WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies encyclopedia fate

  1. Encyclopedias

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider , Ulrich Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of printing in Europe in the fifteenth century, encyclopedias have become popular and widespread all over the continent. During the eighteenth century, dictionaries and other knowledge-communicating books constituted a major part of the book market, thereby defining everyday knowledge, including information about the entire world that was cultivated by periodicals and travel logs. Encyclopedias, from the very beginning, have been a varied genre owing to the assort...

  2. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  3. Knowledge Management and Information Technology (Know-IT Encyclopedia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollock, Neal

    2002-01-01

    .... This encyclopedia is an attempt to create and distribute a knowledge-level tool. Much of it is tacit knowledge taken from the author's experience on-the-job at the Program Executive Office for Information Technology (PEO...

  4. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  5. Encyclopedias Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Sandy

    1992-01-01

    Provides brief company profiles and describes sales methods and electronic publishing ventures for six encyclopedia publishers: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.; World Book; Grolier; the P.F. Collier encyclopedia division of Macmillan Publishing; Funk & Wagnalls; and Standard Educational Corp. (MES)

  6. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  7. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  8. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  9. Encyclopedia of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2013-01-01

    TRIBOLOGY – the study of friction, wear and lubrication – impacts almost every aspect of our daily lives. The Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology is an authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science and engineering of tribology that are relevant to researchers across all engineering industries and related scientific disciplines. This is the first major reference that brings together the science, engineering and technological aspects of tribology of this breadth and scope in a single work. Developed and written by leading experts in the field, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology covers the fundamentals as well as advanced applications across material types, different length and time scales, and encompassing various engineering applications and technologies. Exciting new areas such as nanotribology, tribochemistry and biotribology have also been included. As a six-volume set, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology comprises 1630 entries written by authoritative experts...

  10. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  11. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  12. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a brief ... of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. A ...

  13. Encyclopedia Reviews 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemier, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Reviews thirteen 1978 edition encyclopedias: Book of Art, Britannica Jr., Britannica 3, Childcraft, Collier's, Compton's. Encyclopedia Americana, Funk & Wagnalls, Merit Students, New Caton, Random House, New Standard, and World Book. (SB)

  14. Concise encyclopedia of software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Derrick

    1993-01-01

    This Concise Encyclopedia of Software Engineering is intended to provide compact coverage of the knowledge relevant to the practicing software engineer. The content has been chosen to provide an introduction to the theory and techniques relevant to the software of a broad class of computer applications. It is supported by examples of particular applications and their enabling technologies. This Encyclopedia will be of value to new practitioners who need a concise overview and established practitioners who need to read about the ""penumbra"" surrounding their own specialities. It will also be u

  15. The water encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van der Leeden, Frits; Troise, Fred L; Todd, David Keith

    1990-01-01

    .... Professional hydrologists, engineers, irrigation specialists, hydrogeologists, and persons interested in the hydrologic environment-all will find this encyclopedia a reliable guide to information...

  16. CIRP encyclopedia of production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhart, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The CIRP Encyclopedia covers the state-of-art of advanced technologies, methods and models for production, production engineering and logistics. While the technological and operational aspects are in the focus, economical aspects are adressed too. The definitions and short explanations for a wide variety of terms were reviewed by the CIRP-Community, representing the highest standards in research. Thus, the content is not only evaluated internationally on a high scientific level but also reflects very recent developments.

  17. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/encyclopedia.html Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

  18. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  19. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  20. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L.; Swanson, Magdalena I.; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A.; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T. D.; Fulton, Debra L.; Lim, Jonathan S.; Schnabl, Jake M.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N.; Simpson, Elizabeth M.; Ryffel, Gerhart U.; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S. C.; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J.; Beccari, Leonardo L.; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Monteiro, Lara J.; Schwenen, Helma D. C.; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A.; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A.; Mancarelli, M. Michela; Torbett, Bruce E.; Banham, Alison H.; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Cullum, Rebecca L.; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P.; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J.; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J.; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L.; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H.; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J.; van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W. Z.; Breslin, Mary B.; Lan, Michael S.; Nanan, Kyster K.; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D.; Colvin, Stephanie C.; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F.; Witek, Matthew E.; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M.; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A.; Peet, Daniel J.; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J.; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Woodcroft, Mark W.; Hough, Margaret R.; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G. Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; Lebrun, David P.; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J.; Debruyne, Jason P.; Hogenesch, John B.; Hevner, Robert F.; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M.; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S.; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M.; Bradley, Philip H.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review

  1. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallo, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the…

  2. The encyclopedia of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.

  3. Encyclopedia of Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojde

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Encyclopedia of Distance Learning reference book published by Idea Group consists of four volumes. The encyclopedia edited by 6 editors of whom the five are from USA and one is from Hong Kong. Besides these editors, 19 advisors have supported the encyclopedia. The editors and the advisory board are from different institutions. There are more than 400 contributors to the book. Although majority of the contributors are from USA, there are several contributors from several Asian, European and Australian countries like Hong Kong, Malaysia, Germany, Australia, Turkey, Singapore, and Belgium. All of the contributors are academics and represent a variety of universities. All volumes have editorial advisory board list, list of authors, editors’ prefaces, publisher’s note, editors’ biographies, a foreword, contents, an index and a key terms index. There are more than 3000 terms and definitions and over 6000 additional references through four volumes. This four volume set encyclopedia are ordered alphabetically. Volume I consists of initials from A to C, Volume II consists of initials from D to H, Volume III consists of initials from I to Q and Volume IV consists of initials from R to Z.

  4. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  5. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural

  6. Contribution to encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Ocłoń, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    This paper lists the contribution in the international interdisciplinary reference - Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses (ETS). The ETS, edited by the world famous expert in field of Thermal Stresses - Professor Richard Hetnarski from Rochester Institute of Technology, was published by Springer in 2014. This unique Encyclopedia, subdivided into 11 volumes is the most extensive and comprehensive work related to the Thermal Stresses topic. The entries were carefully prepared by specialists in the field of thermal stresses, elasticity, heat conduction, optimization among others. The Polish authors' contribution within this work is significant; over 70 entries were prepared by them.

  7. Encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses is an important interdisciplinary reference work.  In addition to topics on thermal stresses, it contains entries on related topics, such as the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamics, appropriate topics on applied mathematics, and topics on numerical methods. The Encyclopedia is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers. It brings together well established knowledge and recently received results. All entries were prepared  by leading experts from all over the world, and are presented in an easily accessible format. The work is lavishly illustrated, examples and applications are given where appropriate, ideas for further development abound, and the work will challenge many students and researchers to pursue new results of their own. This work can also serve as a one-stop resource for all who need succinct, concise, reliable and up to date information in short encyclopedic entries, while the extensive references will be of inte...

  8. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  9. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...... and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe....

  10. Encyclopedia of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2001-01-01

    Optimization problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems and their applications arise in all branches of science, applied science and engineering. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Optimization is to introduce the reader to a complete set of topics in order to show the spectrum of recent research activities and the richness of ideas in the development of theories, algorithms and the applications of optimization. It is directed to a diverse audience of students, scientists, engineers, decision makers and problem solvers in academia, business, industry, and government.

  11. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  12. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  13. Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia; Williams, Thomas; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard; Marché, Jordan; Palmeri, JoAnn; Green, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. It includes approx. 1850 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of 430 authors edited by an editorial board of 8 historians and astronomers. This reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. The fully corrected and updated second edition adds approximately 300 biographical sketches. Based on ongoing research and feedback from the community, the new entries will fill gaps and provide expansions. In addition, greater emphasis on Russo phone astronomers and radio astronomers is given. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the super luminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci.

  14. An Einstein encyclopedia

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...

  15. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, William; Amils, Ricardo; Cleaves, Henderson; Pinti, Daniele; Quintanilla, José; Rouan, Daniel; Spohn, Tilman; Tirard, Stéphane; Viso, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  16. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Quintanilla, José Cernicharo; Cleaves, Henderson James (Jim); Irvine, William M; Pinti, Daniele L; Viso, Michel; Gargaud, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  17. Encyclopedia of biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.  In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biolo...

  18. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mel

    2002-03-01

    Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all

  19. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  20. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  1. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  2. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  3. Encyclopedia of Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Caroline, Ed.; Boettecher, Judith, Ed.; Justice, Lorraine, Ed.; Schenk, Karen, Ed.; Rogers, Patricia, Ed.; Berg, Gary, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The innovations in computer and communications technologies combined with on-going needs to deliver educational programs to students regardless of their physical locations, have lead to the innovation of distance education programs and technologies. To keep up with recent developments in both areas of technologies and techniques related to…

  4. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Tilman; Johnson, Torrence

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Third Edition-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Cosmology & Astronomy from the Association of American Publishers-provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact-with an astounding breadth of content and breathtaking visual impact. The encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of color digital images and illustrations, and over 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve

  5. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.

    2013-03-20

    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  6. Novartis Compiles Mouse Avatar "Encyclopedia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Alissa

    2016-01-01

    Novartis scientists have generated the PDX Encyclopedia, which contains over 1,000 patient-derived tumor xenograft models spanning a range of common solid cancers. They'll use this collection for in vivo drug screens designed to mimic human clinical trials, which they hope improves candidate therapy profiling. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Dynamics of the Collateral Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2015-01-01

    Both Umberto Eco and Charles S. Peirce have been concerned with the notion of background knowledge. Eco refers to background knowledge as the encyclopedia; Peirce’s term of reference is collateral experience. The aim of this article is to investigate the degree to which these two concepts...

  8. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  9. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,

  10. Encyclopedia of microfluidics and nanofluidics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Covering all aspects of transport phenomena on the nano- and micro-scale, the 800 entries include 300 essay entries.  The Encyclopedia gives an up to date look at the fundamentals of the field as well as many experiments and applications in growing areas such as energy devices and bioengineering applications.

  11. Book review of "Encyclopedia of soil science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book review describes "Encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Chesworth et al. (2008), an update of the 1979 version of "The encyclopedia of soil science" edited by Fairbridge and Finkl. It is compared with Hillel et al. (2004) second edition of "Encyclopedia of soils in the environment" and w...

  12. The Fate of Equality in a Technological Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The meaning of equality has been radically altered since the Enlightenment. In the 18th century, equality acquired political and economic meanings specifically in the contexts of democracy and capitalism. Today, the context in which equality is understood and practiced is technology as our most immediate and compelling environment. Moreover, the…

  13. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  14. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  15. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.

  16. Popular Encyclopedias as a Source of Information about Copyright: A Critical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerome K.

    1983-01-01

    Rating of five multi-volume encyclopedias ("Collier's Encyclopedia,""Encyclopedia Americana,""Encyclopedia Britannica (EB3),""World Book Encyclopedia,""Academic American Encyclopedia") used 20 evaluation criteria to determine usefulness in answering reference questions concerning copyright. Results…

  17. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  18. Dynamics of the Collateral Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2015-01-01

    Both Umberto Eco and Charles S. Peirce have been concerned with the notion of background knowledge. Eco refers to background knowledge as the encyclopedia; Peirce’s term of reference is collateral experience. The aim of this article is to investigate the degree to which these two concepts...... are comparable. We focus on one major metaphysical issue, viz. the fact that Eco defines collateral experience, which is the first step in any process of cognition, as private, whereas Peirce, as a realist, would never accept the concept of private thoughts, feelings, etc. We suggest that freeing collateral...

  19. UCLA Plans Online Encyclopedia of Egyptology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) has unveiled plans for what appears to be the world's first online, peer-reviewed encyclopedia devoted to ancient Egypt. The "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egypt," which in April won a $325,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, will include material in Arabic as well as…

  20. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Hockey, Thomas; Williams, Thomas R; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard A; Marché, Jordan D; Ragep, F. Jamil; Palmeri, JoAnn; Bolt, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. The two volumes include approximately 1550 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of about 400 authors edited by an editorial board of 9 historians and astronomers, and provides additional details on the nature of an entry and some summary statistics on the content of entries. This new reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the superluminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci. A comprehensive contributor index helps researchers to identify the authors of important scientific topics and treatises.

  1. The fate and management of high mercury-containing lamps from high technology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Kong, H W

    2007-03-22

    This study investigated the fate and management of high mercury-contained lamps, such as cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), ultraviolet lamps (UV lamps), and super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs), from high technology industries in Taiwan, using material flow analysis (MFA) method. Several organizations, such as Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, the light sources manufactories, mercury-containing lamps importer, high technology industrial user, and waste mercury-containing lamps treatment facilities were interviewed in this study. According to this survey, the total mercury contained in CCFLs, UV lamps, and SHPs produced in Taiwan or imported from other countries was 886kg in year 2004. Among the various lamps containing mercury, 57kg mercury was exported as primary CCFLs, 7kg mercury was wasted as defective CCFLs, and 820kg mercury was used in the high technology industries, including 463kg mercury contained in exported industrial products using CCFLs as components. On the contrary, only 59kg of mercury was exported, including 57kg in CCFLs and 2kg in UV lamps. It reveals that 364kg mercury was consumed in Taiwan during year 2004. In addition, 140kg of the 364kg mercury contained in lamps used by high technology industry was well treated through industrial waste treatment system. Among the waste mercury from high technology industry, 80kg (57%), 53kg (38%), and 7kg (5%) of mercury were through domestic treatment, offshore treatment, and emission in air, respectively. Unfortunately, 224kg waste mercury was not suitable treated, including 199kg mercury contained in CCFL, which is a component of monitor for personal computer and liquid crystal display television, and 25kg non-treated mercury. Thus, how to recover the mercury from the waste monitors is an important challenge of zero wastage policy in Taiwan.

  2. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  3. Encyclopedia and library in the contemporary age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Traniello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D’Alembert, which dates from 1751, the concept of library is declined in a negative sense, as a closing tool and impediment in the hands of the State, compared to the Encyclopedia, considered the book of the people. The constitution of the public library (the british Public Libraries Act is dated 1850, funded with public money, determines to change and both realities, Library and Encyclopedia, begin to interact contributing to the development of contemporary culture. Such as the Library, the Encyclopedia also supposes a work of organization of knowledge through classifications. From this point of view, both institutions seem closer in a purpose that unites them. In view of the information revolution, the Library should help reduce complexity of digital information and should play, against the vastness of the network, a role similar to what the Enlightenment Encyclopedia has assigned to itself in the face of large library collections, which were seen as points of accumulation, and also as points of the knowledge’s dispersion.

  4. Reach for Reference: A New Early Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the new Grolier Student Encyclopedia, intended for grades three through eight. Good middle-level readers might become frustrated with this source, but primary and intermediate students, middle-level students reading below grade level, and English language learners of any age will find the style of information presentation…

  5. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Michael, Ed.

    This encyclopedia of language teaching and learning is an authoritative handbook dealing with all aspects of this field of study. It has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals, but can also be used as a general reference work for academic studies at a postgraduate level. A comprehensive range of articles on contemporary…

  6. The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

    This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all…

  7. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive reference source onsecurity and ethical issues related to informationand communication technologies. The encyclopediais consisted of 661 pages (+xvii covering a total of95 alphabetically ordered chapters on informationethics and security, which are followed by twocomprehensive sets of indexes. Each entry is anauthoritative contribution followed by in-depthdefinitions of relevant terminology and acronyms.The total number of key terms included in the encyclopedia is approximately 700. Thesource also includes more than 2000 references to existing literature on ethical andsecurity issues related to information and communication technologies. A total of 148respected scholars and leading experts all around the world contributed to the source.As indicated in the preface of the encyclopedia by editor, all entries were subjected toan initial double-blind peer review and an additional review prior to acceptance forpublication. Chapters mostly have parallel layouts beginning with a clear introductionfollowed by the theoretical background and the contribution. Each chapter concludeswith invaluable ethical implications for the field along with suggestions for furtherThe editor, Marian Quigley (PhD – Monash University, Australia; BA – ChisholmInstitute of Technology, Australia; Higher Diploma of Teaching Secondary [Art andCraft] is a former senior lecturer in the Faculty of Information Technology, MonashUniversity, Australia. She primarily works on the social effects

  8. Fate of estrogens and xenoestrogens in four sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kumar, Anu

    2008-01-01

    The fate and removal of the estrogens 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), estrone (E(1)), and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) and of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), and nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate (NPEO1 and NPEO2, respectively) were investigated in four South Australian sewage treatment plants (STPs; plants A-D) with different treatment technologies. The concentrations in the effluent from the two-year survey were similar to those reported in other studies. In the effluent, 4-NP, NPEO1, and NPEO2 had total concentrations up to 8 microg/L, which were much higher than those of BPA and 4-t-OP. Estrone had the highest concentrations among the three estrogens, ranging between 13.3 and 39.3 ng/L, whereas the concentrations for E(2) and EE(2) varied between 1.0 and 4.2 ng/L and between 0.1 and 1.3 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates for the estrogens and xenoestrogens were variable but consistent with the plant performance parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and ammonia). Considering all the estrogenic compounds analyzed in the present study, plant D, with a series of anaerobic and aerobic lagoons, was the least efficient of the four STPs in the removal of these compounds. The removal rates for 4-NP, NPEO1, and NPEO2 within the plants were 92% for plant A, with conventional activated sludge treatment; 80% for plant B, with two oxidation ditches; 70% for plant C, with three bioreactors; and 64% for plant D, with 10 lagoons in series. Comparatively, the removal of estrogens was lower, with rates ranging between 47 and 68% for E(2) at the four plants. Both E(1) and EE(2) were more persistent during treatment, especially in plants C and D.

  9. Islamic Context of Electronic Encyclopedias in English Language: A Critical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad ur Rehman

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of Islam and Muslim world in electronic encyclopedias was conducted by using two-dimensional criteria: searching and technological capabilities, and qualitative evaluation of their content. The factors used to assess searching and technological capabilities are related to direct link, hypertext, related articles, illustration, multimedia, Boolean searching, Internet links, and search history. Content evaluation was conducted in relation to length, scope, treatment level, currency, accuracy, bias, presentation, authorship, and bibliographic documentation. The researchers identified topics that are expected to be valid indicators of the coverage and treatment of Islam and the Muslim world. Some topics are related to theological doctrines, while the others pertained to socio-historical themes. Altogether 21 topics were searched in each title. Five encyclopedias used the same terminology for certain topics, while broader or narrower terms were used for other titles. Total articles thus identified were in the range of 13 to 19. As the search was conducted for a topic, search-related data were noted. Printouts of the identified articles were obtained, and evaluated against specific criteria. It has been found that each encyclopedia has its specific strengths in regard to software and searching capabilities. In content evaluation, it was found that about 30-40% of articles in each encyclopedia had problems with regard to accuracy of information objectivity, coverage, and presentation.

  10. The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia a comprehensive full-length cDNA collection and sequence database. High-level functional annotation is based on sequence homology search, expression profiling, mapping and protein-protein interactions. More than 1000000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced and classified into 128000 clusters, and 60000 representative clones were fully sequenced representing 24000 clear protein-encoding genes. The application of the mouse genome database for positional cloning and gene network regulation analysis is reported.

  11. The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-22

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The pilot phase of the Project is focused on a specified 30 megabases (approximately 1%) of the human genome sequence and is organized as an international consortium of computational and laboratory-based scientists working to develop and apply high-throughput approaches for detecting all sequence elements that confer biological function. The results of this pilot phase will guide future efforts to analyze the entire human genome.

  12. A user's guide to the encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The mission of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to enable the scientific and medical communities to interpret the human genome sequence and apply it to understand human biology and improve health. The ENCODE Consortium is integrating multiple technologies and approaches in a collective effort to discover and define the functional elements encoded in the human genome, including genes, transcripts, and transcriptional regulatory regions, together with their attendant chromatin states and DNA methylation patterns. In the process, standards to ensure high-quality data have been implemented, and novel algorithms have been developed to facilitate analysis. Data and derived results are made available through a freely accessible database. Here we provide an overview of the project and the resources it is generating and illustrate the application of ENCODE data to interpret the human genome.

  13. Acquisition and Use of General Encyclopedias in Small Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Edgar C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of 75 small academic libraries reveals that most hold reasonably current editions of four or five different general encyclopedias with considerable agreement on most popular titles. Encyclopedias are used primarily for ready reference and general introductions to research topics; new editions are purchased at least every five years. (EJS)

  14. Answers on the Disc: General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollens, Deborah; Rible, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Reviews of Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia, New Grolier's Electronic Encyclopedia, and World Book's Information Finder are based on the 1990 editions. It is noted that all three publishers have announced plans to release annual revisions to their discs. The description of each of the products includes critiques of the search program, the…

  15. Kaspar Schott's "encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    2011-06-01

    In 1661, Kaspar Schott published his comprehensive textbook "Cursus mathematicus" in Würzburg for the first time, his "Encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences". It was so successful that it was published again in 1674 and 1677. In its 28 books, Schott gave an introduction for beginners in 22 mathematical disciplines by means of 533 figures and numerous tables. He wanted to avoid the shortness and the unintelligibility of his predecessors Alsted and Hérigone. He cited or recommended far more than hundred authors, among them Protestants like Michael Stifel and Johannes Kepler, but also Catholics like Nicolaus Copernicus. The paper gives a survey of this work and explains especially interesting aspects: The dedication to the German emperor Leopold I., Athanasius Kircher's letter of recommendation as well as Schott's classification of sciences, explanations regarding geometry, astronomy, and algebra.

  16. Summarization of an online medical encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2004-01-01

    We explore a knowledge-rich (abstraction) approach to summarization and apply it to multiple documents from an online medical encyclopedia. A semantic processor functions as the source interpreter and produces a list of predications. A transformation stage then generalizes and condenses this list, ultimately generating a conceptual condensate for a given disorder topic. We provide a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the condensates produced for a sample of four disorders. The overall precision of the disorder conceptual condensates was 87%, and the compression ratio from the base list of predications to the final condensate was 98%. The conceptual condensate could be used as input to a text generator to produce a natural language summary for a given disorder topic.

  17. Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other n...

  18. Fate of selected pathogens in spiked «SALAME NOSTRANO» produced without added nitrates following the application of NONIT™ technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Sechi, P; Iulietto, M F; Grispoldi, L; Selvaggini, R; Ceccarelli, M; Barbera, S

    2018-02-14

    This study evaluated the effect of a novel formulation for starter culture associated with specific ripening conditions (NoNit™ technology) vs. a commercial» starter on the fate of selected pathogens and hygiene indicators during the fermentation and ripening of experimentally spiked salame nostrano (Italian dry sausage). Selected strains of Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Escherichia coli CSH26 K 12, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 and Salmonella Derby 27 were inoculated into salami batter and challenged with two formulations of starter cultures (a commercial formulation and the NoNit™ formulation, consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, strain 340; L. lactis ssp. lactis, strain 16; Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, strain 208 and Enterococcus faecium strain 614) with ripening at a low temperature. The proposed technology (NoNit™) performed better than the commercial formulation and limited the growth of spiked Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (including the production of enterotoxin), Salmonella Derby and Listeria innocua, yet maintained the basic product appearance and texture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual Knowledge: The Best Buys in 1998 CD-ROM Encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Barbara; Kautzman, Amy M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses questions to consider and features to look for in selecting a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Reviews Encyclopaedia Britannica CD 98 Multimedia Edition, Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998, Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia, and Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1998. Contact information, price, and system requirements are listed. (JAK)

  20. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  1. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  2. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  3. Self-Supervised Chinese Ontology Learning from Online Encyclopedias

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Fanghuai; Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into on...

  4. Keeping the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers Relevant for a Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a magnificent accomplishment, but like all such compilations, it faces potentially rapid obsolescence. Relying on my experience as an encyclopedia editor and a contributor to more than 20 other biographical reference works, I will highlight potential pitfalls for the BEA in the future and suggest ways in which the publisher can ensure that the BEA will continue to remain relevant for a generation.

  5. Topochip: technology for instructing cell fate and morphology via designed surface topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, G.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    The control of biomaterial surface topography is emerging as a tool to influence cells and tissues. Due to a lack a theoretical framework of the underlying molecular mechanisms, high-throughput screening (HTS) technology is valuable to identify and study bioactive surface topographies. To identify

  6. State-of-the-Art Multimedia in 1996: The "Big Four" General Encyclopedias on CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Reviews four CD-ROM encyclopedias: Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996 Edition; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia; the 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia; and World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia 1996. Focuses on multimedia features, their quantity, quality, accessibility, and playability. Discusses each product's novel features and important…

  7. What Future for Traditional Encyclopedias in the Age of Wikipedia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Upshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The launch and rapid domination of Wikipedia as a reference tool for the Internet was as dramatic as it was unexpected. Wikipedia broke so many of the rules of reference publishing, which, even if not formally codified, had been widely accepted for many years: the use of (usually named authorities as expert contributors, and the presence of moderating editors to ensure balanced struc-ture. All this appeared to have been swept away with Wikipedia, and, not least because Wikipedia content is given away rather than sold, the competition between Wikipedia and most general-purpose encyclopedias was a sad and rather one-sided affair. One by one the existing commercial print general encyclopedias admitted defeat; among the latest is Brockhaus, the leading German encyclopedia brand, which ended publication early in 2013.

  8. Land of 10,000 Facts: Minnesota's New Digital Encyclopedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Huber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mnopedia is the recently created, born digital encyclopedia of the state of Minnesota. It is a project of the Minnesota Historical Society (MNHS, the state's leading cultural heritage institution and one of the largest and oldest historical societies in the nation. The MNHS has been in existence since 1849 and tells the story of Minnesota's past through exhibitions, extensive libraries and collections, twenty-six historic sites, educational programs, book publishing, and both financial and inkind assistance to county and local historical societies throughout the state. It provides a strong base for an encyclopedia to grow from.

  9. The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sloane, N. J. A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (or OEIS). The OEIS is a database of nearly 90,000 sequences of integers, arranged lexicographically. The entry for a sequence lists the initial terms (50 to 100, if available), a description, formulae, programs to generate the sequence, references, links to relevant web pages, and other information.

  10. Self-supervised Chinese ontology learning from online encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghuai; Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO.

  11. A Look at Four Encyclopedias of 1974--Especially Britannica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstown and Mahoning County Public Library, Youngstown, OH.

    In a panel presentation, Americana, Colliers, Britannica, and World Book encyclopedias were compared. One member described her daughter's experiences in working on Britannica II. The organization of Britannica into a Propaedia, Micropaedia, and a Macropaedia was compared with the alphabetical arrangement of the others. The complex new form was…

  12. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  13. The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science Technology and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed deteriorate during storage and the nature and kinetics of deteriorative reactions depend on seed traits and the relative humidity and temperature at which seeds are stored. Aging reactions are hypothesized to involve oxidations. The temperature-dependency of reactions are described by Arrheni...

  14. A mini-encyclopedia of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, Radko; Stritar, Andrej

    2002-01-01

    Atlas of Nuclear Technology is a central publication for the public information activities of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. We started inviting schoolchildren, students and general public to lectures about radioactivity and nuclear technology already in 1993. Since that time we published many information-nation materials in Slovenian language for our visitors and updated the technical content of the Information-nation Centre several times. After a few years we realized how important it would be that every visitor would leave the Information Centre with some lasting interesting and easily understandable information in a single booklet. Therefore we updated and compiled all the available information panels from the Information Centre, separate leaflets and view-graphs from the lectures and added some essential text that is easily understood also by non-technical persons. From the very beginning we decided that there would be a lot of illustrations and that the text would be in Slovenian and English language in parallel. What finally emerged was a booklet of 60 pages, which we call 'Atlas of Nuclear Technology'. Contents include chapters on physics, TRIGA research reactor, Slovenian energy production, greenhouse effect, nuclear energy in the world, Krsko nuclear power plant, radioactive waste and nuclear accidents. Some 10 000 booklets were printed and are being distributed to the visitors. We refer to the Atlas during the lectures that are typically attended by 50 - 60 8-graders (up to 8000 per year) accompanied by several teachers. The response is very favorable. We get a lot of positive feedback and samples of posters that the schoolchildren have prepared as their homework using the Atlas as the main source of information. Also our yearly poll shows a steady good acceptance of nuclear energy among the youngsters. (author)

  15. The Cambridge encyclopedia of space (revised edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Allest, Frederic; Arets, Jean; Baker, Phillip J.; Balmino, Georges; Barth, Hans; Benson, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive and intensively illustrated development history is presented for spaceflight, ranging over its basic concepts' speculative and fictional origins, the historical roots of rocket-related technologies, and the scientific accomplishments of earth orbit and interplanetary missions to date. Attention is given to propulsion systems, spaceflight launch centers, satellite systems, and solar system exploration by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Current space-related activities encompass the meteorology, remote sensing, telecommunications and direct broadcasting, and navigation functions of unmanned satellites, as well as such manned spacecraft roles as medical and materials science research. The military uses of space, and increasingly important space industrialization concepts, are discussed as well.

  16. Encyclopedia of applied and computational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    EACM is a comprehensive reference work covering the vast field of applied and computational mathematics. Applied mathematics itself accounts for at least 60 per cent of mathematics, and the emphasis on computation reflects the current and constantly growing importance of computational methods in all areas of applications. EACM emphasizes the strong links of applied mathematics with major areas of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science, as well as specific fields like atmospheric ocean science. In addition, the mathematical input to modern engineering and technology form another core component of EACM.

  17. Global Change Encyclopedia - A project for the international space year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J.; Simard, R.; Manore, M.; Baker, R.; Clark, D.; Kineman, J.; Allen, J.; Ruzek, M.

    1991-01-01

    'Global Change Encyclopedia' is a project for the International Space Year in 1992. The project will produce a comprehensive set of satellite and other global data with relevance to studies of global change and of the earth as a system. These data will be packaged on CD-ROMs, accompanied by appropriate software for access, display and manipulation. On behalf of the Canadian Space Agency, the project is being carried out by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as major contributors. This paper highlights the background leading to the project, the concept and principal characteristics of the Encyclopedia itself, and the current status and plans.

  18. Interpreting hypernymic propositions in an online medical encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of semantic propositions from bio-medical texts documents would provide valuable support to natural language processing (NLP) applications. We are developing a methodology to interpret a kind of semantic proposition, the hypernymic proposition, in MEDLINE abstracts. In this paper, we expanded the system to identify these structures in a different discourse domain: the Medical Encyclopedia from the National Library of Medi-cine's MEDLINEplus Website.

  19. 'Unfallable encyclicing': Finnegans Wake and the Encyclopedia Britannica

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Len

    2009-01-01

    This essay aims to develop our knowledge about why the 'Encyclopedia Britannica' ('EB') is of such importance to 'Finnegans Wake' and to establish the general nature of what is an extraordinary example of literary intertextuality. While it incorporates 'EB' articles in various ways, the 'Wake' also sets up a specific riposte to the encyclopedic idea. Engaging at a fundamental level with the principles that underline the 'EB', the 'Wake' swallows or 'digests' vast amounts of conventional reaso...

  20. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janye; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-03-20

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed to systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  1. Expansion of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Christian; Sczyrba, Alex; Malfatti, Stephanie; Lee, Janey; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hallam, Steven; Inskeep, William P.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Tsiamis, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-06-02

    To date the vast majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes sequenced are of rather limited phylogenetic diversity as they were chosen based on their physiology and/ or medical importance. The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project (Wu et al. 2009) is aimed at systematically filling the gaps of the tree of life with phylogenetically diverse reference genomes. However more than 99 percent of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes of these largely mysterious species. These limitations gave rise to the GEBA uncultured project. Here we propose to use single cell genomics to massively expand the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea by targeting 80 single cell representatives of uncultured candidate phyla which have no or very few cultured representatives. Generating these reference genomes of uncultured microbes will dramatically increase the discovery rate of novel protein families and biological functions, shed light on the numerous underrepresented phyla that likely play important roles in the environment, and will assist in improving the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Bacteria and Archaea. Moreover, these data will improve our ability to interpret metagenomics sequence data from diverse environments, which will be of tremendous value for microbial ecology and evolutionary studies to come.

  2. In situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media fate/transport, in situ control technologies, and risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In this project, in situ remediation technologies are being tested and evaluated for both source control and mass removal of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds in low permeability media (LPM). This effort is focused on chlorinated solvents (e.g., trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) in the vadose and saturated zones of low permeability, massive deposits, and stratified deposits with inter-bedded clay lenses. The project includes technology evaluation and screening analyses and field-scale testing at both clean and contaminated sites in the US and Canada. Throughout this project, activities have been directed at understanding the processes that influence DNPAL compound migration and treatment in LPM and to assessing the operation and performance of the remediation technologies developed and tested. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton

    2001-01-01

    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  4. "I overcame fate, fate harkens to me"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available ”I overcome Fate (to heimarmenon; Fate harkens to me". In order to understand the tension in this proclamation of Isis, which forms the conclusion of the Isis aretalogy from Cyme, we must make a closer acquaintance with the two dramatis personae. With what right could Isis make a claim like this? How was to heimarmenon understood and experienced in the Hellenistic environment to which the Cyme hymn belongs? This paper considers the Egyptian goddess and her relation to Fate, by pointing out a few `fatalistic traits' in Isis' character. But first we have to ask another question: How did the Egyptians understand Fate in general? What concepts did they use in order to define Fate and its effects? What was the relation between the god(s and Fate?

  5. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall, the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and is an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.

  6. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Dmitry A; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A; Wang, Yanbing; Obraztsova, Anna Y; Zagnitko, Olga P; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F; Reed, Samantha; Fredrickson, James K; Nealson, Kenneth H; Osterman, Andrei L

    2010-09-13

    Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators) spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars.Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a substantial expansion of our current version of the Genomic

  7. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Ross

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. Results We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. Conclusions The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a

  8. Tumor suppressors status in cancer cell line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Dmitriy; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis J; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2013-08-01

    Tumor suppressors play a major role in the etiology of human cancer, and typically achieve a tumor-promoting effect upon complete functional inactivation. Bi-allelic inactivation of tumor suppressors may occur through genetic mechanisms (such as loss of function mutation, copy number (CN) loss, or loss of heterozygosity (LOH)), epigenetic mechanisms (such as promoter methylation or histone modification), or a combination of the two. We report systematically derived status of 69 known or putative tumor suppressors, across 799 samples of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. In order to generate such resource we constructed a novel comprehensive computational framework for the assessment of tumor suppressor functional "status". This approach utilizes several orthogonal genomic data types, including mutation data, copy number, LOH and expression. Through correlation with additional data types (compound sensitivity and gene set activity) we show that this integrative method provides a more accurate assessment of tumor suppressor status than can be inferred by expression, copy number, or mutation alone. This approach has the potential for a more realistic assessment of tumor suppressor genes for both basic and translational oncology research. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE): data portal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carrie A; Hitz, Benjamin C; Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Hilton, Jason A; Jain, Kriti; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Narayanan, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Graham, Keenan; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Strattan, J Seth; Jolanki, Otto; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Cherry, J Michael

    2018-01-04

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data Coordinating Center has developed the ENCODE Portal database and website as the source for the data and metadata generated by the ENCODE Consortium. Two principles have motivated the design. First, experimental protocols, analytical procedures and the data themselves should be made publicly accessible through a coherent, web-based search and download interface. Second, the same interface should serve carefully curated metadata that record the provenance of the data and justify its interpretation in biological terms. Since its initial release in 2013 and in response to recommendations from consortium members and the wider community of scientists who use the Portal to access ENCODE data, the Portal has been regularly updated to better reflect these design principles. Here we report on these updates, including results from new experiments, uniformly-processed data from other projects, new visualization tools and more comprehensive metadata to describe experiments and analyses. Additionally, the Portal is now home to meta(data) from related projects including Genomics of Gene Regulation, Roadmap Epigenome Project, Model organism ENCODE (modENCODE) and modERN. The Portal now makes available over 13000 datasets and their accompanying metadata and can be accessed at: https://www.encodeproject.org/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Reol: R interface to the Encyclopedia of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, Barbara L; O'Meara, Brian C

    2014-06-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life is a website that hosts information about life on Earth. Its mission is to increase awareness and understanding of living nature through a freely accessible digital source. Information is publicly available through graphical webpages (browser interface) or through an application programming interface (API). We developed Reol, an open-source package for the R environment, which downloads data from the EOL API, searches for and extracts specific information, and builds tables with quantitative data and/or hierarchical classifications. We provide a detailed description how Reol can be used as a bridge between the R environment and the EOL API to extract quantitative or hierarchical content. It will be particularly useful for researchers who want information about taxonomic groups of interest (for example: how much information is known about flatworm species? What are the taxonomic synonyms for bird species?) or construct a taxonomic tree. Reol is a tool for researchers who wish to download and gather data from EOL or its provider pages. We provide numerous functions within R for downloading, gathering data in different forms, creating taxonomic trees, and plotting data, which work with functions already available through various packages. It joins a growing body of R packages that interact with web-based APIs to streamline data acquisition, thereby easing the analysis of large publicly available datasets.

  11. «It is the West who taught it to us»: formation of Russian encyclopedia studies in tsarist Russia

    OpenAIRE

    VLADIMIRSKY I.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses main stages in the development of Russian national encyclopedias. The way to first Russian encyclopedias coincided with the development of Russian intellectual elite and struggle with foreign influence and spirit within Russian academia. First Russian encyclopedias tried to copy the structure and the content of the famous foreign encyclopedias such as British Britannica, German Brockhaus and French Encyclopedie. First Russian national Brockhaus-Efron encyclopedia was publ...

  12. The Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics: a big data ecosystem for (prote)omics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Alejandro; Afzal, Vackar; Kent, Robert; Lamond, Angus I

    2018-01-04

    Driven by improvements in speed and resolution of mass spectrometers (MS), the field of proteomics, which involves the large-scale detection and analysis of proteins in cells, tissues and organisms, continues to expand in scale and complexity. There is a resulting growth in datasets of both raw MS files and processed peptide and protein identifications. MS-based proteomics technology is also used increasingly to measure additional protein properties affecting cellular function and disease mechanisms, including post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, subcellular and tissue distributions. Consequently, biologists and clinicians need innovative tools to conveniently analyse, visualize and explore such large, complex proteomics data and to integrate it with genomics and other related large-scale datasets. We have created the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics (EPD) to meet this need (https://peptracker.com/epd/). The EPD combines a polyglot persistent database and web-application that provides open access to integrated proteomics data for >30 000 proteins from published studies on human cells and model organisms. It is designed to provide a user-friendly interface, featuring graphical navigation with interactive visualizations that facilitate powerful data exploration in an intuitive manner. The EPD offers a flexible and scalable ecosystem to integrate proteomics data with genomics information, RNA expression and other related, large-scale datasets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  14. Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: The one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpides, Nikos C; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; Whitman, William B; Hugenholtz, Phil; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project with the objective of sequencing 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes. The two major goals of that project were (a) to test the hypothesis that there are many benefits to the use the phylogenetic diversity of organisms in the tree of life as a primary criterion for generating their genome sequence and (b) to develop the necessary framework, technology and organization for large-scale sequencing of microbial isolate genomes. While the GEBA pilot project has not yet been entirely completed, both of the original goals have already been successfully accomplished, leading the way for the next phase of the project. Here we propose taking the GEBA project to the next level, by generating high quality draft genomes for 1,000 bacterial and archaeal strains. This represents a combined 16-fold increase in both scale and speed as compared to the GEBA pilot project (250 isolate genomes in 4+ years). We will follow a similar approach for organism selection and sequencing prioritization as was done for the GEBA pilot project (i.e. phylogenetic novelty, availability and growth of cultures of type strains and DNA extraction capability), focusing on type strains as this ensures reproducibility of our results and provides the strongest linkage between genome sequences and other knowledge about each strain. In turn, this project will constitute a pilot phase of a larger effort that will target the genome sequences of all available type strains of the Bacteria and Archaea.

  15. Fate of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides

  16. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of The Structural Designing of Medical Informatics Dynamic Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Shahmoradi, Leila; Hosseini-Beheshti, Molouk-Sadat; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh; Hosseiniravandi, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Encyclopedias and their compilation have become so prevalent as a valid cultural medium in the world. The daily development of computer industry and the expansion of various sciences have made indispensable the compilation of electronic, specialized encyclopedias, especially the web-based ones. This is an applied-developmental study conducted in 2014. First, the main terms in the field of medical informatics were gathered using MeSH Online 2014 and the supplementary terms of each were determined, and then the tree diagram of the terms was drawn based on their relationship in MeSH. Based on the studies done by the researchers, the tree diagram of the encyclopedia was drawn with respect to the existing areas in this field, and the terms gathered were put in related domains. In MeSH, 75 preferred terms together with 249 supplementary ones were indexed. One of the informatics' sub-branches is biomedical informatics and health which itself consists of three sub-divisions of bioinformatics, clinical informatics, and health informatics. Medical informatics which is a subdivision of clinical informatics has developed from the three fields of medical sciences, management and social sciences, and computational sciences and mathematics. Medical Informatics is created of confluence and fusion and applications of the three major scientific branches include health and biological sciences, social sciences and management sciences, computing and mathematical sciences, and according to that the structure of MeSH is weak for future development of Encyclopedia of Medical Informatics.

  17. Interactive Encyclopedia of North American Weeds, DVD v.4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interactive DVD-ROM encyclopedia of North American weeds was developed that includes home pages for 685 weed species descriptions, over 3700 color photos, illustrated collar regions for grasses, distribution maps, habitat information, crops affected, ecological information, and hot-linked illustr...

  18. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  19. Effective Educational Programs: Meta-Findings from the Best Evidence Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One of the major series of reviews in elementary and secondary education is the Best Evidence Encyclopedia, or the BEE. Up to now, findings for systematic reviews have largely been restricted to the reviews themselves, with few cases in which lessons learned across many reviews using similar methods can be synthesized. The completion of the Best…

  20. The promise of functional genomics: completing the encyclopedia of a cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; Robinson, Mark D; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Johnston, Mark

    2004-10-01

    Genome sequencing provides complete parts lists of organisms. This presents the obvious challenge of determining how each gene contributes to the life of the organism. This task seems increasingly feasible; however, progress to date suggests that increased interaction between systematic efforts and individual investigators will be critical to completing the encyclopedia of the yeast cell.

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  2. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  3. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  4. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  5. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  7. Digging Wikipedia : The Online Encyclopedia as a Digital Cultural Heritage Gateway and Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentzold, C.; Weltevrede, E.; Mauri, M.; Laniado, D.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Borra, E.

    The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is both a cultural reference to store, refer to, and organize digitized and digital information, as well as a key contemporary digital heritage endeavor in itself. Capitalizing on this dual nature of the project, this article introduces Wikipedia as a digital

  8. The Family in America: An Encyclopedia. The American Family. Volumes One and Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Joseph M., Ed.

    As the United States changes as a nation, so too, does the family. This two-volume encyclopedia takes an incisive, multidisciplinary look at the American family over the past 200 years, examining public policies, organizations and programs, health and social issues, the family constellation, researchers and theorists, and family customs and…

  9. Britannica Online: Redefining Encyclopedia for the Next Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the information database Britannica Online. Topics include compact discs versus online feeds; database delivery via the Internet; use of technology such as hyperlink, graphics, audio, and video; Britannica's search engine architecture; search options; user reactions, and costs. (AEF)

  10. Preferential attachment in the growth of social networks: the internet encyclopedia Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocci, A; Servedio, V D P; Colaiori, F; Buriol, L S; Donato, D; Leonardi, S; Caldarelli, G

    2006-09-01

    We present an analysis of the statistical properties and growth of the free on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. By describing topics by vertices and hyperlinks between them as edges, we can represent this encyclopedia as a directed graph. The topological properties of this graph are in close analogy with those of the World Wide Web, despite the very different growth mechanism. In particular, we measure a scale-invariant distribution of the in and out degree and we are able to reproduce these features by means of a simple statistical model. As a major consequence, Wikipedia growth can be described by local rules such as the preferential attachment mechanism, though users, who are responsible of its evolution, can act globally on the network.

  11. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  12. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  13. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  14. Design of Application Software : Visualization of Electronic Encyclopedia with Multimedia Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laggoune, Hayet; Madenda, Sarifuddin; Gunawan, Teddy

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a multimedia program which visualizes an electronic dictionary / encyclopedia. This program uses different types of files such as text, sound, graphic and video. These files are related to each corresponding word as defined in the dictionary. This software is easy to use and allow searching, adding, editing or deleting data from the dictionary. It can also visualizes the word contain as text, graphic, sound or video

  15. Fate in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Gaardsting, O; Hougaard Jensen, K

    1986-01-01

    The fate of 257 consecutive patients (100 women) aged 36-85 years (mean 65) first seen with intermittent claudication in 1977 was analysed after a mean of 6.5 (SD 0.5) years. When first seen none of the patients complained of rest pain or had ulcers or gangrenous lesions on the feet. At follow up...

  16. The effect of different treatment technologies on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons after the application of residual municipal wastewater solids to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-application of residual wastewater solids is an important environmental source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment technologies exist that can reduce ARG levels in residual solids prior to land-application, but the effect of these technologies on ARG levels in soil following land-a...

  17. Fate of research studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Easterbrook, P J; Matthews, D R

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective survey was conducted of 720 research protocols, approved by the Central Oxford Research Ethics Committee between 1984 and 1987, to determine the fate of research studies from inception. Forty-five per cent were clinical trials, 23% were observational studies and 32% were laboratory-based experimental studies. Further information was obtained on 487 studies, of which 287 (59%) had been completed, 100 (21%) had never started, 58 (12%) had been abandoned or were in abeyance and 4...

  18. Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with an enormous amount of content. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open-editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is an unstable and unreliable source; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the number of edits as the unit of time, without consideration of real time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through a systematic analysis using the entire history of 34534110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real time, we find the existence of distinct growth patterns that are unobserved by utilizing the number of edits as the unit of time. To account for these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts the article editing dynamics based on both editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates the key properties of real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred ones, and articles attracting a high motivation to edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will become more severe with time.

  19. Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with an enormous amount of content. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open-editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is an unstable and unreliable source; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the number of edits as the unit of time, without consideration of real time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through a systematic analysis using the entire history of 34 534 110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real time, we find the existence of distinct growth patterns that are unobserved by utilizing the number of edits as the unit of time. To account for these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts the article editing dynamics based on both editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates the key properties of real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred ones, and articles attracting a high motivation to edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will become more severe with time.

  20. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chantal-Marie; Seltmann, Katja C

    2014-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource.

  1. Osterbrock Prize Lecture: The Coming to Be of the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The four-volume Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (and cosmologists), second edition, is one of a kind: There is no discipline-specific counterpart in the physical or biological sciences. The BEA is the work of 430 authors, translators, and editors who produced biographies of approximately 1,800 persons, from the beginning of history to the beginning of the era of Big Science. How did this happen? The Editor-in-chief will give a “behind the pages” view of the construction of this first-look, first-reached-from-the-shelf reference work.

  2. Encyclopedia of cosmology historical, philosophical, and scientific foundations of modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Norriss S

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, first published in 1993, recounts the history, philosophical assumptions, methodological ambiguities, and human struggles that have influenced the various responses to the basic questions of cosmology through the ages, as well as referencing important scientific theories.Just as the recognition of social conventions in other cultures can lead to a more productive perspective on our own behaviour, so too a study of the cosmologies of other times and places can enable us recognise elements of our own cosmology that might otherwise pass as inevitable developments.Ap

  3. The Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia edited and computerized to promote public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooke, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Editing the Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia has been in progress since 1989. It will be completed in 1993. The book is intended to provide raw material for the public to have his own judgement on nuclear energy. It is also useful as a 'text book' for specialists who lecture on the nuclear energy including the social effects at public seminars and meetings. Computerization of the book is also being made simultaneously. The trial use of the partly completed book has been started by some 150 of the nominated lectures through the country from August 1992. The computerized book has been well received so far by these lectures. (J.P.N.)

  4. Using web-based technology to deliver scientific knowledge: the Southern Forest Encyclopedia Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; H. Michael Rauscher; Deborah K. Kennard; Patricia A. Flebbe; J. Bryan Jordin; William G. Hubbard; Cynthia Fowler; James. Ward

    2007-01-01

    Forest science, like any science, is a continuous process of discovering new knowledge, reevaluating existing knowledge, and revising our theories and management practices in light of these changes. The forest science community has not yet found the solution to the problem of getting continuously changing science efficiently and effectively into the hands of those who...

  5. Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.

    2013-01-01

    Earth is home to an estimated 8 million animal species, 600,000 fungi, 300,000 plants, and an undetermined number of microbial species. Of these animal, fungal, and plant species, an estimated 75% have yet to be identified. Moreover, the interactions between these species and their physical

  6. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  7. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Revisiting nanoparticle technology for blood-brain barrier transport: Unfolding at the endothelial gate improves the fate of transferrin receptor-targeted liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-28

    An unmet need exists for therapeutic compounds to traverse the brain capillary endothelial cells that denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver effective treatment to the diseased brain. The use of nanoparticle technology for targeted delivery to the brain implies that targeted liposomes encapsulating a drug of interest will undergo receptor-mediated uptake and transport through the BBB with a subsequent unfolding of the liposomal content inside the brain, hence revealing drug release to adjacent drug-demanding neurons. As transferrin receptors (TfRs) are present on brain capillary endothelial, but not on endothelial cells elsewhere in the body, the use of TfR-targeted liposomes - colloidal particulates with a phospholipid bilayer membrane - remains the most relevant strategy to obtain efficient drug delivery to the brain. However, many studies have failed to provide sufficient quantitative data to proof passage of the BBB and significant appearance of drugs inside the brain parenchyma. Here, we critically evaluate the current evidence on the use of TfR-targeted liposomes for brain drug delivery based on a thorough investigation of all available studies within this research field. We focus on issues with respect to experimental design and data analysis that may provide an explanation to conflicting reports, and we discuss possible explanations for the current lack of sufficient transcytosis across the BBB for implementation in the design of TfR-targeted liposomes. We finally provide a list of suggestions for strategies to obtain substantial uptake and transport of drug carriers at the BBB with a concomitant transport of therapeutics into the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A question of fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Maletic-Savatic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of neural stem cells in the mammalian brain, the possibility of brain tissue regeneration has captured the minds of scientists, clinicians, and the public. Neural stem cells have been envisioned as a source of donor cells for transplantation and vectors for the delivery of gene therapy. Over the past decade, many researchers have contributed to characterizing these cells and their lineages, providing the foundation for their utilization as therapeutic devices. In a new study, Azim and colleagues took a different approach: using pharmacogenomics to focus on neural stem cell lineage, they identified specific compounds that can direct neural stem cell fate toward a specific lineage in vivo, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Their work opens new avenues for treatment of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders.

  10. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the centra...

  11. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  12. DANIO-CODE: Toward an Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haihan; Onichtchouk, Daria; Winata, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a model organism for genomics studies. The symposium "Toward an encyclopedia of DNA elements in zebrafish" held in London in December 2014, was coorganized by Ferenc Müller and Fiona Wardle. This meeting is a follow-up of a similar previous workshop held 2 years earlier and represents a push toward the formalization of a community effort to annotate functional elements in the zebrafish genome. The meeting brought together zebrafish researchers, bioinformaticians, as well as members of established consortia, to exchange scientific findings and experience, as well as to discuss the initial steps toward the formation of a DANIO-CODE consortium. In this study, we provide the latest updates on the current progress of the consortium's efforts, opening up a broad invitation to researchers to join in and contribute to DANIO-CODE.

  13. Ten years of CAZypedia: a living encyclopedia of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-12-01

    CAZypedia was initiated in 2007 to create a comprehensive, living encyclopedia of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and associated carbohydrate-binding modules involved in the synthesis, modification and degradation of complex carbohydrates. CAZypedia is closely connected with the actively curated CAZy database, which provides a sequence-based foundation for the biochemical, mechanistic and structural characterization of these diverse proteins. Now celebrating its 10th anniversary online, CAZypedia is a successful example of dynamic, community-driven and expert-based biocuration. CAZypedia is an open-access resource available at URL http://www.cazypedia.org. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A brief review on the Human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongzhu; Fang, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    The ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project is an international research consortium that aims to identify all functional elements in the human genome sequence. The second phase of the project comprised 1640 datasets from 147 different cell types, yielding a set of 30 publications across several journals. These data revealed that 80.4% of the human genome displays some functionality in at least one cell type. Many of these regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and further form a network or three-dimensional conformation to affect gene expression. These elements are also related to sequence variants associated with diseases or traits. All these findings provide us new insights into the organization and regulation of genes and genome, and serve as an expansive resource for understanding human health and disease. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Translating the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements Project findings to the clinic: ENCODE's implications for eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10 years after the Human Genome Project unravelled the sequence of our DNA, the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project sought to interpret it. Data from the recently completed project have shed new light on the proportion of biologically active human DNA, assigning a biochemical role to much of the sequence previously considered to be 'junk'. Many of these newly catalogued functional elements represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of gene expression. Analogous to an Ishihara plate, a gene-coding region of DNA (target dots) only comes into context when the non-coding DNA (surrounding dots) is appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the ENCODE project, discussing the significance of these data for ophthalmic research and eye disease. The novel insights afforded by the ENCODE project will in time allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies in the management of common blinding disorders. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF QUESTIONABLE EXCLUSION CRITERIA IN MENTAL DISORDER CLINICAL TRIALS USING A MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine requires precise evidence-based practice and precise definition of the patients included in clinical studies for evidence generalization. Clinical research exclusion criteria define confounder patient characteristics for exclusion from a study. However, unnecessary exclusion criteria can weaken patient representativeness of study designs and generalizability of study results. This paper presents a method for identifying questionable exclusion criteria for 38 mental disorders. We extracted common eligibility features (CEFs) from all trials on these disorders from ClinicalTrials.gov. Network Analysis showed scale-free property of the CEF network, indicating uneven usage frequencies among CEFs. By comparing these CEFs' term frequencies in clinical trials' exclusion criteria and in the PubMed Medical Encyclopedia for matching conditions, we identified unjustified potential overuse of exclusion CEFs in mental disorder trials. Then we discussed the limitations in current exclusion criteria designs and made recommendations for achieving more patient-centered exclusion criteria definitions.

  17. Knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text from the encyclopedia of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E; Parr, Cynthia Sims

    2014-01-01

    Numerous digitization and ontological initiatives have focused on translating biological knowledge from narrative text to machine-readable formats. In this paper, we describe two workflows for knowledge extraction and semantic annotation of text data objects featured in an online biodiversity aggregator, the Encyclopedia of Life. One workflow tags text with DBpedia URIs based on keywords. Another workflow finds taxon names in text using GNRD for the purpose of building a species association network. Both workflows work well: the annotation workflow has an F1 Score of 0.941 and the association algorithm has an F1 Score of 0.885. Existing text annotators such as Terminizer and DBpedia Spotlight performed well, but require some optimization to be useful in the ecology and evolution domain. Important future work includes scaling up and improving accuracy through the use of distributional semantics.

  18. Proteopedia: Exciting Advances in the 3D Encyclopedia of Biomolecular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilusky, Jaime; Hodis, Eran; Sussman, Joel L.

    Proteopedia is a collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of protein, nucleic acid and other structures. Proteopedia ( http://www.proteopedia.org ) presents 3D biomolecule structures in a broadly accessible manner to a diverse scientific audience through easy-to-use molecular visualization tools integrated into a wiki environment that anyone with a user account can edit. We describe recent advances in the web resource in the areas of content and software. In terms of content, we describe a large growth in user-added content as well as improvements in automatically-generated content for all PDB entry pages in the resource. In terms of software, we describe new features ranging from the capability to create pages hidden from public view to the capability to export pages for offline viewing. New software features also include an improved file-handling system and availability of biological assemblies of protein structures alongside their asymmetric units.

  19. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  20. Harnessing cell-material interaction to control cell fate: design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat K Das

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Harnessing cell-material interaction to control cell fate: design principle of advanced functional hydrogel materials. †. RAJAT K DAS. ∗. Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. E-mail: rajat@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in. MS received 15 August 2017; revised 29 ...

  1. Fate and source distribution of organic constituents in a river ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 6. Fate and source distribution of organic constituents in a ... P M Salas1 C H Sujatha1 C S Ratheesh Kumar1. Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, India.

  2. Review Essay: The New Complexity: Encyclopedias, Glossaries and Dictionaries on Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new genre—glossaries and dictionaries on qualitative research—has started to enter the Anglo-American publishing market. Following Thomas A. SCHWANDT's Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry, published for the first time in 1997 and now available in a 3rd edition, two new books have appeared: The SAGE Dictionary of Social Research Methods, edited by Victor JUPP, and Keywords in Qualitative Research, written by Michael BLOOR and Fiona WOOD. Similar volumes are in the pipeline, such as The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, edited by Lisa M. GIVEN, which is to be published in spring 2008. In face of the diversification of qualitative research, such a development is not surprising: encyclopedias, glossaries and dictionaries promise a quick overview of an increasingly complex research area. Yet it is surprising that although more than 600 terms and concepts are defined and discussed in the books mentioned above, there is only a small group of about 30 terms common to all of them. Even for this common denominator descriptions are divergent and there is little overlap of the references provided for further reading in relation to each term. In this regard qualitative research seems to be something it is hard for encyclopedic endeavors to grasp. A further comparison of the English books with the only one currently available in German reveals the impact of language and national barriers: many terms familiar to at least some sections of the German qualitative research community do not exist at all in the English-language texts. The books discussed in this essay offer an overview but do not really do justice to the complexity and diversity of the research field. To purchase just one of them would bring only partial success to those hoping for a comprehensive overview of the field of qualitative research. And whether such fixed—print—reference guides will be attractive outside of libraries when the Internet, including Wikipedia and

  3. Proteopedia: a status report on the collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of proteins and other biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilusky, Jaime; Hodis, Eran; Canner, David; Decatur, Wayne A; Oberholser, Karl; Martz, Eric; Berchanski, Alexander; Harel, Michal; Sussman, Joel L

    2011-08-01

    Proteopedia is a collaborative, 3D web-encyclopedia of protein, nucleic acid and other biomolecule structures. Created as a means for communicating biomolecule structures to a diverse scientific audience, Proteopedia (http://www.proteopedia.org) presents structural annotation in an intuitive, interactive format and allows members of the scientific community to easily contribute their own annotations. Here, we provide a status report on Proteopedia by describing advances in the web resource since its inception three and a half years ago, focusing on features of potential direct use to the scientific community. We discuss its progress as a collaborative 3D-encyclopedia of structures as well as its use as a complement to scientific publications and PowerPoint presentations. We also describe Proteopedia's use for 3D visualization in structure-related pedagogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds that the cent......In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...... that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard...

  5. Pocketome: an encyclopedia of small-molecule binding sites in 4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufareva, Irina; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    The importance of binding site plasticity in protein-ligand interactions is well-recognized, and so are the difficulties in predicting the nature and the degree of this plasticity by computational means. To assist in understanding the flexible protein-ligand interactions, we constructed the Pocketome, an encyclopedia of about one thousand experimentally solved conformational ensembles of druggable binding sites in proteins, grouped by location and consistent chain/cofactor composition. The multiplicity of pockets within the ensembles adds an extra, fourth dimension to the Pocketome entry data. Within each ensemble, the pockets were carefully classified by the degree of their pairwise similarity and compatibility with different ligands. The core of the Pocketome is derived regularly and automatically from the current releases of the Protein Data Bank and the Uniprot Knowledgebase; this core is complemented by entries built from manually provided seed ligand locations. The Pocketome website (www.pocketome.org) allows searching for the sites of interest, analysis of conformational clusters, important residues, binding compatibility matrices and interactive visualization of the ensembles using the ActiveICM web browser plugin. The Pocketome collection can be used to build multi-conformational docking and 3D activity models as well as to design cross-docking and virtual ligand screening benchmarks.

  6. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modeling of anticancer drug sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A.; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J.; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F.; Monahan, John E.; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A.; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H.; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K.; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D.; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C.; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E.; Weber, Barbara L.; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L.; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R.; Morrissey, Michael P.; Sellers, William R.; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumor biology and therapeutic avenues remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacologic annotation is available1. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number, and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacologic profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Altogether, our results suggest that large, annotated cell line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of “personalized” therapeutic regimens2. PMID:22460905

  7. Potential use of DNA barcodes in regulatory science: applications of the Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, Haile F; Zemlak, Tyler S; Mason, Jacquline A; Washington, Jewell D; Tenge, Bradley J; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan T; Barnett, James D; Savary, Warren E; Hill, Walter E; Moore, Michelle M; Fry, Frederick S; Randolph, Spring C; Rogers, Patricia L; Hebert, Paul D N

    2008-01-01

    The use of a DNA-based identification system (DNA barcoding) founded on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was investigated for updating the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE; http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/-frf/rfe0.html). The RFE is a compilation of data used to identify fish species. It was compiled to help regulators identify species substitution that could result in potential adverse health consequences or could be a source of economic fraud. For each of many aquatic species commonly sold in the United States, the RFE includes high-resolution photographs of whole fish and their marketed product forms and species-specific biochemical patterns for authenticated fish species. These patterns currently include data from isoelectric focusing studies. In this article, we describe the generation of DNA barcodes for 172 individual authenticated fish representing 72 species from 27 families contained in the RFE. These barcode sequences can be used as an additional identification resource. In a blind study, 60 unknown fish muscle samples were barcoded, and the results were compared with the RFE barcode reference library. All 60 samples were correctly identified to species based on the barcoding data. Our study indicates that DNA barcoding can be a powerful tool for species identification and has broad potential applications.

  8. Genetic load makes cancer cells more sensitive to common drugs: evidence from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ana B; Korolev, Kirill S

    2017-05-16

    Genetic alterations initiate tumors and enable the evolution of drug resistance. The pro-cancer view of mutations is however incomplete, and several studies show that mutational load can reduce tumor fitness. Given its negative effect, genetic load should make tumors more sensitive to anticancer drugs. Here, we test this hypothesis across all major types of cancer from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, which provides genetic and expression data of 496 cell lines together with their response to 24 common anticancer drugs. We found that the efficacy of 9 out of 24 drugs showed significant association with genetic load in a pan-cancer analysis. The associations for some tissue-drug combinations were remarkably strong, with genetic load explaining up to 83% of the variance in the drug response. Overall, the role of genetic load depended on both the drug and the tissue type with 10 tissues being particularly vulnerable to genetic load. We also identified changes in gene expression associated with increased genetic load, which included cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and apoptosis. Our results show that genetic load is an important component of tumor fitness and can predict drug sensitivity. Beyond being a biomarker, genetic load might be a new, unexplored vulnerability of cancer.

  9. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  10. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  11. eRAM: encyclopedia of rare disease annotations for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinmeng; An, Zhongxin; Ming, Yue; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wei; Liang, Yunxiang; Guo, Dongming; Li, Xin; Tai, Jun; Chen, Geng; Jin, Yaqiong; Liu, Zhimei; Ni, Xin; Shi, Tieliu

    2018-01-04

    Rare diseases affect over a hundred million people worldwide, most of these patients are not accurately diagnosed and effectively treated. The limited knowledge of rare diseases forms the biggest obstacle for improving their treatment. Detailed clinical phenotyping is considered as a keystone of deciphering genes and realizing the precision medicine for rare diseases. Here, we preset a standardized system for various types of rare diseases, called encyclopedia of Rare disease Annotations for Precision Medicine (eRAM). eRAM was built by text-mining nearly 10 million scientific publications and electronic medical records, and integrating various data in existing recognized databases (such as Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), Human Phenotype Ontology, Orphanet, OMIM, GWAS). eRAM systematically incorporates currently available data on clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms of rare diseases and uncovers many novel associations among diseases. eRAM provides enriched annotations for 15 942 rare diseases, yielding 6147 human disease related phenotype terms, 31 661 mammalians phenotype terms, 10,202 symptoms from UMLS, 18 815 genes and 92 580 genotypes. eRAM can not only provide information about rare disease mechanism but also facilitate clinicians to make accurate diagnostic and therapeutic decisions towards rare diseases. eRAM can be freely accessed at http://www.unimd.org/eram/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  13. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  14. Fate of acetone in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.; Stephens, D.W.; Shultz, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological processes that might affect the concentration of acetone in water were investigated in laboratory studies. Processes considered included volatilization, adsorption by sediments, photodecomposition, bacterial degradation, and absorption by algae and molds. It was concluded that volatilization and bacterial degradation were the dominant processes determining the fate of acetone in streams and rivers. ?? 1982.

  15. [The tragic fate of physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Physicians and surgeons were always involved in revolutions, wars and political activities, as well as in various medical humanities. Tragic fate met these doctors, whether in the Russian prisons gulags, German labor or concentration camps, pogroms or at the hands of the Inquisition.

  16. Cell lineage and fate determination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Sally A

    1999-01-01

    ... Washington University. Cell Lineage and Fate DeterminationEdited by SALLYA. MOODY Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology Institute for Biomedical Sciences The George Washington University Washington, D.C. 20037 San Diego London Boston ACADEMIC PRESS New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto Copyright PageCover photograph: Wild-type embryonic central nervous system ...

  17. Targeting a complex transcriptome: the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carninci, Piero; Waki, Kazunori; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Konno, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Arakawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Daisuke; Bono, Hidemasa; Kondo, Shinji; Sugahara, Yuichi; Saito, Rintaro; Osato, Naoki; Fukuda, Shiro; Sato, Kenjiro; Watahiki, Akira; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Mari; Shibata, Yuko; Yasunishi, Ayako; Kikuchi, Noriko; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Gustincich, Stefano; Beisel, Kirk; Pavan, William; Aidinis, Vassilis; Nakagawara, Akira; Held, William A; Iwata, Hiroo; Kono, Tomohiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Lyons, Paul; Wells, Christine; Hume, David A; Fagiolini, Michela; Hensch, Takao K; Brinkmeier, Michelle; Camper, Sally; Hirota, Junji; Mombaerts, Peter; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-06-01

    We report the construction of the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia,the most extensive view of a complex transcriptome,on the basis of preparing and sequencing 246 libraries. Before cloning,cDNAs were enriched in full-length by Cap-Trapper,and in most cases,aggressively subtracted/normalized. We have produced 1,442,236 successful 3'-end sequences clustered into 171,144 groups, from which 60,770 clones were fully sequenced cDNAs annotated in the FANTOM-2 annotation. We have also produced 547,149 5' end reads,which clustered into 124,258 groups. Altogether, these cDNAs were further grouped in 70,000 transcriptional units (TU),which represent the best coverage of a transcriptome so far. By monitoring the extent of normalization/subtraction, we define the tentative equivalent coverage (TEC),which was estimated to be equivalent to >12,000,000 ESTs derived from standard libraries. High coverage explains discrepancies between the very large numbers of clusters (and TUs) of this project,which also include non-protein-coding RNAs,and the lower gene number estimation of genome annotations. Altogether,5'-end clusters identify regions that are potential promoters for 8637 known genes and 5'-end clusters suggest the presence of almost 63,000 transcriptional starting points. An estimate of the frequency of polyadenylation signals suggests that at least half of the singletons in the EST set represent real mRNAs. Clones accounting for about half of the predicted TUs await further sequencing. The continued high-discovery rate suggests that the task of transcriptome discovery is not yet complete.

  18. Fate of an accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, J.-A.; Hwang, W-Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    The presently accelerating universe may keep accelerating forever, eventually run into the event horizon problem, and thus be in conflict with the superstring idea. On the other hand, the current accelerating phase as well as the fate of the universe may be swayed by a negative cosmological constant, which dictates a big crunch. Based on the current observational data, in this paper we investigate how large the magnitude of a negative cosmological constant is allowed to be. In addition, for distinguishing the sign of the cosmological constant via observations, we point out that a measure of the evolution of the dark energy equation-of-state may be a good discriminator. Hopefully future observations will provide much more detailed information about dark energy and thereby indicate the sign of the cosmological constant as well as the fate of the presently accelerating universe

  19. Empowering patients and health professionals in the Arab world: the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Arabic Health Encyclopedia on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuwaijri, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the needs and the process of establishing an online Arabic health encyclopedia to empower patients and health professionals with trustworthy information. A study was conducted by King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in collaboration with Health on the Net (HON) Foundation to review the quality of Arabic health information on the internet. A review of health portals in other languages was performed. Meetings were conducted to investigate areas of collaboration with different stakeholders including: WHO, HON, the U.S. National Library of Medicine, and the NHS. The results of the assessment of Arabic health sites showed that a very small percentage (almost 4%) meets international standards. The study results call for immediate action to improve the trustworthiness of Arabic health information on the net. This will be achieved by establishing a reliable Arabic health encyclopedia and by encouraging health professionals from all Arab countries to contribute to its creation. It is important for the 300 million Arabic citizens around the world to be able to access valuable health information on the internet. More than 300 million Arab citizens around the world have missed the opportunity to use the internet to provide them with quality health information. Hence, to bridge this gap, a new project was launched to develop an online Arabic health encyclopedia. Moreover, this study proposes an Arabic health information foundation be established to govern and accredit the Arabic health websites, and to work in collaboration with HON, to regulate and promote the quality of health information on the internet in Arab countries.

  20. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell fate patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The spatial patterning of three cell fates in a row of competent cells is exemplified by vulva development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The intercellular signaling network that underlies fate specification is well understood, yet quantitative aspects remain to be elucidated. Quantitative models of the network allow us to test the effect of parameter variation on the cell fate pattern output. Among the parameter sets that allow us to reach the wild-type pattern, two general developmental patterning mechanisms of the three fates can be found: sequential inductions and morphogen-based induction, the former being more robust to parameter variation. Experimentally, the vulval cell fate pattern is robust to stochastic and environmental challenges, and minor variants can be detected. The exception is the fate of the anterior cell, P3.p, which is sensitive to stochastic variation and spontaneous mutation, and is also evolving the fastest. Other vulval precursor cell fates can be affected by mutation, yet little natural variation can be found, suggesting stabilizing selection. Despite this fate pattern conservation, different Caenorhabditis species respond differently to perturbations of the system. In the quantitative models, different parameter sets can reconstitute their response to perturbation, suggesting that network variation among Caenorhabditis species may be quantitative. Network rewiring likely occurred at longer evolutionary scales. (paper)

  2. Environmental fate and behaviour of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified.......In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified....

  3. Modeling nanomaterial environmental fate in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Amy L; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V; Lead, Jamie R; Viparelli, Enrica; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2015-03-03

    Mathematical models improve our fundamental understanding of the environmental behavior, fate, and transport of engineered nanomaterials (NMs, chemical substances or materials roughly 1-100 nm in size) and facilitate risk assessment and management activities. Although today's large-scale environmental fate models for NMs are a considerable improvement over early efforts, a gap still remains between the experimental research performed to date on the environmental fate of NMs and its incorporation into models. This article provides an introduction to the current state of the science in modeling the fate and behavior of NMs in aquatic environments. We address the strengths and weaknesses of existing fate models, identify the challenges facing researchers in developing and validating these models, and offer a perspective on how these challenges can be addressed through the combined efforts of modelers and experimentalists.

  4. [The systematization of the sciences as a cultural task. Options for an open understanding of culture in Paul Hinneberg's encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziche, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Paul Hinneberg promises, in his multi-volume Kultur der Gegenwart (1906sqq.), to capture the 'culture' of his time in its entirety; only a veritable encyclopedia could be adequate to the task of synthesizing the manifold and disparate tendencies of 'Kultur'. Surprisingly, however, any attempt to make explicit the systematic principles governing his encyclopedic synthesis is missing from his project. It is argued that this--unusual--feature of Hinneberg's Kultur der Gegenwart can itself be understood as a result of typical analyses of 'Kultur' at the turn of the century; culture, as an open, multi-sided, and integrative concept may indeed best be captured in an open system that avoids strict and explicit demarcations. In these respects, the task of capturing Kultur turns out to be closely linked to another task prominent around 1900: that of providing a systematic ordering of the various 'Wissenschaften'.

  5. The Liber Compostelle Attributed to Friar Bonaventura of Iseo: The Textual Tradition of a Thirteenth-Century Alchemical Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Maria Chiara

    2016-08-01

    The Liber Compostelle is an alchemical encyclopedia associated with the name of Bonaventura of Iseo, a friar of great reputation and an esteemed preacher around the middle of the thirteenth century. It is one of the first works to show an interest in medicine and pharmacology among the Friars Minor. Despite its importance, the Liber Compostelle has never been published. This article investigates the textual history of the treatise, and the problems of its authorship and dating, examining the eight manuscripts that contain the Liber. It shows that the text written around the mid-thirteenth century, probably by Bonaventura, was variously and freely adapted and modified around the end of the century, resulting in two versions of the text. Finally, the article examines the main characteristics of the treatise, such as its compilatory nature, its emphasis on practical applications, and the presence of typical themes of Franciscan alchemical literature.

  6. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL: identification of Environment Ontology terms in text and the annotation of the Encyclopedia of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Frankild, Sune P; Schnetzer, Julia; Fanini, Lucia; Faulwetter, Sarah; Pavloudi, Christina; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Leary, Patrick; Hammock, Jennifer; Schulz, Katja; Parr, Cynthia Sims; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-06-01

    The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses, respectively, at http://environments.hcmr.gr. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Attardo, Salvatore (Ed. (2014. Encyclopedia of humor studies. (Vols. 1-2. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannantonio Forabosco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the encyclopedia is well suited for this impressive publication. In an extended, yet detailed form, this project brings together a significant number of research findings on humor, beginning with contemporary work that inserts itself into an important, largely philosophical, tradition of studies and theories. Many researchers and scholars have focused on defining the plethora of voices contained in these two volumes, totaling more than 900 pages. Even if a certain quantity of material and some interesting perspectives have not been included, there is no doubt that the breadth of representation, significance of the research, and value of this collection represent a stimulus for future studies with an interest in sense of humor.

  8. Multimodal Imaging of Neural Progenitor Cell Fate in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannic Waerzeggers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For clinical application of stem cell–based therapies, noninvasive detection of applied stem cells is of high importance. We report on the feasibility of detecting implanted neural progenitor cells (NPCs noninvasively and follow their fate and functional status by sequential multimodal molecular imaging and reporter gene technology. We investigated C17.2 cells stably expressing herpes simplex virus type 1–thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk and green fluorescent protein (gfp (C17.2-tkIRESgfp = C17.2-TIG or HSV-1-tk, gfp, and firefly luciferase (luc (C17.2-lucIREStkgfp = C17.2-LITG and determined the detection sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET and bioluminescence imaging (BLI for these cells in culture and in vivo in subcutaneous and intracranial glioma models. In addition, PET and BLI were used to further investigate and follow the fate of implanted C17.2-LITG cells in an intracranial glioma model. We show that both imaging modalities are sensitive in detecting reporter gene expressing NPCs; however, PET, by the use of 9-[4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl]guanine ([18F]FHBG, detects NPCs only at sites of disrupted blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, both imaging modalities can be used to detect stem cell fate and migration and indicate excessive proliferation and aberrant migration. In conclusion, multimodal imaging can be used for longitudinal noninvasive monitoring of grafted NPCs in rodents.

  9. Making of a retinal cell: insights into retinal cell-fate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jillian J; Farris, Caitlin; Chowdhury, Rebecca; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the process by which an uncommitted dividing cell produces particular specialized cells within a tissue remains a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissues are well suited for cell-fate studies, but perhaps none more so than the developing retina. Traditionally, experiments using the retina have been designed to elucidate the influence that individual environmental signals or transcription factors can have on cell-fate decisions. Despite a substantial amount of information gained through these studies, there is still much that we do not yet understand about how cell fate is controlled on a systems level. In addition, new factors such as noncoding RNAs and regulators of chromatin have been shown to play roles in cell-fate determination and with the advent of "omics" technology more factors will most likely be identified. In this chapter we summarize both the traditional view of retinal cell-fate determination and introduce some new ideas that are providing a challenge to the older way of thinking about the acquisition of cell fates. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic regulation of enteroendocrine fate by Numb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, Jérémy; Gervais, Louis; Boumard, Benjamin; Stefanutti, Marine; Siudeja, Katarzyna; Bardin, Allison J

    2017-07-03

    How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition. We find that Numb is regulated in part through its asymmetric and symmetric distribution during stem cell divisions; however, its de novo synthesis is also required during the differentiation of the EE cell. Thus, this work identifies Numb as a crucial factor for cell fate choice in the adult Drosophila intestine. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that cell-intrinsic control mechanisms of terminal cell fate acquisition can result in a balanced tissue-wide production of terminally differentiated cell types. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

    2000-05-01

    Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and

  12. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  13. Deep sequencing as a probe of normal stem cell fate and preneoplasia in human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Benjamin D

    2016-01-05

    Using deep sequencing technology, methods based on the sporadic acquisition of somatic DNA mutations in human tissues have been used to trace the clonal evolution of progenitor cells in diseased states. However, the potential of these approaches to explore cell fate behavior of normal tissues and the initiation of preneoplasia remain underexploited. Focusing on the results of a recent deep sequencing study of eyelid epidermis, we show that the quantitative analysis of mutant clone size provides a general method to resolve the pattern of normal stem cell fate and to detect and characterize the mutational signature of rare field transformations in human tissues, with implications for the early detection of preneoplasia.

  14. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-01

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  15. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  16. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-10

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  17. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  18. Towards writing the encyclopedia of life: an introduction to DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Vincent; Cowan, Robyn S; Vogler, Alfried P; Roderick, George K; Lane, Richard

    2005-10-29

    An international consortium of major natural history museums, herbaria and other organizations has launched an ambitious project, the 'Barcode of Life Initiative', to promote a process enabling the rapid and inexpensive identification of the estimated 10 million species on Earth. DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique in which short DNA sequence(s) can be used for species identification. The first international scientific conference on Barcoding of Life was held at the Natural History Museum in London in February 2005, and here we review the scientific challenges discussed during this conference and in previous publications. Although still controversial, the scientific benefits of DNA barcoding include: (i) enabling species identification, including any life stage or fragment, (ii) facilitating species discoveries based on cluster analyses of gene sequences (e.g. cox1 = CO1, in animals), (iii) promoting development of handheld DNA sequencing technology that can be applied in the field for biodiversity inventories and (iv) providing insight into the diversity of life.

  19. Fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzsche, Henning; Hemmann, Ulrike; Poth, Albrecht; Utesch, Dietmar; Lott, Jasmin; Stopper, Helga

    The present review describes available evidence about the fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Micronuclei are small, extranuclear chromatin bodies surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The mechanisms underlying the formation of micronuclei are well understood but not much is known about the potential fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Many studies with different experimental approaches addressed the various aspects of the post-mitotic fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. These studies are reviewed here considering four basic possibilities for potential fates of micronuclei: degradation of the micronucleus or the micronucleated cell, reincorporation into the main nucleus, extrusion from the cell, and persistence in the cytoplasm. Two additional fates need to be considered: premature chromosome condensation/chromothripsis and the elimination of micronucleated cells by apoptosis, yielding six potential fates for micronuclei and/or micronucleated cells. The available data is still limited, but it can be concluded that degradation and extrusion of micronuclei might occur in rare cases under specific conditions, reincorporation during the next mitosis occurs more frequently, and the majority of the micronuclei persist without alteration at least until the next mitosis, possibly much longer. Overall, the consequences of micronucleus formation on the cellular level are still far from clear, but they should be investigated further because micronucleus formation may contribute to the initial and later steps of malignant cell transformation, by causing gain or loss of genetic material in the daughter cells and by the possibility of massive chromosome rearrangement in chromosomes entrapped within a micronucleus by the mechanisms of chromothripsis and chromoanagenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Wang; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Yulin; Li, Lisha

    2017-06-01

    Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate. We discuss the unsolved problems and future directions of biomaterial stiffness in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Detection of the inferred interaction network in hepatocellular carcinoma from EHCO (Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Lai, Jin-Mei; Liu, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Huei-Hun; Lin, Chih-Yun; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Su, Li-Jen; Lee, Sheng-An; Chen, Chang-Han; Lee, Gen-Cher; Lee, D T; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yeh, Chang-Wei; Chang, Chao-Hui; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Huang, Chi-Ying F

    2007-02-27

    The significant advances in microarray and proteomics analyses have resulted in an exponential increase in potential new targets and have promised to shed light on the identification of disease markers and cellular pathways. We aim to collect and decipher the HCC-related genes at the systems level. Here, we build an integrative platform, the Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online, dubbed EHCO http://ehco.iis.sinica.edu.tw, to systematically collect, organize and compare the pileup of unsorted HCC-related studies by using natural language processing and softbots. Among the eight gene set collections, ranging across PubMed, SAGE, microarray, and proteomics data, there are 2,906 genes in total; however, more than 77% genes are only included once, suggesting that tremendous efforts need to be exerted to characterize the relationship between HCC and these genes. Of these HCC inventories, protein binding represents the largest proportion (~25%) from Gene Ontology analysis. In fact, many differentially expressed gene sets in EHCO could form interaction networks (e.g. HBV-associated HCC network) by using available human protein-protein interaction datasets. To further highlight the potential new targets in the inferred network from EHCO, we combine comparative genomics and interactomics approaches to analyze 120 evolutionary conserved and overexpressed genes in HCC. 47 out of 120 queries can form a highly interactive network with 18 queries serving as hubs. This architectural map may represent the first step toward the attempt to decipher the hepatocarcinogenesis at the systems level. Targeting hubs and/or disruption of the network formation might reveal novel strategy for HCC treatment.

  2. Detection of the inferred interaction network in hepatocellular carcinoma from EHCO (Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chang-Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The significant advances in microarray and proteomics analyses have resulted in an exponential increase in potential new targets and have promised to shed light on the identification of disease markers and cellular pathways. We aim to collect and decipher the HCC-related genes at the systems level. Results Here, we build an integrative platform, the Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online, dubbed EHCO http://ehco.iis.sinica.edu.tw, to systematically collect, organize and compare the pileup of unsorted HCC-related studies by using natural language processing and softbots. Among the eight gene set collections, ranging across PubMed, SAGE, microarray, and proteomics data, there are 2,906 genes in total; however, more than 77% genes are only included once, suggesting that tremendous efforts need to be exerted to characterize the relationship between HCC and these genes. Of these HCC inventories, protein binding represents the largest proportion (~25% from Gene Ontology analysis. In fact, many differentially expressed gene sets in EHCO could form interaction networks (e.g. HBV-associated HCC network by using available human protein-protein interaction datasets. To further highlight the potential new targets in the inferred network from EHCO, we combine comparative genomics and interactomics approaches to analyze 120 evolutionary conserved and overexpressed genes in HCC. 47 out of 120 queries can form a highly interactive network with 18 queries serving as hubs. Conclusion This architectural map may represent the first step toward the attempt to decipher the hepatocarcinogenesis at the systems level. Targeting hubs and/or disruption of the network formation might reveal novel strategy for HCC treatment.

  3. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  4. Cell fate determination dynamics in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchina, Anna; Espinar, Lorena; Cagatay, Tolga; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Suel, Gurol

    2010-03-01

    The fitness of an organism depends on many processes that serve the purpose to adapt to changing environment in a robust and coordinated fashion. One example of such process is cellular fate determination. In the presence of a variety of alternative responses each cell adopting a particular fate represents a ``choice'' that must be tightly regulated to ensure the best survival strategy for the population taking into account the broad range of possible environmental challenges. We investigated this problem in the model organism B.Subtilis which under stress conditions differentiates terminally into highly resistant spores or initiates an alternative transient state of competence. The dynamics underlying cell fate choice remains largely unknown. We utilize quantitative fluorescent microscopy to track the activities of genes involved in these responses on a single-cell level. We explored the importance of temporal interactions between competing cell fates by re- engineering the differentiation programs. I will discuss how the precise dynamics of cellular ``decision-making'' governed by the corresponding biological circuits may enable cells to adjust to diverse environments and determine survival.

  5. SIMPLEBOX: a generic multimedia fate evaluation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D

    1993-01-01

    This document describes the technical details of the multimedia fate model SimpleBox, version 1.0 (930801). SimpleBox is a multimedia box model of what is commonly referred to as a "Mackay-type" model ; it assumes spatially homogeneous environmental compartments (air, water, suspended

  6. Fate of Nutrients in Human Dominated Ecosystems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental researcher in. ATREE. Her work focuses on identification of contaminant sources in surface water bodies, modelling the fate and transport of contaminants in urban hydrological systems, and assessing the risk to human health on exposure to contaminants. Jakkur Lake in the city of Bengaluru covers an ...

  7. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  8. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  9. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  10. Encyclopedia of marine sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baretta-Bekker, J.G; Duursma, E.K; Kuipers, B.R

    1992-01-01

    ...) is reflected in some 1850 up-to-date alphabetically listed keywords, and many illustrations, to give scientists, teachers, and students a helpful and timesaving aid when studying marine scientific literature...

  11. International Encyclopedia of Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a description of the diverse backgrounds and working circumstances of teacher educators and their broad scope of tasks and responsibilities. One important priority among others in the induction of novice teacher educators is enhancing scholarship and becoming

  12. Two encyclopedia contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh

    2003-01-01

    censoring; Cox regression model; counting process; event history analysis; intensity process; multi-state model; non-parametric inference; parametric models; survival analysis; Cox's proportional hazards model; hazard function, regression model; time-dependent covariate; time scale...

  13. Encyclopedia Publishing: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Kenneth

    1978-01-01

    Problems discussed include difficulty of keeping pace with the "knowledge explosion" and rapidly changing social attitudes, higher production costs vs. declining sales, consumer dissatisfaction with sales tactics, and intellectual snobbery towards the product. Trends are the single volume edition, improved sales techniques, and publisher…

  14. Incomplete Data - Encyclopedia Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    data, are given in Afifi and Elashoff (1966), Hartley and Hocking (1971), Orchard and Woodbury (1972), Dempster, Laird and Rubin (1977), and Little (1982...Early literature was concerned with small numbers of variables (two or three) and simple patterns of missing data (Anderson, 1957; Afifi and Elashoff...representation of a monotone (or nested data pattern -14- REFERENCES Afifi , A. A. and Elashoff, R. M. "Missing observations in multivariate statistics I

  15. Microsoft Encarta 99 Encyclopedia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERNET, LINGUISTIESE WOORDEBOEK, MEDIOSJRUKTUUR, MULTIMEDIA, NIELINGUIS-. TIESE WOORDEBOEK, P ASSIEWE KRUISVERWYSINGS, TOEGANGSJRUKTUUR, WOORDE-. BOEKTOEGANKLIKHEID. Introduction. The interaction between linguistics and lexicography has been fruitful through the years.

  16. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  17. Guarani Paraguayo [Encyclopedia entry

    OpenAIRE

    Drude, S.

    2005-01-01

    Guaraní , Paraguaisches Guaraní, Eigen-Bez. Avañe’ẽ, Sprache in Paraguay (über 3,5 Mio. Sprecher, 95 % der Bev.), NO-Argentinien (bis zu 1 Mio. Sprecher) und S-Brasilien. Das zu den Tupí-Guaraní-Sprachen zählende G. ist eine der größten → Indianersprachen S-Amerikas (nach Ketschua und vor Aimara) und die einzige, die überwiegend von Nicht-Indianern gebraucht wird. Seit den 1990-Jahren ist das G. in Paraguay als Nationalsprache anerkannt und wird auch in Schulen verwendet. Das G. wurde durch d...

  18. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  19. Spatial Distribution of Fate and Transport Parameters Using Cxtfit in a Karstified Limestone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, J.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Karst environments have a high capacity to transport and store large amounts of water. This makes karst aquifers a productive resource for human consumption and ecological integrity, but also makes them vulnerable to potential contamination of hazardous chemical substances. High heterogeneity and anisotropy of karst aquifer properties make them very difficult to characterize for accurate prediction of contaminant mobility and persistence in groundwater. Current technologies to characterize and quantify flow and transport processes at field-scale is limited by low resolution of spatiotemporal data. To enhance this resolution and provide the essential knowledge of karst groundwater systems, studies at laboratory scale can be conducted. This work uses an intermediate karstified lab-scale physical model (IKLPM) to study fate and transport processes and assess viable tools to characterize heterogeneities in karst systems. Transport experiments are conducted in the IKLPM using step injections of calcium chloride, uranine, and rhodamine wt tracers. Temporal concentration distributions (TCDs) obtained from the experiments are analyzed using the method of moments and CXTFIT to quantify fate and transport parameters in the system at various flow rates. The spatial distribution of the estimated fate and transport parameters for the tracers revealed high variability related to preferential flow heterogeneities and scale dependence. Results are integrated to define spatially-variable transport regions within the system and assess their fate and transport characteristics.

  20. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  1. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  2. Third international radioecological conference. The fate of spent nuclear fuel: problems and reality. Abstracts collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the book there are abstracts collection of the third International radioecological conference 'The fate of spent nuclear fuel: problems and reality' (June, 22-27, 1996, Krasnoyarsk, Russia) and International workshop meeting 'Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia'. In the collection there are materials concerning the problems of technology, economics, ecology and safety of two types of nuclear cycle as well as the problems of health of population living near nuclear ojects and on contaminated territories

  3. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively....... The measurements are used to validate a distribution model and the model analysis is used for interpretation of the results. The model analysis demonstrates that pyrethroids are adsorbed in the upper few mm of the sediment...

  4. The fate of radionuclides in the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Le Gall, B.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the way in which a radionuclide arrives in the body, its fate and the possible effects of the contamination can range widely. To evaluate fully and realistically the consequences of a possible internal contamination by a radionuclide it is therefore most important to study the way in which it is transported in the body, whether and how it binds to different tissues and organs, and by what means it is likely to be eliminated. (authors)

  5. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, ...

  6. Fate of Gases generated from Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Francis, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The backfill materials such as cement, bentonite or crushed rock are used as engineered barriers against groundwater infiltration and radionuclide transport. Gas generation from radioactive wastes is attributed to radiolysis, corrosion of metals, and degradation of organic materials. Corrosion of steel drums and biodegradation of organic materials in L/ILW can generate gas which causes pressure build up and has the potential to compromise the integrity of waste containers and release the radionuclides and other contaminants into the environment. Performance assessment therefore requires a detailed understanding of the source and fate of gas generation and transport within the disposal system. Here we review the sources and fate of various type of gases generated from nuclear wastes and repositories. Studies on modeling of the fate and transport of repository gases primarily deal with hydrogen and CO 2 . Although hydrogen and carbon dioxide are the major gases of concern, microbial transformations of these gases in the subterranean environments could be significant. Metabolism of hydrogen along with the carbon dioxide results in the formation of methane, low molecular weight organic compounds and cell biomass and thus could affect the total inventory in a repository environment. Modeling studies should take into consideration of both the gas generation and consumption processes over the long-term

  7. Fate bias during neural regeneration adjusts dynamically without recapitulating developmental fate progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Chi Kei, Jeremy; Currie, Peter David; Jusuf, Patricia Regina

    2017-07-13

    Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique. We investigated to what extent extrinsic feedback influences fate choices in two injury models, and whether fate specification follows the histogenic order observed in development. By comparing two injury paradigms that affect different subpopulations of neurons, we found a dynamic adaptability of fate choices during regeneration. Both injuries followed a similar time course of cell death, and activated Müller glia proliferation. However, these newly generated cells were initially biased towards replacing specifically the ablated cell types, and subsequently generating all cell types as the appropriate neuron proportions became re-established. This dynamic behaviour has implications for shaping regenerative processes and ensuring restoration of appropriate proportions of neuron types regardless of injury or cell type lost. Our findings suggest that regenerative fate processes are more flexible than development processes. Compared to development fate specification we observed a disruption in stereotypical birth order of neurons during regeneration Understanding such feedback systems can allow us to direct regenerative fate specification in injury and diseases to regenerate specific neuron types in vivo.

  8. The Development of a Materials Distribution Service for a Satellite-Based Educational Telecommunications Experiment. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Helen C.

    Because 16mm film programs for classroom use are expensive and distribution is unpredictable, the Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) established a Materials Distribution Service (MDS) to transmit material via satellite to rural sites in the Rocky Mountains. The STD leased 300 programs from Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation and…

  9. CONFIGURATIONS OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA AND THE MODEL READER IN A TEXTBOOK OF MISIONES, ARGENTINA / CONFIGURACIONES DE LA ENCICLOPEDIA Y EL LECTOR MODELO EN UN TEXTO ESCOLAR DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilán Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze, from the conceptual categories of Encyclopedia and Model Reader raised by Umberto Eco, a fragment of the school handbook Misiones 4, text required reading during the last two decades in schools in the State of Misiones, Argentina. The hypothesis to guide our analysis consider that the text fragment -but also the entire textbook Misiones 4- reinforces and configures an encyclopedia "official" that promotes the historical continuity -forgetting conflicts and tensions- between the Jesuit province of 18th century and the Argentine state of 20th century, postulating, at the same, a Reader Model that adheres to a simplified pedagogical and religious local memory.

  10. Cell Fate Decision Making through Oriented Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Taylor, Danielle T; Johnston, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    The ability to dictate cell fate decisions is critical during animal development. Moreover, faithful execution of this process ensures proper tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood, whereas defects in the molecular machinery involved may contribute to disease. Evolutionarily conserved protein complexes control cell fate decisions across diverse tissues. Maintaining proper daughter cell inheritance patterns of these determinants during mitosis is therefore a fundamental step of the cell fate decision-making process. In this review, we will discuss two key aspects of this fate determinant segregation activity, cortical cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation, and how they operate together to produce oriented cell divisions that ultimately influence daughter cell fate. Our focus will be directed at the principal underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific cell fate decisions they have been shown to control.

  11. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  12. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  13. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell–cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species. (paper)

  14. Modeling Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) Fate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) identified in pre-manufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate the environmental behavior of nanomaterials due to incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. We have updated the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), version S, to incorporate nanomaterials as an explicitly simulated state variable. WASPS now has the capability to simulate nanomaterial fate and transport in surface waters and sediments using heteroaggregation, the kinetic process governing the attachment of nanomaterials to particles and subsequently ENM distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases. Unlike dissolved chemicals which use equilibrium partition coefficients, heteroaggregation consists of a particle collision rate and an attachment efficiency ( lXhet) that generally acts as a one direction process. To demonstrate, we used a derived a het value from sediment attachment studies to parameterize WASP for simulation of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) transport in Brier Creek, a coastal plain river located in central eastern Georgia, USA and a tr

  15. Fate in the religion of the Lepchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfdan Siiger

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lepchas are mountainous agriculturalists who live in the State of Sikkim in the Himalayas and in some adjacent Indian districts. To the Lepchas the supernatural world is divided into two groups, the rum, or the mainly benevolent supernatural beings, and the mung, or the malignant supernatural beings. Any evil occurrence is in the first instance ascribed to the malignant activities of the mung, but it may, under certain conditions, also be due to temporary on the part of some or other rum. If it is obvious that the evil occurrence is caused by a human being, this person is considered to be governed by some mung, or he may, which is much worse, be a mung in human disguise. At all events, any evil occurrence is experienced as the result of the evil will-power of some or other malignant supernatural being. Consequently, we cannot apply our technical term "Fate" to such occurrences, and Fate as an abstract concept cannot be used, when we speak of the Lepchas.

  16. Glucocorticoid regulation of astrocytic fate and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available Glial loss in the hippocampus has been suggested as a factor in the pathogenesis of stress-related brain disorders that are characterized by dysregulated glucocorticoid (GC secretion. However, little is known about the regulation of astrocytic fate by GC. Here, we show that astrocytes derived from the rat hippocampus undergo growth inhibition and display moderate activation of caspase 3 after exposure to GC. Importantly, the latter event, observed both in situ and in primary astrocytic cultures is not followed by either early- or late-stage apoptosis, as monitored by stage I or stage II DNA fragmentation. Thus, unlike hippocampal granule neurons, astrocytes are resistant to GC-induced apoptosis; this resistance is due to lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a greater buffering capacity against the cytotoxic actions of ROS. We also show that GC influence hippocampal cell fate by inducing the expression of astrocyte-derived growth factors implicated in the control of neural precursor cell proliferation. Together, our results suggest that GC instigate a hitherto unknown dialog between astrocytes and neural progenitors, adding a new facet to understanding how GC influence the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus.

  17. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacterial and Archaeal Type Strains, Phase III: the genomes of soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, William B; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhou, Yuguang; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project to sequence about 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes of elevated phylogenetic diversity. Herein, we propose to extend this approach to type strains of prokaryotes associated with soil or plants and their close relatives as well as type strains from newly described species. Understanding the microbiology of soil and plants is critical to many DOE mission areas, such as biofuel production from biomass, biogeochemistry, and carbon cycling. We are also targeting type strains of novel species while they are being described. Since 2006, about 630 new species have been described per year, many of which are closely aligned to DOE areas of interest in soil, agriculture, degradation of pollutants, biofuel production, biogeochemical transformation, and biodiversity.

  18. Understanding selection bias, time-lags and measurement bias in secondary data sources: Putting the Encyclopedia of Associations database in broader context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Shaun; Baumgartner, Frank R; Johnson, Erik W; McCarthy, John D

    2013-11-01

    Secondary data gathered for purposes other than research play an important role in the social sciences. A recent data release has made an important source of publicly available data on associational interests, the Encyclopedia of Associations (EA), readily accessible to scholars (www.policyagendas.org). In this paper we introduce these new data and systematically investigate issues of lag between events and subsequent reporting in the EA, as these have important but under-appreciated effects on time-series statistical models. We further analyze the accuracy and coverage of the database in numerous ways. Our study serves as a guide to potential users of this database, but we also reflect upon a number of issues that should concern all researchers who use secondary data such as newspaper records, IRS reports and FBI Uniform Crime Reports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatially explicit fate modelling of nanomaterials in natural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, J.T.K.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Site specific exposure assessments for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) require spatially explicit fate models, which however are not yet available. Here we present an ENP fate model (NanoDUFLOW) that links ENP specific process descriptions to a spatially explicit hydrological model. The link enables

  20. Cell fate determination in the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soete, G.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The starting point for this work was to use the hypodermal seam of C. elegans as a model system to study cell fate determination. Even though the seam is a relatively simple developmental system, the mechanisms that control cell fate determination in the seam lineages are connected in a highly

  1. Cell lineages and fate maps in tunicates: conservation and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hiroki; Stach, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Comparison of features of the cell lineages and fate maps of early embryos between related species is useful in inferring developmental mechanisms and amenable to evolutionary considerations. We present cleavage patterns, cell lineage trees, and fate maps of ascidian and appendicularian embryos side by side to facilitate comparison. This revealed a number of significant differences in cleavage patterns and cell lineage trees, whereas the fate maps were found to be conserved. This fate map similarity can be extended to vertebrates, thus representing the fate map characteristics of chordates. Cleavage patterns and cell lineages may have been modified during evolution without any drastic changes in fate maps. Selective pressures that constrain developmental mechanisms at early embryonic stages might not be so strong as long as embryos are still able to generate a chordate-type fate map. Aquatic chordates share similar fate maps and morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and neurulation, eventually developing into tadpole-shaped larvae. As swimming by tail beats, and not by cilia, is advantageous, selective pressure may maintain the basic elements of the tadpole shape. We also discuss the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate neural crest and the embryonic origin of the appendicularian heart to illustrate the usefulness of cell lineage data. From an evolutionary standpoint, cell lineages behave like other characteristics such as morphology or protein sequences. Both novel and primitive features are present in extant organisms, and it is of interest to identify the relative degree of evolutionary conservation as well as the level at which homology is inferred.

  2. Analysis, fate and effects of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schauss, K.; Focks, A.; Heuer, H.; Kotzerke, A.; Schmitt, H.; Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Smalla, K.; Wilke, B.M.; Matthies, M.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge about the interplay between fate and effects of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in soil ecosystems. In applying manure from antibiotic-treated animals to arable soils, sulfadiazine can reach the environment, but fate and transformation processes and the

  3. Fate and Bioavailability of Engineered Nanoparticles in Soils: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelis, G.; Hund-Rinke, K.; Kuhlbusch, T.; Brink, van den N.W.; Nickel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions within natural soils have often been neglected when assessing fate and bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in soils. This review combines patchwise ENM research using natural soils with the much wider literature on ENM performed in standard tests or on the fate of colloids

  4. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  5. Developmental Competence for Primordial Germ Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günesdogan, Ufuk; Surani, M Azim

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian embryonic development, the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extraembryonic tissues, while the epiblast differentiates into all somatic lineages and the germline. Remarkably, only a few classes of signaling pathways induce the differentiation of these progenitor cells into diverse lineages. Accordingly, the functional outcome of a particular signal depends on the developmental competence of the target cells. Thus, developmental competence can be defined as the ability of a cell to integrate intrinsic and extrinsic cues to execute a specific developmental program toward a specific cell fate. Downstream of signaling, there is the combinatorial activity of transcription factors and their cofactors, which is modulated by the chromatin state of the target cells. Here, we discuss the concept of developmental competence, and the factors that regulate this state with reference to the specification of mammalian primordial germ cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-approval fate of pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    For a fortunate subset of pharmaceutical companies, a regulatory approval is the culmination of massive investment in time, work and money. What happens next? Some companies proceed to build a pipeline and obtain additional approvals. Others do not. In this present report, post-approval fate is evaluated and it was found that most companies are ultimately acquired. A subset achieved a second approval six-to-eight years after the first approval, whereas a shrinking subset, designated as 'singlets', remains active in drug discovery with only a single approval. The likelihood that a company will remain a singlet or be acquired relates to therapeutic indication, with oncology associated with increased acquisition potential and infectious-disease-based companies being less commonly acquired. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution and fate of very massive objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Arnett, W.D.; Carr, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and evolution of Very Massive Objects (stars of mass approx.10 2 -10 5 M/sub sun/) are discussed in terms of simple semianalytic models. We estimate the helium enrichment due to mass loss, and present evidence for a dynamical instability arising in the hydrogen shell burning phase of a 500 M/sub sun/ Population I star. The fate of a VMO is decided in its oxygen core phase, Calculations of the effects of the pair instability, oxygen and silicon burning, and alpha-quenching on the global binding energy of initially isentropic polytropic cores allow us to predict the critical oxygen core mass above which complete collapse to a black hole occurs: M/sub O//sub c/roughly-equal10 2 M/sub sun/ corresponding to an initial star mass greater than 200 M/sub sun/. Cores smaller than this explode; we estimate the kinetic energy liberated

  8. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  9. A D Sakharov: personality and fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, Vladimir I

    2012-01-01

    A D Sakharov was an amazingly gifted person for whom, with his combined talents as a physicist and inventor, ''physical laws and the relation among phenomena were directly visualized and tangible in all their inherent simplicity'' (I E Tamm). The author of the key ideas involved in the hydrogen weapons and fusion reactor programs, and well aware of his scientific and public status, Sakharov was, nevertheless, a modest and highly decent man, always trustful of people in discussing their or his problems. Although his greatest satisfaction lay in successfully solving fundamental problems in physics and cosmology, fate and duty made him turn to matters of universal human significance, particularly human rights, to the gruelling struggle to which he devoted many years of his life. (conferences and symposia)

  10. The Fate of Job in Jewish Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book...

  11. A D Sakharov: personality and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritus, Vladimir I.

    2012-02-01

    A D Sakharov was an amazingly gifted person for whom, with his combined talents as a physicist and inventor, "physical laws and the relation among phenomena were directly visualized and tangible in all their inherent simplicity" (I E Tamm). The author of the key ideas involved in the hydrogen weapons and fusion reactor programs, and well aware of his scientific and public status, Sakharov was, nevertheless, a modest and highly decent man, always trustful of people in discussing their or his problems. Although his greatest satisfaction lay in successfully solving fundamental problems in physics and cosmology, fate and duty made him turn to matters of universal human significance, particularly human rights, to the gruelling struggle to which he devoted many years of his life.

  12. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba, E-mail: piro@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ∼60%–70% of SGRBs to be from NS–BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  13. Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi SJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Jin Choi,1 Jin-Ho Choy2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, 2Center for Intelligent Nano Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle–protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, biokinetics, distribution, excretion, fate, interaction

  14. Choosing Cell Fate Through a Dynamic Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyue; Hartman, Amaleah; Guo, Shangqin

    2015-01-01

    A close relationship between proliferation and cell fate specification has been well documented in many developmental systems. In addition to the gradual cell fate changes accompanying normal development and tissue homeostasis, it is now commonly appreciated that cell fate could also undergo drastic changes, as illustrated by the induction of pluripotency from many differentiated somatic cell types during the process of Yamanaka reprogramming. Strikingly, the drastic cell fate change induced by Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) is preceded by extensive cell cycle acceleration. Prompted by our recent discovery that progression toward pluripotency from rare somatic cells could bypass the stochastic phase of reprogramming and that a key feature of these somatic cells is an ultrafast cell cycle (~8 h/cycle), we assess whether cell cycle dynamics could provide a general framework for controlling cell fate. Several potential mechanisms on how cell cycle dynamics may impact cell fate determination by regulating chromatin, key transcription factor concentration, or their interactions are discussed. Specific challenges and implications for studying and manipulating cell fate are considered.

  15. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A

    2015-11-10

    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fate, weathering, and modelling research: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    Fate and behavior studies are fundamental to oil spill research and their results are important for operational response. Knowledge of the ultimate fate and behavior of oil should drive countermeasures decisions. Research has been conducted around the world on oil fate and behavior. The effort has not been, in this author's opinion, focussed and long-term as it should have been. Unfortunately, research funding for oil spills is very oscillatory. Fate and behavior studies require a long, concerted effort to yield valuable results. Because of this, fate and behavior studies have suffered much more than others from funding spurts. Little research has been maintained at universities because of the lack of sustained funding. Few other research organizations have facilities, equipment and expertise to carry out fundamental studies. A second difficulty in the field has been the tendency to fund one-year studies. In many cases little can be answered in a year. Specialized apparatus take 6-12 months to build or to acquire. Little time is left to operate these. The learning curve is also a factor. It is generally accepted in a specialized field that it takes a new scientist 6 months to produce any useful work, 2 years to become productive, and 5 years to be fully productive. Hopefully, future efforts will allow for longer-term studies on fate and behavior. The state-of-the-art in the field of fate, behavior, weathering and modelling could be summarized as variable. There are many deficiencies in our knowledge about the fate, weathering and modelling of oil spills. The fate, behavior and transformation of oil is dominated by the reality that oil is a varying mixture of hundreds of compounds

  17. [Fates at the psychiatric hospital of Klagenfurt during National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlerchner, Herwig; Stromberger, Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article the fate of Mr. B. is described as an example for the fate of hundreds of mentally ill patients of the "Landes-Irrenanstalt of Klagenfurt", murdered during the era of National Socialism. This extraordinary fate marks two outstanding aspects of history of medicine, the treatment of syphilis with malaria and the organised mass murder of mentally ill people during the cynic era of National Socialism. Beyond this historical perspective reconstructive biographical work together with relatives is presented as a proactive duty of psychiatric institutions.

  18. Organic photovoltaics: potential fate and effects in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Schäffer, Andreas; Hugi, Christoph; Fent, Karl; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Lenz, Markus

    2012-11-15

    In times of dwindling fossil fuels it is particularly crucial to develop novel "green" technologies in order to cover the increasing worldwide demand for energy. Organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs) are promising as a renewable energy source due to low energy requirement for production, low resource extraction, and no emission of greenhouse gasses during use. In contrast to silicium-based solar cells, OPVs offer the advantages of light-weight, semi-transparency and mechanical flexibility. As to a possible forthcoming large-scale production, the environmental impact of such OPVs should be assessed and compared to currently best available technologies. For the first time, this review compiles the existing knowledge and identifies gaps regarding the environmental impact of such OPVs in a systematic manner. In this regard, we discuss the components of a typical OPV layer by layer. We discuss the probability of enhanced release of OPV-borne components into the environment during use-phase (e.g. UV- and biodegradation) and end-of-life phase (e.g. incineration and waste disposal). For this purpose, we compiled available data on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Whereas considerable research has already been carried out concerning the ecotoxicity of certain OPV components (e.g. nanoparticles and fullerenes), others have not been investigated at all so far. In conclusion, there is a general lack of information about fate, behavior as well as potential ecotoxicity of most of the main OPV components and their degradation/transformation products. So far, there is no evidence for a worrying threat coming from OPVs, but since at present, no policy and procedures regarding recycling of OPVs are in action, in particular improper disposal upon end-of-life might result in an adverse effect of OPVs in the environment when applied in large-scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 158.260 - Experimental use permit data requirements for environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for environmental fate. 158.260 Section 158.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for environmental fate. All environmental fate data, as described in.... The following table shows the experimental use data requirements for environmental fate. The test...

  20. Noninvasive Assessment of Cell Fate and Biology in Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Federico; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  1. Fate of pesticides in field ditches: the TOXSWA simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.I.

    1996-01-01

    The TOXSWA model describes the fate of pesticides entering field ditches by spray drift, atmospheric deposition, surface run-off, drainage or leaching. It considers four processes: transport, transformation, sorption and volatilization. Analytical andnumerical solutions corresponded well. A sample

  2. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...... substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling...

  3. Modeling Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) Fate and Transport in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) identified in pre-manufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants...

  4. Investigating the Toxicity and Environmental Fate of Graphene Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hersam Laboratory at Northwestern University works with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to study the toxicity and environmental fate of emergent nanomaterials, specifically carbon-based nanomate...

  5. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van, Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.

    2018-01-01

    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement information from measurements and will play an important role in the prospective risk assessment of plastic debris. We review the present knowledge with respect to fate and transport modeling of plastic...

  6. Assessment of contaminant fate in catchments using a novel integrated hydrobiogeochemical-multimedia fate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzetto, Luca; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn; Lin, Yan; Allan, Ian; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2016-02-15

    Models for pollution exposure assessment typically adopt an overly simplistic representation of geography, climate and biogeochemical processes. This strategy is unsatisfactory when high temporal resolution simulations for sub-regional spatial domains are performed, in which parameters defining scenarios can vary interdependently in space and time. This is, for example, the case when assessing the influence of biogeochemical processing on contaminant fate. Here we present INCA-Contaminants, the Integrated Catchments model for Contaminants; a new model that simultaneously and realistically solves mass balances of water, carbon, sediments and contaminants in the soil-stream-sediment system of catchments and their river networks as a function of climate, land use/management and contaminant properties. When forced with realistic climate and contaminant input data, the model was able to predict polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in multiple segments of a river network in a complex landscape. We analyzed model output sensitivity to a number of hydro-biogeochemical parameters. The rate of soil organic matter mineralization was the most sensitive parameter controlling PCBs levels in river water, supporting the hypothesis that organic matter turnover rates will influence re-mobilization of previously deposited PCBs which had accumulated in soil organic matrix. The model was also used to project the long term fate of PCB 101 under two climate scenarios. Catchment diffuse run-off and riverine transport were the major pathways of contaminant re-mobilization. Simulations show that during the next decade the investigated boreal catchment will shift from being a net atmospheric PCB sink to a net source for air and water, with future climate perturbation having little influence on this trend. Our results highlight the importance of using credible hydro-biogeochemical simulations when modeling the fate of hydrophobic contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. MicroRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunhyun; Choi, Eunmi; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2013-10-26

    Mounting evidence in stem cell biology has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in cell fate specification, including stem cell self-renewal, lineage-specific differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming. These functions are tightly regulated by specific gene expression patterns that involve miRNAs and transcription factors. To maintain stem cell pluripotency, specific miRNAs suppress transcription factors that promote differentiation, whereas to initiate differentiation, lineage-specific miRNAs are upregulated via the inhibition of transcription factors that promote self-renewal. Small molecules can be used in a similar manner as natural miRNAs, and a number of natural and synthetic small molecules have been isolated and developed to regulate stem cell fate. Using miRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell fate will provide insight into stem cell biology and aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms and crosstalk between miRNAs and stem cells. Ultimately, advances in the regulation of stem cell fate will contribute to the development of effective medical therapies for tissue repair and regeneration. This review summarizes the current insights into stem cell fate determination by miRNAs with a focus on stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. Small molecules that control stem cell fate are also highlighted.

  8. Observations on the Chinese idea of fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Sjöholm

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Chinese religion, ideas of fate are present. The earliest forms of Chinese writing occur on thousands of tortoise shells found 65 years ago in the province of Honan. At that time inscriptions on bronze vessels from the first millennium B.C. were already known. But the new material was more difficult to interpret. The amount of material has grown since then: there are now about 100 000 inscribed shells and bones, some hundreds of whole tortoise shields with inscriptions as well as other archaeological material. One third of the signs has been deciphered. The inscriptions are mostly quite brief and contain oracle formulas. The people of the Shang-Yin dynasty (1500-1028 B.C. knew the useful and the beautiful. What did the oracle stand for? Did it represent something necessary? An oracular technique had been developed, "which consisted in touching shells or bones on one side with a little red-hot rod and interpreting according to certain patterns the cracks that arose on the other side as the answers of the ancestral spirits to the questions of the kings. After the consultation of the oracle the questions and often the answers were inscribed beside the cracks. Often also pure memoranda concerning weather, war expeditions etc. were inscribed.

  9. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  11. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jay L. [Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755 (United States)], E-mail: Jay.L.Clausen@erdc.usace.army.mil; Korte, Nic [1946 Clover Ct., Grand Junction, Colorado, 81506 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  12. The fate of Earth’s ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bounama

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of how water arrived on the Earth’s surface, how much water is contained in the Earth system as a whole, and how much water will be available in the future in the surface reservoirs are of central importance to our understanding of the Earth. To answer the question about the fate of the Earth’s ocean, one has to study the global water cycle under conditions of internal and external forcing processes. Modern estimates suggest that the transport of water to the surface is five times smaller than water movement to the mantle, so that the Earth will lose all its sea-water in one billion years from now. This straightforward extrapolation of subduction-zone fluxes into the future seems doubtful. Using a geophysical modelling approach it was found that only 27% of the modern ocean will be subducted in one billion years. Internal feedbacks will not be the cause of the ocean drying out. Instead, the drying up of surface reservoirs in the future will be due to the increase in temperature caused by a maturing Sun connected to hydrogen escape to outer space. Keywords: Surface water reservoir, water fluxes, regassing, degassing, global water cycle

  13. Repositioning-dependent fate of duplicate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Sergei N; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri V; Rodin, Andrei S; Holmquist, Gerald P; Riggs, Arthur D

    2005-09-01

    Gene duplication is the main source of evolutionary novelties. However, the problem with duplicates is that the purifying selection overlooks deleterious mutations in the redundant sequence, which therefore, instead of gaining a new function, often degrades into a functionless pseudogene. This risk of functional loss instead of gain is much higher for small populations of higher organisms with a slow and complex development. We propose that it is the epigenetic tissue/stage-complementary silencing of duplicates that makes them exposable to the purifying selection, thus saving them from pseudogenization and opening the way towards new function(s). Our genome-wide analyses of gene duplicates in several eukaryotic species combined with the phylogenetic comparison of vertebrate alpha- and beta-globin gene clusters strongly support this epigenetic complementation (EC) model. The distinctive condition for a new duplicate to survive by the EC mechanism seems to be its repositioning to an ectopic site, which is accompanied by changes in the rate and direction of mutagenesis. The most distinguished in this respect is the human genome. In this review, we extend and discuss the data on the EC- and repositioning-dependent fate of gene duplicates with the special emphasis on the problem of detecting brief postduplication period of adaptive evolution driven by positive selection. Accordingly, we propose a new CpG-focused measure of selection that is insensitive to translocation-caused biases in mutagenesis.

  14. Sin-wai, Chan. The Future of Translation Technology: Towards a World without Babel. London and New York: Routledge, 2017. 302 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kelahan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chan Sin-wai is a professor and chairman of the Department of Translation at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen. Additionally, he is the director of the Center for Translation Technology as well as the university’s MA Program in Computer-aided translation.  In 2016, he published A New Comprehensive Chinese-English Dictionary, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology and Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language. His newest book, The Future of Translation Technology: Towards a World without Babel, is described as “an essential read for scholars and researchers of translation studies and computational linguistics, and a guide to system users and professionals.”

  15. Fate of manufactured nanoparticles in environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert, A.; Sivry, Y.; Siron, V.; Akrout, A.; Ferrari, R.; Juillot, F.; Menguy, N.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    Because of their specific physico-chemical properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have become largely widespread in numerous industrial fields such as biomedicine, cosmetics, and material sciences. However, their growing use could possibly result in the release of various NPs amounts in environmental settings. Thus, an accurate understanding of their behaviour in natural systems is required, and of first importance is an estimation of their persistence and/or physico-chemical modifications since they can greatly alter their fate and bioavailability in the biogeosphere. The present study focuses on dissolution rate estimations for commercial NPs ZnO and TiO2 in natural waters (i.e. filtered Seine river water and seawater). Both NPs were used uncoated and coated with an organic polymer. Native NPs size and shape were investigated using TEM, and appeared as 20-50 nm spheroids, with an associated specific surface area of 37.5 and 57.6 m2/g for ZnO and TiO2, respectivelly. NPs dissolution rates were determined using both ultrafiltration (UF) and Donnan Membrane Techniques (DMT, [1]). The latter method allows a direct in-situ measurement of the free metal ion concentration only (here Zn2+), while the UF membrane small nominal pore size (approx. 2 nm) results in the separation of small inorganic complexes in addition to free metal ions. After a fast dissolution step reaching 1% of total zinc within the first hour for uncoated ZnO NPs in Seine water, precipitation of new mineral phases occurred with the formation of smithonite and hydrozincite as observed by XRD and TEM and confirmed by thermodynamic calculations (Visual Minteq). Interestingly, the behaviour of the coated ZnO NPs is slightly different since the initial dissolution step takes place during the first 72 hours, to reach up to 10% of the total zinc in our system. However, despite this difference in dissolution kinetics, both systems evolve similarly after 3 days, and they reach a steady state after

  16. The Fate of Exomoons when Planets Scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    Four examples of close-encounter outcomes: a) the moon stays in orbit around its host, b) the moon is captured into orbit around its perturber, c) and d) the moon is ejected from the system from two different starting configurations. [Adapted from Hong et al. 2018]Planet interactions are thought to be common as solar systems are first forming and settling down. A new study suggests that these close encounters could have a significant impact on the moons of giant exoplanets and they may generate a large population of free-floating exomoons.Chaos in the SystemIn the planetplanet scattering model of solar-system formation, planets are thought to initially form in closely packed systems. Over time, planets in a system perturb each other, eventually entering an instability phase during which their orbits cross and the planets experience close encounters.During this scattering process, any exomoons that are orbiting giant planets can be knocked into unstable orbits directly by close encounters with perturbing planets. Exomoons can also be disturbed if their host planets properties or orbits change as a consequence of scattering.Led by Yu-Cian Hong (Cornell University), a team of scientists has now explored the fate of exomoons in planetplanet scattering situations using a suite of N-body numerical simulations.Chances for SurvivalHong and collaborators find that the vast majority roughly 80 to 90% of exomoons around giant planets are destabilized during scattering and dont survive in their original place in the solar system. Fates of these destabilized exomoons include:moon collision with the star or a planet,moon capture by the perturbing planet,moon ejection from the solar system,ejection of the entire planetmoon system from the solar system, andmoon perturbation onto a new heliocentric orbit as a planet.Unsurprisingly, exomoons that have close-in orbits and those that orbit larger planets are the most likely to survive close encounters; as an example, exomoons on

  17. The Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    What happens to Tattooine-like planets that are instead in unstable orbits around their binary star system? A new study examines whether such planets will crash into a host star, get ejected from the system, or become captured into orbit around one of their hosts.Orbit Around a DuoAt this point we have unambiguously detected multiple circumbinary planets, raising questions about these planets formation and evolution. Current models suggest that it is unlikely that circumbinary planets would be able to form in the perturbed environment close their host stars. Instead, its thought that the planets formed at a distance and then migrated inwards.One danger such planets face when migrating is encountering ranges of radii where their orbits become unstable. Two scientists at the University of Chicago, Adam Sutherland and Daniel Fabrycky, have studied what happens when circumbinary planets migrate into such a region and develop unstable orbits.Producing Rogue PlanetsTime for planets to either be ejected or collide with one of the two stars, as a function of the planets starting distance (in AU) from the binary barycenter. Colors represent different planetary eccentricities. [Sutherland Fabrycky 2016]Sutherland and Fabrycky used N-body simulations to determine the fates of planets orbiting around a star system consisting of two stars a primary like our Sun and a secondary roughly a tenth of its size that are separated by 1 AU.The authors find that the most common fate for a circumbinary planet with an unstable orbit is ejection from the system; over 80% of unstable planets were ejected. This has interesting implications: if the formation of circumbinary planets is common, this mechanism could be filling the Milky Way with a population of free-floating, rogue planets that no longer are associated with their host star.The next most common outcome for unstable planets is collision with one of their host stars (most often the secondary), resulting inaccretion of the planet

  18. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    state. They then combined this information with Monte Carlo simulations based on the mass distribution of neutron-star binaries in our galaxy. From these simulations, Piro and collaborators could predict the distribution of fates expected for merging neutron-star binaries, given different equations of state.The authors found that the fate of the merger could vary greatly depending on the equation of state you assume. Intriguingly, all equations of state resulted in a surprisingly high fraction of systems that merged to form a neutron star or a supramassive neutron star in fact, four out of the five equations of state predicted that 80100% of systems would result in a neutron star or a supermassive neutron star.Lessons from ObservationsThe frequency bands covered by various current and planned gravitational wave observatories. Advanced LIGO has the right frequency coverage to be able to explore a neutron-star remnant if the signal is loud enough. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]These results have important implications for our future observations. The high predicted fraction of neutron stars resulting from these mergers tells us that its especially important for gravitational-wave observatories to probe 14 kHz emission. This frequency range will enable us to study the post-merger neutron-star or supramassive-neutron-star remnants.Even if we cant observe the remnants behavior after it forms, we can still compare the distribution of remnants that we observe in the future to the predictions made by Piro and collaborators. This will potentially allow us to constrain the neutron-star equation of state, revealing the physics of neutron-star interiors even without direct observations.CitationAnthony L. Piro et al 2017 ApJL 844 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7f2f

  19. Control of Cell Fate Reprogramming Towards De Novo Shoot Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Jian

    2017-12-23

    Many plants have a high regenerative capacity, which can be used to induce de novo organogenesis and produce various valuable plant species and products. In the classic 2-step protocol for de novo shoot organogenesis, small pieces of plant parts or tissues known as explants are initially cultured on an auxin-rich medium to produce a cell mass called callus. Upon transfer to a cytokinin-rich medium, a subpopulation of cells within the callus acquire shoot cell fate and subsequently develop into a fertile shoot. Cell fate reprogramming during de novo organogenesis is thus recognized as the decisive step to progressively acquire new cell types, in response to a change in the levels of plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and completion of cell fate reprogramming remains partly understood. In this review, we sought to summarize the most recent progress made in the study of cell fate reprogramming during de novo shoot organogenesis, and highlight the critical roles of epigenetic and transcription factors in the developmental timing of cell fate reprogramming. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Grass meristems II: inflorescence architecture, flower development and meristem fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Wakana; Pautler, Michael; Jackson, David; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2013-03-01

    Plant development depends on the activity of various types of meristems that generate organs such as leaves and floral organs throughout the life cycle. Grass species produce complex inflorescences and unique flowers. The grass inflorescence is composed of different types of branches, including a specialized branch called a spikelet. The spikelet is a special unit of the inflorescence and forms one to several florets, depending on the species. In the floret, floral organs such as perianth organs, carpels and stamens are formed. In Arabidopsis, because the inflorescence meristem (IM) forms the floral meristems (FMs) directly on its flanks, the change of meristem fate is relatively simple. In contrast, in grasses, different types of meristem, such as the IM, the branch meristem (BM), the spikelet pair meristem (SPM) in some grasses, the spikelet meristem (SM) and the FM, are responsible for the elaboration of their complex inflorescences and flowers. Therefore, sequential changes of meristem fate are required, and a number of genes involved in the specification of the fate of each meristem have been identified. In this review, we focus on the following issues concerning the fate of the reproductive meristems in two grass species, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa): (i) meristem regulation during inflorescence development; (ii) specification and fate change of the BM and the SM; (iii) determinacy of the FM; and (iv) communication between the meristem and lateral organs.

  1. Fate of Organic Micropollutants during Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B.; Baskyr, I.; Pörschmann, J.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2012-04-01

    contaminated biomass. Chlorinated aromatic compounds are not fully degraded during HTC. Therefore, the addition of catalysts and reagents for a possible reduction has been studied. Zero-valent environmentally acceptable metals, such as Fe or Si, are presented as potential additives for the dechlorination of chloronaphthalene as a representative of chloroaromatics. Furthermore, when using municipal household waste, such as the 'organic' bin, or gardening greens as biomass educts, these materials often contain traces of synthetic plastics, which can lead to problems during waste incineration. Initial studies on the fate of synthetic polymers will also be presented.

  2. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Covell

    Full Text Available Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP. The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA, b examine measures of gene expression (GE, copy number (CN and mutation status (MUT biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  3. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, David G

    2015-01-01

    Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP). The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a) evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA), b) examine measures of gene expression (GE), copy number (CN) and mutation status (MUT) biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c) conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d) assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  4. Microarray and synchronization of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databank in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Feng, Wayne

    2012-08-01

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a systems level. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, systems biology analysis, and annotation of pathway function to study nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Cells were cultured to 70%-80% confluence, treated with NGF for 1 or 3 hours (h), and RNA was extracted. Stage 1 data analysis involved analysis of variance (ANOVA), and stage 2 involved cluster analysis and heat map generation. We identified 2020 NGF-induced PC12 genes (1038 at 1 h and 1554 at 3 h). Results showed changes in gene expression over time. We compared these genes with 6035 genes from the KEGG database. Cross-matching resulted in 830 genes. Among these, we identified 395 altered genes (155 at 1 h and 301 at 3 h; 2-fold increase from 1 h to 3 h). We identified 191 biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 showed correlations with neuronal differentiation (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway: 35 genes at 1 h, 54 genes at 3 h; genes associated with axonal guidance: 12 at 1 h, 26 at 3 h; Wnt pathway: 16 at 1 h, 25 at 3 h; neurotrophin pathway: 4 at 1 h, 14 at 3 h). Thus, we identified changes in neuronal differentiation pathways with the KEGG database, which were synchronized with NGF-induced differentiation.

  5. Cell fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Rape, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan development depends on accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates 1. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell fate determination is less well understood. Here, we have identified the vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase CUL3KBTBD8 as an essential regulator of neural crest specification. CUL3KBTBD8 monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralog TCOF1, whose mutation underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins Syndrome 2,3. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favor of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell fate determination. PMID:26399832

  6. Unambiguous observation of shape effects on cellular fate of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Zhang, Silu; Zhang, Bokai; Zhang, Chunyuan; Fang, Chia-Yi; Rehor, Ivan; Cigler, Petr; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Liu, Renbao; Li, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Cellular fate of nanoparticles is vital to application of nanoparticles to cell imaging, bio-sensing, drug delivery, suppression of drug resistance, gene delivery, and cytotoxicity analysis. However, the current studies on cellular fate of nanoparticles have been controversial due to complications of interplay between many possible factors. By well-controlled experiments, we demonstrated unambiguously that the morphology of nanoparticles independently determined their cellular fate. We found that nanoparticles with sharp shapes, regardless of their surface chemistry, size, or composition, could pierce the membranes of endosomes that carried them into the cells and escape to the cytoplasm, which in turn significantly reduced the cellular excretion rate of the nanoparticles. Such features of sharp-shaped nanoparticles are essential for drug delivery, gene delivery, subcellular targeting, and long-term tracking. This work opens up a controllable, purely geometrical and hence safe, degree of freedom for manipulating nanoparticle-cell interaction, with numerous applications in medicine, bio-imaging, and bio-sensing.

  7. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  8. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  9. Evolution of oil trajectory, fate and impact assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Oil fates and effects modelling may be used for a wide variety of purposes. Natural resource damage assessment is just one example role. Modelling is particularly useful for ecological risk assessment. Modelling allows quantification of potential impacts and probabilities of those impacts. The relative impacts of various spills can be used to focus response efforts. Maximum liabilities for accidental spills may be estimated. The results of various management strategies may be investigated. A model system may be used to educate the public about potential impacts of various spill scenarios. A number of oil trajectory and fates models are available around the world. However, fewer model developers have carried out the analysis to quantitatively address impacts of oil spills. This review focuses on the development of coupled oil fates and effects models. (author)

  10. Fate of Carbamazepine during Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Kompare, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Seven transformation products of carbamazepine generated by at least one of three common water treatment technologies (W-radiation, oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and biological treatment with activated Sludge) were identified by complementary use of ion trap, single quadrupole...... compared the treatment technologies according to the removal of carbamazepine and the production and decay of its transformation products. The most successful method for the removal of carbamazepine was UV treatment, while acridine and acridone were more susceptible to biological treatment. Therefore......, based on the enhanced biodegradability of carbamazepine residues achieved by UV irradiation, we propose a coupled treatment technology involving an initial UV treatment step followed by biological treatment, which may satisfactorily remove the parent compound and its transformation products....

  11. Role of Geminin in cell fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Ohno, Yoshinori; Shirasu, Naoto; Zhang, Bo; Suzuki-Takedachi, Kyoko; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Geminin exerts two distinct molecular roles. Geminin negatively regulates DNA replication licensing through the direct interaction with Cdt1 to prevent re-replication in proliferating cells. Geminin also regulates chromatin remodeling through the direct interaction with Brahma/Brg1 to maintain undifferentiated states of stem cells. We previously uncovered that Polycomb-group complex 1 and Hoxb4/Hoxa9, well-known intrinsic factors that are essential for maintaining the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, alternatively act as ubiquitin-proteasome systems for Geminin protein to reduce the protein expression level, and sustain the HSC activity. Thus, Geminin is presumed to play an important role in determining cell fate, i.e., turning on and off cellular quiescence and proliferation/differentiation, in HSCs. We recently generated recombinant cell-penetrating Geminin (CP-Geminin), enabling rapid incorporation and withdraw of Geminin protein in cells. CP-Geminin may be useful in regulating the cell cycle and chromatin configuration. In this article, we summarize current information on the molecular functions of Geminin and the regulatory system for Geminin protein expression, and argue for the molecular role of Geminin in cell fate determination of HSCs, and future perspective of a new technology for manipulating the activities of HSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs).

  12. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084... nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections 158.100... organisms and fate data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that apply to an...

  13. Investigating Undergraduate Students' Ideas about the Fate of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Mallory; Coble, Kim; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2017-01-01

    As astronomers further develop an understanding of the fate of the Universe, it is essential to study students' ideas on the fate of the Universe so that instructors can communicate the field's current status more effectively. In this study, we examine undergraduate students' preinstruction ideas of the fate of the Universe in ten semester-long…

  14. Cell fate determination in zebrafish embryonic and adult muscle development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tee, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in how the genetic basis of muscle precursor cells determines the outcome of the muscle cell fate, and thus leading to disruption in muscle formation and maintenance. We utilized the zebrafish carrying mutations in both Axin1 and Apc1, resulting in overactivation of the

  15. Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Merel; Besseling, Ellen; Kroeze, Carolien; Wenzel, van Annemarie P.; Koelmans, Albert A.

    2018-01-01

    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement

  16. THE FATE OF TANNINS IN CORSICAN PINE LITTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tannins are ubiquitous in higher plants and therefore also in litter and soils where they affect many biogeochemical processes. Despite this well recognized role, the fate of tannins in litter and mineral soils is hardly known as often only trace amounts, if any, of tannins are measured. In this

  17. Fate of pathogenic bacteria during fermentation of cereal porridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to study the fate of pathogenic coliform bacteria namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes during fermentation of cereal porridge (“Ogi”), a weaning food formula. Fermentation studies for Ogi production was carried out by fermenting the maize grain in a controlled ...

  18. On the evolution and fate of super-massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yungelson, L.R.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.; Vink, J.S.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; de Koter, A.

    2008-01-01

    Context. We study the evolution and fate of solar composition super-massive stars in the mass range 60-1000 M-circle dot. Our study is relevant for very massive objects observed in young stellar complexes as well as for super-massive stars that could potentially form through runaway stellar

  19. Environmental fate of pesticides applied on coffee crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veronica Umukoro

    The aim of this paper was evaluate the environmental fate of pesticides applied in coffee crops in southeast of Brazil ... The preliminary evaluation of contamination risk due the use of pesticides in coffee crops, using fugacity models, proved to be ...... ground water, using Goss and GUS criteria, respectively and presented by ...

  20. Environmental fate of pesticides applied on coffee crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was evaluate the environmental fate of pesticides applied in coffee crops in southeast of Brazil, using the level I fugacity model. Chemical and physical characteristics of the pesticides were considered in different environmental compartments and applied fugacity equations. The preliminary evaluation ...

  1. Inexorable spread: inexorable death? The fate of neo-XY ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... the possible spread of a new Y chromosome throughout the geographic range of the species (Veltsos et al. 2008;. Pannell and Pujol 2009), but it does not take into account the evolutionary fate of the neo-chromosomes. We discuss here that, although neo-XY chromosomes of grasshoppers may be a useful ...

  2. Evaluating the fate of organic compounds in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the key input parameters. Model simulations indicated significant differences in the fate of the chemicals that could be explained by the variation in physical-chemical properties. The log KOW, emission rate to water (EW), volume of the water compartment (VW) and ...

  3. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  4. Fate and transformation of graphene oxide in marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphene oxide (GO) may be released into natural waters at different phases of its life cycle. Currently, there is no study on the fate of GO in seawater, which is predicted to be a major sink for many engineered nanomaterials. In this study, the influences of salinity (0-50 &per...

  5. Evaluating the fate of organic compounds in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    application of a level III multimedia model to evaluate the fate of five agrochemicals in the Cameroon environment. The model was used to predict the fugacity, concentra- tion and mass distribution of the chemicals and quantify the different contaminant removal pathways from the. Cameroon environment. The application of ...

  6. Predicting the Fate and Effects of Resuspended Metal Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-23

    equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks (ESBs) for the protection of benthic organisms: metal mixtures (cadmium, Cu, lead, nickel, silver , and Zn...FINAL REPORT Predicting the Fate and Effects of Resuspended Metal Contaminated Sediments SERDP Project ER-1746 DECEMBER 2015 Dr. G...Resuspended Metal Contaminated Sediments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER (ER-1746) 5b. GRANT NUMBER ER-1746 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  8. Harnessing cell-material interaction to control cell fate: design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat K Das

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... advancement in engineered hydrogel materials as such scaffold to control cell fate. Keywords. Extracellular matrix; hydrogel .... vided useful model systems to identify principles that would help design synthetic ..... tool to generate nanoscale periodic patterns that influ- enced stem cell differentiation.

  9. Self-organising sensor web using cell-fate optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available may be doing so both dynamically and stochastically. When presented by a dynamic and stochastic changing environment, such as a sensor resource unexpectedly going down, a self-adaptive system should exhibit robustness. Cell-fate optimisation and signal...

  10. The 'History and Fate of the Universe' chart debuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Yarris, L

    2003-01-01

    A chart that illustrates and summarizes what is now known about the history and fate of the universe has been developed by scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP). More than 11,000 copies will be distributed to high school science teachers across the nation for field-testing with their students (1 page).

  11. Cell fate choice and social evolution in Dictyostelium discoideum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cell fate choice and social evolution in. Dictyostelium discoideum: Interplay of morphogens and heterogeneities. Attempts to understand the development of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum keep throwing up surprises and drive home the point that here too, as in any biological situation, no explanation can.

  12. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  13. Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenkin, A.; Bolker, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Licona, J.C.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an

  14. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  15. It’s fate : A self-organising evolutionary algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bim, J.; Karafotias, G.; Smit, S.K.; Eiben, A.E.; Haasdijk, E.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel evolutionary algorithm where the centralized oracle –the selection-reproduction loop– is replaced by a distributed system of Fate Agents that autonomously perform the evolutionary operations. This results in a distributed, situated, and self-organizing EA, where candidate

  16. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  17. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  18. War Memories and Online Encyclopedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhortykh, Mykola

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how digital media interact with collective memories and teaching practices by exploring a selection of Wikipedia articles that describe the capture of Lviv by the Germans on 30 June 1941. This event constitutes an important episode in the history of Ukraine and a complex case of violence that produced several controversies…

  19. Perceived Credibility of Internet Encyclopedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, Ida; Noordewier, Thomas; Costanza, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast amount of information is now available online, produced by a variety of sources with a range of editorial oversight procedures. These range from very centralized information with multiple layers of review, to no oversight at all. Determining which information is credible can pose a real challenge. An experiment was designed to determine…

  20. Nursing leadership: a concise encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Harriet R

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv...

  1. Testability/Diagnostics Design Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    constraints, a relative lack of importance, political considerations, time, and the complexity of the task-.just to mention a few. This appendix...Defense Plan GFE Government Fumlshed Equipment GIMADS Genero Integrated Maintenance Diagnostics GM Global Memory OPETE General Purpose Electronic Test...Importance, political considerations, time, and the complexity of the task--just to mention a few, This appendix presents a few glimpses of activity on

  2. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  3. Nursing leadership: a concise encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Harriet R

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569This page intentionally left blank List of EntriesList of Entries A Academic...

  4. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF and posterior circumvallate (CV taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  5. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  6. Transient Cnp expression by early progenitors causes Cre-Lox-based reporter lines to map profoundly different fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognatta, Reshmi; Sun, Wenjing; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Nishiyama, Akiko; Schoch, Susanne; Dimou, Leda; Dietrich, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex. In contrast, when using Z/EG reporter mice to track the fate of Cnp-expressing NG2 cells only oligodendroglial cells were found reporter positive. Using BrdU-based birth dating protocols and inducible NG2CreER:ROSA26/YFP mice we show that YFP positive neurons are generated from radial glial cells and that these radial glial cells display temporary and low level activity of certain oligodendroglial genes sufficient to recombine the Cre-inducible reporter gene in ROSA26/YFP but not in Z/EG mice. Taken together, we did not obtain evidence for generation of neurons from NG2 cells. Our results suggest that with an appropriate reporter system Cnp activity can be used to define a proliferative subpopulation of NG2 cells committed to generate oligodendrocytes. However, the strikingly different results obtained from ROSA26/YFP versus Z/EG mice demonstrate that the choice of Cre-reporter line can be of crucial importance for fate mapping studies and other applications of the Cre-lox technology. GLIA 2017;65:342-359. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nuclear genie: beyond Faust, fate, and incantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Maxey fears that public reaction to the anti-nuclear movement may have eliminated nuclear energy as a future option for the US. She notes that recurrent themes of the movement go beyond a genuine concern for remaining technical problems. Focusing on the personal and social threats associated with extravagant energy consumption, the campaign is waged by competing groups struggling for political power. They use non-technical issues to create divisiveness and drive a wedge between scientists and humanists. It is important to realize that activists and the media seek social change by portraying nuclear technology as a Faustian bargain and ignoring the benefits it offers. An ethical framework is needed in which counter arguments in support of nuclear energy can be examined and compared with the soft technologies and the concept of a risk-free world. Dr. Maxey feels that the bioethical approach, which recognizes that human action can inflict basic harm, is improperly applied to nuclear energy alone and needs to be reevaluated; further, the US should lead in defining the benefits and harms inherent in all human actions and develop a philosophy of congruence which puts nuclear energy in its historical context. Because it is naive to think that the world can have a non-nuclear future, she says the US should provide leadership in international controls. 21 references

  8. Converting cell fates: generating hematopoietic stem cells de novo via transcription factor reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael G; Lemischka, Ihor R; Moore, Kateri

    2016-04-01

    Even though all paradigms of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine emerged from the study of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the inability to generate these cells de novo or expand them in vitro persists. Initial efforts to obtain these cells began with the use of embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies, but these strategies have yet to yield fully functional cells. Subsequently, more recent approaches involve transcription factor (TF) overexpression to reprogram PSCs and various somatic cells. The induction of pluripotency with just four TFs by Yamanaka informs our ability to convert cell fates and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing terminally differentiated cells to generate cells with multilineage potential. In this review, we discuss the recent efforts undertaken using TF-based reprogramming strategies to convert several cell types into HSCs. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. The fate of electron–hole pairs in polymer:fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Causa', Martina

    2016-09-02

    There has been long-standing debate on how free charges are generated in donor: acceptor blends that are used in organic solar cells, and which are generally comprised of a complex phase morphology, where intermixed and neat phases of the donor and acceptor material co-exist. Here we resolve this question, basing our conclusions on Stark effect spectroscopy data obtained in the absence and presence of externally applied electric fields. Reconciling opposing views found in literature, we unambiguously demonstrate that the fate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs-whether they will dissociate to free charges or geminately recombine-is determined at ultrafast times, despite the fact that their actual spatial separation can be much slower. Our insights are important to further develop rational approaches towards material design and processing of organic solar cells, assisting to realize their purported promise as lead-free, third-generation energy technology that can reach efficiencies over 10%.

  10. Fate of citalopram during water treatment with O3, ClO2, UV and fenton oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Kosjek, Tina; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the fate of citalopram (CIT) at neutral pH using advanced water treatment technologies that include O3, ClO2 oxidation, UV irradiation and Fenton oxidation. The ozonation resulted in 80% reduction after 30 min treatment. Oxidation with ClO2 removed >90% CIT...... at a dosage of 0.1 mg L−1. During UV irradiation 85% reduction was achieved after 5 min, while Fenton with addition of 14 mg L−1 (Fe2+) resulted in 90% reduction of CIT. During these treatment experiments transformation products (TPs) were formed from CIT, where five compounds were identified by using high...

  11. Automation and hypermedia technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, Joseph H.; Ng, Edward W.; James, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper represents a progress report on HyLite (Hypermedia Library technology): a research and development activity to produce a versatile system as part of NASA's technology thrusts in automation, information sciences, and communications. HyLite can be used as a system or tool to facilitate the creation and maintenance of large distributed electronic libraries. The contents of such a library may be software components, hardware parts or designs, scientific data sets or databases, configuration management information, etc. Proliferation of computer use has made the diversity and quantity of information too large for any single user to sort, process, and utilize effectively. In response to this information deluge, we have created HyLite to enable the user to process relevant information into a more efficient organization for presentation, retrieval, and readability. To accomplish this end, we have incorporated various AI techniques into the HyLite hypermedia engine to facilitate parameters and properties of the system. The proposed techniques include intelligent searching tools for the libraries, intelligent retrievals, and navigational assistance based on user histories. HyLite itself is based on an earlier project, the Encyclopedia of Software Components (ESC) which used hypermedia to facilitate and encourage software reuse.

  12. Comparison of fuel spill fate models in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinberry, B.E.; Regan, R.W. Sr.

    1991-01-01

    It has been estimated that 96 percent of the 1.4 million underground storage tanks in the U.S. contain petroleum products such as gasoline and fuel oil. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) further estimates that 84 percent of the existing underground storage tanks (UST's) are bare-steel, single-wall tanks with no corrosion protection, leak-prevention or leak-detention devices. As many as 40 percent of these tanks could be leaking now or in the near future due to corrosion, installation mistakes, or piping failures. This paper discusses the potential sources of fuel oil leaks or spills, describes the physical and chemical fate of the hydrocarbon contaminants, and reviews current literature reports which model the fate of petroleum contaminants in the subsurface environment

  13. The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

  14. Fate modelling of chemical compounds with incomplete data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Heijungs, Reinout

    2011-01-01

    , and to provide simplified proxies for the more complicated “real”model relationships. In the presented study two approaches for the reduction of the data demand associated with characterization of chemical emissions in USEtoxTM are tested: The first approach yields a simplified set of mode of entry specific meta......Impact assessment of chemical compounds in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) requires a vast amount of data on the properties of the chemical compounds being assessed. These data are used in multi-media fate and exposure models, to calculate risk levels...... in an approximate way. The idea is that not all data needed in a multi-media fate and exposure model are completely independent and equally important, but that there are physical-chemical and biological relationships between sets of chemical properties. A statistical model is constructed to underpin this assumption...

  15. Fate and behavior of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles and a bacterial viability assessment in a simulated wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available . Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered 485 Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment. Accounts of Chemistry 486 Research, DOI: 10.1021/ar300030n. 487 488 19 17. Woodrow Wilson Institute, Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory. 489... Impacts Research Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P.O. 8 Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 9 2Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag 10 X680, Pretoria, South Africa3Water...

  16. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  17. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on the environment cannot be properly assessed because of a lack of information regarding their environmental and ecotoxicological properties. The aim of this study was to determine the aquatic fate an...

  18. MYC Is a Major Determinant of Mitotic Cell Fate

    OpenAIRE

    Topham, Caroline; Tighe, Anthony; Ly, Peter; Bennett, Ailsa; Sloss, Olivia; Nelson, Louisa; Ridgway, Rachel?A.; Huels, David; Littler, Samantha; Schandl, Claudia; Sun, Ying; Bechi, Beatrice; Procter, David?J.; Sansom, Owen?J.; Cleveland, Don?W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Taxol and other antimitotic agents are frontline chemotherapy agents but the mechanisms responsible for patient benefit remain unclear. Following a genome-wide siRNA screen, we identified the oncogenic transcription factor Myc as a taxol sensitizer. Using time-lapse imaging to correlate mitotic behavior with cell fate, we show that Myc sensitizes cells to mitotic blockers and agents that accelerate mitotic progression. Myc achieves this by upregulating a cluster of redundant pro-apopt...

  19. Modeling bacteria fate and transport in watersheds to support TMDLs

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, B. L.; Baffaut, C.; Zeckoski, R. W.; Mankin, K. R.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sadeghi, A. A.; Brannan, Kevin M.; Soupir, M. L.; Habersack, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a critical water-quality issue, leading to human illnesses and deaths. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), which set pollutant limits, are being developed to address fecal bacteria impairments. Watershed models are widely used to support TMDLs, although their use for simulating in-stream fecal bacteria concentrations is somewhat rudimentary. This article provides an overview of fecal microorganism fate and transport within watersheds, describes current ...

  20. A stringy test of the fate of the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafa, C.

    1995-01-01

    By studying string loop corrections to the superpotential of Type II strings compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds we find a quantum stringy test and a confirmation of a recent proposal of Strominger on the fate of the conifold singularity. We also propose a connection between the spectrum of Bogomolnyi saturated solitons and the one-loop string partition function of N=2 topological strings. (orig.)

  1. Coarse sediment and oil database and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Owens, E.H.; Patrick, G.

    1992-09-01

    Oil spills in Canadian waters have a high probability of impacting coarse sediment beaches, and there is a need to be able to predict oil fate and estimate natural self-cleaning rates. Data are lacking on many oil-sediment interactions and shoreline interactions have historically been considered using fairly simple concepts. The processes which may occur on a coarse sediment beach were examined. Those considered important are developed into a fate and persistence model for stranded oil. The processes are divided into stages relative to the spill event, and the factors which affect each stage were evaluated. Three areas of special interest are the capacity of a beach to hold oil, the residual capacity of a beach for oil, and the long-term fate of the oil. Model algorithms are developed and the outputs compared to a database of information collected during the Exxon Valdez spill. The database includes files relating to the location and wave energy of beach sediments, surface oil cover for the segments at various times, subsurface oil character, and pit oiling data. Over 10,000 oil cover records are included, from January 1990 to August 1991, along with some total hydrocarbon data. The model provides information at two levels: a general level which can be used for planning and sensitivity mapping, and a more detailed model for prediction of oil fate on specific known beaches. The strengths and weaknesses of the model are assessed in terms of data deficiencies. The type and nature of data most useful for spill planning and monitoring are identified. 42 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Weike; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rössler, Jens; Wang, Xi; Postrach, Daniel; Busch, Katrin; Rode, Immanuel; Klapproth, Kay; Dietlein, Nikolaus; Quedenau, Claudia; Chen, Wei; Sauer, Sascha; Wolf, Stephan; Höfer, Thomas; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2017-08-24

    Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites, viral barcodes, and strategies based on transposons and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryo-derived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid-erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure.

  3. Effect and fate of lindane in maize plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Klaa, K.

    1992-10-01

    The fate and effect of lindane in maize plant, soil and predators were studied following insecticide application under field conditions. Respectively 84,2% and 93,3% of lindane residues were lost after 2 and 4 months in soil after treatment. About 90% of the insecticide was lost after one month in maize plant. Lindane residues were present in maize grains (0,205ppm). Lindane decreases the density of many predators in soils such as species of collembola, coccinellidae, formicidae, coleoptera

  4. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  5. Fate of trypanocidal drugs in cattle (chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis). Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report of a project to determine the fate of tryponocidal drugs in cattle. Drugs are still the primary agent in the struggle against trypanosomiasis although there is little data on their pharmacokinetics, residue levels, bioavailability rates, etc. This project aimed to provide such information for the three drugs Diminazene aceturate (Berenil), Isometamidium chloride (Samorin) and Homidium bromide (Ethidium). Figs and tabs

  6. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...... the transport and fate of VOCs in the gaseous phase, thus contributing to the overall understanding of VOCs behavior in soil, which eventually will facilitate future cleanup....

  7. High-throughput RNA sequencing-based virome analysis of 50 lymphoma cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Subing; Strong, Michael J; Wang, Xia; Moss, Walter N; Concha, Monica; Lin, Zhen; O'Grady, Tina; Baddoo, Melody; Fewell, Claire; Renne, Rolf; Flemington, Erik K

    2015-01-01

    Using high-throughput RNA sequencing data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) transcripts was observed in DEL cells, and we identified four transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes, including interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL-9R. Although KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL-10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL-6, K4/vIL-8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of

  8. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  9. Developing climatic scenarios for pesticide fate modelling in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsop, S.; Fowler, H.J.; Dubus, I.G.; Nolan, B.T.; Hollis, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A climatic classification for Europe suitable for pesticide fate modelling was constructed using a 3-stage process involving the identification of key climatic variables, the extraction of the dominant modes of spatial variability in those variables and the use of k-means clustering to identify regions with similar climates. The procedure identified 16 coherent zones that reflect the variability of climate across Europe whilst maintaining a manageable number of zones for subsequent modelling studies. An analysis of basic climatic parameters for each zone demonstrates the success of the scheme in identifying distinct climatic regions. Objective criteria were used to identify one representative 26-year daily meteorological series from a European dataset for each zone. The representativeness of each series was then verified against the zonal classifications. These new FOOTPRINT climate zones provide a state-of-the-art objective classification of European climate complete with representative daily data that are suitable for use in pesticide fate modelling. - The FOOTPRINT climatic zones provide an objective climatic classification and daily climate series that may be used for the modelling of pesticide fate across Europe

  10. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.P.; Raghu, K.; Sherkhane, P.D.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14 C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14 C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14 C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14 C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14 C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14 C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14 C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14 C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  11. Chemicals as the Sole Transformers of Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-05-30

    Forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in somatic cells can result in the generation of different cell types in a process named direct reprogramming, bypassing the pluripotent state. However, the introduction of transgenes limits the therapeutic applications of the produced cells. Numerous small-molecules have been introduced in the field of stem cell biology capable of governing self-renewal, reprogramming, transdifferentiation and regeneration. These chemical compounds are versatile tools for cell fate conversion toward desired outcomes. Cell fate conversion using small-molecules alone (chemical reprogramming) has superiority over arduous traditional genetic techniques in several aspects. For instance, rapid, transient, and reversible effects in activation and inhibition of functions of specific proteins are of the profits of small-molecules. They are cost-effective, have a long half-life, diversity on structure and function, and allow for temporal and flexible regulation of signaling pathways. Additionally, their effects could be adjusted by fine-tuning concentrations and combinations of different small-molecules. Therefore, chemicals are powerful tools in cell fate conversion and study of stem cell and chemical biology in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transgene-free and chemical-only transdifferentiation approaches provide alternative strategies for the generation of various cell types, disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The current review gives an overview of the recent findings concerning transdifferentiation by only small-molecules without the use of transgenes.

  12. OsSPL regulates meiotic fate acquisition in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Tang, Ding; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Fanfan; Liu, Changzhen; Xue, Zhihui; Shi, Wenqing; Du, Guijie; Shen, Yi; Li, Yafei; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2018-04-01

    In angiosperms, the key step in sexual reproduction is successful acquisition of meiotic fate. However, the molecular mechanism determining meiotic fate remains largely unknown. Here, we report that OsSPOROCYTELESS (OsSPL) is critical for meiotic entry in rice (Oryza sativa). We performed a large-scale genetic screen of rice sterile mutants aimed to identify genes regulating meiotic entry and identified OsSPL using map-based cloning. We showed that meiosis-specific callose deposition, chromatin organization, and centromere-specific histone H3 loading were altered in the cells corresponding to pollen mother cells in Osspl anthers. Global transcriptome analysis showed that the enriched differentially expressed genes in Osspl were mainly related to redox status, meiotic process, and parietal cell development. OsSPL might form homodimers and interact with TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factor OsTCP5 via the SPL dimerization and TCP interaction domain. OsSPL also interacts with TPL (TOPLESS) corepressors, OsTPL2 and OsTPL3, via the EAR motif. Our results suggest that the OsSPL-mediated signaling pathway plays a crucial role in rice meiotic entry, which appears to be a conserved regulatory mechanism for meiotic fate acquisition in angiosperms. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. THE FATE OF THE COMPACT REMNANT IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Chris L. [Department of Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Belczynski, Krzysztoff [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rosswog, Stephan [The Oskar klein Center, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Gang [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Steiner, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star–black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and advanced VIRGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of Newtonian merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the cores of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3–2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing GRBs, LIGO/Virgo observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.

  14. FY08 LDRD Final Report Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddessen, A

    2009-03-02

    A detailed understanding of the biological control of fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells is needed to harness their full power for tissue repair and/or regeneration. Currently, internal and external factors that regulate stem cell fate are not fully understood. We aim to engineer biocompatible tools to facilitate the measurement and comparison of the roles and significance of immobilized factors such as extracellular matrix and signaling peptides, synergistic and opposing soluble factors and signals, and cell-to-cell communication, in stem cell fate decisions. Our approach is based on the development of cell microarrays to capture viable stem/progenitor cells individually or in small clusters onto substrate-bound signals (e.g. proteins), combined with conventional antibody and customized subcellular markers made in-house, to facilitate tracking of cell behavior during exposure to relevant signals. Below we describe our efforts, including methods to manipulate a model epithelial stem cell system using a custom subcellular reporter to track and measure cell signaling, arrays with surface chemistry that support viable cells and enable controlled presentation of immobilized signals to cells on the array and fluorescence-based measurement of cell response, and successful on-array tests via conventional immunofluorescence assays that indicate correct cell polarity, localization of junctional proteins, and phenotype, properties which are essential to measuring true cell responses.

  15. Environmental fate of rice paddy pesticides in a model ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, C; Kazano, H

    1979-01-01

    The distribution and metabolic fate of several rice paddy pesticides were evaluated in a modified model ecosystem. Among the three BHC isomers, beta-isomer was the most stable and bioconcentrated in all of the organisms. Alpha- and gamma-isomers were moderately persistent and degraded to some extent during the 33 day period. Disulfoton was relatively persistent due to the transformation to its oxidation products. Pyridaphenthion was fairly biodegradable. N-Phenyl maleic hydrazide derived from the hydrolysis of pyridaphenthion was not detected in the organisms though it was found in the aquarium water after 33 days. Cartap and edifenphos were considerably biodegradable, and the ratio of the conversion to water soluble metabolites was very high. There was a distinct difference in the persistence of Kitazin P and edifenphos in the aquarium water. It appeared that the hydrolysis rate of the pesticides affected their fate in the organisms. PCP appeared to be moderately biodegradable. CNP was considerably stable and stored in the organisms though the concentration in the aquarium water was relatively low. The persistence and distribution of the pesticides in the model ecosystem were dependent on their chemical structures. In spite of the limitation derived from short experimental period, the model ecosystem may be applicable for predicting the environmental fate of pesticides.

  16. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  17. The fate of accreting white dwarfs: type I supernovae vs. collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1986-01-01

    The fate of accreting white dwarfs is examined with respect to thermonuclear explosion or collapse. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy 1986. Effects of accretion and the fate of white dwarfs, models for type 1a and 1b supernovae, collapse induced by carbon deflagration at high density, and fate of double white dwarfs, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Assessing the transport and fate of bioengineered microorganisms in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We review the methods currently available for quantifying the transport and fate of microbes in atmospheric and aqueous media and assess their adequacy for purposes of risk assessment. We review the literature on transport and fate of microorganisms, including studies of: (1) pathways of migration, (2) the survival of microorganisms during transport and fate. In addition, we review the transport and fate models that have been used in environmental risk assessments for radionuclides and toxic chemicals and evaluate their applicability to the problem of assessing environmental risks of bioengineered microorganisms.

  19. Assessing the transport and fate of bioengineered microorganisms in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We review the methods currently available for quantifying the transport and fate of microbes in atmospheric and aqueous media and assess their adequacy for purposes of risk assessment. We review the literature on transport and fate of microorganisms, including studies of: (1) pathways of migration, (2) the survival of microorganisms during transport and fate. In addition, we review the transport and fate models that have been used in environmental risk assessments for radionuclides and toxic chemicals and evaluate their applicability to the problem of assessing environmental risks of bioengineered microorganisms

  20. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  1. Fate and transport of pathogens in lakes and reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Justin D; Antenucci, Jason; Hipsey, Matthew; Burch, Michael D; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Ferguson, Christobel

    2004-07-01

    Outbreaks of water-borne disease via public water supplies continue to be reported in developed countries even though there is increased awareness of, and treatment for, pathogen contamination. Pathogen episodes in lakes and reservoirs are often associated with rain events, and the riverine inflow is considered to be major source of pathogens. Consequently, the behaviour of these inflows is of particular importance in determining pathogen transport and distribution. Inflows are controlled by their density relative to that of the lake, such that warm inflows will flow over the surface of the lake as a buoyant surface flow and cold, dense inflows will sink beneath the lake water where they will flow along the bathymetry towards the deepest point. The fate of pathogens is determined by loss processes including settling and inactivation by temperature, UV and grazing. The general trend is for the insertion timescale to be shortest, followed by sedimentation losses and temperature inactivity. The fate of Cryptosporidium due to UV light inactivation can occur at opposite ends of the scale, depending on the location of the oocysts in the water column and the extinction coefficient for UV light. For this reason, the extinction coefficient for UV light appears to be a vitally important parameter for determining the risk of Cryptosporidium contamination. For risk assessment of pathogens in supply reservoirs, it is important to understand the role of hydrodynamics in determining the timescale of transport to the off-take relative to the timescale of inactivation. The characteristics of the riverine intrusion must also be considered when designing a sampling program for pathogens. A risk management framework is presented that accounts for pathogen fate and transport for reservoirs.

  2. Fate of triazoles in softwood upon environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Klara; Martinská, Veronika; Sedgeman, Carl A; Kuplic, Paige; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Fisher, Stephen; Kubátová, Alena

    2017-10-01

    Determining the fate of preservatives in commercial wood products is essential to minimize their losses and improve protective impregnation techniques. The fate of triazole fungicides in ponderosa pine wood was investigated in both outdoor and controlled-environment experiments using a representative triazole, tebuconazole (TAZ), which was accompanied by propiconazole (PAZ) in selected experiments. The study was designed to mimic industrial settings used in window frame manufacturing. To investigate the TAZ fate in detail, loosely and strongly bound fractions were differentiated using a multi-step extraction. The loosely bound TAZ fraction extracted through two sonications accounted for 85± 5% of the total TAZ, while the strongly bound TAZ was extracted only with an exhaustive Soxhlet extraction and corresponded to the remaining 15± 5%. A significant fraction (∼80%) of the original TAZ remained in the wood despite a six-month exposure to harsh environmental conditions, maintaining wood preservation and assuring minimal environmental impact. Depletion of loosely bound TAZ was observed from cross-sectional surfaces when exposed to rain, high humidity and sunlight. Water leaching was deemed to be the major route leading to triazole losses from wood. Leaching rate was found to be slightly higher for TAZ than for PAZ. The contribution of bio-, photo- and thermal degradation of triazoles was negligible as both PAZ and TAZ sorbed in wood remained intact. Triazole evaporation was also found to be minor at the moderate temperature (20-25 °C) recorded throughout the outdoor study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Building 235-F Goldsim Fate And Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, at the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP), evaluated In-Situ Disposal (ISD) alternatives that are under consideration for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of Building 235-F and the Building 294-2F Sand Filter. SRNL personnel developed and used a GoldSim fate and transport model, which is consistent with Musall 2012, to evaluate relative to groundwater protection, ISD alternatives that involve either source removal and/or the grouting of portions or all of 235-F. This evaluation was conducted through the development and use of a Building 235-F GoldSim fate and transport model. The model simulates contaminant release from four 235-F process areas and the 294-2F Sand Filter. In addition, it simulates the fate and transport through the vadose zone, the Upper Three Runs (UTR) aquifer, and the Upper Three Runs (UTR) creek. The model is designed as a stochastic model, and as such it can provide both deterministic and stochastic (probabilistic) results. The results show that the median radium activity concentrations exceed the 5 ρCi/L radium MCL at the edge of the building for all ISD alternatives after 10,000 years, except those with a sufficient amount of inventory removed. A very interesting result was that grouting was shown to basically have minimal effect on the radium activity concentration. During the first 1,000 years grouting may have some small positive benefit relative to radium, however after that it may have a slightly deleterious effect. The Pb-210 results, relative to its 0.06 ρCi/L PRG, are essentially identical to the radium results, but the Pb-210 results exhibit a lesser degree of exceedance. In summary, some level of inventory removal will be required to ensure that groundwater standards are met

  4. Building 235-F Goldsim Fate And Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2012-09-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, at the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP), evaluated In-Situ Disposal (ISD) alternatives that are under consideration for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 235-F and the Building 294-2F Sand Filter. SRNL personnel developed and used a GoldSim fate and transport model, which is consistent with Musall 2012, to evaluate relative to groundwater protection, ISD alternatives that involve either source removal and/or the grouting of portions or all of 235-F. This evaluation was conducted through the development and use of a Building 235-F GoldSim fate and transport model. The model simulates contaminant release from four 235-F process areas and the 294-2F Sand Filter. In addition, it simulates the fate and transport through the vadose zone, the Upper Three Runs (UTR) aquifer, and the Upper Three Runs (UTR) creek. The model is designed as a stochastic model, and as such it can provide both deterministic and stochastic (probabilistic) results. The results show that the median radium activity concentrations exceed the 5 ?Ci/L radium MCL at the edge of the building for all ISD alternatives after 10,000 years, except those with a sufficient amount of inventory removed. A very interesting result was that grouting was shown to basically have minimal effect on the radium activity concentration. During the first 1,000 years grouting may have some small positive benefit relative to radium, however after that it may have a slightly deleterious effect. The Pb-210 results, relative to its 0.06 ?Ci/L PRG, are essentially identical to the radium results, but the Pb-210 results exhibit a lesser degree of exceedance. In summary, some level of inventory removal will be required to ensure that groundwater standards are met.

  5. Transport and fate of microbial pathogens in agricultural settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Morales, Veronica L.; Zhang, Wei; Harvey, Ronald W.; Packman, Aaron I.; Mohanram, Arvind; Welty, Claire

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport and survival of microbial pathogens (pathogens hereafter) in agricultural settings is needed to assess the risk of pathogen contamination to water and food resources, and to develop control strategies and treatment options. However, many knowledge gaps still remain in predicting the fate and transport of pathogens in runoff water, and then through the shallow vadose zone and groundwater. A number of transport pathways, processes, factors, and mathematical models often are needed to describe pathogen fate in agricultural settings. The level of complexity is dramatically enhanced by soil heterogeneity, as well as by temporal variability in temperature, water inputs, and pathogen sources. There is substantial variability in pathogen migration pathways, leading to changes in the dominant processes that control pathogen transport over different spatial and temporal scales. For example, intense rainfall events can generate runoff and preferential flow that can rapidly transport pathogens. Pathogens that survive for extended periods of time have a greatly enhanced probability of remaining viable when subjected to such rapid-transport events. Conversely, in dry seasons, pathogen transport depends more strongly on retention at diverse environmental surfaces controlled by a multitude of coupled physical, chemical, and microbiological factors. These interactions are incompletely characterized, leading to a lack of consensus on the proper mathematical framework to model pathogen transport even at the column scale. In addition, little is known about how to quantify transport and survival parameters at the scale of agricultural fields or watersheds. This review summarizes current conceptual and quantitative models for pathogen transport and fate in agricultural settings over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The authors also discuss the benefits that can be realized by improved modeling, and potential treatments to mitigate the risk

  6. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J.; Song, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4–10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h −1 at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1 ΔO 2 ), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, 3 NOM ⁎ , also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with 1 ΔO 2 and ·OH were measured and accounted for 0.02–0.04% and 7.2–38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the 3 NOM ⁎ contributed 50.6–85.4%. Experiments with various 3 NOM ⁎ quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC–MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: ► Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. ► Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. ► The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with 3 DOM ⁎ .

  7. Environmental fate and effects of dicamba: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, P Y; Kent, R A; Taché, M; Grande, C; Fan, G T; MacDonald, D D

    1993-01-01

    Literature on the environmental fate and effects of the benzoic acid herbicide dicamba was reviewed to provide a scientific basis to derive Canadian Water Quality Guidelines. Included in the review was information on the uses and production of dicamba, its physical and chemical properties, environmental monitoring data in Canadian surface water and groundwater, soils, sediments, and biota, and its environmental degradation, persistence, and fate. Through monitoring, dicamba has been detected in less than 8% of surface-water samples to a maximum concentration of 13 micrograms.L-1, while 2% of groundwater samples were positive up to 517 micrograms.L-1. Only one study that analyzed sediments (with no detections) and no field studies that investigated residues in biota were found. Microbial degradation is the most important process governing the dissipation of dicamba in aquatic and soil environments. Photolysis, hydrolysis, volatilization, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be significant removal processes, based on limited environmental fate data. The half-life of dicamba in water is Dicamba is highly mobile in soil, and significant leaching is possible; its water solubility is 6.5 g.L-1 (25 degrees C) and it has a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 0.477. Acute and chronic toxicological studies for all nontarget plants and animals were also reviewed. The major groups of organisms for which toxicological data were collected were freshwater fish, invertebrates and plants, tame hays and cereals, legumes, and other crops, and livestock poultry and mammals. The acute toxicity ( 100 mg.L-1. No chronic data were found for either of these groups. The chronic EC50 to 14 freshwater algae, based on growth inhibition, ranged from 100 to > 10,000 micrograms.L-1. No studies on freshwater macrophytes or any marine organisms were found. Agricultural crops exhibited varying toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Free Will, Predestination, and the Fate of the Ottoman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchinger, Ethan L

    2016-07-01

    Although European travelers to the Ottoman Empire often noted the inhabitants' "fatalism," historians have never seriously examined this intellectual phenomenon. Whether or not we can credit such sources, the testimony of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Turkish and Arabic sources points to a robust debate over fate, free will, and predestination. What were the reasons behind these discussions? What issues were at stake? This article outlines the context and content of the debate. It then offers some observations about the wider significance of free will and predestination in the Ottoman intellectual universe - particularly their relation to early modern bureaucratic and military reform.

  9. Role of LRF/Pokemon in lineage fate decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Andrea; Guarnerio, Jlenia; Wang, Guocan

    2013-01-01

    In the human genome, 43 different genes are found that encode proteins belonging to the family of the POK (poxvirus and zinc finger and Krüppel)/ZBTB (zinc finger and broad complex, tramtrack, and bric à brac) factors. Generally considered transcriptional repressors, several of these genes play fundamental roles in cell lineage fate decision in various tissues, programming specific tasks throughout the life of the organism. Here, we focus on functions of leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, which is probably one of the most exciting and yet enigmatic members of the POK/ZBTB family. PMID:23396304

  10. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics Maria Curie-Sklodowska University 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  11. Fate and transport of fragrance materials in principal environmental sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2013-10-01

    Fragrance materials are widely present in the environment, such as air, water, and soil. Concerns have been raised due to the increasing utilization and suspected impact on human health. The bioaccumulating property is considered as one of the causes of the toxicity to human beings. The removal of fragrance materials from environmental sinks has not been paid enough attention due to the lack of regulation and research on their toxicity. This paper provides systematic information on how fragrance materials are transferred to the environment, how do they affect human lives, and what is their fate in water, wastewater, wastewater sludge, and soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trichloromethyl compounds - natural background concentrations and fates within and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Hansen, Poul Erik; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2010-01-01

    occurrence and cycling of organic compounds with a trichloromethyl moiety in common. The study areas are temperate coniferous forests. Trichloromethyl compounds can be found in all compartments of the forests (groundwater, soil, vegetation and throughfall), but not all compounds in all compartments....... Other positive relations occur, which in combination with chlorination experiments performed in the laboratory, point to the fact that all the trichloromethyl compounds may be formed concurrently in the soil, and their subsequent fates then differ due to different physical, chemical and biological....... Based on this and previous studies, a conceptual model for the natural cycling of trichloromethyl compounds in forests is proposed...

  13. Migration and fate of pollutants in soils and subsoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents, in three sections, 20 contributions concerning the fate of pollutants in soil and ground water which are not individually recorded. It is the outcome of a conference of the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Italy in May/June 1992. Papers deal mainly in the form of mathematical model approaches with subjects such as the sorption, transport, and chemical conversions of harmful substances like metal ions, other ions, surfactants, other organic pollutants, and radionuclides. In this context, soil is modelled as a permeable medium. The influence of 'organic matter' and clay minerals is particularly taken into account. (UWA) [de

  14. Fate and transport modelling of uranium in Port Hope Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, C.E.; Garisto, N.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fate and transport modelling of contaminants in Port Hope Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario was undertaken in support of an ecological and human health risk assessment. Uranium concentrations in the Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario due to groundwater and storm water loadings were estimated with a state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant transport model (ECOMSED). The hydrodynamic model was simplified to obtain a first estimate of the flow pattern in the Harbour. The model was verified with field data using a tracer (fluoride). The modelling results generally showed good agreement with the tracer field data. (author)

  15. Fate and Transport of Chemical Warfare Agents VX and HD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The intent of this investigation was to study the fate and transport of CWA applied to painted/sealed materials including the potential partitioning of CWA into permeable paints/sealants and subsequently into underlying porous materials. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, VX and sulfur mustard (HD) have the ability to permeate into paints and sealants, including in some cases the underlying porous materials. It is likely that other permeable materials besides paints and sealants may also show similar behavior.

  16. Chlorine cycling and fates of 36Cl in terrestrial environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bastviken, David; Svensson, Teresia; Sandén, Per; Kylin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl), a radioisotope of chlorine (Cl) with a half-life of 301,000 years, is present in some types of nuclear waste and is disposed in repositories for radioactive waste. As the release of 36Cl from such repositories to the near surface environment has to be taken into account it is of interest to predict possible fates of 36Cl under various conditions as a part of the safety assessments of repositories for radioactive waste. This report aims to summarize the state of the art kno...

  17. Fate of H2S during the cultivation of Chlorella sp. deployed for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Armando; Posten, Clemens

    2017-04-15

    The H 2 S may play a key role in the sulfur cycle among the biogas production by the anaerobic digestion of wastes and the biogas upgrading by a microalgae based technology. The biogas is upgraded by contacting with slightly alkaline aqueous microalgae culture, then CO 2 and H 2 S are absorbed. The dissolved H 2 S could limit or inhibit the microalgae growth. This paper evaluated the role of dissolved H 2 S and other sulfured byproducts under prevailing biogas upgrading conditions using a microalgal technology. At initial stages of batch cultivation the growth of Chlorella sp. was presumably inhibited by dissolved H 2 S. After 2 days, the sulfides were oxidized mainly by oxic chemical reactions to sulfate, which was later rapidly assimilated by Chlorella sp., allowing high growing rates. The fate of H 2 S during the microalgae cultivation at pH > 8.5 was assessed by a mathematical model where the pentasulfide, thiosulfate and sulfite were firstly produced and converted finally to sulfate for posterior assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blind Technology Transfer or Technological Knowledge Leakage: a Case Study from the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Codner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blurring boundaries between science and technology is a new phenomenon especially in fields such as biotechnology. The present work shows the fate of biotech research papers on foreign patents produced during the last decade in Quilmes National University. It aims at recognizing the flow of scientific knowledge developed at a public university towards foreign companies and organizations as well as reflecting on its technological value, the role of technology transfer management, the institutional significance of technology transfer processes and the need to develop innovative public policies for solving structural failures caused by industrial underdevelopment

  19. Paracrine signals from mesenchymal cell populations govern the expansion and differentiation of human hepatic stem cells to adult liver fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfang; Yao, Hsin-Lei; Cui, Cai-Bin; Wauthier, Eliane; Barbier, Claire; Costello, Martin J; Moss, Nicholas; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Sricholpech, Marnisa; Gerber, David; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Reid, Lola M

    2010-10-01

    The differentiation of embryonic or determined stem cell populations into adult liver fates under known conditions yields cells with some adult-specific genes but not others, aberrant regulation of one or more genes, and variations in the results from experiment to experiment. We tested the hypothesis that sets of signals produced by freshly isolated, lineage-dependent mesenchymal cell populations would yield greater efficiency and reproducibility in driving the differentiation of human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs) into adult liver fates. The subpopulations of liver-derived mesenchymal cells, purified by immunoselection technologies, included (1) angioblasts, (2) mature endothelia, (3) hepatic stellate cell precursors, (4) mature stellate cells (pericytes), and (5) myofibroblasts. Freshly immunoselected cells of each of these subpopulations were established in primary cultures under wholly defined (serum-free) conditions that we developed for short-term cultures and were used as feeders with hHpSCs. Feeders of angioblasts yielded self-replication, stellate cell precursors caused lineage restriction to hepatoblasts, mature endothelia produced differentiation into hepatocytes, and mature stellate cells and/or myofibroblasts resulted in differentiation into cholangiocytes. Paracrine signals produced by the different feeders were identified by biochemical, immunohistochemical, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, and then those signals were used to replace the feeders in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures to elicit the desired biological responses from hHpSCs. The defined paracrine signals were proved to be able to yield reproducible responses from hHpSCs and to permit differentiation into fully mature and functional parenchymal cells. Paracrine signals from defined mesenchymal cell populations are important for the regulation of stem cell populations into specific adult fates; this finding is important for basic and clinical

  20. Fate and effects of clothianidin in fields using conservation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perre, Chloé; Murphy, Tracye M; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the extensive use of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin, and its known toxicity to beneficial insects such as pollinators, little attention has been given to its fate under agricultural field conditions. The present study investigated the fate and toxicity of clothianidin applied every other year as a corn seed-coating at 2 different rates, 0.25 mg/seed and 0.50 mg/seed, in an agricultural field undergoing a corn-soybean annual rotation, and conservation tillage. Concentrations were measured in soil, surface runoff, infiltration, and groundwater from 2011 to 2013. Clothianidin was detected at low concentrations in soil and water throughout the 2-yr corn and soybean rotation. Low and no-tillage had little or no effect on clothianidin concentrations. Laboratory toxicity bioassays were performed on nontarget species, including Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus dilutus, Pimephales promelas and Eisenia fetida. Risk quotients were calculated from clothianidin concentrations measured in the field and compared with the laboratory toxicity bioassay results to assess the environmental risk of the insecticide. The risk quotient was found to be lower than the level of concern for C. dilutus, which was the most sensitive species tested; therefore, no short-term environmental risk was expected for the species investigated in the present study. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntornvongsagul, Kallaya [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Burke, David J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); The Holden Arboretum, 9500 Sperry Road, Kirtland, OH 44094 (United States); Hamerlynck, Erik P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Hahn, Dittmar [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States) and Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)]. E-mail: dh49@txstate.edu

    2007-09-15

    The fate and effects of selected heavy metals were examined in sediment from a restored salt marsh. Sediment cores densely covered with Spartina patens were collected and kept either un-amended or artificially amended with nickel (Ni) under standardized greenhouse conditions. Ni-amendment had no significant effect on the fate of other metals in sediments, however, it increased root uptake of the metals. Metal translocation into the shoots was small for all metals. Higher Ni concentrations in plants from amended cores were accompanied by seasonal reductions in plant biomass, photosynthetic capacity and transfer efficiency of open photosystem II reaction centers; these effects, however, were no longer significant at the end of the growing season. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resembled that of natural salt marshes with up to 20% root length colonized. Although Ni-amendment increased AMF colonization, especially during vegetative growth, in general AMF were largely unaffected. - Spartina patens accumulates heavy metals in roots without significant translocation into shoots, and with only small seasonal effects on plant growth performance and mycorrhizal colonization.

  2. Tissue Force Programs Cell Fate and Tumor Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Jason J; Przybyla, Laralynne; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-11-01

    Biomechanical and biochemical cues within a tissue collaborate across length scales to direct cell fate during development and are critical for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Loss of tensional homeostasis in a tissue not only accompanies malignancy but may also contribute to oncogenic transformation. High mechanical stress in solid tumors can impede drug delivery and may additionally drive tumor progression and promote metastasis. Mechanistically, biomechanical forces can drive tumor aggression by inducing a mesenchymal-like switch in transformed cells so that they attain tumor-initiating or stem-like cell properties. Given that cancer stem cells have been linked to metastasis and treatment resistance, this raises the intriguing possibility that the elevated tissue mechanics in tumors could promote their aggression by programming their phenotype toward that exhibited by a stem-like cell. Significance: Recent findings argue that mechanical stress and elevated mechanosignaling foster malignant transformation and metastasis. Prolonged corruption of tissue tension may drive tumor aggression by altering cell fate specification. Thus, strategies that could reduce tumor mechanics might comprise effective approaches to prevent the emergence of treatment-resilient metastatic cancers. Cancer Discov; 7(11); 1224-37. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Fate and Transport of Shale-derived, Biogenic Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, M Jim; Schmeling, Erin E; Barbour, S Lee; Huang, M; Mundle, Scott O C

    2017-07-07

    Natural gas extraction from unconventional shale gas reservoirs is the subject of considerable public debate, with a key concern being the impact of leaking fugitive natural gases on shallow potable groundwater resources. Baseline data regarding the distribution, fate, and transport of these gases and their isotopes through natural formations prior to development are lacking. Here, we define the migration and fate of CH 4 and δ 13 C-CH 4 from an early-generation bacterial gas play in the Cretaceous of the Williston Basin, Canada to the water table. Our results show the CH 4 is generated at depth and diffuses as a conservative species through the overlying shale. We also show that the diffusive fractionation of δ 13 C-CH 4 (following glaciation) can complicate fugitive gas interpretations. The sensitivity of the δ 13 C-CH 4 profile to glacial timing suggests it may be a valuable tracer for characterizing the timing of geologic changes that control transport of CH 4 (and other solutes) and distinguishing between CH 4 that rapidly migrates upward through a well annulus or other conduit and CH 4 that diffuses upwards naturally. Results of this study were used to provide recommendations for designing baseline investigations.

  4. Fugacity superposition: a new approach to dynamic multimedia fate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, E G

    2001-08-01

    The fugacities, concentrations, or inventories of pollutants in environmental compartments as determined by multimedia environmental fate models of the Mackay type can be superimposed on each other. This is true for both steady-state (level III) and dynamic (level IV) models. Any problem in multimedia fate models with linear, time-invariant transfer and transformation coefficients can be solved through a superposition of a set of n independent solutions to a set of coupled, homogeneous first-order differential equations, where n is the number of compartments in the model. For initial condition problems in dynamic models, the initial inventories can be separated, e.g. by a compartment. The solution is obtained by adding the single-compartment solutions. For time-varying emissions, a convolution integral is used to superimpose solutions. The advantage of this approach is that the differential equations have to be solved only once. No numeric integration is required. Alternatively, the dynamic model can be simplified to algebraic equations using the Laplace transform. For time-varying emissions, the Laplace transform of the model equations is simply multiplied with the Laplace transform of the emission profile. It is also shown that the time-integrated inventories of the initial conditions problems are the same as the inventories in the steady-state problem. This implies that important properties of pollutants such as potential dose, persistence, and characteristic travel distance can be derived from the steady state.

  5. Eat, breathe, ROS: controlling stem cell fate through metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Dieter A; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Research reveals cardiac regeneration exists at levels previously deemed unattainable. Clinical trials using stem cells demonstrate promising cardiomyogenic and regenerative potential but insufficient contractile recovery. Incomplete understanding of the biology of administered cells likely contributes to inconsistent patient outcomes. Metabolism is a core component of many well-characterized stem cell types, and metabolic changes fundamentally alter stem cell fate from self-renewal to lineage commitment, and vice versa. However, the metabolism of stem cells currently studied for cardiac regeneration remains incompletely understood. Areas covered: Key metabolic features of stem cells are reviewed and unique stem cell metabolic characteristics are discussed. Metabolic changes altering stem cell fate are considered from quiescence and self-renewal to lineage commitment. Key metabolic concepts are applied toward examining cardiac regeneration through stem cell-based approaches, and clinical implications of current cell therapies are evaluated to identify potential areas of improvement. Expert commentary: The metabolism and biology of stem cells used for cardiac therapy remain poorly characterized. A growing appreciation for the fundamental relationship between stem cell functionality and metabolic phenotype is developing. Future studies unraveling links between cardiac stem cell metabolism and regenerative potential may considerably improve treatment strategies and therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Molecular trajectories leading to the alternative fates of duplicate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marotta

    Full Text Available Gene duplication generates extra gene copies in which mutations can accumulate without risking the function of pre-existing genes. Such mutations modify duplicates and contribute to evolutionary novelties. However, the vast majority of duplicates appear to be short-lived and experience duplicate silencing within a few million years. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to these alternative fates. Here we delineate differing molecular trajectories of a relatively recent duplication event between humans and chimpanzees by investigating molecular properties of a single duplicate: DNA sequences, gene expression and promoter activities. The inverted duplication of the Glutathione S-transferase Theta 2 (GSTT2 gene had occurred at least 7 million years ago in the common ancestor of African great apes and is preserved in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, whereas a deletion polymorphism is prevalent in humans. The alternative fates are associated with expression divergence between these species, and reduced expression in humans is regulated by silencing mutations that have been propagated between duplicates by gene conversion. In contrast, selective constraint preserved duplicate divergence in chimpanzees. The difference in evolutionary processes left a unique DNA footprint in which dying duplicates are significantly more similar to each other (99.4% than preserved ones. Such molecular trajectories could provide insights for the mechanisms underlying duplicate life and death in extant genomes.

  7. Fate of contaminants during utilization of peat materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Gibb, C.L.; Hawkins, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Since peat soils are used for a variety of industrial purposes, the fate of contaminants in peat is of interest for environmental impact studies. Peat soils effectively retain many contaminants and can receive contaminants from both the atmosphere and groundwater. The authors investigated the fate of I, Se, Cs, U, and Pb in peats subjected to treatments simulating commercial processes. The soils were contaminated with three concentrations of the study elements and incubated for 3 yr. Subsamples were subjected to static pyrolysis, extraction with base, acid hydrolysis, and extraction with chelates to represent burning of peat, humic and fulvic acid extraction as industrial materials, carbohydrate extraction for single-cell protein production, and application of chelate-based fertilizers. The results are presented as product concentration ratios and recent recoveries. In several cases, the contaminants were markedly concentrated. As an example, food products produced from fungal culture in peat hydrolysates may contain 50-fold higher U concentrations, on a dry wt. basis, than the original peat. Thus, contaminants are transferred to these products and this should be considered for environmental and human safety

  8. Landuse Controls Fate and Transport of Radionulides in Fukushima Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Smith, H.; Brake, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has released massive amount of radiocesium into the terrestrial environment, and the radiocecium have been moved through rainfall and erosional processes. Especially, radiocesium (Cs-137) transfer and flux through river network is important to understand the redistribution of radiocesium in terrestrial environment, which is essential for assessing the external and internal radiological doses.An intensive field monitoring campaign has been started including mapping project, immediately after the Fukushima NPP accident including detailed monitoring site in upstream (Yamakiya site), and 30 monitoring sites in downstream river sites. The activity concentration of radiocesium of suspended sediment declining rapidly, and the effective half-life and had high correlation with land cover ratio by different land use of the catchments during the 1st year after the fallout. The total measured flux to the ocean of radiocesium from the Abukuma River at Iwanuma was 14 TBq for the period from August 2011 to October 2014. The detailed monitoring of activity concentration of radiocesium and their flux, which can be applicable for the fate and flux of the radionuclide transfer in humid temperate environment. We also found that land use controls most of the transport and then fate of Cs-137 in terrestrial environment.

  9. Deciphering the Intracellular Fate of Propionibacterium acnes in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Natalie; Mak, Tim N.; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Sfanos, Karen S.; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes various niches of the human body, particularly the sebaceous follicles of the skin. Over the last years a role of this common skin bacterium as an opportunistic pathogen has been explored. Persistence of P. acnes in host tissue has been associated with chronic inflammation and disease development, for example, in prostate pathologies. This study investigated the intracellular fate of P. acnes in macrophages after phagocytosis. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced chronic prostatic inflammation, the bacterium could be detected in prostate-infiltrating macrophages at 2 weeks postinfection. Further studies performed in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 revealed intracellular survival and persistence of P. acnes but no intracellular replication or escape from the host cell. Confocal analyses of phagosome acidification and maturation were performed. Acidification of P. acnes-containing phagosomes was observed at 6 h postinfection but then lost again, indicative of cytosolic escape of P. acnes or intraphagosomal pH neutralization. No colocalization with the lysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsin D was observed, implying that the P. acnes-containing phagosome does not fuse with lysosomes. Our findings give first insights into the intracellular fate of P. acnes; its persistency is likely to be important for the development of P. acnes-associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23862148

  10. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group, E F

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3709460

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Fate and Transport at the Sediment-Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffusive mass transfer at media interfaces exerts control on the fate and transport of pollutants originating from agricultural and urban landscapes and affects the con-ditions of water bodies. Diffusion is essentially a physical process affecting the distribution and fate of va...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  13. Cell-Fate Specification in Arabidopsis Roots Requires Coordinative Action of Lineage Instruction and Positional Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaozhi; Li, Pengxue; Liang, Nengsong; Wang, Hong; Xu, Meizhi; Wu, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    Tissue organization and pattern formation within a multicellular organism rely on coordinated cell division and cell-fate determination. In animals, cell fates are mainly determined by a cell lineage-dependent mechanism, whereas in plants, positional information is thought to be the primary determinant of cell fates. However, our understanding of cell-fate regulation in plants mostly relies on the histological and anatomical studies on Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) roots, which contain a single layer of each cell type in nonvascular tissues. Here, we investigate the dynamic cell-fate acquisition in modified Arabidopsis roots with additional cell layers that are artificially generated by the misexpression of SHORT-ROOT ( SHR ). We found that cell-fate determination in Arabidopsis roots is a dimorphic cascade with lineage inheritance dominant in the early stage of pattern formation. The inherited cell identity can subsequently be removed or modified by positional information. The instruction of cell-fate conversion is not a fast readout during root development. The final identity of a cell type is determined by the synergistic contribution from multiple layers of regulation, including symplastic communication across tissues. Our findings underline the collaborative inputs during cell-fate instruction. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Fate of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems: A modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, Ellen; Quik, Joris T.K.; Sun, Muzhi; Koelmans, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Riverine transport to the marine environment is an important pathway for microplastic. However, information on fate and transport of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems is lacking. Here we present scenario studies on the fate and transport of nano-to millimetre sized spherical particles

  15. Fate, accumulation and ecotoxicity of copper nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fate and toxicity of copper nanoparticles was related to the water chemistry of the environment and pristine size. Connection between fate and toxicity of copper nanoparticles could be drawn. The particle-specific toxicity of copper nanoparticles was dependent on water chemistry.

  16. MEASURED CONCENTRATIONS OF HERBICIDES AND MODEL PREDICTIONS OF ATRAZINE FATE IN THE PATUXENT RIVER ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Laura L., Jennifer A. Harman-Fetcho and James D. Hagy, III. 2004. Measured Concentrations of Herbicides and Model Predictions of Atrazine Fate in the Patuxent River Estuary. J. Environ. Qual. 33(2):594-604. (ERL,GB X1051). The environmental fate of herbicides i...

  17. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Marshall Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario

  18. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Sanderson

    2007-12-31

    This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an

  19. A mathematical model of mechanotransduction reveals how mechanical memory regulates mesenchymal stem cell fate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Liu, Linan; MacLean, Adam L; Wong, Chi Wut; Zhao, Weian; Nie, Qing

    2017-05-16

    Mechanical and biophysical properties of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell fate decisions. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate is influenced by past mechanical dosing (memory), but the mechanisms underlying this process have not yet been well defined. We have yet to understand how memory affects specific cell fate decisions, such as the differentiation of MSCs into neurons, adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. We study a minimal gene regulatory network permissive of multi-lineage MSC differentiation into four cell fates. We present a continuous model that is able to describe the cell fate transitions that occur during differentiation, and analyze its dynamics with tools from multistability, bifurcation, and cell fate landscape analysis, and via stochastic simulation. Whereas experimentally, memory has only been observed during osteogenic differentiation, this model predicts that memory regions can exist for each of the four MSC-derived cell lineages. We can predict the substrate stiffness ranges over which memory drives differentiation; these are directly testable in an experimental setting. Furthermore, we quantitatively predict how substrate stiffness and culture duration co-regulate the fate of a stem cell, and we find that the feedbacks from the differentiating MSC onto its substrate are critical to preserve mechanical memory. Strikingly, we show that re-seeding MSCs onto a sufficiently soft substrate increases the number of cell fates accessible. Control of MSC differentiation is crucial for the success of much-lauded regenerative therapies based on MSCs. We have predicted new memory regions that will directly impact this control, and have quantified the size of the memory region for osteoblasts, as well as the co-regulatory effects on cell fates of substrate stiffness and culture duration. Taken together, these results can be used to develop novel strategies to better control the fates of MSCs in vitro and following transplantation.

  20. The Information Utility and Social Choice; Papers Prepared for a Conference Sponsored Jointly by the University of Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica and the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackman, Harold, Ed.; Nie, Norman, Ed.

    The introduction, part I, is composed of three sections: (1) Social Prospects of Information Utilities, (2) The Emerging Technology of Information Utilities and (3) Information Utilities and Mass Communication. Part II covers social direction under the following headings: (1) The Regulatory Context of Information Utilities: Varieties in Law and…

  1. Photochemical fate of beta-blockers in NOM enriched waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song, Weihua, E-mail: wsong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Beta-blockers, prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and for long-term use after a heart attack, have been detected in surface and ground waters. This study examines the photochemical fate of three beta-blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, and nadolol. Hydrolysis accounted for minor losses of these beta-blockers in the pH range 4-10. The rate of direct photolysis at pH 7 in a solar simulator varied from 6.1 to 8.9 h{sup -1} at pH 7. However, the addition of a natural organic matter (NOM) isolate enhanced the photochemical loss of all three compounds. Indirect photochemical fate, generally described by reactions with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2}), and, the direct reaction with the triplet excited state, {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk }, also varied but collectively appeared to be the major loss factor. Bimolecular reaction rate constants of the three beta-blockers with {sup 1}{Delta}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were measured and accounted for 0.02-0.04% and 7.2-38.9% of their loss, respectively. These data suggest that the {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} contributed 50.6-85.4%. Experiments with various {sup 3}NOM{sup Low-Asterisk} quenchers supported the hypothesis that it was singly the most important reaction. Atenolol was chosen for more detailed investigation, with the photoproducts identified by LC-MS analysis. The results suggested that electron-transfer could be an important mechanism in photochemical fate of beta-blockers in the presence of NOM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical degradation of beta-blockers in the simulated natural waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactive Oxygen Species play a minor role in the indirect photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of beta-blockers results from direct reaction with {sup 3}DOM{sup Low-Asterisk }.

  2. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

  3. Microscale technologies for cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians,...

  4. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  5. The fate of transposed immature muscle and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, R; Pinard, B; Ravo, B; Addei, K A; Savella, B J; Spiro, A

    1986-08-01

    Transposition of muscles with their intact neurovascular bundles is a well-accepted procedure in the adult with a predictable outcome. The fate of transposed immature muscle, however, has not been studied. For this reason, muscles were transposed in three 6-week-old puppies and harvested when the puppies were 6 months old. The developing normal and transposed muscles were studied using serial biopsies, electromyography, and histochemical methods, and the growth in bulk was assessed by serial radiography and measurements of length, breadth, height, and weight of the muscles at death. As judged by these criteria, the transposed muscle developed normally. A patient with prune-belly syndrome, treated by muscle transpositions from thigh to abdomen with satisfactory results, is also described.

  6. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ( 238 U and 234 U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ( 226 Ra and 210 Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  7. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of esfenvalerate was investigated by sampling and chemical analysis after spraying of an artificial pond (25 g a.i./ha) and in the laboratory with [C-14]esfenvalerate by trapping of (CO2)-C-14 and fractionation of the sediment. The effects were investigated on pelagic communities...... in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure...... concentrations in the surface microlayer, water column, and sediment of 0.4 mug/L. 0.05 mug/L, and 9 mug/kg dry weight, respectively, two weeks after application. The degradation studies showed a limited mineralization (26.5%) of [chlorophenyl-C-14]esfenvalerate during 112 d. Part of the substance...

  8. The Unfolded Protein Response and Cell Fate Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetz, Claudio; Papa, Feroz R

    2018-01-18

    The secretory capacity of a cell is constantly challenged by physiological demands and pathological perturbations. To adjust and match the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to changing secretory needs, cells employ a dynamic intracellular signaling pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Homeostatic activation of the UPR enforces adaptive programs that modulate and augment key aspects of the entire secretory pathway, whereas maladaptive UPR outputs trigger apoptosis. Here, we discuss recent advances into how the UPR integrates information about the intensity and duration of ER stress stimuli in order to control cell fate. These findings are timely and significant because they inform an evolving mechanistic understanding of a wide variety of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, neurodegeneration, and cancer, thus opening up the potential for new therapeutic modalities to treat these diverse diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of Cell Fate in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to cell organization and fate, as well as activities that are autoregulated and/or controlled by the cell environment. Volume 1 examined cellular features that allow adaptation to env...

  10. On the fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyindula Ndiku

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture. (author)

  11. The Impact of Zodiac Signs on Human Nature and Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Naira

    2015-07-01

    Horoscope signs have unavoidable impact on human behaviour and interests, health and even fate. Moreover, intermingled with the impact of planets they become a powerful force able to bring about unbelievable changes. The investigation reveals that horoscopes have existed in the Armenian reality since ancient times. The most striking fact about their eistence is that in order to have and use zodiak signs in one's national culture, the nation should first of all have sufficient knowledge in Astrological Sciences since the system of zodiak signs has a direct reference to the cognitive processes and scientific knowledge of the universe, astrological issues and sometimes even there is a hint on hidden signs and messages. Anania Shirakatsi, one of the learned Armenians, had to display much diplomacy with the Armenian Church and religion when discussing the topic in his manuscripts. His observations are still of much importance and vitality even today.

  12. PPARγ and PPARδ as Modulators of Neoplasia and Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Glazer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ and PPARδ agonists represent unique classes of drugs that act through their ability to modulate gene transcription associated with intermediary metabolism, differentiation, tumor suppression, and in some instances proliferation and cell adhesion. PPARγ agonists are used by millions of people each year to treat type 2 diabetes but may also find additional utility as relatively nontoxic potentiators of chemotherapy. PPARδ agonists produce complex actions as shown by their tumor promoting effects in rodents and their cholesterol-lowering action in dyslipidemias. There is now emerging evidence that PPARs regulate tumor suppressor genes and developmental pathways associated with transformation and cell fate determination. This review discusses the role of PPARγ and PPARδ agonists as modulators of these processes.

  13. Fate of tagged nitrogen fertilizer applied to irrigated corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for 2 years with ammonium sulfate tagged with 5.93 at. % 15 N to determine the fate of N fertilizer applied to sprinkler-irrigated corn (Zea mays L.). All areas of triplicate, 356-cm square plots were treated with 50 or 150 kg tagged N/ha. N fertilizer used by the crop and that remaining in the top 240 cm of soil were measured. NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N in the 0- to 10-cm layers after the second harvest also were determined. Grain yields in 1976 did not differ significantly. In 1977 response to N was significant, but responses to two N rates did not differ significantly

  14. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  15. Fate of Deposited Nitrogen in Tropical Forests in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa

    Tropical forests are generally regarded as naturally nitrogen (N)-rich ecosystems where N availability is in excess of biological demands. These forests are usually characterized by increased soil N cycling rates such as mineralization and nitrification causing loss of N through leaching...... nitrogen (N) isotope 15N to uncover two aspects of N cycling in tropical forests: i) the patterns of ecosystem natural 15N abundance (δ15N) in relation to the 15N signature of deposition N, and its response to increased N deposition; ii) the fate of ambient and increased N deposition in the same forests...... and denitrification from the ecosystem. Loss of N, in turn, has many negative consequences, including soil and surface water acidification, plant nutrient imbalances and related adverse effects on biological diversities. Increased atmospheric N deposition that is anticipated for tropical regions may further aggravate...

  16. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  17. The fate of matter on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray bursts have been identified as thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars. During the thermonuclear runaway the initially hydrogen and helium rich accreted material will be rapidly converted by the rp-process towards heavy elements in the mass A=100 range. The evolution and time-scale as well as the final abundance distribution in the ashes of the thermonuclear runaway depends critically on the nuclear decay and reaction rates along the rp-process path. The paper discusses the subsequent fate of the matter due to electron capture and pycno nuclear reaction processes in the deeper layers of the neutron star crust. The necessary conditions for the ignition of pycno nuclear reactions will be presented and nuclear physics input information for a reliable determination of pycno nuclear reaction rates will be identified. (Author)

  18. [The surgeon Georg Raeschke (1884-1963)--a German fate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    George Raeschke M. D. is a forgotten famous surgeon, gynaecologist and orthopaedist of the 20th century in Thuringia. His life and work appears as a mirror of the development of surgery and of the political force in Germany--with the rise in the "golden twenties" and the fall in the second world war. The great tragedy of the family Raeschke happened when three from four sons were killed in action at war respectively at the frontier between American and Russian zone. Likewise fateful and negative proved the communist regime in GDR which forbid a private medicine and did not permit to take over the private hospital. Therefore the last son, a surgeon too, fled from GDR. The clinic in Muehlhausen/Thuringia was nationalized, later transformed in a childrens hospital. Today--back in private hand--the building accommodate a home for old people with medical care.

  19. The transformations of the concept of fate in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Bröndsted

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of time the literary idea of fate has been subject to a series of transformations which may also be of some interest from the point of view of comparative religion. The primary point of departure is man's dualistic experience of coming up against an exterior power stronger than himself, which thwarts his actions and intentions. This is supposedly the basic element in all primitive religion: the observation of an external power which decisively controls human life. The first phase, then, is religious, whether this power is conceived to be a plurality of spirits or deities or—most primitive of all, according to a recent trend in comparative religion—as a single 'high god'.

  20. Engineering Cell Fate for Tissue Regeneration by In Vivo Transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lázaro, I; Kostarelos, K

    2016-02-01

    Changes in cell identity occur in adult mammalian organisms but are rare and often linked to disease. Research in the last few decades has thrown light on how to manipulate cell fate, but the conversion of a particular cell type into another within a living organism (also termed in vivo transdifferentiation) has only been recently achieved in a limited number of tissues. Although the therapeutic promise of this strategy for tissue regeneration and repair is exciting, important efficacy and safety concerns will need to be addressed before it becomes a reality in the clinical practice. Here, we review the most relevant in vivo transdifferentiation studies in adult mammalian animal models, offering a critical assessment of this potentially powerful strategy for regenerative medicine.

  1. Subtask 4.8 - Fate and Control of Mercury and Trace Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Lentz, Nicholas; Martin, Christopher; Ralston, Nicholas; Zhuang, Ye; Hamre, Lucinda

    2011-12-31

    The Center for Air Toxic Metals® (CATM®) Program at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) continues to focus on vital basic and applied research related to the fate, behavior, measurement, and control of trace metals, especially mercury, and the impact that these trace metals have on human health and the environment. For years, the CATM Program has maintained an international perspective, performing research and providing results that apply to both domestic and international audiences, with reports distributed in the United States and abroad. In addition to trace metals, CATM’s research focuses on other related emissions and issues that impact trace metal releases to the environment, such as SOx, NOx, CO2, ash, and wastewater streams. Of paramount interest and focus has been performing research that continues to enable the power and industrial sectors to operate in an environmentally responsible manner to meet regulatory standards. The research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) through CATM has allowed significant strides to be made to gain a better understanding of trace metals and other emissions, improve sampling and measurement techniques, fill data gaps, address emerging technical issues, and develop/test control technologies that allow industry to cost-effectively meet regulatory standards. The DOE NETL–CATM research specifically focused on the fate and control of mercury and trace elements in power systems that use CO2 control technologies, such as oxycombustion and gasification systems, which are expected to be among those technologies that will be used to address climate change issues. In addition, research addressed data gaps for systems that use conventional and multipollutant control technologies, such as electrostatic precipitators, selective catalytic reduction units, flue gas desulfurization systems, and flue gas

  2. Geochemical Fate and Transport of Sildenafil and Vardenafil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Boudinot, G.; Vulava, V. M.; Cory, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemical fate of pharmaceuticals and their degradation products is a developing environmental field. The geologic, chemical, and biological fate of these pollutants has become very relevant with the increase in human population and the resulting increase in pollutant concentrations in the environment. In this study, we focus on sildenafil (SDF) and vardenafil (VDF), active compounds in Viagra and Levitra, respectively, two commonly used erectile dysfunction drugs. The main objective is to determine the sorption potential and transport behavior of these two compounds in natural soils. Both SDF and VDF are complex organic molecules with multiple amine functional groups in their structures. Two types of natural acidic soils (pH≈4.5), an organic-rich soil (7.6% OM) and clay-rich soil (5.1% clay) were used in this study to determine which soil components influence sorption behavior of both compounds. Sorption isotherms measured using batch reactors were nearly linear, but sorption was stronger in soil that contained higher clay content. Both compounds have multiple pKas due to the amine functional groups, the relevant pKas of SDF are 5.97 and 7.27, and those of VDF's are 4.72 and 6.21. These values indicate that these compounds likely behave as cations in soil suspensions and hence were strongly sorbed to negatively-charged clay minerals present in both soils. The clay composition in both soils is predominantly kaolinite with smaller amount of montmorillonite, both of which have a predominantly negative surface charge. Transport experiments using glass chromatography columns indicated that both compounds were more strongly retarded in the clay-rich soils. Breakthrough curves from the transport experiments were modeled using convection-dispersion transport equations. The organic matter in the soil seemed to play a less dominant role in the geochemistry in this study, but is likely to transform both compounds into derivative compounds as seen in other studies.

  3. Pesticides in tropical marine environments: Assessing their fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    While forecasts of economic and population trends are notoriously contentious, it seems to be fairly widely accepted that there will be approximately 11,000 million people to feed in the year 2050, which is about twice as many as there were in 1990. There seems little doubt that pesticides will remain an essential component of many agricultural systems. Although it is estimated that insect pests alone still destroy about one-third of the world's crops, yields would probably decline by a further 30% to 75% without crop protection chemicals. It is hardly surprising therefore that worldwide pesticide usage is on the order of 5 million tons per year with a value of US $26 billion. Data on the behaviour of pesticides in the tropical marine environment are very limited in comparison with information on the fate of pesticides in temperate regions. Preliminary surveys carried out be the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in coastal lagoons in Central America indicate the presence of high concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in sediments and aquatic organisms. OP compounds, such as chlorpyrifos, were also found to be widespread contaminants in these lagoons. To develop relevant studies, the IAEA is organizing a co-ordinated research programme (CRP) through its Laboratory at Monaco and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The CRP is entitled the Distribution, Fate, and Effects of Pesticides in Biota in the Tropical Environment; support has been offered by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It will concentrate on various aspects of the problem. 2 figs

  4. Fate of triclosan in field soils receiving sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.; Whelan, M.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Egmond, R. van

    2012-01-01

    The anti-microbial substance triclosan can partition to sewage sludge during wastewater treatment and subsequently transfer to soil when applied to land. Here, we describe the fate of triclosan in a one-year plot experiment on three different soils receiving sludge. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan concentrations were measured in soil samples collected monthly from three depths. A large fraction of triclosan loss appeared to be explained by transformation to methyl-triclosan. After 12 months less than 20% of the initial triclosan was recovered from each soil. However, the majority was recovered as methyl-triclosan. Most of the chemical recovered at the end of the experiment (both triclosan and methyl-triclosan) was still in the top 10 cm layer, although there was translocation to lower soil horizons in all three soils. Between 16.5 and 50.6% of the applied triclosan was unaccounted for after 12 months either as a consequence of degradation or the formation of non-extractable residues. - Highlights: ► We study the fate of triclosan in 3 different field soils amended with biosolids. ► Triclosan concentrations were measured over 12 months at 3 depths of soil. ► Methyl-triclosan was identified as a main biotransformation product. ► There was very little movement of triclosan through the soil. ► Only between 16 and 50% of triclosan applied was degraded or leached out of the soil. - This paper investigates the mobility and degradation of triclosan in three field soils after receiving an application of biosolids and the persistence of methyl-triclosan.

  5. The fate of nitrogen fixed by diazotrophs in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mulholland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While we now know that N2 fixation is a significant source of new nitrogen (N in the marine environment, little is known about the fate of this N (and associated C, despite the importance of diazotrophs to global carbon and nutrient cycles. Specifically, does N fixed during N2 fixation fuel autotrophic or heterotrophic growth and thus facilitate carbon (C export from the euphotic zone, or does it contribute primarily to bacterial productivity and respiration in the euphotic zone? For Trichodesmium, the diazotroph we know the most about, the transfer of recently fixed N2 (and C appears to be primarily through dissolved pools. The release of N varies among and within populations and as a result of the changing physiological state of cells and populations. The net result of trophic transfers appears to depend on the co-occurring organisms and the complexity of the colonizing community. In order to understand the impact of diazotrophy on carbon flow and export in marine systems, we need a better understanding of the trophic flow of elements in Trichodesmium-dominated communities and other diazotrophic communities under various defined physiological states. Nitrogen and carbon fixation rates themselves vary by orders of magnitude within and among studies of Trichodesmium, highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating global rates of N2 fixation from direct measurements. Because the stoichiometry of N2 and C fixation does not appear to be in balance with that of particles, and the relationship between C and N2 fixation rates is also variable, it is equally difficult to derive global rates of one from the other. This paper seeks to synthesize what is known about the fate of diazotrophic production in the environment. A better understanding of the physiology and physiological ecology of Trichodesmium and other marine diazotrophs is necessary to quantify and predict the effects of increased or decreased diazotrophy in the context of the carbon cycle and

  6. Identification and fate mapping of the pancreatic mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R; Tremblay, Kimberly D

    2018-03-01

    The murine pancreas buds from the ventral embryonic endoderm at approximately 8.75 dpc and a second pancreas bud emerges from the dorsal endoderm by 9.0 dpc. Although it is clear that secreted signals from adjacent mesoderm-derived sources are required for both the appropriate emergence and further refinement of the pancreatic endoderm, neither the exact signals nor the requisite tissue sources have been defined in mammalian systems. Herein we use DiI fate mapping of cultured murine embryos to identify the embryonic sources of both the early inductive and later condensed pancreatic mesenchyme. Despite being capable of supporting pancreas induction from dorsal endoderm in co-culture experiments, we find that in the context of the developing embryo, the dorsal aortae as well as the paraxial, intermediate, and lateral mesoderm derivatives only transiently associate with the dorsal pancreas bud, producing descendants that are decidedly anterior to the pancreas bud. Unlike these other mesoderm derivatives, the axial (notochord) descendants maintain association with the dorsal pre-pancreatic endoderm and early pancreas bud. This fate mapping data points to the notochord as the likely inductive source in vivo while also revealing dynamic morphogenetic movements displayed by individual mesodermal subtypes. Because none of the mesoderm examined above produced the pancreatic mesenchyme that condenses around the induced bud to support exocrine and endocrine differentiation, we also sought to identify the mesodermal origins of this mesenchyme. We identify a portion of the coelomic mesoderm that contributes to the condensed pancreatic mesenchyme. In conclusion, we identify a portion of the notochord as a likely source of the signals required to induce and maintain the early dorsal pancreas bud, demonstrate that the coelomic mesothelium contributes to the dorsal and ventral pancreatic mesenchyme, and provide insight into the dynamic morphological rearrangements of mesoderm

  7. The sources and fate of radionuclides emitted to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis represents an account of the sources and fate of radionuclides entering the atmosphere, and indicates where the candidate, through his own work, has contributed to the overall picture. The sources of the natural and man-made radionuclides found in the atmosphere are identified. New data on emissions from UK coal-fired power stations and UK steel works are reported. Radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and released to the atmosphere in the detonation of nuclear weapons, in nuclear accidents, and through routine discharges from nuclear sites have added to the atmospheric burden of radioactive materials; both acute and chronic low-level emissions are discussed. The various natural processes which remove radionuclides from the atmosphere are described. Soon after release, many radioactive materials become attached to the atmospheric aerosol, but others undergo gas-phase reactions. Some gases are sufficiently long-lived in the troposphere as to find their way into the stratosphere where their fate may be determined by the short-wave radiation from the sun. The nature of the particles of fuel emitted to the atmosphere in the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 are discussed, together with the associated environmental problems. The ground is the major sink for radionuclides leaving the atmosphere, and the behaviour of the more radiologically important radionuclides following deposition is described with special reference to: (i) fallout in both the urban and living environments; (ii) the pathways which may lead to contamination of the food chain; (iii) how the fuel particle fallout from Chernobyl was unique in nuclear accidents; (iv) soil-to-plant transfer of radioelements and (v) how radiation exposure of man can be mitigated in both the contaminated urban and rural environments. (author)

  8. Apically Extruded Sealers: Fate and Influence on Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of unintentional overfillings for the fate of the extruded sealers and their influence on treatment outcome. One hundred five teeth treated by a single operator and exhibiting overfillings in the postobturation radiograph were included in the study. Seventy-five teeth exhibited apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment. Sealers included Pulp Canal Sealer (Sybron Dental, Orange, CA), PCS Extended Working Time-EWT (Sybron Dental), Tubli-Seal (Sybron Endo), Endomethasone (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), AH Plus (DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), and Apexit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein). Recall radiographs were compared with immediate postobturation films for removal of the extruded material and status of the periradicular tissues. Data were grouped as 1-, 2- and >4-year recall and statistically analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. As for the sealers' fate, the only statistically significant differences at the 1-year recall were observed when comparing Tubli-Seal with AH Plus, Apexit, and Endomethasone (P .05). Data from the >4-year recall revealed that 79% of the teeth with apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment had healed in comparison with 100% of the teeth with no apical periodontitis (P extruded sealers were predictably removed from the periradicular tissues. Treatment outcome was not significantly affected by the type of extruded sealer. A significantly better outcome was observed for teeth with no lesion in comparison with teeth with apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of biochar on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M.; Puricelli, Sara; Saponaro, Sabrina; Werner, David

    2011-11-01

    Biochar addition to soil is currently being investigated as a novel technology to remediate polluted sites. A critical consideration is the impact of biochar on the intrinsic microbial pollutant degradation, in particular at sites polluted with a mixture of readily biodegradable and more persistent organic pollutants. We therefore studied the impact of biochar (2% on dry weight basis) on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil with batch and column studies. The soil-water partitioning coefficient, K d, was enhanced in the biochar-amended soil up to a factor 36, and petroleum hydrocarbon vapor migration was retarded accordingly. Despite increased sorption, in particular of monoaromatic hydrocarbons, the overall microbial respiration was comparable in the biochar-amended and unamended soil. This was due to more rapid biodegradation of linear, cyclic and branched alkanes in the biochar amended soil. We concluded that the total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate was controlled by a factor other than substrate availability and the reduced availability of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the biochar amended soil led to greater biodegradation of the other petroleum compounds.

  10. Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hosono, Chie; Samakovlis, Christos; Saigo, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Developmental potentials of cells are tightly controlled at multiple levels. The embryonic Drosophila airway tree is roughly subdivided into two types of cells with distinct developmental potentials: a proximally located group of multipotent adult precursor cells (P-fate) and a distally located population of more differentiated cells (D-fate). We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate. Hedgehog and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cooperate with Vvl to drive the D-fate at the expense of the P-fate while negative regulators of either of these signaling pathways ensure P-fate specification. Local concentrations of Decapentaplegic/BMP, Wingless/Wnt, and Hedgehog signals differentially regulate the expression of D-factors and P-factors to transform an equipotent primordial field into a concentric pattern of radially different morphogenetic potentials, which gradually gives rise to the distal-proximal organization of distinct cell types in the mature airway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09646.001 PMID:26633813

  11. Fate of nitrate and origin of ammonium during infiltration of treated wastewater investigated through stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matthew; Schlögl, Johanna; Knöller, Kay; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The EU FP7 project MARSOL addresses water scarcity challenges in arid regions, where managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an upcoming technology to recharge depleted aquifers using alternative water sources. However, a potential impact to water quality is increasing ammonium concentrations, which are known to be a problem resulting from bank filtration. In the context of MAR, increasing ammonium concentrations have received little attention so far. A soil column experiment was conducted to investigate transformations of nitrogen species when secondary treated wastewater (TWW) is infiltrated through a natural soil (organic matter content 5.6%) being considered for MAR. The TWW contains nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), but typically very low (samples were collected from six depths. Results show that the largest decreases in nitrate concentration occur in the upper part of the soil, with on average 77% attenuated by 15 cm depth and 94% by 30 cm depth. Starting at 30 cm and continuing downward, ammonium concentrations increased, with concentrations reaching as high as 4 mg-N/L (the EU drinking water limit is 0.41 mg-N/L). Selected samples were also measured for stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes. Nitrate became isotopically heavier (both N and O) with increasing depth (samples collected at 5 and 15 cm below the soil surface), with most results forming a linear trend for δ18O vs. δ15N. This pattern is consistent with denitrification, which is also supported by the fact that the ammonium concentration first increases at a depth below where most of the nitrate is consumed. However, the relationship between δ15N-NO3- and nitrate concentration is not clearly logarithmic, so processes other than denitrification are not ruled out for explaining the fate of nitrate. The δ15N of ammonium in the water samples and of nitrogen in the soil were also measured. With increasing depth and time, the δ15N-NH4+ (mean 4.3‰) decreases and approaches the δ15N of the pre

  12. Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Anke; McArdell, Christa S.; Joss, Adriano; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of sulfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim from raw wastewater was investigated in several municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary treatment provided no significant elimination for the investigated substances. Similar eliminations were observed in the secondary treatment of two conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). Sulfamethoxazole, including the fraction present as N 4 -acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, was eliminated by approximately 60% in comparison to about 80% in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) independently of the solid retention time (SRT), indicating a positive correlation of the observed elimination to the organic substrate concentration. The elimination for macrolides and trimethoprim varied significantly between the different sampling campaigns in the two CAS systems and in the FBR. In the MBR, these analytes were eliminated up to 50% at SRT of 16 ± 2 and 33 ± 3 d. Trimethoprim, clarithromycin and dehydro-erythromycin showed a higher elimination of up to 90% at a SRT of 60-80 d indicating a correlation with reduced substrate loading (SL). Together with the high SRT, the SL may lead to an increased biodiversity of the active biomass, resulting in a broader range of degradation pathways available. Two investigated sand filters showed different elimination behavior. One led to a significant elimination of most macrolides (17-23%) and trimethoprim (74 ± 14%), while no elimination was observed in the other sand filter investigated

  13. Fate of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in different wastewater treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Anke [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); McArdell, Christa S. [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: mcardell@eawag.ch; Joss, Adriano [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Giger, Walter [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of sulfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim from raw wastewater was investigated in several municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary treatment provided no significant elimination for the investigated substances. Similar eliminations were observed in the secondary treatment of two conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). Sulfamethoxazole, including the fraction present as N {sup 4}-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, was eliminated by approximately 60% in comparison to about 80% in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) independently of the solid retention time (SRT), indicating a positive correlation of the observed elimination to the organic substrate concentration. The elimination for macrolides and trimethoprim varied significantly between the different sampling campaigns in the two CAS systems and in the FBR. In the MBR, these analytes were eliminated up to 50% at SRT of 16 {+-} 2 and 33 {+-} 3 d. Trimethoprim, clarithromycin and dehydro-erythromycin showed a higher elimination of up to 90% at a SRT of 60-80 d indicating a correlation with reduced substrate loading (SL). Together with the high SRT, the SL may lead to an increased biodiversity of the active biomass, resulting in a broader range of degradation pathways available. Two investigated sand filters showed different elimination behavior. One led to a significant elimination of most macrolides (17-23%) and trimethoprim (74 {+-} 14%), while no elimination was observed in the other sand filter investigated.

  14. Modeling the formation and fate of odorous substances in collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-02-01

    A conceptual model that simulates the formation and fate of odorous substances in branched collection systems is presented. The model predicts the activity of the relevant biomass phenotypes under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions in force mains and gravity sewers. The formation and fate of individual, malodorous substances in the bulk water, biofilms, and sediments are modeled. The release of odorous compounds from the bulk water to the sewer gas phase, their fate in the gas phase, and their subsequent release into the urban atmosphere is simulated. Examples of model application include the prediction of hydrogen sulfide and malodorous fermentation products from force mains and gravity sewers.

  15. Commentary on: Christensen, Clayton M. : Disruptive Innovation. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction-Design.org Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/disruptive_innovation.html

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2012-01-01

    Book : A disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network. The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations that improve a product or

  16. Redundant mechanisms are involved in suppression of default cell fates during embryonic mesenchyme and notochord induction in ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hitoshi; Miyata, Yoshimasa; Kuwajima, Mami; Izuchi, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Gyoja, Fuki; Onuma, Takeshi A; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    During embryonic induction, the responding cells invoke an induced developmental program, whereas in the absence of an inducing signal, they assume a default uninduced cell fate. Suppression of the default fate during the inductive event is crucial for choice of the binary cell fate. In contrast to the mechanisms that promote an induced cell fate, those that suppress the default fate have been overlooked. Upon induction, intracellular signal transduction results in activation of genes encoding key transcription factors for induced tissue differentiation. It is elusive whether an induced key transcription factor has dual functions involving suppression of the default fates and promotion of the induced fate, or whether suppression of the default fate is independently regulated by other factors that are also downstream of the signaling cascade. We show that during ascidian embryonic induction, default fates were suppressed by multifold redundant mechanisms. The key transcription factor, Twist-related.a, which is required for mesenchyme differentiation, and another independent transcription factor, Lhx3, which is dispensable for mesenchyme differentiation, sequentially and redundantly suppress the default muscle fate in induced mesenchyme cells. Similarly in notochord induction, Brachyury, which is required for notochord differentiation, and other factors, Lhx3 and Mnx, are likely to suppress the default nerve cord fate redundantly. Lhx3 commonly suppresses the default fates in two kinds of induction. Mis-activation of the autonomously executed default program in induced cells is detrimental to choice of the binary cell fate. Multifold redundant mechanisms would be required for suppression of the default fate to be secure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Report from the international society for nomenclature of paediatric and congenital heart disease: creation of a visual encyclopedia illustrating the terms and definitions of the international pediatric and congenital cardiac code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Jorge M; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Spicer, Diane; Backer, Carl; Martin, Gerard R; Franklin, Rodney C G; Béland, Marie J; Krogmann, Otto N; Aiello, Vera D; Colan, Steven D; Everett, Allen D; William Gaynor, J; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry L; Weinberg, Paul; Anderson, Robert H; Elliott, Martin J

    2010-10-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the field of pediatric heart disease over the past 30 years. Although survival after heart surgery in children has improved dramatically, complications still occur, and optimization of outcomes for all patients remains a challenge. To improve outcomes, collaborative efforts are required and ultimately depend on the possibility of using a common language when discussing pediatric and congenital heart disease. Such a universal language has been developed and named the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC). To make the IPCCC more universally understood, efforts are under way to link the IPCCC to pictures and videos. The Archiving Working Group is an organization composed of leaders within the international pediatric cardiac medical community and part of the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (www.ipccc.net). Its purpose is to illustrate, with representative images of all types and formats, the pertinent aspects of cardiac diseases that affect neonates, infants, children, and adults with congenital heart disease, using the codes and definitions associated with the IPCCC as the organizational backbone. The Archiving Working Group certifies and links images and videos to the appropriate term and definition in the IPCCC. These images and videos are then displayed in an electronic format on the Internet. The purpose of this publication is to report the recent progress made by the Archiving Working Group in establishing an Internet-based, image encyclopedia that is based on the standards of the IPCCC.

  18. The life of jorjani: one of the persian pioneers of medical encyclopedia compiling: on the occasion of his 1000th birthday anniversary (434, a.h. - 1434, a.h.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moattar, Fariborz; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-09-01

    Seyyed Esmaeil Jorjani is one of the most prominent pioneers and scientists of Islamic and Iranian traditional medicine in the 11(th) and 12(th) centuries (4(th) and 5(th) centuries A.H.). The number of his books is not certainly clear, but it is signified that he has written a couple of great books concerning medicine for Persians and too many treatises in such fields as philosophy, theology, medical ethics, human anatomy, chemistry, pharmacy and other sciences. His most famous and important book is "Zakhireh Khwarazmshahi" or "The Treasure of King Khwarazm", which is really a complete and valuable medical encyclopedia in Persian language. In the present study, authors have attempted to state the life and time of Jorjani and his views by studying the history, old medical sources, and other provided recent medical literature in these fields. The biography of Hakim Jorjani has been well reviewed and described precisely. Based on our findings, it is clear that Jorjani described and explained the symptoms, signs and treatments of several diseases, introduced the activities of various medicinal plants, and compound formulations. He achieved all of this during his continuous visits to prestigious medical centers and famous people of his time.

  19. No One's Home: the Fate of Carbon on Lifeless Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc

    Although several thousands of exoplanets are now known, including many terrestrial planets, their possible geology and climates remain poorly understood and understudied. Yet, understanding how elements such as carbon are cycled between a planet's interior, surface, and atmosphere is crucial to predict how lifeless planets operate and, by contrast, be able to detect deviations from abiotic backgrounds due to biology, the holy grail of exoplanet science. As a first, feasible step towards the difficult, long-term goal of understanding how key reactive elements (H, C, N, O, S) are cycled in the atmospheres, surfaces, and interiors of terrestrial exoplanets through time, we propose to carry out a self-consistent theoretical study of the fate of carbon in the atmospheres and at the surfaces of Earth-like, lifeless exoplanets. We will: 1. Model the near-surface geochemistry and geophysics of the carbon cycle to determine net carbon gas fluxes as a function of terrestrial planet size and redox conditions; 2. Model the atmospheric fate of carbon species as a function of stellar input; 3. Perform simulations that self-consistently combine geological and atmospheric processes; 4. Convert resulting atmospheric compositions to spectra to be archived as a public database for use by observers. We will track the abiotic fate of carbon and its atmospheric expression on Earth-like planets as a function of three key parameters: planet size, surface and atmospheric redox conditions, and stellar irradiation. To do so, we will further develop and use state-of-theart planetary geological ("Geo") and atmospheric ("Atmos") models. We have previously developed a code that couples geophysical evolution and water-rock geochemistry (Neveu et al. 2015, GRL 42, 10197). Using this code, we will calculate the speciation of carbon species versus depth in subaerial oceans, their possible incorporation into the crust by water-rock interaction at the seafloor or by subduction of sediments, and

  20. Nitrogen fate and Transport in Diverse Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; McCarthy, K. A.; Baker, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen mass budgets have been estimated for ten agricultural watersheds located in a range of hydrologic settings in order to understand the factors controlling the fate of nitrogen applied at the surface. The watersheds, study areas of the Agricultural Chemical Sources, Transport and Fate study of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, are located in Indiana (IN), Iowa (IA), Maryland (MD), Nebraska (NE), Mississippi (MS) and Washington (WA). They range in size from 7 to 1254 km2, with four of the watersheds nested within larger watersheds. Surface water outflow (normalized to watershed area) ranged from 4 to 83 cm/yr. Crops planted include corn, soybean, small grains, rice, cotton, orchards and vegetables. “Surplus nitrogen” was determined for each watershed by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of nitrogen input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, and fertilizer and manure applications for the period from 1987 to 2004. This surplus nitrogen is transported though the watershed via surface and subsurface flow paths, while simultaneously undergoing transformations (such as denitrification and in-stream processing) that result in less export of nitrogen from the watershed. Surface-water discharge and concentration data were used to estimate the export of nitrogen from the watersheds (groundwater outflow from the watersheds was minimal). Subtracting nitrogen export from surplus nitrogen provides an estimate of the net amount of nitrogen removal occurring during internal watershed transport. Watershed average nitrogen surplus ranged from 6 to 49 kg-N/ha. The more permeable and/or greater water flux watersheds (MD, NE, and WA) tended to have larger surplus nitrogen, possibly due to less crop uptake caused by greater leaching and runoff of nitrogen. Almost all of the surplus nitrogen in the low permeability (MS) and tile drained watersheds (IA, IN) was exported from the watershed with

  1. The principle of locality: Effectiveness, fate, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics merge in the key principle of quantum field theory, the principle of locality. We review some examples of its 'unreasonable effectiveness' in giving rise to most of the conceptual and structural frame of quantum field theory, especially in the absence of massless particles. This effectiveness shows up best in the formulation of quantum field theory in terms of operator algebras of local observables; this formulation is successful in digging out the roots of global gauge invariance, through the analysis of superselection structure and statistics, in the structure of the local observable quantities alone, at least for purely massive theories; but so far it seems unfit to cope with the principle of local gauge invariance. This problem emerges also if one attempts to figure out the fate of the principle of locality in theories describing the gravitational forces between elementary particles as well. An approach based on the need to keep an operational meaning, in terms of localization of events, of the notion of space-time, shows that, in the small, the latter must loose any meaning as a classical pseudo-Riemannian manifold, locally based on Minkowski space, but should acquire a quantum structure at the Planck scale. We review the geometry of a basic model of quantum space-time and some attempts to formulate interaction of quantum fields on quantum space-time. The principle of locality is necessarily lost at the Planck scale, and it is a crucial open problem to unravel a replacement in such theories which is equally mathematically sharp, namely, a principle where the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics merge, which reduces to the principle of locality at larger scales. Besides exploring its fate, many challenges for the principle of locality remain; among them, the analysis of superselection structure and statistics also in the presence of massless particles, and to give a precise mathematical

  2. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  3. Regulation of cell fate and meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an essential and universal mechanism for generating diversity and pattern in multicellular organisms. Divisions generating daughter cells different in size, shape, identity and function are fundamental to many developmental processes including fate specification, tissue

  4. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify...

  5. Modeling the environmental fate of perfluoroctanoate and its precursors from global fluorotelomer acrylate polymer use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelm, R.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Russell, M.H.; Jager, T.; van de Meent, D.

    2008-01-01

    The environment contains various direct and indirect sources of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The present study uses a dynamic multispecies environmental fate model to analyze the potential formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFO), the anion of PFOA, in the environment from fluorotelomer acrylate

  6. The Vertebrate Protein Dead End Maintains Primordial Germ Cell Fate by Inhibiting Somatic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Thebing, Theresa; Yigit, Sargon; Pfeiffer, Jana; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Bandemer, Jan; Ruckert, Christian; Rathmer, Christin; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Stehling, Martin; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Seggewiss, Jochen; Raz, Erez

    2017-12-18

    Maintaining cell fate relies on robust mechanisms that prevent the differentiation of specified cells into other cell types. This is especially critical during embryogenesis, when extensive cell proliferation, patterning, and migration events take place. Here we show that vertebrate primordial germ cells (PGCs) are protected from reprogramming into other cell types by the RNA-binding protein Dead end (Dnd). PGCs knocked down for Dnd lose their characteristic morphology and adopt various somatic cell fates. Concomitantly, they gain a gene expression profile reflecting differentiation into cells of different germ layers, in a process that we could direct by expression of specific cell-fate determinants. Importantly, we visualized these events within live zebrafish embryos, which provide temporal information regarding cell reprogramming. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling germ cell fate maintenance and are relevant for the formation of teratoma, a tumor class composed of cells from more than one germ layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung epithelial tip progenitors integrate glucocorticoid- and STAT3-mediated signals to control progeny fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laresgoiti, Usua; Rao, Chandrika; Brady, Jane L.; Richardson, Rachel V.; Batchen, Emma J.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient alveolar gas exchange capacity is a major contributor to lung disease. During lung development, a population of distal epithelial progenitors first produce bronchiolar-fated and subsequently alveolar-fated progeny. The mechanisms controlling this bronchiolar-to-alveolar developmental transition remain largely unknown. We developed a novel grafting assay to test if lung epithelial progenitors are intrinsically programmed or if alveolar cell identity is determined by environmental factors. These experiments revealed that embryonic lung epithelial identity is extrinsically determined. We show that both glucocorticoid and STAT3 signalling can control the timing of alveolar initiation, but that neither pathway is absolutely required for alveolar fate specification; rather, glucocorticoid receptor and STAT3 work in parallel to promote alveolar differentiation. Thus, developmental acquisition of lung alveolar fate is a robust process controlled by at least two independent extrinsic signalling inputs. Further elucidation of these pathways might provide therapeutic opportunities for restoring alveolar capacity. PMID:27578791

  8. Simulation of Reactive Constituent Fate and Transport in Hydrologic Simulator GSSHA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this System-Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) technical note is to describe the new fate and transport routines in the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model...

  9. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-12-01

    Cell fate determination is an important process in multicellular organisms. Plant epidermis is a readily-accessible, well-used model for the study of cell fate determination. Our knowledge of cell fate determination is growing steadily due to genetic and molecular analyses of root hairs, trichomes, and stomata, which are derived from the epidermal cells of roots and aerial tissues. Studies have shown that a large number of factors are involved in the establishment of these cell types, especially members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily, which is an important family of transcription factors. In this mini-review, we focus on the role of bHLH transcription factors in cell fate determination in Arabidopsis.

  10. BETR global - A geographically-explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Waldow, Harald von; Tay, Pascal; Armitage, James M.; Woehrnschimmel, Henry; Riley, William J.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15 o x 15 o grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). - Two new software implementations of the Berkeley-Trent Global Contaminant Fate Model are available. The new model software is illustrated using a case study of the global fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  11. Two-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (2DFATMIC) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model simulates subsurface flow, fate, and transport of contaminants that are undergoing chemical or biological transformations. This model is applicable to transient conditions in both saturated and unsaturated zones.

  12. Three-Dimensional Subsurface Flow, Fate and Transport of Microbes and Chemicals (3DFATMIC) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model simulates subsurface flow, fate and transport of contaminants that are undergoing chemical or biological transformations. The model is applicable to transient conditions in both saturated and unsaturated zones.

  13. Fate and transport of viruses and colloids in saturated and unsaturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torkzaban, S.

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms involved in fate and transport of colloidal particles (viruses and latex microspheres) in saturated and unsaturated porous media were systematically examined. Two different bacteriophages were used as surrogate for pathogenic viruses to investigate the effects of various

  14. Emerging patterns for engineered nanomaterials in the environment: A review of fate and toxicity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, KL; Keller, AA

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the environmental risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) entering the environment is necessary, due in part to the recent predictions of ENM release quantities and because ENMs have been identified in waste leachate. The technical complexity of measuring ENM fate and transport processes in all environments necessitates identifying trends in ENM processes. Emerging information on the environmental fate and toxicity of many ENMs was collected to provide a b...

  15. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    THALLIUM (I) IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND CHLORINATED WATER MATRICES ECBC-TR-1127 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2010 - Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of Thallium (I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: This is the final report for a limited thallium fate study in support of the Joint Chemical Biological Radiological

  16. Fate of Malathion in an Activated Sludge Municipal Wastewater Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    treatment plant ( WWTP ). There have been few studies to document the fate of these CWAs when subjected to a municipal wastewater treatment process. This...municipal activated sludge (AS) WWTP . Results show that v malathion may degrade in an AS WWTP as approximately 90% of an initial concentration of 4.25 mg...the decontamination wastewater must be disposed of as hazardous waste or possibly treated at a WWTP . There are no studies that document the fate of

  17. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions material (TNT, RDX) in soil and plant systems: Environmental fate and behavior of RDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine (RDX), particularly as related to its transport and chemical form in the food chain. To meet this goal, we needed to adapt and develop suitable analytical methodology to fractionate and characterize both RDX and RDX-derived residues in soil and plant matrices. Using the methodology that we developed, we assessed the chemical and physical fate of RDX in soils and plants. In general, the plant availability and plant mobility of RDX is substantially greater than that previously reported for TNT. 30 refs., 27 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  19. FATE1 antagonizes calcium- and drug-induced apoptosis by uncoupling ER and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghman-Bouguerra, Mabrouka; Granatiero, Veronica; Sbiera, Silviu; Sbiera, Iuliu; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Brau, Frédéric; Fassnacht, Martin; Rizzuto, Rosario; Lalli, Enzo

    2016-09-01

    Several stimuli induce programmed cell death by increasing Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Perturbation of this process has a special relevance in pathologies as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mainly takes place in correspondence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized contact sites between the two organelles. Here, we show the important role of FATE1, a cancer-testis antigen, in the regulation of ER-mitochondria distance and Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria. FATE1 is localized at the interface between ER and mitochondria, fractionating into MAM FATE1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells under the control of the transcription factor SF-1 decreases ER-mitochondria contact and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, while its knockdown has an opposite effect. FATE1 also decreases sensitivity to mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent pro-apoptotic stimuli and to the chemotherapeutic drug mitotane. In patients with ACC, FATE1 expression in their tumor is inversely correlated with their overall survival. These results show that the ER-mitochondria uncoupling activity of FATE1 is harnessed by cancer cells to escape apoptotic death and resist the action of chemotherapeutic drugs. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Morphogenesis and Cell Fate Determination within the Adaxial Cell Equivalence Group of the Zebrafish Myotome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai E.; Bryson-Richardson, Robert; Sonntag, Carmen; Hall, Thomas E.; Gibson, Abigail; Sztal, Tamar; Chua, Wendy; Schilling, Thomas F.; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the central questions of developmental biology is how cells of equivalent potential—an equivalence group—come to adopt specific cellular fates. In this study we have used a combination of live imaging, single cell lineage analyses, and perturbation of specific signaling pathways to dissect the specification of the adaxial cells of the zebrafish embryo. We show that the adaxial cells are myogenic precursors that form a cell fate equivalence group of approximately 20 cells that consequently give rise to two distinct sub-types of muscle fibers: the superficial slow muscle fibers (SSFs) and muscle pioneer cells (MPs), distinguished by specific gene expression and cell behaviors. Using a combination of live imaging, retrospective and indicative fate mapping, and genetic studies, we show that MP and SSF precursors segregate at the beginning of segmentation and that they arise from distinct regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the adaxial cell compartment. FGF signaling restricts MP cell fate in the anterior-most adaxial cells in each somite, while BMP signaling restricts this fate to the middle of the DV axis. Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group. PMID:23133395

  1. Automated workflows for modelling chemical fate, kinetics and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Benito, J V; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Meinl, Thorsten; Berthold, Michael R; Cronin, Mark T D; Worth, Andrew P

    2017-12-01

    Automation is universal in today's society, from operating equipment such as machinery, in factory processes, to self-parking automobile systems. While these examples show the efficiency and effectiveness of automated mechanical processes, automated procedures that support the chemical risk assessment process are still in their infancy. Future human safety assessments will rely increasingly on the use of automated models, such as physiologically based kinetic (PBK) and dynamic models and the virtual cell based assay (VCBA). These biologically-based models will be coupled with chemistry-based prediction models that also automate the generation of key input parameters such as physicochemical properties. The development of automated software tools is an important step in harmonising and expediting the chemical safety assessment process. In this study, we illustrate how the KNIME Analytics Platform can be used to provide a user-friendly graphical interface for these biokinetic models, such as PBK models and VCBA, which simulates the fate of chemicals in vivo within the body and in vitro test systems respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic fate of orally administered enzymatically synthesized glycogen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Kojima, Iwao; Kuriki, Takashi; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    We developed a new process for enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is equivalent in physicochemical properties to natural-source glycogen (NSG) except its resistant property to degradation by α-amylase in vitro. In this study the metabolic fates of orally administered ESG in rats were investigated by a single oral administration test and a 2 week ingestion test. The glycemic index of ESG was 79. After the 2 week ingestion of ESG, the cecal content and production of short chain fatty acids were significantly increased, the pH value of cecal content was lowered, and the counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in feces were significantly increased. Additionally, plasma levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol were significantly reduced by ESG. In contrast, NSG did not affect these parameters at all. The results collectively suggest that around 20% of orally administered ESG was transferred to the cecum in the form of polymer and assimilated into short chain fatty acids by microbiota and the polymer affected lipid metabolism.

  3. Multicongenic fate mapping quantification of dynamics of thymus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Puchałka, Jacek; Witzlau, Katrin; Reinhardt, Annika; Förster, Reinhold; Pabst, Oliver; Prinz, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal T cell development depends on continuous colonization of the thymus by BM-derived T lineage progenitors. Both quantitative parameters and the mechanisms of thymus seeding remain poorly understood. Here, we determined the number of dedicated thymus-seeding progenitor niches (TSPNs) capable of supporting productive T cell development, turnover rates of niche occupancy, and feedback mechanisms. To this end, we established multicongenic fate mapping combined with mathematical modeling to quantitate individual events of thymus colonization. We applied this method to study thymus colonization in CCR7−/−CCR9−/− (DKO) mice, whose TSPNs are largely unoccupied. We showed that ∼160–200 TSPNs are present in the adult thymus and, on average, 10 of these TSPNs were open for recolonization at steady state. Preconditioning of wild-type mice revealed a similar number of TSPNs, indicating that preconditioning can generate space efficiently for transplanted T cell progenitors. To identify potential cellular feedback loops restricting thymus colonization, we performed serial transfer experiments. These experiments indicated that thymus seeding was directly restricted by the duration of niche occupancy rather than long-range effects, thus challenging current paradigms of thymus colonization. PMID:26347471

  4. Fate of internal waves on a shallow shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen; Arthur, Robert; Reid, Emma; Decarlo, Thomas; Cohen, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Internal waves strongly influence the physical and chemical environment of coastal ecosystems worldwide. We report novel observations from a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system that tracked the transformation of internal waves from the shelf break to the surf zone over a shelf-slope region of a coral atoll in the South China Sea. The spatially-continuous view of the near-bottom temperature field provided by the DTS offers a perspective of physical processes previously available only in laboratory settings or numerical models. These processes include internal wave reflection off a natural slope, shoreward transport of dense fluid within trapped cores, internal ``tide pools'' (dense water left behind after the retreat of an internal wave), and internal run-down (near-bottom, offshore-directed jets of water preceding a breaking internal wave). Analysis shows that the fate of internal waves on this shelf - whether they are transmitted into shallow waters or reflected back offshore - is mediated by local water column density and shear structure, with important implications for nearshore distributions of energy, heat, and nutrients. We acknowledge the US Army Research Laboratory DoD Supercomputing Resource Center for computer time on Excalibur, which was used for the numerical simulations in this work. Funding for field work supported by Academia Sinica and for K.D. and E.R. from NSF.

  5. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  6. Synthetic memory circuits for tracking human cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrill, Devin R.; Inniss, Mara C.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of biological phenomena, from disease progression to stem cell differentiation, are typified by a prolonged cellular response to a transient environmental cue. While biologically relevant, heterogeneity in these long-term responses is difficult to assess at the population level, necessitating the development of biological tools to track cell fate within subpopulations. Here we present a novel synthetic biology approach for identifying and tracking mammalian cell subpopulations. We constructed three genomically integrated circuits that use bistable autoregulatory transcriptional feedback to retain memory of exposure to brief stimuli. These “memory devices” are used to isolate and track the progeny of cells that responded differentially to doxycycline, hypoxia, or DNA-damaging agents. Following hypoxic or ultraviolet radiation exposure, strongly responding cells activate the memory device and exhibit changes in gene expression, growth rates, and viability for multiple generations after the initial stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that a heritable memory of hypoxia and DNA damage exists in subpopulations that differ in long-term cell behavior. PMID:22751502

  7. Cell fate reprogramming by control of intracellular network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanudo, Jorge G. T.; Albert, Reka

    Identifying control strategies for biological networks is paramount for practical applications that involve reprogramming a cell's fate, such as disease therapeutics and stem cell reprogramming. Although the topic of controlling the dynamics of a system has a long history in control theory, most of this work is not directly applicable to intracellular networks. Here we present a network control method that integrates the structural and functional information available for intracellular networks to predict control targets. Formulated in a logical dynamic scheme, our control method takes advantage of certain function-dependent network components and their relation to steady states in order to identify control targets, which are guaranteed to drive any initial state to the target state with 100% effectiveness and need to be applied only transiently for the system to reach and stay in the desired state. We illustrate our method's potential to find intervention targets for cancer treatment and cell differentiation by applying it to a leukemia signaling network and to the network controlling the differentiation of T cells. We find that the predicted control targets are effective in a broad dynamic framework. Moreover, several of the predicted interventions are supported by experiments. This work was supported by NSF Grant PHY 1205840.

  8. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  9. Fate of inflation and the natural reduction of vacuum energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamichi Akika

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the standard cosmology, an artificial fine tuning of the potential is inevitable for vanishing cosmological constant, though slow-rolling uniform scalar field easily causes cosmic inflation. We focus on the general fact that any potential with negative region can temporally halt the cosmic expansion at the end of inflation, where the field tends to diverge. This violent evolution naturally causes particle production and strong instability of the uniform configuration of the fields. Decaying of this uniform scalar field would leave vanishing cosmological constant as well as locally collapsed objects. The universe then continues to evolve into the standard Freedman model. We study the detail of the instability, based on the linear analysis, and the subsequent fate of the scalar field, based on the non-linear numerical analysis. The collapsed scalar field would easily exceed the Kaup limiting mass and forms primordial black holes, which may play an important role in galaxy formation in later stages of cosmic expansion. We systematically describe the above scenario by identifying the scalar field as the boson field condensation (BEC and the inflation as the process of phase transition of them.

  10. Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J. E.

    1998-12-21

    Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but Np(V) in aerobic environments. However, currently it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. In order to evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosminoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated fresh water lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10{sup {minus}5} M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np volubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbian y produced Mn(II/HI) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction.

  11. Mutually Exclusive CBC-Containing Complexes Contribute to RNA Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giacometti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC stimulates processing reactions of capped RNAs, including their splicing, 3′-end formation, degradation, and transport. CBC effects are particular for individual RNA families, but how such selectivity is achieved remains elusive. Here, we analyze three main CBC partners known to impact different RNA species. ARS2 stimulates 3′-end formation/transcription termination of several transcript types, ZC3H18 stimulates degradation of a diverse set of RNAs, and PHAX functions in pre-small nuclear RNA/small nucleolar RNA (pre-snRNA/snoRNA transport. Surprisingly, these proteins all bind capped RNAs without strong preferences for given transcripts, and their steady-state binding correlates poorly with their function. Despite this, PHAX and ZC3H18 compete for CBC binding and we demonstrate that this competitive binding is functionally relevant. We further show that CBC-containing complexes are short lived in vivo, and we therefore suggest that RNA fate involves the transient formation of mutually exclusive CBC complexes, which may only be consequential at particular checkpoints during RNA biogenesis.

  12. Fate of Triclosan and Methyltriclosan in soil from biosolids application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P.; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the persistence of Triclosan (TCS), and its degradation product, Methyltriclosan (MeTCS), after land application of biosolids to an experimental agricultural plot under both till and no till. Surface soil samples (n = 40) were collected several times over a three years period and sieved to remove biosolids. Concentration of TCS in the soil gradually increased with maximum levels of 63.7 ± 14.1 ng g −1 dry wt., far below the predicted maximum concentration of 307.5 ng g −1 dry wt. TCS disappearance corresponded with MeTCS appearance, suggesting in situ formation. Our results suggest that soil incorporation and degradation processes are taking place simultaneously and that TCS background levels are achieved within two years. TCS half-life (t 0.5 ) was determined as 104 d and MeTCS t 0.5 , which was more persistent than TCS, was estimated at 443 d. - Highlights: ► Fate of Triclosan (TCS) is soils after a single biosolids application was studied. ► Soil TCS increased for 8 months after application. ► Background levels were reached in 2 years for TCS. ► Methyltriclosan was formed in situ and was much more persistent than TCS. ► Soil incorporation and degradation processes are taking place simultaneously. - This work presents the first long term study that quantifies Triclosan (TCS) removal and Methyltriclosan (MeTCS) formation in situ after biosolids application to an agricultural field.

  13. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed sediments were an order of magnitude greater than concentrations in root excluded sediments. Micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µ-XANES) spectroscopy indicated that U was associated with the plant roots primarily as U(VI) or U(V), with limited evidence of U(IV). Micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) of plant roots suggested that for high iron loading at circumneutral pH, U was co-located with Fe, perhaps co-precipitated with root Fe plaques, while for low iron loading at a pH of ~4 the correlation between U and Fe was not significant, consistent with previous observations of U associated with organic matter. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated that the root exposed sediments also contained elevated numbers of Geobacter spp., which are likely associated with enhanced iron cycling, but may also reduce mobile U(VI) to less mobile U(IV) species. There are significant uncertainties regarding the environmental fate of uranium (U) and efforts to minimize U exposures require understanding of its mobility in environmental systems. Much research has focused on sequestering U as solids within groundwater aquifers, where localized risks can be controlled.1 Subsurface sequestration limits t

  14. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  15. Metolachlor and atrazine fate in surface water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The detection of pesticides in surface water and ground water provokes concern involving human health risks associated with pesticide exposure. Monitoring studies of surface waters have detected concentrations of herbicides that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contamination level (MCL) for drinking water. Conventional water treatment processes do not remove many herbicides. Tap water drawn from surface-water sources has been reported to contain levels of herbicides above the regulatory limits. There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds in waste-water-treatment systems. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems improve waste water effluent by solid filtration and nutrient assimilation. Various aquatic plants have been shown to accumulate metals, absorb inorganic ions, and accelerate the biodegradation of complex organics. Our research evaluates the fate of metolachlor and atrazine in surface water, surface water/sediment, and surface water/aquatic plant incubation systems to study the influence of sediment and aquatic plants in the removal and biotransformation of herbicides from contaminated waters. Aquatic macrophyte systems may prove to be useful in the remediation of herbicide contaminated surface waters in water treatment facilities or in the reduction of herbicide concentrations from tile drain effluents prior to entering watersheds.

  16. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  17. Agrochemical fate models applied in agricultural areas from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Yang, Jing; Andreoli, Romano; Binder, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    The misuse application of pesticides in mainly agricultural catchments can lead to severe problems for humans and environment. Especially in developing countries where there is often found overuse of agrochemicals and incipient or lack of water quality monitoring at local and regional levels, models are needed for decision making and hot spots identification. However, the complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the scarce data availability, limiting the number of analysis, techniques, and models available to researchers. Therefore there is a strong need for model simplification able to appropriate model complexity and still represent the processes. We have developed a new model so-called Westpa-Pest to improve water quality management of an agricultural catchment located in the highlands of Colombia. Westpa-Pest is based on the fully distributed hydrologic model Wetspa and a fate pesticide module. We have applied a multi-criteria analysis for model selection under the conditions and data availability found in the region and compared with the new developed Westpa-Pest model. Furthermore, both models were empirically calibrated and validated. The following questions were addressed i) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the models?, ii) which are the most sensitive parameters of each model?, iii) what happens with uncertainties in soil parameters?, and iv) how sensitive are the transfer coefficients?

  18. Niche as a determinant of word fate in online groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Motter, Adilson E

    2011-05-12

    Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity.

  19. Soluble Factors on Stage to Direct Mesenchymal Stem Cells Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sobacchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are identified by in vitro plastic adherence, colony-forming capacity, expression of a panel of surface molecules, and ability to differentiate at least toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. They also produce trophic factors with immunomodulatory, proangiogenic, and antiapoptotic functions influencing the behavior of neighboring cells. On the other hand, a reciprocal regulation takes place; in fact, MSCs can be isolated from several tissues, and depending on the original microenvironment and the range of stimuli received from there, they can display differences in their essential characteristics. Here, we focus mainly on the bone tissue and how soluble factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, present in this microenvironment can orchestrate bone marrow-derived MSCs fate. We also briefly describe the alteration of MSCs behavior in pathological settings such as hematological cancer, bone metastasis, and bone marrow failure syndromes. Overall, the possibility to modulate MSCs plasticity makes them an attractive tool for diverse applications of tissue regeneration in cell therapy. Therefore, the comprehensive understanding of the microenvironment characteristics and components better suited to obtain a specific MSCs response can be extremely useful for clinical use.

  20. Niche as a determinant of word fate in online groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G Altmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity.

  1. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2010-04-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate in the environment. It is also known to have adverse effects such as toxicity and suspected endocrine disruption. This study was carried out to study the fate of TCC in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) through laboratory simulations in a soil column. The system performance was evaluated with regards to TCC influent concentration, sand (column) depth, and residence time. Results obtained confirmed the ability of SAT to reduce TCC concentrations in wastewater. Sorption and biodegradation were responsible for TCC removal, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. The removal efficiency was found to be dependent on concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance through a reduction in COD removals observed in the column. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  2. Triclosan: its occurrence, fate and effects in the Australian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kookana, R S; Ying, G-G; Waller, N J

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in household products such as soaps, household cleaners, cosmetics, sportswear, mouthwash and toothpaste. It is a bioaccumulative compound known for its high toxicity to algae, daphnids, fish and other aquatic organisms. We investigated its occurrence in effluents, biosolids and surface waters in Australia, as well as its fate in Australian soils and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including the effects on microbial processes in soils. The concentrations of TCS in 19 effluents ranged from 23 to 434 ng/L (median 108 ng/L) and in 17 biosolids from 0.09 to 16.79 mg/kg on dry weight basis (median 2.32 mg/kg). TCS at concentrations of up to 75 ng/L were detected in receiving waters from five creeks affected by effluent discharge from WWTPs. The removal rate of TCS in five selected WWTPs ranged from 72 and 93%, ascribed mainly to sorption onto sludge and biological degradation. Biodegradation in a clay loam soil was noted with a half life of 18 days. However the half-lives under field conditions are expected to be very different. The studies on the effect of TCS on soil microbiological processes showed that triclosan can disrupt the nitrogen cyclein sensitive soils at concentrations ≥5 mg/kg. In view of the recent risk assessment by the Australian regulatory agency NICNAS, there is an urgent need to assess exposure to TCS and its effect on ecosystem health.

  3. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  4. Senescence and apoptosis: dueling or complementary cell fates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bennett G; Baker, Darren J; Kirkland, James L; Campisi, Judith; van Deursen, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    In response to a variety of stresses, mammalian cells undergo a persistent proliferative arrest known as cellular senescence. Many senescence-inducing stressors are potentially oncogenic, strengthening the notion that senescence evolved alongside apoptosis to suppress tumorigenesis. In contrast to apoptosis, senescent cells are stably viable and have the potential to influence neighboring cells through secreted soluble factors, which are collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). However, the SASP has been associated with structural and functional tissue and organ deterioration and may even have tumor-promoting effects, raising the interesting evolutionary question of why apoptosis failed to outcompete senescence as a superior cell fate option. Here, we discuss the advantages that the senescence program may have over apoptosis as a tumor protective mechanism, as well as non-neoplastic functions that may have contributed to its evolution. We also review emerging evidence for the idea that senescent cells are present transiently early in life and are largely beneficial for development, regeneration and homeostasis, and only in advanced age do senescent cells accumulate to an organism’s detriment. PMID:25312810

  5. Method for quantifying the fate of petroleum in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Bonner, J.S.; Simon, M.A.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is a complex mixture of a wide range of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon compounds of various physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the research on the fate of petroleum in the environment has required analytical methods that can provide more detailed information on the components of petroleum than traditional standard methods. The analytical method presented for aqueous, sediment, and soil samples provides several levels of information on petroleum in the environment. The Total Extractable Materials (TEM) analysis provides a gross measure of petroleum in the environment using methylene chloride extraction and gravimetric analysis. Gross composition analysis separates the methylene chloride extract into a saturate hydrocarbon, an aromatic hydrocarbon, and a polar fraction each measured gravimetrically. In contrast, the target compound analysis provides a detailed measure by GC-MS of 62 specific compounds. Normalization to the conservative compound, 17α, 21β-(H)Hopane, is incorporated into the method to reduce the effects of sample and site heterogeneity. Quality control and quality assurance procedures are integral parts of these analyses to assure the validity of the resulting data. (author)

  6. Fate of nanoparticles during life cycle of polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T; Pellegrin, B; Bernard, C; Gu, X; Gorham, J M; Stutzman, P; Stanley, D; Shapiro, A; Byrd, E; Hettenhouser, R; Chin, J

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in consumer and structural polymeric products to enhance a variety of properties. Under the influence of environmental factors (e.g., ultraviolet, moisture, temperature) and mechanical actions (e.g., scratching, vibrations, abrasion), nanoparticles could potentially release from the products and thus have negative effects on the environment, health and safety. The fate of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites during their exposure to UV environment has been investigated. Epoxy polymer containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and silica nanoparticles were studied. Specially-designed cells containing nanocomposite specimens were irradiated with UV radiation between 295 nm and 400 nm. Chemical degradation, mass loss and surface morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites, and release of nanoparticles were measured. Epoxy containing MWCNTs exposed to UV radiation degraded at a much slower rate than the unfilled epoxy or the epoxy/nanosilica composite. Photodegradation of the matrix resulted in substantial accumulation of nanoparticles on the composite surfaces. Silica nanoparticles were found to release into the environment, but MWCNTs formed a dense network on the composite surface, with no evidence of release even after prolonged exposure. Conceptual models for silica nanoparticle release and MWCNT retention on the surface during UV exposure of nanocomposites are presented.

  7. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.; Anspaugh, L.; Chertok, R.; Gofman, J.; Harrison, F.; Heft, R.; Koranda, J.; Ng, Y.; Phelps, P.; Potter, G.; Tamplin, A.

    1969-01-01

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  8. The fate of riverine nutrients on Arctic shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Present and future levels of primary production (PP in the Arctic Ocean (AO depend on nutrient inputs to the photic zone via vertical mixing, upwelling and external sources. In this regard, the importance of horizontal river supply relative to oceanic processes is poorly constrained at the pan-Arctic scale. We compiled extensive historical (1954–2012 data on discharge and nutrient concentrations to estimate fluxes of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphate (SRP, silicate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, particulate organic nitrogen (PON and particulate organic carbon (POC from 9 large Arctic rivers and assess their potential impact on the biogeochemistry of shelf waters. Several key points can be emphasized from this analysis. The contribution of riverine nitrate to new PP (PPnew is very small at the regional scale (9 mol N may exceed the combined riverine supply of nitrate and ammonium (3.4 × 109 mol N. Nevertheless, overall nitrogen limitation of AO phytoplankton is expected to persist even when projected increases of riverine DON and nitrate supply are taken into account. This analysis underscores the need to better contrast oceanic nutrient supply processes with the composition and fate of changing riverine nutrient deliveries in future scenarios of plankton community structure, function and production in the coastal AO.

  9. Remembrance and Architecture the House of Fates Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benárd Aurél

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place a quarter of a century ago in the countries of Europe’s Eastern Bloc transformed the social conventions of the time. A kind of social dialog has been started, about the Holocaust amongst other things. New memorials and monuments dedicated to the Holocaust have been constructed in the countries of the region as a result. Several phases can be identified in the building of monuments to the Holocaust over the past 25 years. These changes in the process of recollection and in the building of the monuments themselves are typified by the House of Fates project. The memorial center was built in Budapest for the 70th anniversary of the Holocaust. But the changes in recollection did not stop there, did not come to a standstill in Hungary. It is a mark of the sensitivity of the subject that although the center was finished by the fall of 2015, it has still not opened its gates to the public. In the meantime the project has appeared in several Hungarian professional journals, however these articles do not venture far beyond the realm of basic description. Here we are attempting to analyze the project architecturally. Our analysis shows how the initial usage of primary symbols turns to more contemplative, more abstract images and devices.

  10. Biodistribution, kinetics, and biological fate of SPION microbubbles in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrefelt A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Barrefelt,1,2,* Maryam Saghafian,2,* Raoul Kuiper,3 Fei Ye,4 Gabriella Egri,5 Moritz Klickermann,5 Torkel B Brismar,1 Peter Aspelin,1 Mamoun Muhammed,4 Lars Dähne,5 Moustapha Hassan2,6 1Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Experimental Cancer Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Karolinska Institute Core Facility for Morphologic Phenotype Analysis, Clinical Research Center, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Division of Functional Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Surflay Nanotec GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 6Clinical Research Center, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In the present investigation, we studied the kinetics and biodistribution of a contrast agent consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA microbubbles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPION trapped between the PVA layers (SPION microbubbles. Methods: The biological fate of SPION microbubbles was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats after intravenous administration. Biodistribution and elimination of the microbubbles were studied in rats using magnetic resonance imaging for a period of 6 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and perfusion-fixated at different time points. The magnetic resonance imaging results obtained were compared with histopathologic findings in different organs. Results: SPION microbubbles could be detected in the liver using magnetic resonance imaging as early as 10 minutes post injection. The maximum signal was detected between 24 hours and one week post injection. Histopathology showed the presence of clustered SPION microbubbles predominantly in the lungs from

  11. The autonomous cell fate specification of basal cell lineage: the initial round of cell fate specification occurs at the two-celled proembryo stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liang-Huan; Zhou, Xuemei; Li, Xinbo; Li, Shi-Sheng; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Yuan; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2017-09-01

    In angiosperms, the first zygotic division usually gives rise to two daughter cells with distinct morphologies and developmental fates, which is critical for embryo pattern formation; however, it is still unclear when and how these distinct cell fates are specified, and whether the cell specification is related to cytoplasmic localization or polarity. Here, we demonstrated that when isolated from both maternal tissues and the apical cell, a single basal cell could only develop into a typical suspensor, but never into an embryo in vitro. Morphological, cytological and gene expression analyses confirmed that the resulting suspensor in vitro is highly similar to its undisturbed in vivo counterpart. We also demonstrated that the isolated apical cell could develop into a small globular embryo, both in vivo and in vitro, after artificial dysfunction of the basal cell; however, these growing apical cell lineages could never generate a new suspensor. These findings suggest that the initial round of cell fate specification occurs at the two-celled proembryo stage, and that the basal cell lineage is autonomously specified towards the suspensor, implying a polar distribution of cytoplasmic contents in the zygote. The cell fate transition of the basal cell lineage to the embryo in vivo is actually a conditional cell specification process, depending on the developmental signals from both the apical cell lineage and maternal tissues connected to the basal cell lineage. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fate control and well-being in Chinese rural people living with HIV: mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-01-01

    Fate control has been often misconceptualized as a superstitious belief and overlooked in health psychology. It is not known how this cultural belief might impact the well-being of Chinese people living with HIV. This study examined the protective role of fate control for well-being and the potential mediation effect of resilience. Participants in this study were rural patients who contracted HIV via commercial blood donation. In this cross-sectional survey, 250 participants completed measures of fate control, well-being, and resilience. The results showed that fate control and resilience were positively associated with well-being. Resilience mediated the association between fate control and well-being. Our findings provide insight into the adaptive function of fate control as a cognitive defensive mechanism and highlight the need to incorporate this cultural belief in developing culturally sensitive intervention programs for resilience enhancement tailored for this understudied population infected with HIV living in rural China.

  13. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: A review

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2011-05-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. Detailed characteristics of bulk organic matter and the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during MAR processes such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (AR) were reviewed. Understanding the fate of bulk organic matter during BF and AR is an essential step in determining pre- and/or post-treatment requirements. Analysis of organic matter characteristics using a suite of analytical tools suggests that there is a preferential removal of non-humic substances during MAR. Different classes of PhACs were found to behave differently during BF and AR. Antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta blockers, and steroid hormones generally exhibited good removal efficiencies, especially for compounds having hydrophobic-neutral characteristics. However, anticonvulsants showed a persistent behavior during soil passage. There were also some redox-dependent PhACs. For example, X-ray contrast agents measured, as adsorbable organic iodine (AOI), and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) degraded more favorably under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions. Phenazone-type pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs) exhibited better removal under oxic conditions. The redox transition from oxic to anoxic conditions during soil passage can enhance the removal of PhACs that are sensitive to redox conditions. In general, BF and AR can be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for the removal of PhACs. © 2011.

  14. Environmental fate and global distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Angelika; Biziuk, Marek

    2009-01-01

    -chlorinated PCBs are often more resistant to degradation and volatilization and sorb more strongly to particulate matter. Some more-chlorinated PCBs tend to bioaccumulate to greater concentrations in tissues of animals than do low-molecular-weight ones. The more-heavily chlorinated PCBs can also biomagnify in food webs. Other high-molecular-weight congeners have specific structures that render them susceptible to metabolism by such species as fish, crustacea, birds, and mammals. In recent years, there has been substantial progress made in understanding the human health and ecological effects of PCBs and their environmental dynamics. However, risk assessments based only on the original PCB mixture that entered the environment are not sufficient to determine either (1) the persistence or toxicity of the weathered PCB mixture actually present in the environment, or (2) the risks to humans and the ecosystem posed by the weathered mixture. In this paper, we have reviewed the status of current knowledge on PCBs with regard to environmental inputs, global distribution, and environmental fate. We conclude that to know and understand the critical environmental fate pathways for PCBs, both a combination of field studies in real ecosystems and more controlled laboratory investigations are needed. For the future, both revised and new models on how PCBs behave in the environment are needed. Finally, more information on ow PCBs affect relevant physiological and behavioral characteristics of organisms tha are susceptible to contamination are needed.

  15. Simulating the fate and transport of TCE from groundwater to indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth

    2009-07-21

    This work provides an exploratory analysis on the relative importance of various factors controlling the fate and transport of volatile organic contaminants (in this case, TCE) from a DNAPL source zone located below the water table and into the indoor air. The analysis is conducted using the multi-phase compositional model CompFlow Bio, with the base scenario problem geometry reminiscent of a field experiment conducted by Rivett [Rivett, M.O., (1995), Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents: Borden field experiments. Groundwater, 33(1), 84-98.] at the Borden aquifer where groundwater was observed to transport a contaminant plume a substantial distance without vertical mass transport of the contaminant across the capillary fringe and into the vadose zone. Results for the base scenario model indicate that the structure of the permeability field was largely responsible for deflecting the groundwater plume upward towards the capillary fringe, permitting aqueous phase diffusion to transport the TCE into the vadose zone. Alternative permeability realizations, generated as part of a Monte Carlo simulation process, at times deflected the groundwater plume downwards causing the extended thickness of the saturated zone to insulate the vadose zone from exposure to the TCE by upward diffusive transport. Comparison of attenuation coefficients calculated using the CompFlow Bio and Johnson and Ettinger [Johnson, P.C. and Ettinger, R.A., (1991), Heuristic model for predicting the intrusion rate of contaminant vapors into buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1445-1452.] heuristic model exhibited fortuitous agreement for the base scenario problem geometry, with this agreement diverging for the alternative permeability realizations as well as when parameters such as the foundation slab fracture aperture, the indoor air pressure drop, the capillary fringe thickness, and the infiltration rate were varied over typical ranges.

  16. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lidia.paredes@usc.es; Fernandez-Fontaina, E., E-mail: eduardo.fernandez.fontaina@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es; Carballa, M., E-mail: marta.carballa@usc.es

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  17. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Fernandez-Fontaina, E.; Lema, J.M.; Omil, F.; Carballa, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  18. The mode of sucrose degradation in potato tubers determines the fate of assimilate utilisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus J Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytosolic (U-IN-2 or apoplasmic (U-IN-1 targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to reduced sucrose and increased glucose, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. U-IN-2 has a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 are characterised by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2, might be due to sugar signalling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic G6P transporter (GPT is significantly down-regulated, leading to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic G6P ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastidic pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. A strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling energy versus storage metabolism, suggesting that the fate of assimilate utilisation is coordinated at the level of

  19. Fate of indicator microorganisms under nutrient management plan conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Segal, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for application of wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations are designed to meet crop water and nutrient requirements, but implicitly assume that pathogenic microorganisms in the wastewater will be retained and die-off in the root zone. A NMP was implemented on a field plot to test this assumption by monitoring the fate of several fecal indicator microorganisms (Enterococcus, fecal coliforms, somatic coliphage, and total Escherichia coli). When well-water and wastewater were applied to meet measured evapotranspiration (ET), little advective transport of the indicator microorganisms occurred below the root zone and the remaining microorganisms rapidly died-off (within 1 mo). Additional experiments were conducted in the laboratory to better quantify microorganism transport and survival in the field soil. Batch survival experiments revealed much more rapid die-off rates for the bacterial indicator microorganisms in native than in sterilized soil, suggesting that biotic factors controlled survival. Saturated column experiments with packed field soil, demonstrated much greater transport potential for somatic coliphage than bacterial indicators (Enterococcus and total E. coli) and that the retention rates for the indicator microorganisms were not log-linear with depth. A worst case transport scenario of ponded infiltration on a large undistributed soil column from the field was also initiated and indicator microorganisms were not detected in the column outflow or in the soil at a depth of 65 cm. All of these observations support the hypothesis that a NMP at this site will protect groundwater supplies from microorganism contamination, especially when applied water and wastewater meet ET.

  20. Fate of solutes applied to land application areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the fate of major solutes contained in waste waters applied to the Nabarlek and Ranger land application areas. The soils of irrigation plots at Nabarlek and Ranger have limited capacity to retain the major solutes in irradiated waters. At Nabarlek, sulphate (average 5500 mg/L) in irrigated Evaporation Pond 2 (EP2) waters has infiltrated into the soil and is readily transported in groundwater flow. Ammonium (average 1100 mg/L) in irrigated EP2 waters is largely retained by cation adsorption in the soils but is readily oxidised in the aerobic zone to nitrate which can move readily in groundwaters in the same manner as sulphate. Groundwater concentrations of nitrate and sulphate above 500 mg/L and 5000 mg/L respectively have been observed at monitoring bores near the Nabarlek Forest Irrigation Area. At Ranger the sulphate contained in irrigated waters has produced concentrations up to 300 mg/L in groundwaters. Present data suggests that uranium in irrigated waters remains fixed in the top few centimeters of soil in the irrigation area, although the possibility of remobilisation cannot be dismissed because of unexplained high uranium concentrations observed in nearby parts of Magela Creek during the 1991 Wet season. The data presently available do not allow the effects of irrigation-derived solutes on Magela Creek water chemistry to be separated from those of solutes contained in released RP1 and RP4 waters and therefore the amounts of solutes specifically from the irrigation area that have passed down Magela Creek cannot be determined. However, a model developed by OSS for predicting inputs of solutes to Magela Creek from the irrigation area suggests that a significant contribution could be made. Sulphate concentrations in Magela Creek are low and it is uncertain whether most of the major solutes contained in the irrigated waters have moved laterally towards Magela Creek or have continued moving downwards to greater depths. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9