental and applied research is still needed to define the optimal dose, exposition time, genotype- and environment-dependent irradiation conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR has an enormous potential in seed technology not fully explored to monitor seed vigourization treatments and/or identifying the best suitable irradiation dose or time-point to stop the treatment. The present manuscript describes the use of physical methods for seed vigourization, while providing a critical discussion on the constraints and

  14. Research on the method of precise alignment technology of atmospheric laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Atmosphere laser communication takes advantage of laser as the carrier transmitting the voice, data, and image information in the atmosphere. Because of its high reliability, strong anti-interference ability, the advantages of easy installation, it has great potential and development space in the communications field. In the process of establish communication, the capture, targeting and tracking of the communication signal is the key technology. This paper introduce a method of targeting the signal spot in the process of atmosphere laser communication, which through the way of making analog signal addition and subtraction directly and normalized to obtain the target azimuth information to drive the servo system to achieve precise alignment of tracking.

  15. Problems and criteria of quality improvement in end face mechanical seal rings through technological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.

  16. Performance Characteristics and Temperature Compensation Method of Fluid Property Sensor Based on Tuning-Fork Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid property sensor (FPS based on tuning-fork technology is applied to the measurement of the contaminant level of lubricant oil. The measuring principle of FPS sensor is derived and proved together with its resolution. The performance characteristics of the FPS sensor, such as sensitivity coefficient, resolution, and quality factor, are analyzed. A temperature compensation method is proposed to eliminate the temperature-dependence of the measuring parameters, and its validity is investigated by numerical simulation of sensitivity, oscillating frequency, and dielectric constant. The values of purification efficiency obtained using microwave and without microwave are compared experimentally.

  17. 11th Biennial Conference on Emerging Mathematical Methods, Models and Algorithms for Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Manchanda, Pammy; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    The present volume contains invited talks of 11th biennial conference on “Emerging Mathematical Methods, Models and Algorithms for Science and Technology”. The main message of the book is that mathematics has a great potential to analyse and understand the challenging problems of nanotechnology, biotechnology, medical science, oil industry and financial technology. The book highlights all the features and main theme discussed in the conference. All contributing authors are eminent academicians, scientists, researchers and scholars in their respective fields, hailing from around the world.

  18. Parameters Matching and Control Method of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles with Secondary Regulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Jihai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) with secondary regulation technology has the potential of improving fuel economy by operating the engine in the optimum efficiency range and making use of regenerative braking. Hydrostatic transmission technology has the advantage of higher power density and the ability to accept the high rates and high frequencies of charging and discharging, both of which are not favorable for batteries, but the lower energy density requires special power matching design and control strategy to coordinate all the powertrain components in an optimal manner. A multi-objective optimization method is proposed to distinguish the components size values of HHV by considering the requirements of driving cycles and technology aspects. The regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy based on the optimized HHV is proposed to recovery the braking energy and distribute the regenerated braking energy. Simulation results show that by taking the optimized configuration of HHV, adopting the regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy are helpful to improve the system efficiency and fuel economy of HHV under urban driving cycles.

  19. Experience in Use of Project Method During Technology Lessons in Secondary Schools of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheludko Inna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the opportunities and prospects for the use of experience of project method during “technology lessons” in US secondary schools, since the value of project technology implementation experience into the educational process in the USA for ensuring holistic development of children, preparing them for adult life, in which they will be able to realize themselves and benefit society, seems undeniable to improve the quality of Ukrainian education. Its structure and content accorded with national traditions and European standards have made possible the success of educational components of American secondary school. This encourages national scientists and teachers to identify and scientifically justify the ways how to use scientific achievements of American educational system. Given the above, we have defined the following objectives: to summarize progressive trends and innovative approaches to the quality training of students in national secondary schools; to formulate guidelines that will improve the efficiency of training Ukrainian students during technology lessons and as a result, will provide the successful integration of the national education system into the European educational space.

  20. A Research into the Evaluation Target System and Comprehensive Evaluation Method About the Science and Technology Development of Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ci-sheng; WANG Min; LI Xing-guo

    2001-01-01

    Based on the systematic theory and the system analytic method, this thesis expounds manifestly the evaluation target system and comprehensive evaluation method about the science and technology development of provinces (cities and districts). By putting it into practice of provinces (cities and districts) science and technology development, this set of target system and method may fully reflect the impact on the social development. The acceleration of transferring the extensive economy to the intensive one in province (cities and districts) and the relation of coordinated growth of science and technology, economy, society are of momentous current significance.

  1. An Alternative for Industrial Arts: Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, George R., Jr.; Ritz, John M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a rationale for including the study of communication technology as a part of the general education process in industrial arts. Analyzes communication technology and suggests methods of implementing the technology in industrial arts. (CSS)

  2. 4D Design and Simulation Technologies and Process Design Patterns to Support Lean Construction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Breit; Manfred Vogel; Fritz H(a)ubi; Fabian M(a)rki; Micheal Raps

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this ongoing joint research program is to determine how 3D/4D modeling, simula- tion and visualization of Products (buildings), Organizations and Processes (POP) can support lean con- struction. Initial findings suggest that Process Design Pattern may have the potential to intuitively support ICT based lean construction. We initiated a "Process Archeology" in order to reveal the requirements for tools that can support the planning, simulation and control of lean construction methods. First findings show that existing tools provide only limited support and therefore, we started to develop new methodologies and technologies to overcome these shortcomings. Through the introduction of Process Design Patterns, we in- tent to establish process thinking in the interdisciplinary POP design. Optimized construction processes may be synthesized with semi-automatic methods by applying Process Design Pattems on building structures. By providing process templates that integrate problem solution and expert knowledge, Process Design Pat- tems may have the potential to ensure high quality process models.

  3. Assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shao, Shuyuan; Wang, Shumin

    2008-03-01

    Virtual reality has played an increasing role in such areas as medicine, architecture, aviation, engineering science and advertising. However, in the art fields, virtual reality is still in its infancy in the representation of human movements. Based on the techniques of motion capture and reuse of motion capture data in virtual reality environment, this paper presents an assessment method in order to evaluate the quantification of dancers' basic Arm Position movements in Chinese traditional dance. In this paper, the data for quantifying traits of dance motions are defined and measured on dancing which performed by an expert and two beginners, with results indicating that they are beneficial for evaluating dance skills and distinctiveness, and the assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology is validity and feasibility.

  4. [A rapid prototype fabrication method of dental splint based on 3D simulation and technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shilei; Wang, Chengtao

    2006-04-01

    The conventional design and fabrication of the dental splint (in orthognathic surgery) is based on the preoperative planning and model surgery so this process is of low precision and efficiency. In order to solve the problems and be up to the trend of computer-assisted surgery, we have developed a novel method to design and fabricate the dental splint--computer-generated dental splint, which is based on three-dimensional model simulation and rapid prototype technology. After the surgical planning and simulation of 3D model, we can modify the model to be superior in chewing action (functional) and overall facial appearance (aesthetic). Then, through the Boolean operation of the dental splint blank and the maxillofacial bone model the model of dental splint is formed. At last, the dental splint model is fabricated through rapid prototype machine and applied in clinic. The result indicates that, with the use of this method, the surgical precision and efficiency are improved.

  5. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  6. Methods of technical and tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments using innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.

  7. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  8. Social Influence on Information Technology Adoption and Sustained Use in Healthcare: A Hierarchical Bayesian Learning Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    Information technology adoption and diffusion is currently a significant challenge in the healthcare delivery setting. This thesis includes three papers that explore social influence on information technology adoption and sustained use in the healthcare delivery environment using conventional regression models and novel hierarchical Bayesian…

  9. Intelligent background noise reduction technology in cable fault locator using the magneto-acoustic synchronous method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, JianWei; Huang, JiFa; Fang, XiaoLi; Fan, LiBin

    2017-01-01

    The magneto-acoustic synchronous method has found wide application in accurate positioning of power cable fault due to its advantages of high accuracy and strong ability to reject interference. In the view of principle, the magneto-acoustic synchronous method needs to detect the discharge sound signal and electromagnetic signal emitted from the fault point, but the discharge sound signal is easy to be interfered by the ambient noise around and the magnetic sound synchronization. Therefore, it is challenging to quickly and accurately detect the fault location of cable especially in strong background noise environment. On the other hand, the spectral subtraction is a relatively traditional and effective method in many intelligent background noise reduction technologies, which is characterized by a relatively small computational cost and strong real-time performance. However, its application is limited because the algorithm displays poor performance in low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) environment. Aiming at the shortcoming of the spectral subtraction that de-noising effect is weak in low SNR environment, this paper proposes an improved spectral subtraction combining the magnetic sound synchronous principle and analyzing the properties of discharging sound. This method can accurately estimate noise in real time and optimize the performance of the basic spectral subtraction thus solving the problem that the magneto-acoustic synchronous method is unsatisfactory for positioning cable fault in the strong background noise environment.

  10. Assessing the Available ICT Infrastructure for Collaborative Web Technologies in a Blended Learning Environment in Tanzania: A Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pima, John Marco; Odetayo, Michael; Iqbal, Rahat; Sedoyeka, Eliamani

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the use of a Mixed Methods approach in an investigation that sought to assess the available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure capable of supporting Collaborative Web Technologies (CWTs) in a Blended Learning (BL) environment in Tanzanian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). We first used…

  11. The Impact of Globalization and Technology on Teaching Business Communication: Reframing and Enlarging World View, Methods, and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current paradigm shift in the use of technology in the classroom, which is occurring because of technology explosion in society, impact of globalization, necessary reframing, and enlarging of the world view, methods, and content to make business communication classes relevant. The question is whether the classroom should…

  12. Method of reliability tolerance design based on EDA technology and its application on DC hybrid contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-juan; SHA You-tao; ZHANG Hui; ZHAI Guo-fu

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance design, including tolerance analysis and distribution, is an important part of the electronic system's reliability design. The traditional design needs to construct mathematic model of material circuit, which involves large amount of workload and lacks of practicability. This paper discusses the basic theory of electronic system's reliability tolerance design and presents a new design method based on EDA (Electronic Design Automatic) software. This method has been validated through the application research on reliability tolerance design of the DC hybrid contactor's control circuit.

  13. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  14. Stretchability of the rectus femoris muscle: investigation of validity and intratester reliability of two methods including X-ray analysis of pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, J; Björklund, M; Nordgren, B; Sahlstedt, B

    1993-03-01

    Validity and intratester reliability of two test methods designed to identify stretchability of the rectus femoris muscle (RFM) was investigated, combined with x-ray analysis of pelvic tilt in the sagittal plane. The first method is commonly used in clinical practice. The second is a new technique supposed to tilt the pelvis posteriorly and thus further separate the origin and insertion of the muscle. Investigation of validity and intratester reliability of the two methods was made by testing and retesting a random sample of 71 persons. The tests were performed with an equipment that automatically recorded the angle of knee flexion from a previously determined applied torque, indicating the end point of motion for that particular subject. Angle of knee flexion and subjective estimation of pain sensation due to stretch were recorded at each measurement. The pelvic tilt-analysis consisted of test-retest reliability of x-ray measurements, comparison between the methods in both starting and final position, and x-ray and electronic goniometer measurements. All applied torques were measured with a strain gauge. Two out of three criteria of validity favored the new method and the third pointed out the two methods as equal. The two methods as well as the x-ray measurements showed high reliability, and the hypothesis of a more posterior tilted pelvis in the new method was confirmed. The electronic goniometer was less sensitive than x-ray, but proposed to analyse pelvic tilt clinically. Methodology procedures for joint angle measurements are discussed.

  15. Anticipation on the Development of Polycarbonate Production Technology by Using Ester-interchange Method in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Shengquan; Shen Ji

    2004-01-01

    Polycarbonate (hereinafter referred to as "PC ") is the sole product having good transparency among the 5 major engineering plastics. In 2000, the worldwide PC production capacity was reached up to 2,800,000 tons of several hundreds of brands of various grades. It is estimated that the global PC production capacity will exceed 3,500,000 tons in 2005. The global demand for PC was 1,900,000 tons in 2000, which will reach to 2,600,000 tons and more than 3,000,000 tons in 2003 and 2005 respectively according to relevant estimations. The total production capacity of PC of the whole country reached to 3000-4000 tons in 2003. PC imported to China in 2003 was up to 534,000 tons and the apparent amount of consumption of that year was 447,000 tons.The scientific and technical personnel of Chenguang Chemical Research Institute engaged in the research and development of PC production technologies have been advancing wave upon wave with a combatant spirit and the spirit of "Storming the gate" for more than 40 years, having made important breakthroughs in a continuous PC manufacturing process by using ester-interchange method and in project amplification techniques. We consider that favorable conditions are now already available in China for building up PC production plants (each has an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons or above) by using ester- interchange method.In the recent 2 years, the growth rate of domestic annual PC consumption was up to more than 30 %, almost all of which relied on imports from foreign countries. Consequently, the development of domestically made PC has become a task, which brooks no delay. At present, conditions for building up domestic large-scale PC production plants are already available. It should be noted that PC production technologies are matured, PC products have a huge market potential and the returns on investment are optimistic. Therefore, building PC production plants, each with an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons ( approx

  16. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Vathsala I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries, with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations. This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation, as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and

  17. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, I. A.; Chugunova, K. S.; Kadikova, I. F.; Khavrin, S. V.; Pisareva, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  18. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorieva I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  19. Technological Literacy for Students Aged 6-18: A New Method for Holistic Measuring of Knowledge, Capabilities, Critical Thinking and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsec, Stanislav; Jamšek, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Technological literacy is identified as a vital achievement of technology- and engineering-intensive education. It guides the design of technology and technical components of educational systems and defines competitive employment in technological society. Existing methods for measuring technological literacy are incomplete or complicated,…

  20. Particularity of the Distributed Component Interconnection in Control Engineering Tasks and Method for Wider Usage of the Middleware Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Karev, A A; Dobrianski, V M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the investigation of specific types of the component interconnection for distributed system in control engineering (nonstandard queries and dataflow types) was performed. Implementation methods, using primitive objects Java/RMI and CORBA middleware technologies, were prepared.

  1. Euler Technology Assessment program for preliminary aircraft design employing SPLITFLOW code with Cartesian unstructured grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  2. Chemical Pretreatment Methods for the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol: Technologies and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of lignocellulose has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of cellulosic ethanol production. Some of the most promising pretreatment methods require the application of chemicals such as acids, alkali, salts, oxidants, and solvents. Thus, advances in research have enabled the development and integration of chemical-based pretreatment into proprietary ethanol production technologies in several pilot and demonstration plants globally, with potential to scale-up to commercial levels. This paper reviews known and emerging chemical pretreatment methods, highlighting recent findings and process innovations developed to offset inherent challenges via a range of interventions, notably, the combination of chemical pretreatment with other methods to improve carbohydrate preservation, reduce formation of degradation products, achieve high sugar yields at mild reaction conditions, reduce solvent loads and enzyme dose, reduce waste generation, and improve recovery of biomass components in pure forms. The use of chemicals such as ionic liquids, NMMO, and sulphite are promising once challenges in solvent recovery are overcome. For developing countries, alkali-based methods are relatively easy to deploy in decentralized, low-tech systems owing to advantages such as the requirement of simple reactors and the ease of operation.

  3. [Methods of pharmaceutical technology in preparation of pellets for detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchý, David; Leštinová, Hana; Tušarová, Ivana

    2012-10-01

    A variety of methods and technical equipment are currently available for checking of air contaminants. Generally, all known and sophisticated methods are based on sampling of substances in the air using different collectors or their capture in a suitable medium. However, new detection methods particularly useful in outdoor conditions are still looking for. Detection systems must be transportable, fast acting, inexpensive, sensitive and selective, and their operation should not be complicated. Such an appropriate system for the detection of carbamates and highly toxic organophosphates is detection tubes with microcrystalline cellulose pellets containing immobilized acetylcholinesterase, by which analyzed air is sucked through. The detection is based on the colorimetric Ellman reaction. Experimental work deals with the use of pharmaceutical technology methods for preparation of new variants of pellets for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with 20% and 50% content of inorganic fillers (aluminium oxide, kaolin, colloidal silica, nalsit) produced by extrusion / spheronization. Pellets were impregnated by acetylcholinesterase after evaluating quality parameters and were tested for their activity and inhibition with Ellmans reagent. Pellets without inorganic fillers, containing 50% of aluminium oxide and containing 20% of colloidal silica were evaluated as a suitable filling of detection tubes.

  4. Ultrasonic resonator technology as a new quality control method evaluating gelatin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Winter, Gerhard; Coester, Conrad

    2010-05-01

    Nanomedicine is a quickly evolving field where more and more possible applications become evident and start entering clinical trials or even the market. However, the analytic methods are not always able to keep pace with the new formulations' demands. One example of a promising medical implementation is oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) delivery by gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs). Currently, quality control is dependent on either some time consuming or destructive spectrometric, chromatographic or electrophoretic methods. A possible enlargement of the portfolio by Ultrasonic Resonator Technology (URT) is investigated here by subjecting plain GNPs in various sizes and concentrations as well as ODN-loaded GNPs to URT analysis. If calibrated by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and other spectroscopy methods for each single nanoparticle system parameter, URT is an efficient and non-destructive technique and serves as a broad characterization method. URT is emphasized to play a possible future part in the size, concentration and ODN loading monitoring, e.g. of gelatin nanoparticles in the course of formulation development.

  5. Application of the CBR method for adding the technological process designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbuś, K.

    2016-08-01

    The manufacturing process is a very important step in the process of new products creating. The market trends cause that the process must be very flexible to facilitate fast and cost-effective adaptation to changing market conditions. Commonly used CNC machine tools, grouped in flexible production systems significantly facilitate fast production adjusting to these dynamic changes. The programs for CNC machine tools could be easily modified or generated in the CAM class programs. It remains, however, the technological process, which should be planned and continuously optimized with respect to new details being produced. In this paper is proposed the method basing on the engineering knowledge and experience for adding the process of production preparation. The method, developed by authors, is based on the CBR (Case Based Reasoning) technique. CBR is a method of problems solving. It bases on seeking an analogy (similarity) between the task currently being solved, and the earlier tasks that had already been solved. The article presents an algorithm and formalized description of the developed method.

  6. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  7. An Analysis of Specialized Literature about Agile Method Application in the Context of Technical Solution Process Area included in Software Process Quality Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the results of the literature review about the application of agile methods to support the implementation of CMMI and MPS.BR quality models, specifically for the Technical Solution process area and Product Design and Construction process. The research result is to identify which agile methods are applied in the quality models context. In addition, we sought to identify agile practices that support the implementation of these processes.

  8. Development of a Validated LC Method for Separation of Process-Related Impurities Including the R-Enantiomer of S-Pramipexole on Polysaccharide Chiral Stationary Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Kuntamukkala, Ramakrishna; Arnipalli, Manikanta Swamy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the availability of a few methods for individual separation of S-pramipexole from its process-related impurities, no common liquid chromatography (LC) method is reported so far in the literature. The present article describes the development of a single-run LC method for simultaneous determination of S-pramipexole and its enantiomeric and process-related impurities on a Chiralpak AD-H (150 x 4.6 mm, 5μm) column using n-hexane/ethanol/n-butylamine (75:25:0.1 v/v/v) as a mobile phase in an isocratic mode of elution at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. The chromatographic eluents were monitored at a wavelength of 260 nm using a photodiode array detector. Excellent enantioseparation with good resolutions (Rs ≥ 2.88) and peak shapes (As ≤ 1.21) for all analytes was achieved. The proposed method was validated according to International Conference Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and linearity. Limits of quantification of impurities (0.25-0.55 μg/ml) indicate the highest sensitivity achievable by the proposed method. The method has an advantage of selectivity and suitability for routine determination of not only chiral impurity but also all possible related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredients of S-pramipexole.

  9. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  10. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-12

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  11. METHOD OF SOFTWARE-BASED COMPENSATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL VARIATION IN CHROMATICITY COORDINATES OF LCD PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The problem of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates of liquid crystal panels is considered. A method of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates is proposed. The method provides the color reproduction characteristics of the series-produced samples on-board indication equipment corresponding to the sample equipment, which is taken as the standard. Method. Mathematical calculation of the profile is performed for the given model of the liquid crystal panel. The coefficients that correspond to the typical values of the chromaticity coordinates for the vertices of the triangle color coverage constitute a reference mathematical model of the plate LCD panel from a specific manufacturer. At the stage of incoming inspection the sample of the liquid crystal panel, that is to be implemented within indication equipment, is mounted on the lighting test unit, where Nokia-Test control is provided by the formation of the RGB codes for display the image of a homogeneous field in the red, green, blue and white. The measurement of the (x,y-chromaticity coordinates in red, green, blue and white colors is performed using a colorimeter with the known value of absolute error. Instead of using lighting equipment, such measurements may be carried out immediately on the sample indication equipment during customizing procedure. The measured values are used to calculate individual LCD-panel profile coefficients through the use of Grassman's transformation, establishing mutual relations between the XYZ-color coordinates and RGB codes to be used for displaying the image on the liquid crystal panel. The obtained coefficients are to be set into the memory of the graphics controller together with the functional software and then used for image displaying. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed method of software-based compensation for technological variation of

  12. Project-Driven Learning-by-Doing Method for Teaching Software Engineering using Virtualization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many universities are now offering software engineering an undergraduate level emphasizing knowledge point. However, some enterprise managers reflected that education ignore hands-on ability training, and claimed that there is the isolation between teaching and practice. This paper presents the design of a Software Engineering course (sixth semester in network engineering at University of Jinan for undergraduate Software Engineering students that uses virtualization technology to teach them project-driven learning-by-doing software development process. We present our motivation, challenges encountered, pedagogical goals and approaches, findings (both positive experiences and negative lessons. Our motivation was to teach project-driven Software Engineering using virtualization technology. The course also aims to develop entrepreneurial skills needed for software engineering graduates to better prepare them for the software industry. Billing models of virtualization help pupils and instructors find the cost of the experiment. In pay-as-you-go manner, two labs and three step-by-step projects (single project, pair project, and team project are designed to help the students to complete the assignment excitedly. We conduct some detailed surveys and present the results of student responses. The assessment process designed for this course is illustrated. The paper also shows that learning-by-doing method correlates with the characteristics of different projects, which has resulted in a successful experience as reported by students in an end of a semester survey.

  13. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if

  14. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  15. Modeling technology innovation: how science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vathsala I; Lane, Joseph P

    2012-05-16

    Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact-that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and "bench to bedside" expectations for

  16. Sparse linear systems: Theory of decomposition, methods, technology, applications and implementation in Wolfram Mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipchuk, L. A., E-mail: pilipchik@bsu.by [Belarussian State University, 220030 Minsk, 4, Nezavisimosti avenue, Republic of Belarus (Belarus); Pilipchuk, A. S., E-mail: an.pilipchuk@gmail.com [The Natural Resources and Environmental Protestion Ministry of the Republic of Belarus, 220004 Minsk, 10 Kollektornaya Street, Republic of Belarus (Belarus)

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we propose the theory of decomposition, methods, technologies, applications and implementation in Wol-fram Mathematica for the constructing the solutions of the sparse linear systems. One of the applications is the Sensor Location Problem for the symmetric graph in the case when split ratios of some arc flows can be zeros. The objective of that application is to minimize the number of sensors that are assigned to the nodes. We obtain a sparse system of linear algebraic equations and research its matrix rank. Sparse systems of these types appear in generalized network flow programming problems in the form of restrictions and can be characterized as systems with a large sparse sub-matrix representing the embedded network structure.

  17. Technical Training: EMAG-2005 - Electromagnetic Design and Mathematical Optimization Methods in Magnet Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! CERN Technical Training, in collaboration with the AT-MEL-EM section, is organising a new course series in the framework of the 2005 CERN Technical Training programme: EMAG-2005 - Electromagnetic Design and Mathematical Optimization Methods in Magnet Technology, composed of three-hour lectures in the morning and topical seminars in the afternoon. The EMAG-2005 course series will run at CERN from Monday April 4 until Thursday April 14 (no lectures on Friday 8). The course series, in English, will focus on the foundations of electromagnetism and the design of accelerator magnets, both normal conducting and superconducting, employing analytical and numerical field computations. Examples of the LHC magnet design using the CERN field computation program ROXIE will be presented. However, EMAG-2005 is not a ROXIE user course: it is rather a course for users or potential users of numerical field computation software, and for magnet designers. The course will be o...

  18. Energy-technological method for utilization of coal of the Kansko-Achinskii basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, S. R.

    2013-11-01

    The state of the market segments connected with coal fuel consumption is estimated. As a whole it is characterized by the shortage of high-calorific coals for special purposes and the excess of offerings of low-rank coals. The classic method for firing coal has substantially exhausted its potential and is not in the condition to meet the ever increasing needs of power efficiency and environmental safety. For resolution of the existing situation the author proposes to use the technology of internal partial coal gasification with the parallel production of heat energy and brown-coal coke. Scopes of new products are briefly described with the prevailing orientation on the replacement of classic coke in metallurgy.

  19. Evaluation of the threshold trimming method for micro inertial fluidic switch based on electrowetting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The switch based on electrowetting technology has the advantages of no moving part, low contact resistance, long life and adjustable acceleration threshold. The acceleration threshold of switch can be fine-tuned by adjusting the applied voltage. This paper is focused on the electrowetting properties of switch and the influence of microchannel structural parameters, applied voltage and droplet volume on acceleration threshold. In the presence of process errors of micro inertial fluidic switch and measuring errors of droplet volume, there is a deviation between test acceleration threshold and target acceleration threshold. Considering the process errors and measuring errors, worst-case analysis is used to analyze the influence of parameter tolerance on the acceleration threshold. Under worst-case condition the total acceleration threshold tolerance caused by various errors is 9.95%. The target acceleration threshold can be achieved by fine-tuning the applied voltage. The acceleration threshold trimming method of micro inertial fluidic switch is verified.

  20. Development Method of Wireless Application Based on Wireless Makeup Language and Web Database Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; SHAO Shi-huang; WANG Jian; YIN Mei-hua

    2002-01-01

    Wireless technology is a new emerging delivery networks and development scheme of wireless internet is given widely attention currently. In order to make international visitors to surge education website at any time, anywhere by mobile handsets. The communication method of web database, such as CGI, ISAPI, JDBC and so on have been aralyzed and a new Active Server Page &Wireless Makeup Language (ASP-WML) based approach is presented. The dynamical refreshment of the homepage of wireless website and the automatic query of main information have been realized. At last, the wireless website of Dong Hua University is taken as an example to testify the possibility of wireless website design which is mentioned above.

  1. ARCHITECT: The architecture-based technology evaluation and capability tradeoff method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griendling, Kelly A.

    The use of architectures for the design, development, and documentation of system-of-systems engineering has become a common practice in recent years. This practice became mandatory in the defense industry in 2004 when the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Promulgation Memo mandated that all Department of Defense (DoD) architectures must be DoDAF compliant. Despite this mandate, there has been significant confusion and a lack of consistency in the creation and the use of the architecture products. Products are typically created as static documents used for communication and documentation purposes that are difficult to change and do not support engineering design activities and acquisition decision making. At the same time, acquisition guidance has been recently reformed to move from the bottom-up approach of the Requirements Generation System (RGS) to the top-down approach mandated by the Joint Capabilities Integration and Devel- opment System (JCIDS), which requires the use of DoDAF to support acquisition. Defense agencies have had difficulty adjusting to this new policy, and are struggling to determine how to meet new acquisition requirements. This research has developed the Architecture-based Technology Evaluation and Capability Tradeoff (ARCHITECT) Methodology to respond to these challenges and address concerns raised about the defense acquisition process, particularly the time required to implement parts of the process, the need to evaluate solutions across capability and mission areas, and the need to use a rigorous, traceable, repeatable method that utilizes modeling and simulation to better substantiate early-phase acquisition decisions. The objective is to create a capability-based systems engineering methodology for the early phases of design and acquisition (specifically Pre-Milestone A activities) which improves agility in defense acquisition by (1) streamlining the development of key elements of JCIDS and DoDAF, (2) moving the

  2. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of different taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.

  3. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel method for fabricating curved frequency selective surface via 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fengchao; Gao, Jinsong

    2014-12-01

    A novel method for fabricating curved frequency selective surfaces with undevelopable curved shape using 3D printing technology was proposed in this paper. First, FSS composed of Y slotted elements that adapt to 0° ~ 70 ° incidences was designed. Then, the 3D model of the curved FSS was created in a 3D modeling software. Next, the 3D model was digitalized into stl format file and then the stl file was inputted into a stereo lithography 3D printer. Next, the prototype of the curved FSS was fabricated by the 3D printer layer by layer. Finally, a 10 μm thick aluminum film was coated on the outer surface of the prototype of the curved FSS by a vacuum coater. The transmission performance of the metallised curved FSS was tested using free space method. It was shown that frequency selection characteristic of the metallised curved FSS reached the requirements of simulation design. The pass-band was in the Ku-band and the transmission rate on center frequency was 63% for nose cone incident direction. This method provides a new way to apply the FSS to arbitrary curved electromagnetic window.

  5. Method for assessing software reliability of the document management system using the RFID technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deliberations presented in this study refer to the method for assessing software reliability of the docu-ment management system, using the RFID technology. A method for determining the reliability structure of the dis-cussed software, understood as the index vector for assessing reliability of its components, was proposed. The model of the analyzed software is the control transfer graph, in which the probability of activating individual components during the system's operation results from the so-called operational profile, which characterizes the actual working environment. The reliability structure is established as a result of the solution of a specific mathematical software task. The knowledge of the reliability structure of the software makes it possible to properly plan the time and finan-cial expenses necessary to build the software, which would meet the reliability requirements. The application of the presented method is illustrated by the number example, corresponding to the software reality of the RFID document management system.

  6. Tapping into Graduate Students' Collaborative Technology Experience in a Research Methods Class: Insights on Teaching Research Methods in a Malaysian and American Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Colina, Maria D.; Maslin-Ostrowski, Pat; Baba, Suria

    2017-01-01

    This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate challenges of learning and teaching research methods by examining graduate students' use of collaborative technology (i.e., digital tools that enable collaboration and information seeking such as software and social media) and students' computer self-efficacy. We conducted…

  7. What Is Necessary To Include in a Science Methods Course for Teachers on Emergency Permits? The Role of the Feedback Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Hedy

    This study examines a feedback portfolio developed by student teachers in their secondary science methods courses. The portfolio preparation requires students to reflect and select their best five learning experiences during the course and provide a short explanation regarding the value of those experiences. This study also involves emergency…

  8. Optimization and validation of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method covering 295 bacterial and fungal metabolites including all regulated mycotoxins in four model food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachová, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Beltrán, Eduardo; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-10-01

    An LC-MS/MS "dilute and shoot" method for the determination of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites was optimized and validated according to the guidelines established in the Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs of the European Commission (SANCO) document No. 12495/2011. Four different types of food matrices were chosen for validation: apple puree for infants (high water content), hazelnuts (high fat content), maize (high starch and low fat content) and green pepper (difficult or unique matrix). Method accuracy and precision was evaluated using spiked samples in five replicates at two concentration levels. Method trueness was demonstrated through participation in various proficiency tests. Although the method covers a total number of 331 analytes, validation data were acquired only for 295 analytes, either due to the non-availability of analytical standards or due other reasons described in this paper. Concerning the apparent recovery, the percentage of 295 analytes matching the acceptable recovery range of 70-120% lied down by SANCO varied from 21% in green pepper to 74% in apple puree at the highest spiking level. At the levels close to limit of quantification only 20-58% of the analytes fulfilled this criterion. The extent of matrix effects was strongly dependent on the analyte/matrix combination. In general, the lowest matrix effects were observed in apple puree (59% of analytes were not influenced by enhancement/suppression at all at the highest validation level). The highest matrix effects were observed in green pepper, where only 10% of analytes did not suffer from signal suppression/enhancement. The repeatability of the method was acceptable (RSD≤20) for 97% of all analytes in apple puree and hazelnuts, for 95% in maize and for 89% in green pepper. Concerning the trueness of the method, Z-scores were generally between -2 and 2, despite a broad variety of different matrices. Based on these results it can be concluded that quantitative

  9. Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Roderick V. N.; Voss, Frands

    2006-11-01

    the problem. Under both outlined scenarios, scientists and mathematicians are provided with an opportunity to challenge themselves with real-world problems and to work together in a team on important industrial issues. This issue is a result of selected contributions by participants of the meeting that took place in the Sønderborg area of Denmark, one of the most important centers for information technology, telecommunication and electronics in the country. The meeting was hosted by the University of Southern Denmark in a picturesque area of Southern Jutland. It brought together about 65 participants, among whom were professional mathematicians, engineers, physicists, and industrial participants. The meeting was a truly international one, with delegates from four major Danish Universities, the UK, Norway, Italy, Czech Republic, Turkey, China, Germany, Latvia, Canada, the United States, and Finland. Five challenging projects were presented by leading industrial companies, including Grundfos, Danfoss Industrial Control, Unisensor, and Danfoss Flow Division (now Siemens). The meeting featured also the Mathematics for Industry Workshop with several distinguished international speakers. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series on `Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology' contains contributions from some of the participants of the workshop as well as the papers produced as a result of collaborative efforts with the above mentioned industrial companies. We would like to thank all authors and participants for their contributions and for bearing with us during the review process and preparation of this issue. We thank also all our referees for their timely and detailed reports. The publication of the proceedings of this meeting in Denmark was delayed due to problems with a previous publisher. We are very grateful that Journal of Physics: Conference Series kindly agreed to publish the proceedings rapidly at this late

  10. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  11. MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR THE SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS INCLUDING CURRENT AND SILT SEDIMENTATION ( Ⅱ )-THE DISCRETE-TIME CASE ALONG CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 曾庆存; 谢正辉

    2004-01-01

    The mixed finite element (MFE) methods for a shallow water equation system consisting of water dynamics equations, silt transport equation, and the equation of bottom topography change were derived. A fully discrete MFE scheme for the discrete-time along characteristics is presented and error estimates are established. The existence and convergence of MFE solution of the discrete current velocity, elevation of the bottom topography, thickness of fluid column, and mass rate of sediment is demonstrated.

  12. Effetive methods in educating extension agents and farmers on conservation farming technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of new technologies requires transfer of information from developers to end users. Efficiency of the transfer process influences the rate of adoption and ultimate impact of the technology. Various channels are used to transfer technology from researchers to farmers. Two commonly used ones ...

  13. Brief approaches to developmental-behavioral promotion in primary care: updates on methods and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Trimm, Franklin

    2014-05-01

    Well-child visits are a critical opportunity to promote learning and development, encourage positive parenting practices, help children acquire behavioral self-control, enhance the development and well-being of children and their families, identify problems not amenable to brief in-office counseling, and refer for services when needed. This article outlines the communication skills, instructional methods, and resource options that enable clinicians to best assist families. Also covered is how to monitor progress and outcomes. A total of 239 articles and 52 Web sites on parent/patient education were reviewed for this study. Providers require a veritable armamentarium of instructional methods. Skills in nonverbal and verbal communication are needed to elicit the parent/patient agenda, winnow topics to a manageable subset, and create the "teachable moment." Verbal suggestions, with or without standardized spoken instructions, are useful for conveying simple messages. However, for complex issues, such as discipline, it is necessary to use a combination of verbal advice, written information, and "teach-back," aided by role-playing/modeling or multimedia approaches. Selecting the approaches most likely to be effective depends on the topic and family characteristics (eg, parental literacy and language skills, family psychosocial risk and resilience factors, children's developmental-behavioral status). When providers collaborate well (with parents, patients, and other service providers) and select appropriate educational methods, families are better able to act on advice, leading to improvements in children's well-being, health, and developmental-behavioral outcomes. Provided are descriptions of methods, links to parenting resources such as cell phone applications, Web sites (in multiple languages), interactive technology, and parent training courses.

  14. A Novel Eco-Friendly Vanadium Precipitation Method by Hydrothermal Hydrogen Reduction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the serious pollution problems caused by the traditional vanadium precipitation process, the eco-friendly technology of hydrothermal hydrogen reduction was first applied to precipitate phase pure vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3 products from stripped pentavalent vanadium (V (V solution extracted from vanadium-bearing shale. Thermodynamic analysis demonstrate the method of hydrothermal hydrogen reduction is feasible for precipitating V2O3 from V (V solution at a suitable pH range, and the reduction should better be carried out at a lower pH under the pH range in which V2O3 can exist stably. The V2O3 products of 99.92% in purity and a high vanadium precipitation percentage of 99.25% were achieved under a facile reaction condition of initial solution pH of 6, reaction temperature of 523 K, H2 partial pressure of 4 MPa and reaction time of 2 h. Based on the analysis of XRD and FE-SEM with EDS for the precipitation products obtained at serial reaction times, the phase transformation mechanism was summarized to serial reductions with the phase transformation of HxVyOz(2z−x−5y− → NaV2O5 → VO2(H2O0.5 → VOOH → V2O3. Compared with the two-step traditional method of precipitating vanadium with ammonium salt and roast-reduction (react at above 773 K for more than 3 h for preparing V2O3, this method only experiences one-step reduction under a green atmosphere of H2 gas with a lower reaction temperature of 523 K and a shorter reaction time of 2h. Therefore, this method for vanadium precipitation is characterized by being eco-friendly, having a short process and being low-energy consumption, which has great significance for the sustainable development of vanadium industry.

  15. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    While phylogenetic and cluster analyses are often used to define clonal groups within bacterial species, the identification of clonal groups that are associated with specific ecological niches or host species remains a challenge. We used Listeria monocytogenes, which causes invasive disease...... in humans and different animal species and which can be isolated from a number of environments including food, as a model organism to develop and implement a two-step statistical approach to the identification of phylogenetic clades that are significantly associated with different source populations...

  16. Determination of drugs in surface water and wastewater samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Methods and preliminary results including toxicity studies with Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, M.; Ferrer, I.; Ginebreda, A.; Figueras, M.; Olivella, L.; Tirapu, L.; Vilanova, M.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work a combined analytical method involving toxicity and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water samples. The drugs investigated were the analgesics: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac, the decomposition product of the acetyl salicylic acid: salicylic acid and one lipid lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The selected compounds are acidic substances, very polar and all of them are analgesic compounds that can be purchased without medical prescription. The developed protocol consisted, first of all, on the use Microtox?? and ToxAlert??100 toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri for the different pharmaceutical drugs. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values and the toxicity units (TU) were determined for every compound using both systems. Sample enrichment of water samples was achieved by solid-phase extraction procedure (SPE), using the Merck LiChrolut?? EN cartridges followed by LC-ESI-MS. Average recoveries loading 1 l of samples with pH=2 varied from 69 to 91% and the detection limits in the range of 15-56 ng/l. The developed method was applied to real samples from wastewater and surface-river waters of Catalonia (north-east of Spain). One batch of samples was analyzed in parallel also by High Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HRGC-MS) and the results have been compared with the LC-ESI-MS method developed in this work. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  18. Characterization of process-related impurities including forced degradation products of alogliptin benzoate and the development of the corresponding reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YuXia; Zhou, WenTao; Sun, LiLi; Zou, QiaoGen; Wei, Ping; OuYang, PingKai

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of process-related impurities and forced degradants of alogliptin benzoate (Alb) in bulk drugs and a stability-indicating HPLC method for the separation and quantification of all the impurities were investigated. Alb was found to be unstable under acid and alkali stress conditions and two major degradation products (Imp-F and Imp-G) were observed. The optimum separation was achieved on Kromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using 0.1% perchloric acid (pH adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in gradient mode. The proposed method was found to be stability indicating, precise, linear (0.10-75.0 μg/mL), accurate, sensitive, and robust for the quantitation of Alb and its process-related substances and degradation products. The structures of 11 impurities were characterized and confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and IR spectroscopy, and the most probable formation mechanisms of all impurities were proposed according to the synthesis route. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Provide a suitable range to include the thermal creeping effect on slip velocity and temperature jump of an air flow in a nanochannel by lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour, Arash

    2017-01-01

    The thermal creeping effect on slip velocity of air forced convection through a nanochannel is studied for the first time by using a lattice Boltzmann method. The nanochannel side walls are kept hot while the cold inlet air streams along them. The computations are presented for the wide range of Reynolds number, Knudsen number and Eckert number while slip velocity and temperature jump effects are involved. Moreover appropriate validations are performed versus previous works concerned the micro-nanoflows. The achieved results are shown as the velocity and temperature profiles at different cross sections, streamlines and isotherms and also the values of slip velocity and temperature jump along the nanochannel walls. The ability of the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the thermal creeping effects on hydrodynamic and thermal domains of flow is shown at this study; so that its effects should be involved at lower values of Eckert number and higher values of Reynolds number especially at entrance region where the most temperature gradient exists.

  20. Let's get Physiqual - An intuitive and generic method to combine sensor technology with ecological momentary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, F J; Schenk, H M; Jeronimus, B F; van der Krieke, L; de Jonge, P; Aiello, M; Emerencia, A C

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of wearables and smartwatches is making sensors a ubiquitous technology to measure daily rhythms in physiological measures, such as movement and heart rate. An integration of sensor data from wearables and self-report questionnaire data about cognition, behaviors, and emotions can provide new insights into the interaction of mental and physiological processes in daily life. Hitherto no method existed that enables an easy-to-use integration of sensor and self-report data. To fill this gap, we present 'Physiqual', a platform for researchers that gathers and integrates data from commercially available sensors and service providers into one unified format for use in Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) or Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), and Quantified Self (QS). Physiqual currently supports sensor data provided by two well-known service providers and therewith a wide range of smartwatches and wearables. To demonstrate the features of Physiqual, we conducted a case study in which we assessed two subjects by means of data from an EMA study combined with sensor data as aggregated and exported by Physiqual. To the best of our knowledge, the Physiqual platform is the first platform that allows researchers to conveniently aggregate and integrate physiological sensor data with EMA studies.

  1. DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-WATER LEVEL BY MODERN NON-DISTRUCTIVE METHODS (GPR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. NICU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ground-water level by modern non-dis¬tructive methods (ground-penetrating radar technology. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is now a well-accepted geophysical technique, which unfortunately in our country its less used. Historically, the development of GPR comes from the use of radio echosounding to determine ice thickness and it was only a short step to enlarge the domain of research such as permafrost, geological investigation (bedrock, sedimentology, environmental assessment and hydrogeophysical studies (under-ground water location, soil water content. The GPR method measures the travel time of electromagnetic impulses in subsurface materials. An impulse radar system radiates repetitive electromagnetic impulses into the soil. A bandwidth antenna is usually placed in close proximity and electromagnetic coupled to the ground surface. It detects and measures the depth of reflecting discontinuities in subsurface soils and other earth materials to within a few centimeters depending of antenna frequency. For over 30 years, GPR has been used extensively for hydropedological investigations. Our research aims to determine the groundwater to estimate the degree of evolution of hydro-geomorphological processes.

  2. Qualitative properties of roasting defect beans and development of its classification methods by hyperspectral imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Hyung-Jin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative properties of roasting defect coffee beans and their classification methods were studied using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The roasting defect beans were divided into 5 groups: medium roasting (Cont), under developed (RD-1), over roasting (RD-2), interior under developed (RD-3), and interior scorching (RD-4). The following qualitative properties were assayed: browning index (BI), moisture content (MC), chlorogenic acid (CA), trigonelline (TG), and caffeine (CF) content. Their HSI spectra (1000-1700nm) were also analysed to develop the classification methods of roasting defect beans. RD-2 showed the highest BI and the lowest MC, CA, and TG content. The accuracy of classification model of partial least-squares discriminant was 86.2%. The most powerful wavelength to classify the defective beans was approximately 1420nm (related to OH bond). The HSI reflectance values at 1420nm showed similar tendency with MC, enabling the use of this technology to classify the roasting defect beans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: An efficient dose-compensation method for proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wang; Weihua, Han; Xiang, Yang; Renping, Zhang; Yang, Zhang; Fuhua, Yang

    2010-08-01

    A novel simple dose-compensation method is developed for proximity effect correction in electron-beam lithography. The sizes of exposed patterns depend on dose factors while other exposure parameters (including accelerate voltage, resist thickness, exposing step size, substrate material, and so on) remain constant. This method is based on two reasonable assumptions in the evaluation of the compensated dose factor: one is that the relation between dose factors and circle-diameters is linear in the range under consideration; the other is that the compensated dose factor is only affected by the nearest neighbors for simplicity. Four-layer-hexagon photonic crystal structures were fabricated as test patterns to demonstrate this method. Compared to the uncorrected structures, the homogeneity of the corrected hole-size in photonic crystal structures was clearly improved.

  5. Study on synchronous detection method of methane and ethane with laser absorption spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Gao, Yan-wei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2016-10-01

    The main ingredient of mash gas is alkenes, and methane is the most parts of mash gas and ethane is a small portion of it. Fast, accurate, real-time measurement of methane and ethane concentration is an important task for preventing coal mining disaster. In this research, a monitoring system with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology has been set up for simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane, and a DFB laser at wavelength of 1.653μm was used as the laser source. The absorption spectroscopy information of methane and ethane, especially the characteristic of the spectrum peak positions and relative intensity were determined by available spectral structures from previous study and available database. Then, the concentration inversion algorithm method based on the spectral resolution and feature extraction was designed for methane and ethane synchronous detection. At last, the continuously experimental results obtained by different concentration of methane and ethane sample gases with the multiple reflection cell and the standard distribution system. In this experiment, the standard distribution system made with the standard gas and two high precision mass flow meters of D07 Sevenstar series whose flow velocity is 1l/min and 5l/min respectively. When the multiple reflection cell work stably, the biggest detection error of methane concentration inversion was 3.7%, and the biggest detection error of ethane was 4.8%. So it is verified that this concentration inversion algorithm works stably and reliably. Thus, this technology could realize the real-time, fast and continuous measurement requirement of mash gas and it will provide the effective technical support to coal mining production in safety for our country.

  6. Single Cell Functional Proteomics for Monitoring Immune Response in Cancer Therapy: Technology, Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eMa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, significant progresses have taken place in the field of cancer immunotherapeutics, which are being developed for most human cancers. New immunotherapeutics, such as Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4, have been approved for clinical treatment; cell-based immunotherapies such as adoptive cell transfer (ACT have either passed the final stage of human studies (i.e., sipuleucel-T for the treatment of selected neoplastic malignancies or reached the stage of phase II/III clinical trials. Immunotherapetics has become a sophisticated field. Multimodal therapeutic regimens comprising several functional modules (up to 5 in the case of ACT have been developed to provide focused therapeutic responses with improved efficacy and reduced side-effects. However, a major challenge remains: the lack of effective and clinically-applicable immune assessment methods. Due to the complexity of antitumor immune responses within patients, it is difficult to provide comprehensive assessment of therapeutic efficacy and mechanism. To address this challenge, new technologies have been developed to directly profile the cellular immune functions and the functional heterogeneity. With the goal to measure the functional proteomics of single immune cells, these technologies are informative, sensitive, high-throughput and highly-multiplex. They have been used to uncover new knowledge of cellular immune functions and have be utilized for rapid, informative, and longitudinal monitoring of immune response in clinical anti-cancer treatment. In addition, new computational tools are required to integrate high dimensional data sets generated from the comprehensive, single-cell level measurements of patient’s immune responses to guide accurate and definitive diagnostic decision. These single-cell immune function assessment tools will likely contribute to new understanding of therapy mechanism, pre-treatment stratification of patients and ongoing therapeutic monitoring and

  7. Concerning the Development of the Wide-Field Optics for WFXT Including Methods of Optimizing X-Ray Optical Prescriptions for Wide-Field Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a progress report on the various endeavors we are undertaking at MSFC in support of the Wide Field X-Ray Telescope development. In particular we discuss assembly and alignment techniques, in-situ polishing corrections, and the results of our efforts to optimize mirror prescriptions including polynomial coefficients, relative shell displacements, detector placements and tilts. This optimization does not require a blind search through the multi-dimensional parameter space. Under the assumption that the parameters are small enough so that second order expansions are valid, we show that the performance at the detector can be expressed as a quadratic function with numerical coefficients derived from a ray trace through the underlying Wolter I optic. The optimal values for the parameters are found by solving the linear system of equations creating by setting derivatives of this function with respect to each parameter to zero.

  8. A vertical/horizontal integration wind-induced circulation model (VH13D): A method for including surface and bottom logarithmic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    A three-dimensional model called VH13D is developed using the vertical/horizontal integration (VHI) approach. The double-logarithmic velocity profile including both the surface and bottom sublayer characteristic lengths is employed to accurately evaluate the bottom shear stress and depth-averaged advective terms. The model is verified using analytical solutions and laboratory data for shear-induced countercurrent flows and is compared with other two- and three-dimensional circulation models in a simplified basin. It is demonstrated that the newly developed model improves the conventional two-dimensional depth-averaged and Quasi-3D models and provides a new approach to the three-dimensional wind-induced circulation model. It can efficiently simulate the wind-induced 3D current structure in lakes and estuaries under isothermal conditions.

  9. Insulation Materials Comprising Fibers Having a Partially Cured Polymer Coating Thereon, Articles Including Such Insulation Materials, and Methods of Forming Such Materials and Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard E. (Inventor); Meeks, Craig L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Insulation materials have a coating of a partially cured polymer on a plurality of fibers, and the plurality of coated fibers in a cross-linked polymeric matrix. Insulation may be formed by applying a preceramic polymer to a plurality of fibers, heating the preceramic polymer to form a partially cured polymer over at least portions of the plurality of fibers, disposing the plurality of fibers in a polymeric material, and curing the polymeric material. A rocket motor may be formed by disposing a plurality of coated fibers in an insulation precursor, curing the insulation precursor to form an insulation material without sintering the partially cured polymer, and providing an energetic material over the polymeric material. An article includes an insulation material over at least one surface.

  10. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  11. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition : The case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Verhoeven, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Methods : Starting from a Cognitiv

  12. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition: the case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Verhoeven, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Methods Starting from a Cognitive S

  13. How do Millennial Engineering and Technology Students Experience Learning Through Traditional Teaching Methods Employed in the University Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document and analyze how Millennial engineering and technology students experience learning in large lecture classrooms. To help achieve this purpose, perceptions Millennials have toward traditional teaching methods employed in large lecture classes were analyzed and discussed. Additionally, this study documented how Millennials experienced technology within large lecture classrooms. A learning model depicting how Millennials experience learning within the larg...

  14. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  15. Electronically Excited States of Vitamin B12: Benchmark Calculations Including Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Correlated Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kornobis, Karina; Wong, Bryan M; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Rudd, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M; 10.1021/jp110914y

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and correlated ab initio methods have been applied to the electronically excited states of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). Different experimental techniques have been used to probe the excited states of CNCbl, revealing many issues that remain poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Due to its efficient scaling with size, TD-DFT emerges as one of the most practical tools that can be used to predict the electronic properties of these fairly complex molecules. However, the description of excited states is strongly dependent on the type of functional used in the calculations. In the present contribution, the choice of a proper functional for vitamin B12 was evaluated in terms of its agreement with both experimental results and correlated ab initio calculations. Three different functionals, i.e. B3LYP, BP86, and LC-BLYP, were tested. In addition, the effect of relative contributions of DFT and HF to the exchange-correlation functional ...

  16. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

  17. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Micro Ethnographic Research as a Method for Informing Educational Technology Design in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and purposes. This paper describes research on how micro ethnographic classroom studies (Mehan, 1979) of the integration of technology can inform researchers understanding of teachers and children’s situated acts with technology. Hence, the objective of this paper is to show stories...... important insights of the classroom order and their experience of using technology in classrooms. Results. Results show that introducing technology into the classroom as a learning tool posed a challenge to the pedagogic approach, the teaching materials and the roles of both teachers and learners...

  19. Development of a team-based method for assuring the quality of assistive technology documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, Lorenzo; Ioele, Francesca Marcella; Roentgen, Uta; Gelderblom, Gert-Jan; De Witte, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Good practice in assistive technology (AT) service delivery targeting children with disabilities has come increasingly to include providing AT stakeholders with a final text record that documents the rationale and procedures behind the recommendations made during the AT assessment process (AT documentation). In the present case study of one AT service provider, we developed a team-based approach for conducting an evaluation of the quality of the AT documentation. A service-specific scale for the evaluation of AT documentation was developed following a five-step approach. The scale was employed to'review AT documentation utilizing specific review criteria in order to evaluate the quality of AT documentation practices with regard to the service investigated. Two independent reviewers examined the AT documentation for 130 cases of AT service provision. Weighted kappa and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were employed as a measure of inter-rater agreement. The results of the documentation evaluation allowed AT professionals to objectively assess the quality of the AT documentation produced by the service under investigation, identify shortcomings in the documentation process, and make related corrections. AT services may benefit from the employment of strategic approaches for the evaluation of service provision. Possible applications to other AT service providers are discussed.

  20. Study of heat transfer characteristics in PCFG fabrication technology using heat method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefeng Qi; Hanping Qiao; Weihong Bi

    2011-01-01

    @@ The fiber gratings fabrication technology with the heating method in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on structural change is examined. The principle of photonic crystal fiber gratings (PCFGs) is analyzed in theory. The heat transfer theory and finite element method are used to examine the thermal field distribution in the fiber and the influence of the air hole structure in the cladding, and the parameters of the laser beam in the process of grating fabrication are discussed. The results show that gratings can be formed by the periodic collapse of air holes in the cladding of PCFs. Under double-point heating condition, the energy is uniformly distributed in the radial direction and is approximate to Gaussian distribution in the axial direction. With the same size of the luminous spot, as the layers and radius of the air holes increase, the laser power needed to make the air holes collapse decreases. With the same laser power, as the luminous spot radius increases, the needed heating time increases. Moreover, the relationship between the laser power needed and the air filling rate is obtained as the number of layers of the air holes changes from 1 to 7. This kind of PCFG can overcome the long-term thermal instability of conventional gratings in substance and thus has great potential applications in the related field of optical fiber sensors.%The fiber gratings fabrication technology with the heating method in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on structural change is examined. The principle of photonic crystal fiber gratings (PCFGs) is analyzed in theory. The heat transfer theory and finite element method are used to examine the thermal field distribution in the fiber and the influence of the air hole structure in the cladding, and the parameters of the laser beam in the process of grating fabrication are discussed. The results show that gratings can be formed by the periodic collapse of air holes in the cladding of PCFs. Under double-point heating