WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies carbon dioxide

  1. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left

  2. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left unchecked

  3. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research (NIMC), Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Collection and Pressurization Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reactive Innovations, LLC, proposes a Phase I SBIR program to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical reactor to separate and pressurize carbon dioxide...

  5. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  6. Potential of the technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. Bari (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Centro METEA

    1998-10-01

    The carbon dioxide mitigation has been agreed at international level. Besides the efficiency technologies, the recovery of CO{sub 2} from power-plants flue gases is a most innovative approach. This would make available large amounts of CO{sub 2}, either for disposal or for utilisation. The technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide are options whose potential is under evaluation. The Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) study seems to be the most effective tool for their assessment. The two options are considered in this paper and the synthetic methodologies that appear as most likely to be implemented are analysed.

  7. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  8. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  9. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  10. Chemical technologies for exploiting and recycling carbon dioxide into the value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martina; Köhler, Burkhard; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Leitner, Walter; Markewitz, Peter; Müller, Thomas E

    2011-09-19

    While experts in various fields discuss the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, the utilization of carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock is also attracting renewed and rapidly growing interest. These approaches do not compete; rather, they are complementary: CCS aims to capture and store huge quantities of carbon dioxide, while the chemical exploitation of carbon dioxide aims to generate value and develop better and more-efficient processes from a limited part of the waste stream. Provided that the overall carbon footprint for the carbon dioxide-based process chain is competitive with conventional chemical production and that the reaction with the carbon dioxide molecule is enabled by the use of appropriate catalysts, carbon dioxide can be a promising carbon source with practically unlimited availability for a range of industrially relevant products. In addition, it can be used as a versatile processing fluid based on its remarkable physicochemical properties.

  11. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  12. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  13. Process systems engineering issues and applications towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions through conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews issues and applications for design of sustainable carbon dioxide conversion processes, specifically through chemical conversion, and the integration of the conversion processes with other systems from a process systems engineering (PSE) view-point. Systematic and computer......-aided methods and tools for reaction network generation, processing route generation, process design/optimization, and sustainability analysis are reviewed with respect to carbon dioxide conversion. Also, the relevant gaps and opportunities are highlighted. In addition, the integration of carbon dioxide...... conversion processes with other systems including coexisting infrastructure and carbon dioxide sources is described.Then, the importance of PSE based studies for such application is discussed. Finally, some perspectives on the status and future directions of carbon dioxide conversion technology...

  14. Designing and Demonstrating a Master Student Project to Explore Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherman, Florine; Cabot, Gilles; Crua, Cyril; Estel, Lionel; Gagnepain, Charlotte; Lecerf, Thibault; Ledoux, Alain; Leveneur, Sebastien; Lucereau, Marie; Maucorps, Sarah; Ragot, Melanie; Syrykh, Julie; Vige, Manon

    2016-01-01

    The rise in carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, and the associated strengthening of the greenhouse effect, requires the development of low carbon technologies. New carbon capture processes are being developed to remove CO[subscript 2] that would otherwise be emitted from industrial processes and fossil fuel…

  15. Designing and Demonstrating a Master Student Project to Explore Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherman, Florine; Cabot, Gilles; Crua, Cyril; Estel, Lionel; Gagnepain, Charlotte; Lecerf, Thibault; Ledoux, Alain; Leveneur, Sebastien; Lucereau, Marie; Maucorps, Sarah; Ragot, Melanie; Syrykh, Julie; Vige, Manon

    2016-01-01

    The rise in carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, and the associated strengthening of the greenhouse effect, requires the development of low carbon technologies. New carbon capture processes are being developed to remove CO[subscript 2] that would otherwise be emitted from industrial processes and fossil fuel…

  16. Carbon dioxide utilization: Bridging the GHG mitigation with environmentally friendly technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    The recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants, flue gases, or industrial processes has been proposed as a technology for its mitigation. The end fate of recovered CO{sub 2} is either disposal in natural fields or gainful utilization (biological, technological, or chemical). The latter option deserves careful consideration as it would be doubly beneficial, helping to control the carbon dioxide emission and to save natural resources through the recycling of carbon. The economical aspects of the utilization option need thorough analysis to determine its feasibility. Another major point to consider is the amount of avoided carbon dioxide. This will define the extent of mitigation possible via the utilization option. To assess the potential of carbon dioxide utilization in the short-, medium-, and long-term is an exercise of great value from both the environmental and economical points of view. In this paper, criteria for the assessment be discussed as well as the current status of industrial carbon dioxide utilization. Furthermore, the perspectives for carbon dioxide utilization will be framed within the research needed for its implementation.

  17. Overview of oxy-fuel combustion technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ligang [Canmet, Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technique in which carbon is captured, liquefied and transported to an underground storage site. The oxy-fuel combustion process which consists of using oxygen for combustion instead of air is a good approach for CCS as it produces a carbon dioxide enriched flue gas, facilitating its separation from other contaminants. This book treats of the use of use of oxy-fuel combustion for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, the current state of this technology, its future application and directions are also presented.

  18. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  19. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Suk You

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2, a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC. Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation.

  20. A review of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Maina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tough environmental laws and stringent government policies have revolutionised the refrigeration sector, especially concerning the cycle fluid known as the refrigerant. It has been observed that only natural refrigerants are environmentally benign. When other refrigerant qualities are considered, especially those relating to toxicity and flammability, carbon dioxide emerges as the best among the natural refrigerants. However, carbon dioxide based refrigerants are not without drawbacks. Even though the use of R744 a carbon dioxide based refrigerant gas has solved the direct effect of emissions on the environment, studies to investigate the indirect effects of these systems are needed. Improvement in existing technical solutions and the formulation of additional solutions to existing R744 refrigeration problems is paramount if this technology is to be accepted by all, especially in areas with warm climates. National policies geared to green technologies are important to clear the way and provide support for these technologies. It is clear that carbon dioxide is one of the best refrigerants and as environmental regulations become more intense, it will be the ultimate refrigerant of the future.

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  4. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  5. ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define the main approaches to the implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry in Russia, and also to identify ecological, economic and social issues of their usage. Promotion of the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2 sequestration by means of capturing and injecting it into underground reservoirs is a promising mechanism of reducing carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon capture and storage (CCS technologies might be used to enhance oil recovery (EOR-CO2 and production by means of oil extraction and decreasing oil viscosity. Conceptual view of the potential of EOR-СО2 technologies within the context of oil and gas industry sustainable development are presented. Incentives of the CCS projects implementation are identified. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are presented.

  6. Perspectives in the use of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aresta Michele

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitigation of carbon dioxide is one of the scientific and technological challenges of the 2000s. Among the technologies that are under assessment, the recovery of carbon dioxide from power plants or industrial flue gases plays a strategic role. Recovered carbon dioxide can be either disposed in natural fields or used. The availability of large amounts of carbon dioxide may open new routes to its utilisation in biological, chemical and innovative technological processes. In this paper, the potential of carbon dioxide utilisation in the short-, medium-term is reviewed.

  7. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  8. The carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-05-17

    carbondioxide content of the solution was then determined. A gas mixture containing 2.6% carbon dioxide and 97.4% nitrogen was prepared in the...which carbon dioxide is removed by heat0 Since this step is usually carried out by "steam stripping ", that is, contacting the solution at its boiling...required to produce the steam required for stripping the carbon dioxide from the s olution. The method ueed in this investigation for determining the

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  11. Investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technology: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C R; Kaklamanou, D; Stuttard, W M; Radford, R L; Burley, J

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technologies hold promise for helping to limit atmospheric releases of CO2 while generating saleable products. However, while there is growing investment in the research and development required to bring CDU to the market, to date there has been very little systematic research into public perceptions of the technology. The current research reports upon the findings of a series of six qualitative focus groups (and an associated questionnaire) held with members of the UK public in order to discuss the perceived benefits and risks of CDU technology. The findings reveal that public awareness of CDU is currently very low and that there is a desire to learn more about the technology. While our participants did, on average, appear to develop an overall positive attitude towards CDU, this attitude was tentative and was associated with a number of caveats. The implications for the findings in terms of the development of communication and broader strategies of public engagements are outlined.

  12. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  14. Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technology Research and Field Test in Liuzan North Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanshi; Luo, Pingya; Sun, Lei; Fu, Zhijun

    2014-12-01

    The fault roots of Liuzan north block in Jidong oilfield of China have been long-term explored by solution gas drive. Recently, oil production declined rapidly because of shortage of formation energy and needing high water injection pressure. Carbon dioxide injection pressure is found to be generally low, and CO2 has good solubility in crude oil to supply formation energy and achieve high oil recovery efficiency. In this work, a pilot program of CO2 EOR technology was carried out. The slim tube test results showed that the minimal miscible pressure of Liuzan north block was 28.28 MPa. The injection parameters were optimized by numerical simulation method: the injection method was continuous, the slug size was 0.2 HCPV and the EOR efficiency was 7.23%. After two months of gas injection field test, the formation pressure of two gas injectors just increased by 14.02 MPa and 2.98 MPa, respectively, indicating that carbon dioxide could supply the formation energy effectively. 16 months after gas injection, the CO2 injection amount was 14640 t, and the oil increment was 16424 t. The present work demonstrates the potential applicability of CO2 flooding technology from high water injection reservoirs.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as a clean technology for palm kernel oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda I

    2009-04-01

    Kyoto Protocol. Keywords: By-product, Solvent extraction, Kyoto protocol, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Palm Kernel Oil Received: 13 July 2008 / Received in revised form: 17 February 2009, Accepted: 28 February 2009, Published online: 12 March 2009

  16. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  17. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  19. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Combining Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technologies with Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies in Order To Sequester Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd French; Lew Brown; Rafael Hernandez; Magan Green; Lynn Prewitt; Terry Coggins

    2009-08-19

    The need for more energy as our population grows results in an increase in the amount of CO2 introduced into the atmosphere. The effect of this introduction is currently debated intensely as to the severity of the effect of this. The bjective of this investigation was to determine if the production of more energy (i.e. petroleum) and the sequestration of CO2 could be coupled into one process. Carbon dioxide flooding is a well-established technique that introduces Compressed CO2 into a subsurface oil-bearing formation to aide in liquefying harder to extract petroleum and enhancing its mobility towards the production wells.

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide and polymers : an interplay of science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, Francesco

    The increasing use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as a green solvent for polymer synthesis and processing reflects a still growing interest at academic and industrial level. The peculiar characteristics of scCO(2), namely its plasticizing effect on polymeric structures and the enhanced

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Supercritical carbon dioxide process for releasing stuck cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Chaoqun, Gao; Lei, Wang; Yupeng, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The multi-SCCO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) release and dry process based on our specialized SCCO2 semiconductor process equipment is investigated and the releasing mechanism is discussed. The experiment results show that stuck cantilever beams were held up again under SCCO2 high pressure treatment and the repeatability of this process is nearly 100%.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Snow Jet Cleaning Technology%干冰微粒喷射清洗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新贺; 王磊; 景玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了随着工艺节点的缩小,传统RCA清洗方法在硅片清洗工艺中的局限性和弊端,进而提出了以CO2为介质的新型干冰微粒喷射清洗方法.从CO2的物理特性出发,论述了CO2流经喷枪后形成干冰微粒的机理,并简要分析了干冰微粒喷射技术对颗粒污染物和有机污染物的清洗机理.在此基础上,介绍了自主研发的一台基于干冰微粒喷射技术的半导体清洗设备,对该设备的结构和各部分的作用作了简要介绍,论述了使用该设备对硅片进行清洗的工艺流程.通过对比实验发现,采用压强为8 MPa、纯度为5N的CO2作为气源,喷嘴前压强设置为11 MPa,使用该设备可以达到很好的清洗效果.%With the drastic shrink of the semiconductor technology node, the limitations and shortcomings of traditional RCA cleaning methods are introduced briefly, and then the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning as a novel cleaning technology for cleaning process is discussed. Based on the special physical properties of carbon dioxide, the mechanisms of dry ice micro-particle formation as the carbon dioxide passes through an orifice are discussed, and the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning mechanisms for the particle and organic pollutants are analyzed briefly. Then the self-made semiconductor cleaning equipment based on the carbon dioxide snow jet cleaning was introduced, and the structure of the equipment and the function of each part were discussed. Besides that, the process flow of cleaning the silicon wafer with the equipment was presented. The contrast experiment shows that the equipment has a very good effect of silicon wafer cleaning when the gas pressure of the carbon dioxide source is 8 Mpa, carbon dioxide with the purity of 5N is used as the gas source, and the pressure parameter before the orifice is set to 11 Mpa.

  3. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY SELECTIVE PERMEATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , SEPARATION), (*PERMEABILITY, CARBON DIOXIDE ), POROUS MATERIALS, SILICON COMPOUNDS, RUBBER, SELECTION, ADSORPTION, TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, POLYMERS, FILMS, PLASTICS, MEMBRANES, HUMIDITY.

  5. Technology Advancements for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide From Space using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Kooi, S. A.; Carrion, W.; Hicks, J.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Meadows, B.; Davis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    This work describes advances in critical lidar technologies and techniques developed as part of the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system for measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The ACES design demonstrates advancements in: (1) enhanced power-aperture product through the use and operation of multiple co-aligned laser transmitters and a multi-aperture telescope design; (2) high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration operation; and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. Specifically, the lidar simultaneously transmits three IM-CW laser beams from the high power EDFAs operating near 1571 nm. The outgoing laser beams are aligned to the field of view of three fiber-coupled 17.8-cm diameter telescopes, and the backscattered light collected by the same three telescopes is sent to the detector/TIA subsystem, which has a bandwidth of 4.9 MHz and operates service-free with a tactical Dewar and cryocooler. The electronic bandwidth is only slightly higher than 1 MHz, effectively limiting the noise level. Two key laser modulation approaches are being tested to significantly mitigate the effects of thin clouds on the retrieved CO2 column amounts. This work provides an over view of these technologies, the modulation approaches, and results from recent test flights during the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Earth Venture Suborbital flight campaign.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  7. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Karen; Smith, Fred; Perry, Jay; Green, Steve

    2004-01-01

    When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.

  8. The Application of the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction Technology on the Extraction of Micro Amount of Uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-jun; YU; Zhen; LIANG; Xiao-hu; DING; You-qian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The characteristic of solid radioactive wastes containing less 1% uranium, such as mine tailings, contaminated soil and sludge, is complex matrix and irregular surface. The traditional treatment technology usually consumes a lot of chemical reagents and produces a large amount of secondary wastes. The supercritical fluid has the advantage of high diffusivity, low viscosity, and liquid-like solvating capability, which enable the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) technology to be a alternative method to extract micro amount of uranium from solid radioactive wastes.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  11. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  12. Loading amorphous Asarone in mesoporous silica SBA-15 through supercritical carbon dioxide technology to enhance dissolution and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzan; Quan, Guilan; Wu, Qiaoli; Zhou, Chan; Li, Feng; Bai, Xuequn; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to load amorphous hydrophobic drug into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) by supercritical carbon dioxide technology in order to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of the drug. Asarone was selected as a model drug due to its lipophilic character and poor bioavailability. In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of the obtained Asarone-SBA-15 were significantly improved as compared to the micronized crystalline drug. This study offers an effective, safe, and environmentally benign means of solving the problems relating to the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic molecules.

  13. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  14. Enzyme inactivation in food processing using high pressure carbon dioxide technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanfeng; Zhou, Linyan; Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liao, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is an effective non-thermal processing technique for inactivating deleterious enzymes in liquid and solid food systems. This processing method avoids high temperatures and exerts a minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of foods, but extends shelf life by inhibiting or killing microorganisms and enzymes. Indigenous enzymes in food such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pectin methylesterase (PME), and lypoxygenase (LOX) may cause undesirable chemical changes in food attributes, showing the loss in color, texture, and flavor. For more than two decades, HPCD has proved its effectiveness in inactivating these enzymes. The HPCD-induced inactivation of some microbial enzymes responsible for microbial metabolism is also included. This review presents a survey of the published knowledge regarding the use of HPCD for the inactivation of these enzymes, and analyzes the factors controlling the efficiency of HPCD and speculates on the underlying mechanism that leads to enzyme inactivation.

  15. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  16. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  17. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-08-30

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  19. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  20. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The...

  2. An Assessment of the Commercial Availability of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies as of June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2009-06-26

    Currently, there is considerable confusion within parts of the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technical and regulatory communities regarding the maturity and commercial readiness of the technologies needed to capture, transport, inject, monitor and verify the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in deep, geologic formations. The purpose of this technical report is to address this confusion by discussing the state of CCS technological readiness in terms of existing commercial deployments of CO2 capture systems, CO2 transportation pipelines, CO2 injection systems and measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) systems for CO2 injected into deep geologic structures. To date, CO2 has been captured from both natural gas and coal fired commercial power generating facilities, gasification facilities and other industrial processes. Transportation via pipelines and injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface are well established commercial practices with more than 35 years of industrial experience. There are also a wide variety of MMV technologies that have been employed to understand the fate of CO2 injected into the deep subsurface. The four existing end-to-end commercial CCS projects – Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah and Weyburn – are using a broad range of these technologies, and prove that, at a high level, geologic CO2 storage technologies are mature and capable of deploying at commercial scales. Whether wide scale deployment of CCS is currently or will soon be a cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is largely a function of climate policies which have yet to be enacted and the public’s willingness to incur costs to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Earth’s climate. There are significant benefits to be had by continuing to improve through research, development, and demonstration suite of existing CCS technologies. Nonetheless, it is clear that most of the core technologies required to address capture, transport

  3. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  4. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  5. Carbon dioxide utilisation in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I. [Universita di Bari (Italy). Centro METEA e Dipartimento di Chimica

    1997-12-31

    The amount of carbon dioxide available for industrial utilisation may expand to unprecedented levels if the recovery of carbon dioxide from energy plants flue gases is implemented. The potential of each of the three possible uses (technological, chemical, and biological) is far from being clearly defined. The chemical utilisation option, that has intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic constraints, may raise controversial positions, depending on the criteria used for the analysis. The estimate of its real potential demands a thorough comparative analysis, using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, of existing processes/products with the new ones based on CO{sub 2}, in order to establish whether, or not, the latter avoid carbon dioxide (either directly or indirectly) and their economics. The rejection/consideration assessment methodology will produce reliable results only if an exhaustive number of parameters is used. The analysis cannot be limited to practiced industrial processes, but must be extended to an exhaustive inventory of cases. (Author)

  6. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology in Power Plant%电厂二氧化碳捕捉技术对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽平; 周涛; 张记刚; 李洋

    2011-01-01

    由于全球温室效应的不断加剧,发展二氧化碳捕捉技术变得十分必要.通过分析燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉和富氧燃烧捕捉三种二氧化碳捕捉方式流程及其特点,指出三种不同的二氧化碳捕捉技术的发展现状以及应用途径.通过具体对比现有二氧化碳捕捉技术的工作原理以及优缺点,针对现有的几种具体的二氧化碳捕捉技术进行详细的分析,积极应用各种物理、化学、甚至生物的吸附技术,深入研究各种吸附技术的机理,寻找更高效的吸附方法,提高CO2的捕捉效率,减少捕捉成本.通过分析研究,提出以国家项目的形式立项,积极开展“燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉、寓氧燃烧捕捉”三种方式在中国的实验研究,尝试进行“燃烧中捕捉”研究,积极开创符合中国特色的二氧化碳捕捉技术的建议.%Due to increasingly intensified global greenhouse effect, it is quite necessary to develop carbon dioxide capture technology. By analysis of working process and characteristics of three different carbon dioxide capture technologies including pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxygen-enriched combustion technology, the current development and application of carbon dioxide capture technology were introduced. Different carbon dioxide capture technologies were discussed, with comparison of basic principle of technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages. By detailed analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology, combining with analysis of basic principle and application of various physical, chemical, biological adsorption technology, more efficient adsorption methods were assessed in order to enhance CO2 capture efficiency and reduce capture cost. National level project and pilot study was proposed for the study of precombustion capture, postcombustion capture and oxygen enriched combustion technology. Technical development of carbon dioxide capture suitable to local

  7. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  8. Recent Advance in Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies%碳捕集技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 贺尧祖; 刘勇军; 罗德明

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture was widely seen as a vital technology for reducing atmospheric emission of CO2 from power plants and other industrial facilities. In this paper, the recent research on three type of capture technologies, namely pre-combustion processes oxy-combustion systems and post-combustion CO2 capture processes, were reviewed. For prospective, we made insight of the further process about CO2 capture that would make in the future.%碳捕集技术对于减少大气中的CO2浓度显得至关重要,尤其是对于排放大量温室气体的火力发电厂和工业源的CO2捕集。本文主要概述了CO2的燃烧前捕集、富氧燃烧捕集、燃烧后捕集这3种主要的碳捕集技术的研究现状,并结合当前正在研究的碳捕集技术,提出了碳捕集技术未来可能的发展方向。

  9. Energy, carbon dioxide and consumer choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, M.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of need:If the threat of climate change because of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission is accepted, then important economic, technological and social adaptations will be needed to avert the threat. Numerous studies have looked at the technological and economic strategies for the control of one of the principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide: few look at how control might be achieved through social adaptation in terms of changes in behaviour or lifestyle. This study is an attempt ...

  10. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  12. Research Progress of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology%CO2捕集技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾先立

    2014-01-01

    This article reveals the relationship between the concentration of CO 2 and air temperature ,and points out that carbon dioxide capture and storage is one of the effective solutions .The commonly used methods of CO2 capture include solvent absorption ,oxygen -rich combustion ,capturing CO2 from ambient air ,membrane separation and pressure swing adsorption ,etc .The article makes a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of these capture methods .The results show that the absorbent is easily decomposed and the equipment is corroded by the alkaline absorbent ;the method of oxygen - rich combustion can only remove combustible impurities , and the operating costs during the preparation of oxygen are expensive ;in the process of roasting calcium carbonate need high energy efficiency ,and the air scrubbers are very large ;raw gas of membrane separation has highly purity ;pressure swing adsorption needs high pressure ,energy consumption and operating costs .At last ,the article presents the development direction of carbon dioxide capture technology .%指出了CO2浓度与温室效应之间的关系,CO2捕集是有效的解决方案之一。常用的捕集方法有:溶剂吸收法、富氧燃烧法、空气捕集、膜分离法、变压吸附(PS A )法等。分析比较了各种捕集方法的优缺点:溶剂吸收法吸收剂易被分解且再生能耗高,对设备腐蚀大;富氧燃烧法在制备氧气时能耗高,只能去除可燃性杂质;从空气中捕集CO2,浓度较低空气洗涤器规格过大,焙烧CaCO3时能耗高;膜分离法对原料气的要求较高;变压吸附法需要2次加压,能耗高,运行成本大。提出了CO2捕集技术的发展方向与建议。

  13. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2012-01-01

    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  14. Research on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technology%碳捕捉与封存技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于德龙; 吴明; 赵玲; 汪宇彤

    2014-01-01

    碳捕捉与封存技术指将二氧化碳从工业生产过程中最大限度分离出来,输送到指定地点封存,并与大气长期隔绝过程。CO2捕捉技术有燃烧前捕捉、燃烧后捕捉和富氧燃烧捕捉三类,且各具优缺点和适用情况,实际应用应根据具体情况具体分析;CO2常用输送方式有管道输送、船舶输送和罐车输送三类,对于大规模长距离应首选管道输送,长距离海洋输送应首选船舶输送,对于短距离小输量应首选罐车输送;CO2封存一般有四大类封存方式:海洋封存、矿石碳化、地质封存和工业利用,其中地质封存对减排贡献最大,矿石碳化和工业利用贡献有限,海洋封存仍处研究之中。%Carbon dioxide capture and storage technology is to separate CO2 from industry and to transport to a pointed place for storage. CO2 capture technologies include three measures:pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxygen-enriched combustion capture. Each measure has advantages and disadvantages, and the suitable technology should be chosen according to particular case. CO2 common transportation methods include three modes of pipeline transportation, marine transportation and tanker transportation. For long distance and large quantities,the pipeline transportation should be chosen; for long distance ocean transportation,shipping transportation should be chosen;For little throughput and short distance, the tanker transportation should be chosen. CO2 storage methods include four types in general. They are ocean sequestration, mineral carbonation, geological storage and industrial use. Among them the geological storage has the largest contribution to emission reduction, the mineral carbonation and industrial use have limited contribution, and the ocean sequestration is still in studying.

  15. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  16. The fixation of carbon dioxide in inorganic and organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. (Universita degli Studi, Bari (Italy). Dispartimento di Chemica e Centro CNR-MISO)

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of carbon dioxide from concentrated sources is currently under evaluation as a technology for the control of the emission into the atmosphere. In order for this option to be operative it is necessary to define the fate of recovered carbon dioxide. Two ways forward are open: disposal in natural fields (oceans, aquifers, deep geological cavities); - utilisation (technological use or chemical conversion). The fixation in chemicals can contribute both to reduce the use of fossil carbon and to cut the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  18. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  19. 21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 582.1240 Section 582.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  1. Analysis and status of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Freeman, Brice C

    2011-10-15

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook a multiyear effort to understand the landscape of postcombustion CO₂ capture technologies globally. In this paper we discuss several central issues facing CO₂ capture involving scale, energy, and overall status of development. We argue that the scale of CO₂ emissions is sufficiently large to place inherent limits on the types of capture processes that could be deployed broadly. We also discuss the minimum energy usage in terms of a parasitic load on a power plant. Finally, we present summary findings of the landscape of capture technologies using an index of technology readiness levels.

  2. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0carbon dioxide, and heating to a temperature less than approximately 1400 C, thereby producing carbon monoxide gas and the original metal oxide compound.

  3. GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Kolenković

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide geological storage represents a key segment of the carbon capture and storage system (CCS expected to significantly contribute to the reduction of its emissions, primarily in the developed countries and in those that are currently being industrialised. This approach to make use of the subsurface is entirely new meaning that several aspects are still in research phase. The paper gives a summary of the most important recent results with a short overview the possibilities in the Republic of Croatia. One option is to construct underground carbon dioxide storage facilities in deep coal seams or salt caverns. Another would be to use the CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery projects relying on the retention of the carbon dioxide in the deep reservoir because a portion of the injected gas is not going be produced together with hydrocarbons. Finally, the greatest potential estimated lies in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs with significantly reduced reservoir pressure, as well as in the large regional units - layers of deep saline aquifers that extend through almost all sedimentary basins (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Electrochemical Reactor for Producing Oxygen From Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical reactor is proposed by MicroCell Technologies, LLC to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to oxygen. In support of NASA's advanced life...

  5. Electrochemical Reactor for Producing Oxygen From Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical reactor is proposed by MicroCell Technologies, LLC to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to oxygen. In support of NASA's advanced life...

  6. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a growing need to develop improved technologies for precise airborne measurements of carbon dioxide, CO2. CO2 measurements are of great importance to many...

  7. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  8. Carbon dioxide retention in divers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, J.T.; Mackenzie, D.A.R.; McKenzie, R.S. [ARE Physiological Laboratory, Gosport (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarises the work carried out at the ARE Physiological Laboratory (ARE(PL)) between July 1978 and December 1983. The work was intended to examine the proposition that some divers have a low ventilatory response to carbon dioxide; that this results in a low ventilatory response to exercise with consequent hypercapnia; and that these characteristics put the diver at a greater-than-normal risk by increasing the individual`s susceptibility to oxygen toxicity and to other hazards associated with diving (e.g. nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and hypothermia). The specific aims of the project can be summarised as follows: (a) to demonstrate the existence of divers who exhibit the tendency to `retain carbon dioxide` when working in hyperbaric conditions; (b) to define the circumstances under which such individuals are at risk; (c) to assess the magnitude of the risk; and (d) to recommend ways to eliminate or to reduce the risk. (author)

  9. Conventional processes and membrane technology for carbon dioxide removal from natural gas: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zee Ying Yeo; Thiam Leng Chew; Peng Wei Zhu; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Siang-Piao Chai

    2012-01-01

    Membrane technology is becoming more important for CO2 separation from natural gas in the new era due to its process simplicity,relative ease of operation and control,compact,and easy to scale up as compared with conventional processes.Conventional processes such as absorption and adsorption for CO2 separation from natural gas are generally more energy demanding and costly for both operation and maintenance.Polymeric membranes are the current commercial membranes used for CO2 separation from natural gas.However,polymeric membranes possess drawbacks such as low permeability and selectivity,plasticization at high temperatures,as well as insufficient thermal and chemical stability.The shortcomings of commercial polymeric membranes have motivated researchers to opt for other alternatives,especially inorganic membranes due to their higher thermal stability,good chemical resistance to solvents,high mechanical strength and long lifetime.Surface modifications can be utilized in inorganic membranes to further enhance the selectivity,permeability or catalytic activities of the membrane.This paper is to provide a comprehensive review on gas separation,comparing membrane technology with other conventional methods of recovering CO2 from natural gas,challenges of current commercial polymeric membranes and inorganic membranes for CO2 removal and membrane surface modification for improved selectivity.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  11. The kinetics of binding carbon dioxide in magnesium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Vaidya, R.; Pile, D.L.; Park, Y.; Holesinger, T.; Harradine, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nomura, Koji [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.]|[Chichibu Onada Cement Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Humans currently consume about 6 Gigatons of carbon annually as fossil fuel. In some sense, the coal industry has a unique advantage over many other anthropogenic and natural emitters of CO{sub 2} in that it owns large point sources of CO{sub 2} from which this gas could be isolated and disposed of. If the increased energy demands of a growing world population are to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of sequestration technologies will likely be unavoidable. The authors` method of sequestration involves binding carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, with minimal environmental impact. The technology is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Realization of a cost effective method requires development of optimal technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  13. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  14. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J A; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-12-13

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  15. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  16. Triple-Pulse Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Carbon Dioxide Measurement - Novel Lidar Technologies and Techniques with Path to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    The societal benefits of understanding climate change through identification of global carbon dioxide sources and sinks led to the desired NASA's active sensing of carbon dioxide emissions over nights, days, and seasons (ASCENDS) space-based missions of global carbon dioxide measurements. For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique operating at the two-micron wavelength. Currently, an airborne two-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development. This IPDA lidar measures carbon dioxide as well as water vapor, the dominant interfering molecule on carbon dioxide remote sensing. Advancement of this triple-pulse IPDA lidar development is presented.

  17. A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

    2001-05-01

    Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

  18. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 2: Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}, from saline aquifer sequestration to oil and gas reservoir and coal bed storage, including coverage of reservoir sealing, and monitoring and modelling techniques used to verify geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Terrestrial and ocean sequestration are also reviewed, along with the environmental impact and performance assessments for these routes. The final section reviews advanced concepts for CO{sub 2} storage and utilization, such as industrial utilization, biofixation, mineral carbonation and photocatalytic reduction.

  19. Visual and reversible carbon dioxide sensing enabled by doctor blade coated macroporous photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Suen, Shing-Yi; Yang, Hongta

    2017-11-15

    With significant impacts of carbon dioxide on global climate change, carbon dioxide sensing is of great importance. However, most of the existing sensing technologies are prone to interferences from carbon monoxide, or suffer from the use of sophisticated instruments. This research reports the development of reproducible carbon dioxide sensor using roll-to-roll compatible doctor blade coated three-dimensional macroporous photonic crystals. The pores are functionalized with amine groups to allow the reaction with carbon dioxide in the presence of humidity. The adsorption of carbon dioxide leads to red-shift and amplitude reduction of the optical stop bands, resulting in carbon dioxide detection with visible readout. The dependences of the diffraction wavelength on carbon dioxide partial pressure for various amine-functionalized photonic crystals and different humidities in the environment are systematically investigated. In addition, the reproducibility of carbon dioxide sensing has also been demonstrated in this research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.

    2011-01-01

    Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

  1. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2003-03-10

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities

  2. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing

  3. Robust optical carbon dioxide isotope analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Isotopic analysis of carbon dioxide is an important tool for characterization of the exchange and transformation of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere....

  4. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2010-01-01

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  6. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  7. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  8. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  9. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  10. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Photodissociation on Iapetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Eric; Brown, R. H.

    2009-09-01

    Carbon dioxide has been detected on Iapetus (Buratti et al., 2005) and is correlated with the dark material, mostly at mid-latitudes on the leading face of Iapetus (Palmer and Brown, in preparation). The average absorption feature of CO2 in the dark region is 24.7%; if it were a thin veneer of CO2 ice, it would be 14 um thick. Estimating the surface area of dark material and extrapolating gives a total CO2 budget of 8 x 107 kg on the surface of Iapetus. Volatile studies indicate that the surface of Iapetus is too hot to have CO2 ice remain on the surface for more than a few hundred years (Palmer and Brown, 2008). It has been suggested that complexing of volatiles, such as in clathrates, fluid or gas inclusions, or adsorption, would increase the stability on the Jovian and Saturnian satellites, increasing their residence times (McCord; et al., 1998; Hibbitts et al., 2001, 2002, 2007). While complexing would increase carbon dioxide's thermal stability, the resident time of CO2 on Iapetus would remain short due to the effect of UV radiation. We calculated the photodissociation rate for CO2 and found that the entire budget of CO2 on Iapetus would be destroyed in less than one Earth year. If we assume a steady-state system on Iapetus (photodissociation equal to photo-generation) approx. 108 kg will be destroyed and produced every Earth year. Unless the complexing mechanism provides some shielding from UV radiation while still allowing the detection of the 4.26-micron CO2 band, then a source of CO2 is required. We suggest that the source of CO2 is photolytic production from water ice and carbonaceous material.

  12. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yixin [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-26

    The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber-cement panels. The two products are currently mass produced and cured by steam. Carbon dioxide can be used to replace steam in curing process to accelerate early strength, improve the long-term durability and reduce energy and emission. For a reaction within a 24-hour process window, the theoretical maximum possible carbon uptake in concrete is found to be 29% based on cement mass in the product. To reach the maximum uptake, a special process is developed to promote the reaction efficiency to 60-80% in 4-hour carbon dioxide curing and improve the resistance to freeze-thaw cycling and sulfate ion attack. The process is also optimized to meet the project target of $10/tCO2 in carbon utilization. By the use of self-concentrating absorption technology, high purity CO2 can be produced at a price below $40/t. With low cost CO2 capture and utilization technologies, it is feasible to establish a network for carbon capture and utilization at the vicinity of carbon sources. If all block produces and panel producers in United States could adopt carbon dioxide process in their production in place of steam, carbon utilization in these two markets alone could consume more than 2 Mt CO2/year. This capture and utilization process can be extended to more precast products and will continue for years to come.

  13. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  14. Technology Advancement for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space Using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obland, Michael D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Plant, James; Yang, Melissa; Antill, Charles; Campbell, Joel; hide

    2015-01-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a newly developed lidar developed at NASA Langley Research Center and funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technology advancements targeted include: (1) increasing the power-aperture product to approach ASCENDS mission requirements by implementing multi-aperture telescopes and multiple co-aligned laser transmitters; (2) incorporating high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) developing and incorporating a high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration autonomous operation on Global Hawk aircraft, and (4) advancing algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument architecture is being developed for operation on high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. These technologies are critical towards developing not only spaceborne instruments but also their airborne simulators, with lower platform requirements for size, mass, and power, and with improved instrument performance for the ASCENDS mission. ACES transmits five laser beams: three from commercial EDFAs operating near 1.57 microns, and two from the Exelis oxygen (O2) Raman fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26 microns. The three EDFAs are capable of transmitting up to 10 watts average optical output power each and are seeded by compact, low noise, stable, narrow-linewidth laser sources stabilized with respect to a CO2 absorption line using a multi-pass gas absorption cell. The Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach is used at both wavelengths to independently measure the CO2 and O2 column number

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture Adsorbents: Chemistry and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2016-12-21

    Excess carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and their inevitable consequences continue to stimulate hard debate and awareness in both academic and public spaces, despite the widespread lack of understanding on what really is needed to capture and store the unwanted CO2 . Of the entire carbon capture and storage (CCS) operation, capture is the most costly process, consisting of nearly 70 % of the price tag. In this tutorial review, CO2 capture science and technology based on adsorbents are described and evaluated in the context of chemistry and methods, after briefly introducing the current status of CO2 emissions. An effective sorbent design is suggested, whereby six checkpoints are expected to be met: cost, capacity, selectivity, stability, recyclability, and fast kinetics.

  16. Present State and Perspectives of Research on Carbon Dioxide Purification Technology for Coal Mine Refuge Chamber%矿用救生舱二氧化碳净化技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建会; 张小波; 孙瑞科

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍并比较了应用于矿用救生舱及其它密闭舱室内常用二氧化碳净化技术,指出了现有净化技术存在的问题,同时对二氧化碳净化技术的发展方向进行了探讨。%In this paper, the carbon dioxide purification technology in coal mine refuge chamber and other airtight cabin is introduced and compared. The problems that exist in the carbon dioxide purification technology are pointed out; finally the development direction is discussed.

  17. A comparison between molten carbonate fuel cells based hybrid systems using air and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles with state of the art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Chacartegui, R.; Muñoz, A.; Sánchez, T.

    A proposal for high efficiency hybrid systems based on molten carbonate fuel cells is presented in this paper. This proposal is based on adopting a closed cycle bottoming gas turbine using supercritical carbon dioxide as working fluid as opposed to open cycle hot air turbines typically used in this type of power generators. First, both bottoming cycles are compared for the same operating conditions, showing that their performances do not differ as much as initially expected, even if the initial objective of reducing compression work is accomplished satisfactorily. In view of these results, a profound review of research and industrial literature is carried out in order to determine realistic specifications for the principal components of the bottoming systems. From this analysis, it is concluded that an appropriate set of specifications must be developed for each bottoming cycle as the performances of compressor, turbine and recuperator differ significantly from one working fluid to another. Thus, when the operating conditions are updated, the performances of the resulting systems show a remarkable advantage of carbon dioxide based systems over conventional air units. Actually, the proposed hybrid system shows its capability to achieve 60% net efficiency, what represents a 10% increase with respect to the reference system.

  18. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  19. Survey of regulations accompanied with isolation technology of carbon dioxide; Nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni tomonau hokisei no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Regulations, conventions and agreements relating to the discharging liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) into the bathypelagic zone from a cruising ships are investigated. The ocean storage of CO2 is not specifically prohibited by law, but must be regulated on a global scale because such treatment may impact the marine environment. In principle, treatment with impact on the nature is prohibited. Laws of environmental conservation are completed in European, Asian, and Pacific countries, which join international conventions and committees with high interests. It is suggested that the engineering technique of the storage should be improved to observe regulations and that an impact assessment for the ocean storage should be carefully conducted in full understanding of the basic premise of the regulatory systems or organizations. Furthermore, it is significant to study on the possible effect of the ocean storage of CO2 on global warming and life-cycle assessment inventory analysis, namely the balance of the energy budget between the separation and the ocean storage of CO2. 23 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  2. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  4. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  5. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a...), consisting of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have cylinders located within the...

  7. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  10. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, N.B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    Chapter titles are: the first detection of carbon dioxide effects; the atmosphere; the polar regions; the oceans; and the biosphere. Sixteen papers were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. (JGB)

  11. Reactive Capture of Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Reactive Innovations, LLC (RIL) proposes to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical to capture carbon dioxide in the martian...

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  13. Carbon dioxide separation using adsorption with steam regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James; Leta, Daniel P.; McCall, Patrick P.; Bai, Chuansheng; DeRites, Bruce A.

    2016-11-29

    A process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The process can include passing the gas stream over a sorbent that adsorbs the carbon dioxide by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing adsorption and desorptive displacement. A carbon dioxide separation system is also disclosed. Neither the system nor the process rely on temperature swing or pressure swing adsorption.

  14. Drying of supercritical carbon dioxide with membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohaus, Theresa; Scholz, Marco; Koziara, Beata T.; Benes, N.E.; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In supercritical extraction processes regenerating the supercritical fluid represents the main cost constraint. Membrane technology has potential for cost efficient regeneration of water-loaded supercritical carbon dioxide. In this study we have designed membrane-based processes to dehydrate water-l

  15. Carbon dioxide exchange in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand

    Low temperatures in the Arctic have through geological times caused a build-up of carbon (C) in the soil while carbon dioxide (CO2) has been removed from the atmosphere, because ecosystem respiration (ER) has been exceeded by the photosynthesis (GEP). Increasing air temperature, as occurring...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Extent of Carbon Dioxide Plume Injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    carbon dioxide plume extent increases as the porosity decreases, or the intrinsic permeability increases, and these trends do not change with time. The carbon dioxide plume extent also increases as the salt concentration in groundwater increases, or the volume fraction of chlorite decreases, and these trends emerge clearly after about 100 years and are then intensified with time. It is expected that the numerical simulation results can be utilized as reasonable and practical reference data when estimation of storage capacity of carbon dioxide and risk analysis of geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the Gyeongsang Basin are required. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources Program funded by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  17. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  18. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  19. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  20. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon...

  1. Swingbed Amine Carbon Dioxide Removal Flight Experiment - Feasibility Study and Concept Development for Cost-Effective Exploration Technology Maturation on The International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Nalette, Timothy; Graf, John; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery; Hayley, Elizabeth; Williams, Antony; Button, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The completion of International Space Station Assembly and transition to a full six person crew has created the opportunity to create and implement flight experiments that will drive down the ultimate risks and cost for human space exploration by maturing exploration technologies in realistic space environments that are impossible or incredibly costly to duplicate in terrestrial laboratories. An early opportunity for such a technology maturation experiment was recognized in the amine swingbed technology baselined for carbon dioxide and humidity control on the Orion spacecraft and Constellation Spacesuit System. An experiment concept using an existing high fidelity laboratory swing bed prototype has been evaluated in a feasibility and concept definition study leading to the conclusion that the envisioned flight experiment can be both feasible and of significant value for NASA s space exploration technology development efforts. Based on the results of that study NASA has proceeded with detailed design and implementation for the flight experiment. The study effort included the evaluation of technology risks, the extent to which ISS provided unique opportunities to understand them, and the implications of the resulting targeted risks for the experiment design and operational parameters. Based on those objectives and characteristics, ISS safety and integration requirements were examined, experiment concepts developed to address them and their feasibility assessed. This paper will describe the analysis effort and conclusions and present the resulting flight experiment concept. The flight experiment, implemented by NASA and launched in two packages in January and August 2011, integrates the swing bed with supporting elements including electrical power and controls, sensors, cooling, heating, fans, air- and water-conserving functionality, and mechanical packaging structure. It is now on board the ISS awaiting installation and activation.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Air: Is It An Option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Klaus; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; Grimes, Patrick

    1999-02-01

    Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases we investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. We conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of the extraction from air.

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts, …. Jiang, L.Q., W.J. Cai, and Y. Wang (2008). Carbon dioxide degassing in river- and maine- dominated estuaries: Importance of freshwater runoff. Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 2603-2615. Mukhopadhyay, S.K., H. Biswas, T.K. De..., S. Sen and T.K. Jana (2002). Seasonal effects on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Hooghly estuary, NE coast of Gulf of Bengal, India. J. Environ. Monit., 4, 549-552. Ortega, T., R. Ponce, J. Forja, and A. Gomez-Parra (2005). Fluxes...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Behavior of Carbon Dioxide Injected into Target Geologic Formations in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of thermo-hydrological numerical simulations was performed to predict and analyze behavior of carbon dioxide injected into target geologic formations in the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore basins for geologic carbon dioxide storage in Korea. The results of the numerical simulations for the two areas in the basin show that the spatial distribution, structure (layered structure), and hydrological properties (anisotropy of intrinsic permeability) of the target geologic formations have significant impacts on three-dimensional behavior of carbon dioxide injected. The horizontal movement of carbon dioxide along the spatial distribution of a target geologic formation (Unit C-4) is more dominant than the vertical movement. As the injection amount of carbon dioxide increases, carbon dioxide plume expands furthermore and reaches to the shallower depth region from the mean sea level. Even in case of the maximum injection amount of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide does not leak through the top boundary (sea floor) of the modeling domain for both areas. It indicates that carbon dioxide can be stored in the two areas up to their effective storage capacities of free fluid phase carbon dioxide, which was estimated in authors' previous study. As time progresses, carbon dioxide stored by hydrodynamic trapping decreases, while carbon dioxide stored by solubility trapping increases. The total mass of carbon dioxide stored by solubility trapping evaluated in this study is significantly greater than that estimated in authors' previous study. It indicates that the storage efficiency of aqueous phase carbon dioxide is greater than that of free fluid phase carbon dioxide. Therefore, this difference in the storage efficiencies of the free fluid and aqueous phases of carbon dioxide must be properly considered when more rigorous effective storage capacities of carbon dioxide are to be estimated on basin and even site scales. This work was supported by the

  5. Carbon Dioxide Management on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a manned laboratory operating in orbit around the Earth that was built and is currently operated by several countries across the world. The ISS is a platform for novel scientific research as well as a testbed for technologies that will be required for the next step in space exploration. In order for astronauts to live on ISS for an extended period of time, it is vital that on board systems consistently provide a clean atmosphere. One contaminant that must be removed from the atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 levels on ISS are higher than those on Earth and can cause crew members to experience symptoms such as headaches, lethargy and mental slowness. A variety of systems exist on ISS to remove carbon dioxide, including adsorbent technologies which can be reused and testbed technologies for future space vehicles.

  6. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, Formaldehyde, and Water Vapor on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is nonregenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for simultaneous carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, and water sorption. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also the enhancement of formaldehyde sorption by the presence of ammonia in the gas mixture.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture and air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, A. van; Ramirez, C.A.; Harmelen, T. van; Koornneef, J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG). The most dominant source of anthropogenic CO2 contributing to the rise in atmospheric concentration since the industrial revolution is the combustion of fossil fuels. These emissions are expected to result in global climate

  8. Carbon dioxide foaming of glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, M.; Borneman, Z.; Boomgaard, van den Th.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of foaming a glassy polymer using sorbed carbon dioxide is studied in detail. A glassy polymer supersaturated with nitrogen forms a microcellular foam, if the polymer is quickly heated above its glass transition temperature. A glassy polymer supersaturated with CO2 forms this foam-like

  9. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  11. Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...

  12. Bicontinuous nanoporous polymers by carbon dioxide foaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, B.; Münüklü, P.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias; Sijbesma, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the physical foaming process of glassy poly(ether imide) and poly(ether sulfone) using carbon dioxide and report temperature-concentration diagrams ("foam diagrams") marking out the foaming envelope in which dense CO2-saturated films expand and microvoids are introduced. Two types of

  13. Conductive polymers for carbon dioxide sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, T.C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Augmented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in greenhouses stimulate plant growth through photosynthesis. Wireless sensor networks monitoring CO2 levels in greenhouses covering large areas require preferably low power sensors to minimize energy consumption. Therefore, the main

  14. Diiodination of Alkynes in supercritical Carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 谢叶香; 尹笃林; 江焕峰

    2003-01-01

    A general,green and efficient method for the synthesis of transdiiodoalkenes in CO2(sc) has been developed.Trans-diiodoalkenes were obtained stereospecifically in quantitative yields via diiodination of both electron-rich and electron-deficient alkynes in the presence of KI,Ce(SO4)2 and water in supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2(sc)]at 40℃.

  15. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  16. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches...

  17. Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction - a mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Klaas Jan Schouten

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights into the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and ethylene on copper electrodes. This electrochemical process has great potential for the storage of surplus renewable electrical energy in the form of hydrocarbons. The research described in this thesis focuses on t

  18. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in connection...

  19. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  20. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  1. Studies on carbon dioxide system in central Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Data on pH and total alkalinity have been utilised in the study of carbon dioxide and its species in Central Arabian Sea Total carbon dioxide and partial pressure of carbon dioxide remain fairly constant in the upper layers but increase...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected must be equal to the gross volume...

  4. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  5. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...

  6. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a record of the laboratory tests conducted...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868.5310...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is intended for medical purposes and that is used in...

  8. Review of the Technology for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide%二氧化碳封存技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建秀; 吴远斌; 于海鹏

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas responsible for climate change, is gaining more and more attention. People start to focus on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage ( CCS) which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. Based on collecting comprehensive information about geologic sequestration of CO, both at home and abroad, this review introduces the present status of CCS and cites the latest CCS projects both at home and abroad. Furthermore, this review discusses the definition and review of geologic sequestration, CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery ( CO2-EOR) and CO2 Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (CO2-ECBM). The technologies of deep saline reservoir, depleted oil (gas) reservoir, basalt aquifers, CO2-EOR and CO2-ECBM choice, CO2 seepage, capacity of reservoir and ability of injection, experiment and numerical modeling, site selection and risk evaluation are also discussed and the authors point out the study emphasis for the further research. At last, this review has an overlook on the study of CCS in China.%CO2作为最重要的温室气体越来越受关注,而CCS技术因在大规模减少温室气体排放方面的潜力也受到广泛重视.在广泛搜集国内外有关CCS技术相关资料的基础上,详细介绍了最新的CCS技术现状,列出了国内外最新CCS工程案例,讨论了地质封存、CO2-EOR、CO2-ECBM技术的内涵及研究进展,对深部咸水层、枯竭油(气)田、玄武岩含水层、CO2-EOR及CO2-ECBM封存技术选型、CO2泄露、储存容量和可注入性、试验与模拟技术以及选址与风险评估等研究现状进行了讨论并指出了下一步的研究重点.最后,对中国的CCS技术发展进行了展望.

  9. RESEARCH ON ELECTRIC ARC REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), ELECTRIC ARCS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, HEAT OF REACTION, GAS FLOW, OXYGEN, CARBON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, ELECTRODES, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, HIGH TEMPERATURE, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), ENERGY.

  10. Technical and economical evaluation of carbon dioxide capture and conversion to methanol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Aditya Anugerah; Juwari, Handogo, Renanto

    2017-05-01

    Phenomenon of global warming, which is indicated by increasing of earth's surface temperature, is caused by high level of greenhouse gases level in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, which increases year by year because of high demand of energy, gives the largest contribution in greenhouse gases. One of the most applied solution to mitigate carbon dioxide level is post-combustion carbon capture technology. Although the technology can absorb up to 90% of carbon dioxide produced, some worries occur that captured carbon dioxide that is stored underground will be released over time. Utilizing captured carbon dioxide could be a promising solution. Captured carbon dioxide can be converted into more valuable material, such as methanol. This research will evaluate the conversion process of captured carbon dioxide to methanol, technically and economically. From the research, it is found that technically methanol can be made from captured carbon dioxide. Product gives 25.6905 kg/s flow with 99.69% purity of methanol. Economical evaluation of the whole conversion process shows that the process is economically feasible. The capture and conversion process needs 176,101,157.69 per year for total annual cost and can be overcome by revenue gained from methanol product sales.

  11. Development and application potential analysis of carbon dioxide capture technology from flue gas in steel works%钢厂烟气CO2捕捉技术的开发及其应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 曲余玲; 李博; 景馨; 朱剑兵

    2016-01-01

    The iron and steel industries in several countries have been carried out the development of carbon capture and sequestration(CCS)technology in recent years. The carbon dioxide capture cost approximately accounts for 70 per-cent of the total cost of CCS. Therefore,the reduction of the cost to capture the carbon dioxide becomes the major prob-lem. The carbon dioxide capture processes developed by the steel works so far are mainly chemical absorption methods and physical adsorption methods,the costs in experimental scale have been reduced. The carbon dioxide capture technol-ogies developed by Japanese steel works,such as Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal,South Korea's POSCO and China-Taiwan's China Steel etc are described and the industrial application potentials of the technologies are analyzed.%近年来,许多国家开展钢铁工业CO2捕捉与封存(CCS)技术研究。在CCS成本中,CO2捕捉成本约占70%,因此,降低CO2捕捉成本是CCS首先要解决的问题。目前钢厂开发的CO2捕捉工艺主要以化学吸收法和物理吸附法为主,并在试验规模取得成本降低的效果。介绍日本新日铁和JFE、韩国浦项、中国台湾中钢等开发的CO2捕捉技术,并对CO2捕捉技术的工业化应用前景进行分析。

  12. Carbon Dioxide: The Other Planetary Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, S.; Gamez, D.; Shock, E.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary and interstellar ices have carbon dioxide to water mole ratios of up to 0.3. When melted, such high levels of carbon dioxide cannot all be dissolved in the aqueous phase and instead partition into a CO2-rich (carbonic) fluid. This implies that during the accretion and formation of planetary systems carbonic fluids are not only possible, but common. In fact, they make up the atmosphere of Venus, are found bubbling out of Champagne Vent in the Pacific Ocean, and are documented by metamorphic fluid inclusions. Examination of phase diagrams reveals the conditions where carbonic fluids will exist or predominate. Carbonic fluids are predicted to exist in Earth's subduction zones and under the ice of small ocean worlds. CO2 had previously been shown to completely dissolve into NH­­3­-H­­2O oceans on small icy bodies by forming ammonium carbonate, but the newer measurements of CO2­ abundances indicate that not all of the CO2 can partition into the aqueous fluid as ammonium carbonate. The remaining CO2 would necessarily form a separate carbonic fluid making it likely that liquid CO2 would be a major oceanic component on some small icy bodies. The enhanced solubility of nonpolar and slightly polar organic compounds in carbonic fluids relative to aqueous fluids means that generation, transport, and deposition processes can be greatly enhanced in those cases where carbonic fluids occur. As an example, the solubility of benzoic acid, a polar compound, is about an order of magnitude greater in carbonic than in aqueous fluids, which is surprising given that water is a polar solvent and carbon dioxide is a nonpolar solvent. Anthracene, a nonpolar compound, has an even greater solubility difference between carbonic and aqueous fluids at approximately four orders of magnitude. Highly polar compounds, including most of the building blocks of life, are more soluble in aqueous fluids than in carbonic fluids. The solubility difference of organic molecules in carbonic

  13. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (carbon dioxide removal.

  14. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  15. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlman, R. C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

    1980-04-01

    Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

  17. Materials for carbon dioxide separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingqing

    2014-10-01

    The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at room temperature have been investigated by comparing carbon nanotubes, fullerene, graphenes, graphite and granular activated carbons. It turned out that the amount of the micropore surface area was dominating the CO{sub 2} adsorption ability. Another promising class of materials for CO{sub 2} capture and separation are CaO derived from the eggshells. Two aspects were studied in present work: a new hybrid materials synthesized by doping the CaTiO{sub 3} and the relationship between physisorption and chemisorption properties of CaO-based materials.

  18. An EKC-pattern in historical perspective. Carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden 1870-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Magnus [Department of Economic History, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This article examines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. The basis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator of technological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price as independent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO{sub 2} emissions is interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920-1960, with high, sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO{sub 2} emissions than periods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested that time-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  19. Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

    2009-08-15

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S; Clauson-Kaas, S; Bobul'ská, L

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application....... This study investigated the nature of the early release of CO2 and the degree to which stabilizing mechanisms protect biochar from microbial attack. Incubations of 14C-labelled biochar produced at different temperatures were performed in soils with different clay contents and in sterilized and non......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over...

  1. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  2. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  3. Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

    2008-01-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

  4. Carbon dioxide recovery: large scale design trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariz, C. L.

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide recovery from flue gas streams for use in enhanced oil recovery were examined, focusing on key design and operating issues and trends that appear promising in reducing plant investment and operating costs associated with this source of carbon dioxide. The emphasis was on conventional processes using chemical solvents, such as the Fluor Daniel ECONAMINE FG{sup S}M process. Developments in new tower packings and solvents and their potential impact on plant and operating costs were reviewed, along with the effects on these costs of the flue gas source. Sample operating and capital recovery cost data is provided for a 1,000 tonne/day plant. This size plant would be one large enough to support an enhanced oil recovery project. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Research on carbon dioxide miscible flooding by Technology Research Center of Japan National Oil Corporation. Current status of CO/sub 2/ flooding field application, Work honored with the 31st JAPT award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakadate, Tadao

    1988-03-01

    The application examples in world on carbon dioxide miscible flooding which is an enhanced oil recovery method and the outline of field pilot test in Japan which will start from fiscal 1989 were reported. In the USA, there are fifty three examples on carbon dioxide miscible flooding and thirty one examples on carbon dioxide immiscible flooding. The enhanced rates of oil recovery by carbon dioxide miscible flooding are 7 to 13 %. In Hungary, the oil reservior pressures were increased rapidly due to the carbon dioxide injection and the push by water, and the recovery rates of 24 % and more were achieved. In Turkey, carbon dioxide immiscible flooding is in a trial stage. In these countries, carbon dioxide can be provided comparatively easily owing to the existences of the carbon dioxide fields, and the advantageous conditions are utilized. In Japan, the pilot tests are carried out with main research subjects on the phase behavior of carbon dioxide-oil system, prospect for performance of carbon dioxide miscible flooding by oil reservior simulation. (10 figs, 2 tabs, 5 refs)

  6. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 20, 1977--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Albanese, A.S.; Dang, V.D.

    1977-10-01

    The primary objective of the subject program is to assess the potential options for controlling atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Accordingly, CO/sub 2/ control scenarios based on conventional technology and applied to the larger industrial emitters will be prepared. The studies will include preliminary cost estimates of selected processes, to identify fruitful areas for environmental control technology (ECT) programmatic development as related to CO/sub 2/ release control. BNL's prior experience in this area includes the development and evaluation of a number of processes for removing CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere for the purpose of producing synthetic carbonaceous fuels including methanol, gasoline, and methane. Background information from other DOE programs will be used to determine the limitations for the control studies. This progress report presents background information on: (1) the concentration levels of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere during the last one hundred years; (2) the possible effects of rising CO/sub 2/ levels; (3) the impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on overall worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions; (4) the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emissions; and (5) process considerations for controlling CO/sub 2/.

  7. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement....

  8. Dye solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid is an alternative solvent for the water of the traditional dyeing. The solubility of dyestuff affects greatly the dyeing process. A theoretical model for predicting the dye solubility is proposed and verified experimentally. The paper concludes that the pressure has a greater impact on the dyestuff solubility than temperature, and an optimal dyeing condition is suggested for the highest distribution coefficient of dyestuff.

  9. Water in supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lai-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of water serving as entrainer on the dyeing of wool fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide. Compared with previous supercritical dyeing methods, addition of water makes the dyeing process more effective under low temperature and low pressure. During dyeing process, dyestuff can be uniformly distributed on fabrics’s surface due to water interaction, as a result coloration is enhanced while color difference is decreased.

  10. Pulsed discharge plasmas in supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, A.; Tanaka, K.; Zhang, C. H.; Namihira, Takao; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Roy, B.C.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; サクガワ, タカシ; カツキ, スナオ

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several studies about electrical discharge plasma in supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) have been carried out. One of the unique characteristics of supercritical fluid is a large density fluctuation near the critical point that can result in marked dramatic changes of thermal conductivity. Therefore, the electrical discharge plasma produced in supercritical fluid has unique features and reactions unlike those of normal plasma produced in gas phase. In our experiments, two typ...

  11. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  12. Carbon dioxide makes heat therapy work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, H.

    1987-01-01

    Scientists can now propagate healthy blueberry and raspberry plants from virus-infected stock by treating it with heat and carbon dioxide. Plants are grown at 100/sup 0/F, which makes them develop faster than the virus can spread. Then cuttings are taken of the new growth - less than an inch long - and grown into full-sized, virus-free plants. But in this race to outdistance the virus, some plant species are not able to take the heat. Some even die. Chemical reactions double for every 14/sup 0/F rise in temperature. So, if you try to grow a plant at 100/sup 0/F that was originally growing at 86/sup 0/F, it will double its respiration rate. Adding carbon dioxide increases the rate of photosynthesis in plants, which increases the plant's food reserves. What carbon dioxide does to allow some plants to grow at temperatures at which they would otherwise not survive and it allows other plants to grow for longer periods at 100/sup 0/F. One problem with the process, says Converse, is that the longer plants are exposed to heat the greater the mutation rate. So, resulting clones should be closely examined for trueness to horticultural type.

  13. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abu Zikry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric restrictive and malabsorptive operations are being carried out in most countries laparoscopically. Carbon dioxide or gas embolism has never been reported in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We report a case of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG in a young super obese female patient. Early diagnosis and successful management of this complication are discussed. An 18-year-old super obese female patient with enlarged fatty liver underwent LSG under general anesthesia. During initial intra-peritoneal insufflation with CO 2 at high flows through upper left quadrant of the abdomen, she had precipitous fall of end-tidal CO 2 and SaO 2 % accompanied with tachycardia. Early suspicion led to stoppage of further insufflation. Clinical parameters were stabilized after almost 30 min, while the blood gas analysis was restored to normal levels after 1 h. The area of gas entrainment on the damaged liver was recognized by the surgeon and sealed and the surgery was successfully carried out uneventfully. Like any other laparoscopic surgery, carbon dioxide embolism can occur during bariatric laparoscopic surgery also. Caution should be exercised when Veress needle is inserted through upper left quadrant of the abdomen in patients with enlarged liver. A high degree of suspicion and prompt collaboration between the surgeon and anesthetist can lead to complete recovery from this potentially fatal complication.

  14. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenshan Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  15. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO(2) and C(2)H(4) using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  16. Sustainable catalyst supports for carbon dioxide gas adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlee, M. N.

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) become the prime attention nowadays due to the fact that increasing CO2 emissions has been identified as a contributor to global climate change. Major sources of CO2 emissions are thermoelectric power plants and industrial plants which account for approximately 45% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an efficient CO2 reduction technology such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) that can reduce CO2 emissions particularly from the energy sector. A lot of sustainable catalyst supports have been developed particularly for CO2 gas adsorbent applications.

  17. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  18. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  19. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent.

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  1. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hybrid catalysts, direct synthesis of aromatic from carbon dioxide and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuei Chikung; Lee Mindar (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan))

    1991-02-01

    To improve climatic conditions and to solve the carbon resource problem, it is desirable to develop techniques whereby carbon dioxide can be converted to valuable liquid hydrocarbons which can be used either as fuels or industrial raw materials. Direct synthesis of aromatics from carbon dioxide hydrogenation was investigated in a single stage reactor using hybrid catalysts composed of iron catalysts and HZSM-5 zeolite. Carbon dioxide was first converted to CO by the reverse water gas shift reaction, followed by the hydrogenation of CO to hydrocarbons on iron catalyst, and finally the hydrocarbons were converted to aromatics in HZSM-5. Under the operating conditions of 350{degree}C, 2100 kilopascals and CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}={1/2} the maximum aromatic selectivity obtained was 22% with a CO{sub 2} conversion of 38% using fused iron catalyst combined with the zeolite. Together with the kinetic studies, thermodynamic analysis of the CO{sub 2} hydrogenation was also conducted. It was found that unlike Fischer Tropsch synthesis, the formation of hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2} may not be thermodynamically favored at higher temperature. However, the sufficiently high yields of aromatics possible with this process provides a route for the direct synthesis of high-octane gasoline from carbon dioxide. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  3. Carbon dioxide utilization in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.; Tommasi, I. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Carbon dioxide as a raw material for the Chemical Industry is receiving growing attention because: (i) if recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases will be implemented, huge amounts of CO{sub 2} will be available; (ii) environmental issues urge to develop new processes/products, avoiding toxic materials. Several uses of CO{sub 2} appear to be responding to both (i) and (ii), i.e. use as a solvent (supplanting organic solvents) use as a building block for carboxylates/carbonates (supplanting phosgene); use as carbon-source in the synthesis of fuels (supplanting CO or coal/hydrocarbons). These options will be evaluated and their potentiality discussed.

  4. Modeling of the thyme: Liquid carbon dioxide extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L by liquid carbon dioxide was investigated. The obtained extracts were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS methods, and their composition was compared with that of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation and by supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar and 40°C. To model extraction of the thyme - liquid carbon dioxide system, we used the Reverchon - Sesti Osseo equation, as well as our modified equation.

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Peach

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity.

  6. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-03-08

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts.

  7. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS CARBON BY CARBON DIOXIDE ACTIVATION WITH CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Z.Shen; A.H.Lu; J.T.Zheng

    2002-01-01

    A mesoporous activated carbon (AC) can be successfully prepared by catalytic activa-tion with carbon dioxide. For iron oxide as catalyst, there were two regions of mesoporesize distribution, i.e. 2-5nm and 30-70nm. When copper oxide or magnesium oxidecoexisted with iron oxide as composite catalyst, the content of pores with sizes of 2-5nm was decreased, while the pores with 30 70nm were increased significantly. Forcomparison, AC reactivated by carbon dioxide directly was also investigated. It wasshown that the size of mesopores of the resulting AC concentrated in 2-5nm with lessvolume. The adsorption of Congo red was tested to evaluate the property of the result-ing AC. Furthermore, the factors affecting pore size distribution and the possibility ofmesopore formation were discussed.

  8. Preparation of perlite-based carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H; Wu, L; Zhu, J; Yu, B

    1994-02-01

    A new highly efficient carbon dioxide absorbent consisting of sodium hydroxide, expanded perlite and acid-base indicator was prepared. The absorption efficiency, absorption capacity, flow resistance and color indication for the absorbent were tested and compared with some commercial products. The absorbent can reduce the carbon dioxide content in gases to 3.3 ppb (v/v) and absorbs not less than 35% of its weight of carbon dioxide. Besides its large capacity and sharp color indication, the absorbent has an outstanding advantage of small flow resistance in comparison with other commercial carbon dioxide absorbents. Applications in gas analysis and purification were also investigated.

  9. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  10. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Robert James; O' Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  11. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  12. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  13. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  14. Relations between Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Environmental Factors of Kobresia humilis Meadows and Potentilla fruticosa Meadows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; XU Shixiao; LI Yingnian; TANG Yanbong; ZHAO Xinquan; GU Song; DU Mingyuan; YU Guirui

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide fluxes of Kobresia humilis and Potentillafruticosa shrub meadows,two typical ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,were measured by eddy covariance technology and the data collected in August 2003 were employed to analyze the relations between carbon dioxide fluxes and environmental factors of the ecosystems.August is the time when the two ecosystems reach their peak leaf area indexes and stay stable,and also the period when the net carbon absorptions of Kobresia humilis and Potentilla photo flux densities (PPFD),the carbon dioxide-uptake rate of the Kobresia humilis meadow is higher than that of the Potentilla fruticosa shrub meadow;where the PPFD are rates of the two ecosystems declined as air temperature increased,but the carbon dioxide uptake rate of the Kobresia humilis meadow decreased more quickly (-0.086) than that of the Potentilla fruticosa shrub meadow (-0.016).Soil moistures exert influence on the soil respirations and this varies with the vegetation type.The daily carbon dioxide absorptions of the ecosystems increase with increased diurnal temperature differences and higher diurnal temperature differences result in higher carbon dioxide exchanges.There exists a negative correlation between the vegetation albedos and the carbon dioxide fluxes.

  15. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  16. 分子筛CO2去除系统研究%Study on Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Using Molecular Sieve Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永强; 吴宝治; 杨润泽; 卞强; 李小委

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using molecular sieve technology in a carbon dioxide removal assembly in the future space station.Methods The design/operating principle of four beds molecular sieve (4BMS) adsorption-regeneration system developed for space station was systematically analyzed.Under the simulated space station work load conditions,the prototype was tested in a closed demonstration cabin of the environmental control and life support system for consecutive 120 d.Results The CO2 concentration in the sealed cabin was controlled below 0.5% with the metabolism load of 3 persons,the air dew point was always below-33 ℃ and the average power consumption of the system was less than 800 W.Conclusion The prototype 4BMS device can satisfy the CO2 control requirements of the future space station.%目的 探索分子筛CO2去除技术应用于空间站系统的可行性.方法 系统分析了空间站分子筛CO2去除系统(4BMS)原理样机设计和工作原理,在模拟空间站真实负荷的条件下对该原理样机进行了连续120 d密闭舱试验研究.结果 在3人CO2代谢量条件下,该原理样机能有效控制密闭舱内的CO2浓度在0.5%以下,并保证空气露点在-33℃以下,系统功耗不高于800 W.结论 该原理样机满足未来空间站系统对CO2浓度控制的要求.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Gillis, James M.; Hwang, Jiann Yang [Michigan Technological University, Houghton (United States)

    2003-12-15

    Algal growth studies of Chlorella strains were conducted in a batch mode with bench type experiments. Carbon dioxide fixation rates of the following green microalgae were determined: Chlorella sp. H84, Chlorella sp. A2, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. C. vulgaris, among other strains of microalgae, showed the highest growth rate (1.17 optical density/5 days). Cultivating conditions for C. vulgaris that produced the highest growth rate were at concentrations of 243 μg CO{sub 2}/mL, 10 mM ammonia, and 1 mM phosphate, with an initial pH range of 7-8.

  18. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's.......Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  19. Carbon dioxide detection in adult Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Silvana; Frati, Francesca; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper shows, by means of single-cell recordings, responses of antennal sensory neurons of the damselfly Ischnura elegans when stimulated by air streams at different CO2 concentrations. Unlike most insects, but similarly to termites, centipedes and ticks, Odonata possess sensory neurons strongly inhibited by CO2, with the magnitude of the off-response depending upon the CO2 concentration. The Odonata antennal sensory neurons responding to CO2 are also sensitive to airborne odors; in particular, the impulse frequency is increased by isoamylamine and decreased by heptanoic and pentanoic acid. Further behavioral investigations are necessary to assign a biological role to carbon dioxide detection in Odonata.

  20. Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Lourens, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, an

  1. Combined effect of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide gases on mold fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurova, A.I.; Karpova, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 0.08% killed Penicillium expansum, Stemphylium macrosporium, and Botrytis cinerea within 24 hours. At 0.2%, it killed P. citrinum, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium moniliforme. Sulfur dioxide (at 0.04%) and Sulfur dioxide-carbon dioxide mixtures (at 0.02 and 5% respectively) completely suppressed the growth of P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. rubrum, A. tenuis, S. macrosporium, B. cinerea, and F. moniliforme in laboratory experiments. 1 table.

  2. A new colorimetric breath indicator (Colibri). A comparison of the performance of two carbon dioxide indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedeon, A; Krill, P; Mebius, C

    1994-09-01

    Colorimetric carbon dioxide indicators are designed for the verification of satisfactory tracheal tube placement. However, widespread use of the device in this and other applications is hampered by limitations in its performance characteristics. A new colorimetric breath indicator (Colibri) has been developed that overcomes major shortcomings of current technology. A simple method is described that can be used to evaluate the properties of colorimetric carbon dioxide indicators in a quantitative way.

  3. Elevated pressure of carbon dioxide affects growth of thermophilic Petrotoga sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Schippers, Axel; Schlömann, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising new technology which reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decelerates global warming. During CCS, carbon dioxide is captured from emission sources (e.g. fossil fuel power plants or other industries), pressurised, and finally stored in deep geological formations, such as former gas or oil reservoirs as well as saline aquifers. However, with CCS being a very young technology, there are a number of unknown factors that need to be investigated before declaring CCS as being safe. Our research investigates the effect of high carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures on an indigenous microorganism that colonises a potential storage site. Growth experiments were conducted using the thermophilic thiosulphate-reducing bacterium Petrotoga sp., isolated from formation water of the gas reservoir Schneeren (Lower Saxony, Germany), situated in the Northern German Plain. Growth (OD600) was monitored over one growth cycle (10 days) at different carbon dioxide concentrations (50%, 100%, and 150% in the gas phase), and was compared to control cultures grown with 20% carbon dioxide. An additional growth experiment was performed over a period of 145 days with repeated subcultivation steps in order to detect long-term effects of carbon dioxide. Cultivation over 10 days at 50% and 100% carbon dioxide slightly reduced cell growth. In contrast, long-term cultivation at 150% carbon dioxide reduced cell growth and finally led to cell death. This suggested a more pronounced effect of carbon dioxide at prolonged cultivation and stresses the need for a closer consideration of long-term effects. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a sterilising effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures

  4. Cryogenic Adsorption of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fuzhi; Liu, Huiming; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Hengcheng; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Laifeng

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon have been used for a long time at low temperature for cryogenic applications. The knowledge of adsorption characteristics of activated carbon at cryogenic temperature is essential for some specific applications. However, such experimental data are very scare in the literature. In order to measure the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon under variable cryogenic temperatures, an adsorption measurement device was presented. The experiment system is based on the commercially available PCT-pro adsorption analyzer coupled to a two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator, which allows the sample to be cooled to 4.2K. Cryogenic environment can be maintained steadily without the cryogenic liquid through the cryocooler and temperature can be controlled precisely between 5K and 300K by the temperature controller. Adsorption measurements were performed in activated carbon for carbon dioxide and nitrogen and the adsorption isotherm were obtained.

  5. Cooperative redox activation for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhong; Nielsen, Dennis U.; Lindhardt, Anders T.; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-12-01

    A longstanding challenge in production chemistry is the development of catalytic methods for the transformation of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals. Silane and borane promoted reductions can be fined-tuned to provide a number of C1-building blocks under mild conditions, but these approaches are limited because of the production of stoichiometric waste compounds. Here we report on the conversion of CO2 with diaryldisilanes, which through cooperative redox activation generate carbon monoxide and a diaryldisiloxane that actively participate in a palladium-catalysed carbonylative Hiyama-Denmark coupling for the synthesis of an array of pharmaceutically relevant diarylketones. Thus the disilane reagent not only serves as the oxygen abstracting agent from CO2, but the silicon-containing `waste', produced through oxygen insertion into the Si-Si bond, participates as a reagent for the transmetalation step in the carbonylative coupling. Hence this concept of cooperative redox activation opens up for new avenues in the conversion of CO2.

  6. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  7. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  8. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C S; Römpp, H; Schmidt, P C

    2001-12-01

    The appearance of a supercritical state was already observed at the beginning of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the industrial extraction of plant and other natural materials started about twenty years ago with the decaffeination of coffee. Today carbon dioxide is the most common gas for supercritical fluid extraction in food and pharmaceutical industry. Since pure supercritical carbon dioxide is a lipophilic solvent, mixtures with organic solvents, especially alcohols, are used to increase the polarity of the extraction fluid; more polar compounds can be extracted in this way. The main fields of interest are the extraction of vegetable oils from plant material in analytical and preparative scale, the preparation of essential oils for food and cosmetic industry and the isolation of substances of pharmaceutical relevance. Progress in research was made by the precise measurement of phase equilibria data by means of different methods. Apart from extraction, supercritical fluid chromatography was introduced in the field of analytics, as well as micro- and nanoparticle formation using supercritical fluids as solvent or antisolvent. This review presents pharmaceutical relevant literature of the last twenty years with special emphasis on extraction of natural materials.

  10. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-31

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and Helper Catalyst in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. the reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  11. Summary of Technology of Recovery and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide from Ammonia Tail Gas%合成氨尾气中二氧化碳回收利用技术总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪玲; 晁承龙; 陈允梅

    2011-01-01

    A presentation is given of the recovery and utilization of carbon dioxide from ammonia tail gas, technological norms, main pieces of equipment, and special technological characteristics of the unit. This recovery unit uses the tail gas from the ammonia production process as its feedstock, adopts the patent technology of adsorption-rectification, and yields food-grade and technical carbon dioxide products which conform to the national standard, with food-grade product at 90 kt/a and a purity of at ≥99.95% ( volume fraction), and technical product at 210 kt/a and a purity of ≥99.80% ( volume fraction).%介绍了合成氨尾气中二氧化碳回收利用的情况及流程、技术指标、主要设备、装置的技术特点.该二氧化碳回收装置以合成氨生产过程中排放的尾气为原料,采用吸附精馏专利技术,生产出符合国家标准的食品级和工业级二氧化碳产品;食品级产品产量90 kt/a,纯度≥99.95%(体积分数);工业级产品产量210 kt/a,纯度≥99.80%(体积分数).

  12. Catalytic conversion of methane: Carbon dioxide reforming and oxidative coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas conversion remains one of the essential technologies for current energy needs. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of the development of efficient and durable catalysts for two reactions, carbon dioxide reforming and the oxidative coupling of methane. These two reactions have tremendous technological significance for practical application in industry. An understanding of the fundamental aspects and reaction mechanisms of the catalytic reactions reviewed in this study would support the design of industrial catalysts. CO 2 reforming of methane utilizes CO 2, which is often stored in large quantities, to convert as a reactant. Strategies to eliminate carbon deposition, which is the major problem associated with this reaction, are discussed. The oxidative coupling of methane directly produces ethylene in one reactor through a slightly exothermic reaction, potentially minimizing the capital cost of the natural gas conversion process. The focus of discussion in this review will be on the attainable yield of C 2 products by rigorous kinetic analyses.

  13. TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, V. A.; Anisimov, V. N.; Afonin, E. A.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Borzenko, V. L.; Kozochkin, S. M.; Maliuta, D. D.; Satov, Iu. A.; Sebrant, A. Iu.; Smakovski, Iu. B.

    1980-03-01

    The paper examines the TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion. The current efforts are concentrated on (1) the microsecond laser pulse plasma heating in solenoids and theta pinches, and (2) nanosecond CO2 laser utilization for inertial confinement fusion. The TIR-1 system was designed to develop nanosecond CO2 laser technology and to study laser-target interaction at 10 microns. This system consists of an oscillator-preamplifier that produces about 1-nsec laser pulse with an energy contrast ratio of 1 million, a large triple-pass amplifier, and a target chamber with diagnostic equipment.

  14. Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide to propylene carbonate catalyzed by tetra-tert-butyl metal phthalocyanine in the presence of tributylamine (TBA) shows higher yield than catalyzed by unsubstituted metal phthalocyanine. Comparing different catalysts of diverse metals, (t-Bu)4PcMg is more active than (t-Bu)4PcFe. But (t-Bu)4PcCo and (t-Bu)4PcNi only have low catalytic activities towards the reaction. Moreover, the yield will increase as the temperature increases.

  15. Combined reactions and separations using ionic liquids and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new and general type of process for the chemical industry is presented using ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide as combined reaction and separation media. In this process, the carbon dioxide pressure controls the miscibility of reactants, products, catalyst and ionic liquid, enabling f

  16. Carbon dioxide capture processes: Simulation, design and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay Hyung; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas and its major source is combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. The objective of this study is to carry out the steady-state sensitivity analysis for chemical absorption of carbon dioxide capture from flue gas using monoethanolamine solvent. First...

  17. Flexible substrates as basis for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Mette; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A photocatalytic system for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide was designed and constructed. The system relies on thin films of the photocatalyst prepared at low temperature using spray coating. We formulated inks based on the well-known photocatalyst titanium dioxide and characterized...

  18. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  19. Promising flame retardant textile in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable and cost-effective, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is widely used in textile dyeing applications. Due to its environmentally benign character, scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. O...

  20. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Kleingeld, T.; van Aken, C.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous piperazine (PZ) solutions has been studied in a stirred cell, at low to moderate temperatures, piperazine concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 kmol m- 3, and carbon dioxide pressures up to 500 mbar, respectively. The obtained experi

  1. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for...

  2. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  3. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, Solar Activity, and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  4. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, Solar Activity, and Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Gerald E.

    2014-01-01

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  5. Solving corrosion problems at the NEA Bellingham Massachusetts carbon dioxide recovery plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, T.R. [Duke/Fluor Daniel, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hansen, D.A. [Fluor Daniel Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Mariz, C.L. [Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); McCullough, J.G. [Proton Technology Ltd., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Northeast Energy Associates (NEA) carbon dioxide recovery plant at Bellingham, MA utilizes a 30 wt % monoethanol amine (MEA) solution with a proprietary additive to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel. This plant was the first application of this technology to gas turbine flue gas, which has high concentrations of oxygen (typically 13 vol. %) and low concentrations of carbon dioxide (typically 3 vol. %). Prior to the operation of the Bellingham plant, the technology had been applied to boiler flue gas streams, which typically contain more than 8 vol. % carbon dioxide and 2--4 vol. % oxygen. In this first application of the technology to gas turbine flue gas, unexpected corrosion occurred in both the absorber and stripper towers. The causes of the corrosion and its successful elimination are the subject of this paper.

  6. Sequestering carbon dioxide in industrial polymers: Building materials for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the possibility of developing beneficial uses for carbon dioxide as a key component for a large-volume building product. Such a use may provide an alternative to storing the gas in oceanic sinks or clathrates as a way to slow the rate of global warming. The authors investigated the concept that carbon dioxide might be used with other chemicals to make carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would be lightweight, strong, and economical alternatives to some types of wood and silica-based building materials. As a construction-grade material, carbon dioxide would be fixed in a solid, useful form where it would not contribute to global warming. With the probable imposition of a fuel carbon tax in industrialized countries, this alternative would allow beneficial use of the carbon dioxide and could remove it from the tax basis if legislation were structured appropriately. Hence, there would be an economic driver towards the use of carbon-dioxide-based polymers which would enhance their future applications. Information was obtained through literature searches and personal contacts on carbon dioxide polymers which showed that the concept (1) is technically feasible, (2) is economically defensible, and (3) has an existing industrial infrastructure which could logically develop it. The technology exists for production of building materials which are strong enough for use by industry and which contain up to 90% by weight of carbon dioxide, both chemically and physically bound. A significant side-benefit of using this material would be that it is self-extinguishing in case of fire. This report is the first stage in the investigation. Further work being proposed will provide details on costs, specific applications and volumes, and potential impacts of this technology.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Detection and Indoor Air Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Steve

    2016-04-01

    When building ventilation is reduced, energy is saved because it is not necessary to heat or cool as much outside air. Reduced ventilation can result in higher levels of carbon dioxide, which may cause building occupants to experience symptoms. Heating or cooling for ventilation air can be enhanced by a DCV system, which can save energy while providing a comfortable environment. Carbon dioxide concentrations within a building are often used to indicate whether adequate fresh air is being supplied to the building. These DCV systems use carbon dioxide sensors in each space or in the return air and adjust the ventilation based on carbon dioxide concentration; the higher the concentration, the more people occupy the space relative to the ventilation rate. With a carbon dioxide sensor DCV system, the fresh air ventilation rate varies based on the number ofpeople in the space, saving energy while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment.

  8. Remediation of Contaminated Soils By Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, A.; Zanetti, M. C.; Banchero, M.; Fiore, S.; Manna, L.

    The contaminants that can be found in soils are many, inorganic, like heavy metals, as well as organic. Among the organic contaminants, oil and coal refineries are responsi- ble for several cases of soil contamination with PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- bons). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic, carcinogenic and mu- tagenic effects. Limits have been set on the concentration of most contaminants, and growing concern is focusing on soil contamination issues. USA regulations set the maximum acceptable level of contamination by PAHs equal to 40 ppm at residential sites and 270 ppm at industrial sites. Stricter values are usually adopted in European Countries. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a possible alternative technology to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated soils. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers many advantages over conventional solvent extraction. Super- critical fluids combine gaseous properties as a high diffusion coefficient, and liquid properties as a high solvent power. The solvent power is strongly pressure-dependent near supercritical conditions: selective extractions are possible without changing the solvent. Solute can be separate from the solvent depressurising the system; therefore, it is possible to recycle the solvent and recover the contaminant. Carbon dioxide is frequently used as supercritical fluid, because it has moderate critical conditions, it is inert and available in pure form. In this work, supercritical fluid extraction technology has been used to remove a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon from contaminated soils. The contaminant choice for the experiment has been naphthalene since several data are available in literature. G. A. Montero et al. [1] studied soil remediation with supercrit- ical carbon dioxide extraction technology; these Authors have found that there was a mass-transfer limitation. In the extraction vessel, the mass transfer coefficient in- creases with the

  9. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relative changes in a hemodynamically stable patient's cutaneous carbon dioxide tension as an adjunct to arterial carbon dioxide tension measurement. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The...

  10. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  11. Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Algae are efficient biocatalysts for both capture and conversion of carbon dioxide in the environment. In earlier work, we have optimized the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to rapidly capture CO{sub 2} from man-made emission sources by varying environmental growth conditions and bioreactor design. Here we demonstrate that a coupled biodiesel-bioethanol facility, using yeast to produce ethanol and photosynthetic algae to produce biodiesel, can result in an integrated, economical, large-scale process for biofuel production. Each bioreactor acts as an electrode for a coupled complete microbial fuel cell system; the integrated cultures produce electricity that is consumed as an energy source within the process. Finally, both the produced yeast and spent algae biomass can be used as added value byproducts in the feed or food industries. Using cost and revenue estimations, an IRR of up to 25% is calculated using a 5 year project lifespan. (author)

  12. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  13. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  14. Thermodynamical effects during carbon dioxide release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U.-J.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-04-01

    Pruess [1] investigated the risk of carbon dioxide leakage from shallow storage sites by modeling scenarios. Such a fluid release is associated with mechanical work performed by formation fluid against expansion without taking heat from ambient environment. Understanding of heat related to mechanical work is essential to predict the temperature at the leak. According to the first law of thermodynamics, internal energy of working fluid decreases with an amount which is equivalent to this work hence, working fluid lost its own heat. Such kind of heat loss depends strongly on whether the expansion process is adiabatic or isothermal. Isothermal expansion allows the working fluid to interact thermally with the solid matrix. Adiabatic expansion is an isenthalpic process that takes heat from the working fluid and the ambient environment remains unchanged. This work is part of the CLEAN research project [6]. In this study, thermodynamic effects of mechanical work during eventual carbon dioxide leakage are investigated numerically. In particular, we are interested to detect the temperature at leakage scenarios and its deviation with different thermodynamic processes. Finite element simulation is conducted with a two-dimensional rectangular geometry representing a shallow storage site which bottom was located at -300m below the land surface. A fully saturated porous medium is assumed where the pore space is filled completely with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide accumulated in the secondary trap at 30 Bar and 24 °C is allowed to leak from top right point of rectangle with atmospheric pressure. With (i) adiabatic and (ii) isothermal compressibility factors, temperature around leakage area has been calculated which show a significant difference. With some simplification, this study detects leak temperature which is very close with [1]. Temporal evaluation at the leaky area shows that the working fluid temperature can be reduced to -20 °C when the leakage scenario is performed

  15. Carbon Dioxide in Arable Soil Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Plauborg, Finn; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    on the comparability of results obtained using different methods is limited. We therefore aimed to compare the dynamics in soil CO2 concentrations obtained from an automated system (GMP343 sensors) to those from a manually operated measurement system (i.e., soil gas sampled using stainless steel needles and rods......; however, differences may occur in response to soil spatial variability. A better coverage of spatial variability is more easily addressed using manually operated systems whereas temporal variability can be covered using the automated system. Depending on the aim of the study, the two systems may be used......Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in arable soil profiles are influenced by autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration as well as soil physical properties that regulate gas transport. Whereas different methods have been used to assess dynamics of soil CO2 concentrations, our understanding...

  16. Carbon dioxide recovery: large scale design trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariz, C.L. [Fluor Daniel Inc. (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The key design, operating issues, and trends are examined for new unit designs that hold potential for reducing the costs of CO{sub 2} recovery from flue gas. The ECONAMINE FG process is described. Operating costs for a CO{sub 2} recovery plant depend on size and CO{sub 2} content of the incoming stream. An operating cost breakdown and capital recovery analysis is given for a 1000 tonne/day CO{sub 2} recovery plant with a hypothetical U.S. Gulf Coast location. The analysis shows that the plant is not economic at the current price of crude oil. It is concluded that much larger plants (2000 tonne/day and larger) and newer and lower energy solvents could make carbon dioxide from flue gases attractive for enhanced oil recovery. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddeo, Alessandro; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) is of crucial importance during sleep-disordered breathing in order to assess the consequences of respiratory events on gas exchange. Pulse oximetry (SpO2) is a simple and cheap method that is used routinely for the recording of oxygen levels and the diagnosis of hypoxemia. CO2 recording is necessary for the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and can be performed by means of the end-tidal (PetCO2) or transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2). However, the monitoring of CO2 is not performed on a routine basis due to the lack of simple, cheap and reliable CO2 monitors. This short review summarizes some technical aspects of gas exchange recording during sleep in children before discussing the different definitions of alveolar hypoventilation and the importance of CO2 recording. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1997-01-01

    transfer coefficient but the ratio between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has......Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...... the whole surface and with measured temperature difference between the inner surface and the evaporation temperature a mean heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The calculated heat transfer coefficient has been compared with the Chart Correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predicts too low heat...

  19. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2013-02-25

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  20. Carbon dioxide absorbents for rebreather diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, John

    2016-09-01

    Firstly I would like to thank SPUMS members for making me a Life Member of SPUMS; I was surprised and greatly honoured by the award. I also want to confirm and expand on the findings on carbon dioxide absorbents reported by David Harvey et al. For about 35 years, I was the main player in deciding which absorbent went into Australian Navy and Army diving sets. On several occasions, suppliers of absorbents to the anaesthesia market tried to supply the Australian military market. On no occasion did they provide absorbent that came close to the minimum absorbent capacity required, generally being 30-40% less efficient than diving-grade absorbents. Because I regard lives as being more important than any likely dollar saving, the best absorbent was always selected unless two suppliers provided samples with the same absorbent capacity. On almost every occasion, there was a clear winner and cost was never considered. I suggest the same argument for the best absorbent should be used by members and their friends who dive using rebreather sets. I make this point because of my findings on a set that was brought to me after the death of its owner. The absorbent was not the type or grain size recommended by the manufacturer of the set and did not resemble any of the diving grade absorbents I knew of. I suspected by its appearance that it was anaesthetic grade absorbent. When I tested the set, the absorbent system failed very quickly so it is likely that carbon dioxide toxicity contributed to his death. The death was not the subject of an inquest and I have no knowledge of how the man obtained the absorbent. Possibly there was someone from an operating theatre staff who unintentionally caused their friend's death by supplying him with 'borrowed absorbent'. I make this point as I would like to discourage members from making a similar error.

  1. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abril, G.; Martinez, J.M.; Artigas, L.F.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Vidal, L.; Meziane, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Bernardes, M.C.; Savoye, N.; Deborde, J.; Souza, E.L.; Alberic, P.; de Souza, M.F.L.; Roland, F.

    2014-01-01

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle(1). A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial

  2. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  3. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long...... in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon...

  4. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  5. The Formation of Ethane from Carbon Dioxide under Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant in this paper. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increase in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane,carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well.

  6. Histidine-catalyzed synthesis of cyclic carbonates in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The coupling reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides was investigated using naturally occurring α-amino acids as the catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide and it was found that L-histidine is the most active catalyst.In the presence of 0.8 mol% of L-histidine at 130°C under 8 MPa of CO2,the reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides proceeded smoothly,affording corresponding cyclic carbonates in good to excellent yields.

  7. Forest management techniques for carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Takao [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the global ecosystem concerning carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of carbon stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.

  8. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  9. Carbon dioxide and nisin act synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Chen, Y.H.; Chikindas, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the synergistic action of carbon dioxide and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A wild-type and nisin-resistant (Nis(r)) cells grown in broth at 4 degrees C. Carbon dioxide extended the lag phase and decreased the specific growth rate of both strains, but to a greater degree...... for cultures in CO2. This synergism between nisin and CO2 was examined mechanistically by following the leakage of carboxyfluorescein (CF) from listerial liposomes. Carbon dioxide enhanced nisin-induced CF leakage, indicating that the synergistic action of CO2 and nisin occurs at the cytoplasmic membrane...

  10. Clean Hydrogen Production. Carbon Dioxide Free Alternatives. Project Phisico2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fierro, J. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Serrano, D.; Penelas, G.; Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of the PHISICO2 project, funded and promoted by Comunidad de Madrid, is the evaluation and optimisation of three different processes for the clean hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission. Solar energy and associated Technologies are proposed to be jointly employed with the aim of improving the process efficiency and reducing the production costs. As a transition to the non-fossil fuel hydrogen economy, the thermocatalytic CO2-free production of hydrogen from natural gas will be considered. One of the most promising alternatives of this process is to develop a cheap and stable carbon-based catalyst able to efficiently decompose methane into a CO2-free hydrogen stream and solid carbon. Thus, not only pure hydrogen can be obtained through but also carbon with specific properties and commercial value can be produced. Another option to be explored is the splitting of water by means of solar light by means of two different approaches: (i) photodissociation promoted by semiconductor catalysts and (ii) thermochemical cycles in which a specific mixed oxide is first thermally reduced by sunlight and then reoxidized by steam in a second step with the parallel production of hydrogen. Indeed, option (i) implies necessarily the development of semiconductors with appropriate band-gap able to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an efficient manner. Another critical issue will be the development of a strategy/concept that allows efficient separation of hydrogen and oxygen within the cell. In option (ii), the development of stable ferrites which act as the redox element of the cycle is also an important challenge. Finally, a 5 kW prototype solar engine water splitting, based on the mentioned thermochemical cycle, will developed and tested using concentrated solar light as an energy source. Moreover, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, reactor design, process optimisation, economical studies and comparison with conventional hydrogen production systems

  11. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  12. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  13. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  14. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  15. Synthesis pf dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballivet-Tkatchenko, D.; Plasseraud, L. [Universite de Bourgogne-UFR Sciences et Techniques, Dijon (France). Lab. de Synthese et Electrosynthese Organometalliques]. E-mail: ballivet@u-bourgogne.fr; Ligabue, R.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Pura

    2006-01-15

    The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu{sub 3}SnOCH{sub 3}, n-Bu{sub 2}Sn(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, and [n-Bu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O)Sn]{sub 2}O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO{sub 2} pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO{sub 2} pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO{sub 2} acted as a reactant and a solvent. (author)

  16. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballivet-Tkatchenko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu3SnOCH3, n-Bu2Sn(OCH32 , and [n-Bu2(CH3OSn]2 O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO2 pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO2 pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO2 acted as a reactant and a solvent.

  17. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 230 / Wednesday, December 1... sequestration of carbon dioxide and all other facilities that conduct injection of carbon dioxide. This rule... may determine''). These regulations will affect owners or operators of carbon dioxide (CO 2...

  18. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with both...

  19. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7... Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire extinguishing... AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  20. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Willson, Patrick Daniel; Gao, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  1. Past explosive outbursts of entrapped carbon dioxide in salt mines provide a new perspective on the hazards of carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a source of past carbon dioxide accidents which so far has only been sporadically mentioned in the literature. Violent and highly destructive outbursts of hundreds of tons of CO2 occurred regularly, if not routinely, in the now closed salt mines of the former DDR....... The Menzengraben mine experienced an extreme outburst in 1953, possibly involving a several thousand tons of carbon dioxide. This source of accidents fills an important gap in the available carbon dioxide accident history and may provide a unique empirical perspective on the hazards of handling very large amounts...

  2. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  3. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  4. Use of the electrosurgical unit in a carbon dioxide atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J; Eidson, Jack L; Paolino, David V

    2016-01-01

    The electrosurgical unit (ESU) utilizes an electrical discharge to cut and coagulate tissue and is often held above the surgical site, causing a spark to form. The voltage at which the spark is created, termed the breakdown voltage, is governed by the surrounding gaseous environment. Surgeons are now utilizing the ESU laparoscopically with carbon dioxide insufflation, potentially altering ESU operating characteristics. This study examines the clinical implications of altering gas composition by measuring the spark gap distance as a marker of breakdown voltage and use of the ESU on a biologic model, both in room air and carbon dioxide. Paschen's Law predicted a 35% decrease in gap distance in carbon dioxide, while testing revealed an average drop of 37-47% as compared to air. However, surgical model testing revealed no perceivable clinical difference. Electrosurgery can be performed in carbon dioxide environments, although surgeons should be aware of potentially altered ESU performance.

  5. Monthly Carbon Dioxide in Troposphere (AIRS on AQUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas released through natural processes such as respiration and volcano eruptions and through huma activities such as...

  6. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  7. Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange through the lungs in ... and O2 exchange rates using the method of instantaneous measurements of ... density of 1.044, float nearly weightless with a minimum of body movements.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Estimates: Potential Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    with ethanol to determine CO2 emissions reduction for 1998−2007, and thereafter making emissions ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Transport; Biofuel; Gasoline−ethanol blends; ..... Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy.

  9. Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

    2009-01-01

    ... do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv...

  10. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  11. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    OpenAIRE

    Merker, T.; Vrabec, J.; Hasse, H.

    2009-01-01

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  12. Precision remote sensor for oxygen and carbon dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mesa Photonics proposes development of a passive optical sensor for simultaneous high-precision measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles within the full...

  13. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 has seen the development of a revolutionary new type of sensor for making carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and...

  14. Carbon dioxide laser treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, J L

    1984-05-01

    A case of balanitis xerotica obliterans unresponsive to topical therapy is presented. The condition was successfully corrected following epithelial vaporization with the carbon dioxide laser, the patient remaining free of recurrence for 21 months postoperatively.

  15. Seawater pH and Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Royal Society published a report titled "Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide". The report's principal conclusion-that average ocean pH could decrease by 0.5 units by 2100-is demonstrated here to be consistent with a linear extrapolation of very limited data. It is also shown that current understanding of ocean mixing, and of the relationship between pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, cannot justify such an extrapolation.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Effects under Conditions of Raised Environmental Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-26

    the inspiratory muscles might have contributed to the elevated carbon dioxide tensions in the trained underwater swimmer because it was shown that...alveolar carbon dioxide tensions increase linearly with the work- load on the inspiratory muscles (Milic- Emili & Tyler 1962). Lanphier (1963...Submarine Escape Training Tank, U.S. Naval Submarine Base New London, in dives to 90 ft (3.7 ATA) (Sehaefer 1955; Schaefer & Carey 1962). During

  17. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkikh A.G.; Slyusarskiy K.V.

    2015-01-01

    The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The ...

  18. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  19. POSSIBILITIES OF CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION BY MICROALGAE IN REFINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Šingliar, Michal; Mikulec, Jozef; Kušnir, Patrik; Polakovičova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most critical challenges today for businesses and governments worldwide. Thousands of emitting power plants and industries worldwide face this costly challenge – reduce the CO2 emissions or pay penalties. One possibility for carbon dioxide sequestration is its fixation in microalgae. Microalgae can sequester CO2 from flue gases emitted from fossil fuel-fired refinery plants and units, thereby reducing emissions of a major greenhouse ga...

  20. Use of carbon dioxide in underground natural gas storage processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Stanislaw

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of carbon dioxide in gas storage processes is presented. The model of mixing process between CO2 and methane in porous media is given. The process of injection of carbon dioxide into a lower part of storage near the water –gas contact is modeled. The example of changes in the mixing zone is presented and discussed.

  1. Carbon dioxide heat pump for dual-temperature drinking fountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大章; 吕静; 何哲彬; 黄秀芝

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump system for heating and cooling water was designed,and its thermodynamic steady-state concentration model was established. Based on the steady-state model,parameters of the carbon dioxide trans-critical heat pump were calculated by computer programming. According to these parameters,the effects and application prospect of the heat pump system were analyzed for dual-temperature drinking fountains.

  2. Single and Mixed Gas Adsorption Equilibria of Carbon Dioxide/Methane on Activated Carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, R.; van der Vaart, Rick; Huiskes, Cindy; Bosch, H.; Reith, T.

    2000-01-01

    Single gas adsorption isotherms of methane and carbon dioxide on micro-porous Norit RB1 activated carbon were determined in a gravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 292 to 349 K and pressures to 0.8 Mpa. Furthermore binary isotherms of carbon dioxide and methane mixtures were determined at

  3. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.; Kortlever, R.; Kas, Recep; Mul, Guido; Koper, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low

  5. Mycorrhizal mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant effort in global change research has recently been directed towards assessing the potential of soil as a carbon sink under future atmospheric carbon dioxide scenarios. Attention has focused on the impact of elevated carbon dioxide on plant interactions with mycorrhizae, a symbiotic soil...

  6. Reactions of Criegee Intermediates with Non-Water Greenhouse Gases: Implications for Metal Free Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S

    2017-09-07

    High-level theoretical calculations suggest that a Criegee intermediate preferably interacts with carbon dioxide compared to two other greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and methane. The results also suggest that the interaction between Criegee intermediates and carbon dioxide involves a cycloaddition reaction, which results in the formation of a cyclic carbonate-type adduct with a barrier of 6.0-14.0 kcal/mol. These results are in contrast to a previous assumption that the reaction occurs barrierlessly. The subsequent decomposition of the cyclic adduct into formic acid and carbon dioxide follows both concerted and stepwise mechanisms. The latter mechanism has been overlooked previously. Under formic acid catalysis, the concerted decomposition of the cyclic carbonate may be favored under tropospheric conditions. Considering that there is a strong nexus between carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and global warming, the high reactivity of Criegee intermediates could be utilized for designing efficient carbon capture technologies.

  7. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  8. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidal, H.

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140{sup o}C, for CO{sub 2} loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO{sub 2} into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO{sub 2}/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO{sub 2} partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  10. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  11. Carbon dioxide removal and the futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, D.’Maris; Lockley, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Futures contracts are exchange-traded financial instruments that enable parties to fix a price in advance, for later performance on a contract. Forward contracts also entail future settlement, but they are traded directly between two parties. Futures and forwards are used in commodities trading, as producers seek financial security when planning production. We discuss the potential use of futures contracts in Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) markets; concluding that they have one principal advantage (near-term price security to current polluters), and one principal disadvantage (a combination of high price volatility and high trade volume means contracts issued by the private sector may cause systemic economic risk). Accordingly, we note the potential for the development of futures markets in CDR, but urge caution about the prospects for market failure. In particular, we consider the use of regulated markets: to ensure contracts are more reliable, and that moral hazard is minimised. While regulation offers increased assurances, we identify major insufficiencies with this approach—finding it generally inadequate. In conclusion, we suggest that only governments can realistically support long-term CDR futures markets. We note existing long-term CDR plans by governments, and suggest the use of state-backed futures for supporting these assurances.

  12. Some Organic Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Huan-feng; YANG Xiao-yue; LI Guo-ping; ZOU Gang

    2004-01-01

    Organic reactions in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have facilitated great progress in recent years 1. ScCO2, as an environmentally friendly reaction medium, may be a substitute for volatile and toxic organic solvents and show some special advantages. Firstly, CO2 is inexpensive,nonflammable, nontoxic and chemical inert under many conditions. Secondly, scCO2 possesses hybrid properties of both liquid and gas, to the advantage of some reactions involving gaseous reagents. Control of the solvent density by variation of the temperature and pressure enables the solvent properties to be "tuned" to reactants. Finally, separating of CO2 from the reaction mixture is energy-efficient and simple. Here we disclose our new work on some organic reactions involving small molecules in scCO2.The results showed that the upper reactions in scCO2 could be carried out smoothly and thepressure of CO2 had a remarkable effect on the conversion and selectivity.

  13. Carbon dioxide generation rates for building occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persily, A; de Jonge, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations have been used for decades to characterize building ventilation and indoor air quality. Many of these applications require rates of CO2 generation from the building occupants, which are currently based on approaches and data that are several decades old. However, CO2 generation rates can be derived from well-established concepts within the fields of human metabolism and exercise physiology, which relate these rates to body size and composition, diet, and level of physical activity. This paper reviews how CO2 generation rates have been estimated in the past and discusses how they can be characterized more accurately. Based on this information, a new approach to estimating CO2 generation rates is presented, which is based on the described concepts from the fields of human metabolism and exercise physiology. Using this approach and more recent data on body mass and physical activity, values of CO2 generation rates from building occupants are presented along with the variability that may occur based on body mass and activity data. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Carbon dioxide grows as recovery tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byars, C.

    1972-08-07

    Two more companies, Shell Oil Co. and Atlantic Richfield Co., are starting up COD2U injection projects in W. Texas. Miscible recovery projects using carbon dioxide are being started in Crossett Field and Wasson Field. Announcement of similar projects in North Cowden and Slaughter-Leveland fields to be conducted by Amoco Production Co. is expected. Shell, which is supplying some of the gas from its deep wells in the JM and East Brown Bassett fields, is taking 20 MMcfd of the COD2U as the line goes through the North Cross unit on its way to Sacroc. The North Cross project expects to recover an additional 8,851,000 bbl of oil. Original oil-in-place is estimated at 51 million bbl. Cumulative production has been 6.9 million bbl and current output is 1,600 bpd from 18 wells. Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) will start injecting COD2U in mid-September at their project in the Willard unit of Wasson Field in Yoakum County. The project area has produced about 85.8 million bbl of 33$ gravi regenerated scrubbing solution to ste (10 claims)

  15. Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Complex Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Matthias; Rotach, Mathias; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gohm, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale the budget of carbon dioxide (CO_2) bears a quite substantial uncertainty, which is commonly understood to be mainly due to land-surface exchange processes. In this project we investigate to what extent complex topography can amplify these land-surface exchange processes. The hypothesis is that, on the meso-scale, topography adds additional atmospheric mechanisms that drive the exchange of CO2 at the surface. This sensitivity model study investigates an idealized sine shaped valley with the atmospheric numerical model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled to the community land model (CLM) to study the effect of complex topography on the CO2 budget compared to flat terrain. The experiment is designed to estimate the effect of the topography during maximum ecosystem exchange in summer using meteorological and ecosystem conditions at solstice, the 21. of June. Systematic variation of meteorological initial conditions, plant functional types and the topography creates an ensemble that unveils the fundamental factors that dominate the differences of CO2 between simulations with topography compared to plain surfaces in the model. The sign and magnitude of the difference between the CO2 exchange over topography and over a plain simulation are strongly dependent on the CLM plant functional type, the initial temperature, the initial relative humidity, the latitude and the area height distribution of the topography. However, in this model experiment the topography is, in the mean, a sink to the CO2 budget in the order of 5% per day.

  16. Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.; Spiegel, Ella F.

    2008-01-01

    A room-temperature electrocatalytic process that effects the overall chemical reaction CO2 + 2H2O yields CH4 + 2O2 has been investigated as a means of removing carbon dioxide from air and restoring oxygen to the air. The process was originally intended for use in a spacecraft life-support system, in which the methane would be vented to outer space. The process may also have potential utility in terrestrial applications in which either or both of the methane and oxygen produced might be utilized or vented to the atmosphere. A typical cell used to implement the process includes a polymer solid-electrolyte membrane, onto which are deposited cathode and anode films. The cathode film is catalytic for electrolytic reduction of CO2 at low overpotential. The anode film is typically made of platinum. When CO2 is circulated past the cathode, water is circulated past the anode, and a suitable potential is applied, the anode half-cell reaction is 4H2O yields 2O2 + 8H(+) + 8e(-). The H(+) ions travel through the membrane to the cathode, where they participate in the half-cell reaction CO2 + 8H(+) + 8e(-) yields CH4 + 2H2O.

  17. Vibrations of the carbon dioxide dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Light, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    Fully coupled four-dimensional quantum-mechanical calculations are presented for intermolecular vibrational states of rigid carbon dioxide dimer for J=0. The Hamiltonian operator is given in collision coordinates. The Hamiltonian matrix elements are evaluated using symmetrized products of spherical harmonics for angles and a potential optimized discrete variable representation (PO-DVR) for the intermolecular distance. The lowest ten or so states of each symmetry are reported for the potential energy surface (PES) given by Bukowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 3785 (1999)]. Due to symmetries, there is no interconversion tunneling splitting for the ground state. Our calculations show that there is no tunneling shift of the ground state within our computation precision (0.01 cm-1). Analysis of the wave functions shows that only the ground states of each symmetry are nearly harmonic. The van der Waals frequencies and symmetry adapted force constants are found and compared to available experimental values. Strong coupling between the stretching coordinates and the bending coordinates are found for vibrationally excited states. The interconversion tunneling shifts are discussed for the vibrationally excited states.

  18. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  19. Potential applications of carbon dioxide in chemical industry; Moegliche Nutzungen von Kohlendioxid in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, Arno; Neuberg, Stefan [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Up to now, the use of carbon dioxide as a renewable C. carbon source plays in the current public debate on CCS technology only a minor role. Though, the chemical utilization of the generally unreactive classified molecule provides same very interesting synthesis routes, which take place without toxic starting materials like phosgene. In this review a number of syntheses using CO{sub 2}, which are currently in development, will be briefly presented. Although most of them have only been investigated on laboratory or miniplant scale and require further development, they demonstrate the high potential of carbon dioxide in industrial syntheses far beyond the traditional applications such as urea or salicylic acid syntheses. Concepts for the synthesis of formic acid and a {delta}-lactone, as well as developments in photosynthesis will be presented. A crucial role in nearly all these conversions plays the catalytic activation of carbon dioxide. (orig.)

  20. Carbon Dioxide/Methane Separation by Adsorption on Sepiolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José A.Delgado; María A.Uguina; José L.Sotelo; Beatriz Ruíz; Marcio Rosário

    2007-01-01

    In this work,the use of sepiolite for the removal of carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide/methane mixture by a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process has been researched.Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics have been measured in a fixed-bed.and the adsorption equilibrium parameters of carbon dioxide and methane on sepiolite have been obtained.A model based on the LDF approximation has been employed to simulate the fixed-bed kinetics.using the Langmuir equation to describe the adsotption equilibrium isotherm.The functioning of a PSA cycle for separating carbon dioxide/methane mixtures using sepiolite as adsorbent has also been studied.The experimental results were compared with the ones predicted by the model adapted to a PSA system.Methane with purity higher than 97% can be obtained from feeds containing carbon dioxide with concentrations ranging from 34% to 56% with the proposed PSA cycle.These results suggest that sepiolite is an adsorbent with good properties for its employment in a PSA cycle for carbon dioxide removal from landfill gases.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳朋; 聂勇; 吴昂山; 姬登祥; 于凤文; 计建炳

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

  4. Carbonate buffering and metabolic controls on carbon dioxide in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Edward; Butman, David; McDonald, Cory P.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Striegl, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Multiple processes support the significant efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from rivers and streams. Attribution of CO2 oversaturation will lead to better quantification of the freshwater carbon cycle and provide insights into the net cycling of nutrients and pollutants. CO2 production is closely related to O2consumption because of the metabolic linkage of these gases. However, this relationship can be weakened due to dissolved inorganic carbon inputs from groundwater, carbonate buffering, calcification, and anaerobic metabolism. CO2and O2 concentrations and other water quality parameters were analyzed in two data sets: a synoptic field study and nationwide water quality monitoring data. CO2 and O2 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated in both data sets (ρ = −0.67 and ρ = −0.63, respectively), although the correlations were weaker in high-alkalinity environments. In nearly all samples, the molar oversaturation of CO2 was a larger magnitude than molar O2 undersaturation. We used a dynamically coupled O2CO2 model to show that lags in CO2 air-water equilibration are a likely cause of this phenomenon. Lags in CO2 equilibration also impart landscape-scale differences in the behavior of CO2 between high- and low-alkalinity watersheds. Although the concept of carbonate buffering and how it creates lags in CO2 equilibration with the atmosphere is well understood, it has not been sufficiently integrated into our understanding of CO2 dynamics in freshwaters. We argue that the consideration of carbonate equilibria and its effects on CO2 dynamics are primary steps in understanding the sources and magnitude of CO2 oversaturation in rivers and streams.

  5. Carbonate buffering and metabolic controls on carbon dioxide in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Edward G.; Butman, David; McDonald, Cory P.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-04-01

    Multiple processes support the significant efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from rivers and streams. Attribution of CO2 oversaturation will lead to better quantification of the freshwater carbon cycle and provide insights into the net cycling of nutrients and pollutants. CO2 production is closely related to O2 consumption because of the metabolic linkage of these gases. However, this relationship can be weakened due to dissolved inorganic carbon inputs from groundwater, carbonate buffering, calcification, and anaerobic metabolism. CO2 and O2 concentrations and other water quality parameters were analyzed in two data sets: a synoptic field study and nationwide water quality monitoring data. CO2 and O2 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated in both data sets (ρ = -0.67 and ρ = -0.63, respectively), although the correlations were weaker in high-alkalinity environments. In nearly all samples, the molar oversaturation of CO2 was a larger magnitude than molar O2 undersaturation. We used a dynamically coupled O2CO2 model to show that lags in CO2 air-water equilibration are a likely cause of this phenomenon. Lags in CO2 equilibration also impart landscape-scale differences in the behavior of CO2 between high- and low-alkalinity watersheds. Although the concept of carbonate buffering and how it creates lags in CO2 equilibration with the atmosphere is well understood, it has not been sufficiently integrated into our understanding of CO2 dynamics in freshwaters. We argue that the consideration of carbonate equilibria and its effects on CO2 dynamics are primary steps in understanding the sources and magnitude of CO2 oversaturation in rivers and streams.

  6. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  7. Carbon-Based Regenerable Sorbents for the Combined Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia Removal for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Manthina, Venkata; Singh, Prabhakar; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data on TC sorption presented in this paper are limited to ammonia, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon sorbents for the reversible, concurrent sorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested, and multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also a carbon surface conditioning technique that enhances the combined carbon dioxide and ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration.

  8. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude

  9. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    carbon dioxide emission problems. More specifically, the prototype framework and the three-stage approach adopted for systematic and sustainable design of carbon capture and utilization processes incorporates (i) process synthesis stage, the determination of a processing path from a network...... of alternatives; (ii) process design, the design and analysis of a process or generated processing path in terms of process “hot-spots” or deficiencies to set design targets for improvement; and (iii) innovative and more sustainable design, determination of solutions matching the design targets. In this way......) and the determination of the optimal processing route. Finally, the framework has access to, a collection of tools for analysis, such as economic analysis, sustainability and life cycle assessment, and links to detailed process simulation (process simulators). Following the work-flow and data-flow implemented...

  10. It is time to put carbon dioxide to work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinsky, E.S. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The need to control emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is the subject of vigorous debate at this time. There is growing evidence that rising levels of carbon dioxide increase global warming, with perhaps highly adverse impacts for the human economy. There are calls for carbon taxes and other harsh measures. Japan has established a national goal of holding carbon dioxide emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 levels. I hope that this conference will be a turning point in the United States position on this issue. The current major end uses for CO{sub 2} include refrigeration, beverage carbonation, soda ash production, fire fighting, and urea fertilizer production. They are all based on chemistry that would not surprise a good chemist of the 19th century. Consumption of carbon dioxide in synthesis of industrial chemicals is limited. Usually one explains low production of chemicals from a candidate feedstock in terms of poor availability, price, purity, or reactivity. We can eliminate the first three as the causes of the underutilization of carbon dioxide.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of supercritical carbon dioxide: Widom and Frenkel lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Yu. D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Supercritical fluids are widely used in a number of important technological applications, yet the theoretical progress in the field has been rather moderate. Fairly recently, a new understanding of the liquidlike and gaslike properties of supercritical fluids has come to the fore, particularly with the advent of the Widom and Frenkel lines that aim to demarcate different physical properties on the phase diagram. Here, we report the results of a computational study of supercritical carbon dioxide, one of the most important fluids in the chemical industry. We study the response functions of CO2 in the supercritical state and calculate the locations of their maxima (Widom lines). We also report the preliminary calculations of the Frenkel line, the line of crossover of microscopic dynamics of particles. Our insights are relevant to physical processes in the atmosphere of Venus and its evolution.

  12. Sustainable production of green feed from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form hydrocarbons was conducted on two iron-based catalysts, prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and on a new iron spinel catalyst. The CO2 conversion measured in a packed-bed reactor was limited to about 60% because of excessive amounts of water produced in this process. Switching to a system of three packed-bed reactors in series with interim removal of water and condensed hydrocarbons increased CO2 conversion to as much as 89%. The pure spinel catalyst displayed a significantly higher activity and selectivity than those of the other iron catalysts. This process produces a product called green feed, which is similar in composition to the product of a high-temperature, iron-based Fischer–Tropsch process from syngas. The green feed can be readily converted into renewable fuels by well-established technologies.

  13. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. 147... dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders forming part of a...) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders must be rejected for further service when they— (1) Leak; (2)...

  14. Recent Progress in the Synthesis of Polymers Based on Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Sugimoto; S. Inoue

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Carbon dioxide is the most fundamental carbon resource indispensable for all living systems including human being via photosynthesis by green plants. On the other hand, chemical utilization of carbon dioxide has been rather limited.

  15. Oxygen Atom Recombination in Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Corey; Garcia, R. M.; Pejakovic, D. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    Understanding processes involving atomic oxygen is crucial for the study and modeling of composition, energy transfer, airglow, and transport dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Significant gaps and uncertainties exist in our understanding of the above processes, and often the relevant input from laboratory measurements is missing or outdated. We are conducting experiments to measure the rate coefficients for O + O + CO2 and O + O2 + CO2 recombination and investigate the O2 excited states produced following O-atom recombination. These laboratory measurements are key input for a quantitative understanding and reliable modeling of the atmospheres of the CO2 planets and their airglow. An ArF excimer laser with 193-nm pulsed output radiation is employed to partially photodissociate carbon dioxide. In an ambient-pressure (760 Torr) background of CO2, the O atoms produced recombine in a time scale of a few milliseconds. Detection of laser-induced fluorescence at 845 nm following two-photon excitation near 226 nm monitors the decay of the oxygen atom population. From the temporal evolution of the signal we can extract the rate coefficients for recombination of O + O and O + O2 in the presence of CO2. We also use fluorescence and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization techniques to detect the products of the O-atom recombination and subsequent relaxation in CO2. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation's (NSF) Planetary Astronomy Program. Rosanne Garcia's participation was funded by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program.

  16. Carbon dioxide catastrophes: Past and future menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Mario E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is important in its role as coupler of the terrestrial biosphere to inorganic chemical processes and as the principal greenhouse gas controlling Earth's surface temperature. The hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 levels have diminished with time, with the resulting cooling effect offsetting an increase in the solar constant, seems firmly established, and it is shown that feedback mechanisms exist which can maintain the terrestrial surface in a relatively narrow temperature range over geological time. Of the factors involved in such CO2 variation, the oceanic reservoir appears the most important. Surface waters are probably in approximate equilibrium with regard to CO2 exchange with the ambient atmosphere in most regions, but data from deep-ocean water sampling indicates that such waters are somewhat undersaturated in the sense that they would tend to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere if brought to the surface without change in composition or temperature. If major impacts into the ocean can result in loss of a substantial portion of the atmospheric CO2 reservoir, then any such future event could imperil the continuation of most higher forms of life on Earth. The most likely candidate for an inverse Nyos global event in previous Earth history is the Cretaceous-Tertiary terminal extinction event. The Cretaceous was characterized by warm, equable temperatures presumably indicative of relatively high CO2 levels and an intense greenhouse heating. Cooling of the oceans in absence of massive transfer of CO2 to the oceanic reservoir in itself would promote a condition of CO2 undersaturation in abyssal waters, and this is made even more extreme by the pattern of ocean water circulation. It is possible to envision a situation in which deep ocean waters were at least occasionally profoundly undersaturated with regard to CO2. Turnover of a major fraction of such an ocean would then remove, on a very short time scale, as much as 90 percent of the atmospheric CO2

  17. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the production of alternative fuels by carbon dioxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Kyu Sung; Han, Sang Do; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Youn Soon; Seo, Ji Mi [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The technologies of the fuel production from carbon dioxide by catalytic hydrogenation were surveyed. For the catalytic hydrogenation we made the lab-scale reaction apparatus and carried out some experiments with various catalysts like CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Raney nickel and other commercial catalysts. In this year, the third year of the project, the experiments to find optimum catalysts and obtain the good conditions of carbon dioxide were performed followed by second year. And also the processes of the methanol synthesis was investigated simultaneously. (author). 58 refs., 58 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon...

  20. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B; Tour, James M

    2014-06-03

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  1. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  2. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  3. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J.; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Tour, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  4. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  5. Entrainment process of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft and surface measurements of turbulent thermodynamic variables and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken above a grassland in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were analyzed to assess the importance of the entrainment process for the distribution and evolution of carbon dio

  6. Regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, J.; Smart, W. H.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    In a closed ecological system it is necessary to reclaim most of the oxygen required for breathing from respired carbon dioxide and the remainder from waste water. One of the advanced physicochemical systems being developed for generating oxygen in manned spacecraft is the solid electrolyte-electrolysis system. The solid electrolyte system consists of two basic units, an electrolyzer and a carbon monoxide disproportionator. The electrolyzer can reclaim oxygen from both carbon dioxide and water. Electrolyzer preparation and assembly are discussed together with questions of reactor design and electrolyzer performance data.

  7. Regeneration of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, J.; Smart, W. H.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    In a closed ecological system it is necessary to reclaim most of the oxygen required for breathing from respired carbon dioxide and the remainder from waste water. One of the advanced physicochemical systems being developed for generating oxygen in manned spacecraft is the solid electrolyte-electrolysis system. The solid electrolyte system consists of two basic units, an electrolyzer and a carbon monoxide disproportionator. The electrolyzer can reclaim oxygen from both carbon dioxide and water. Electrolyzer preparation and assembly are discussed together with questions of reactor design and electrolyzer performance data.

  8. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Adsorbed in a Slit Carbon Pore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both the grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation methods are used to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of carbon dioxide confined in a 1.86 nm slit carbon pore at 4 temperatures from subcritical (120 K) to supercritical (313 K) conditions. Layering transition, capillary condensation and adsorption hysteresis are found at 120 K. The microstructure of carbon dioxide fluid in the slit carbon pore is analyzed. The diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide parallel to the slit wall are significantly larger than those normal to the slit wall.

  9. Phase-Change Aminopyridines as Carbon Dioxide Capture Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Deepika [Energy Processes and Materials; Page, Jordan P. [Energy Processes and Materials; Bowden, Mark E. [Energy Processes and Materials; Karkamkar, Abhijeet [Energy Processes and Materials; Heldebrant, David J. [Energy Processes and Materials; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra [Energy Processes and Materials; Rousseau, Roger [Energy Processes and Materials; Koech, Phillip K. [Energy Processes and Materials

    2017-06-22

    Carbon dioxide is the main atmospheric greenhouse gas released from industrial point sources. In order to mitigate adverse environmental effects of these emissions, carbon capture, storage and utilization is required. To this end, several CO2 capture technologies are being developed for application in carbon capture, which include aqueous amines and water-lean solvents. Herein we report new aminopyridine solvents with the potential for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. These four solvents 2-picolylamine, 3-picolylamine, 4-picolylamine and N’-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine are liquids that rapidly bind CO2 to form crystalline solids at standard room temperature and pressure. These solvents have displayed high CO2 capture capacity (11 - 20 wt%) and can be regenerated at temperatures in the range of 120 - 150 C. The advantage of these primary aminopyridine solvents is that crystalline salt product can be separated, making it possible to regenerate only the CO2-rich solid ultimately resulting in reduced energy penalty.

  10. Sequestration of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to useful products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.; Hawkins, Aaron B.; Menon, Angeli Lal; Lipscomb, Gina Lynette Pries; Schut, Gerrit Jan

    2017-03-07

    Provided herein are genetically engineered microbes that include at least a portion of a carbon fixation pathway, and in one embodiment, use molecular hydrogen to drive carbon dioxide fixation. In one embodiment, the genetically engineered microbe is modified to convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof at levels greater than a control microbe. Other products may also be produced. Also provided herein are cell free compositions that convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof. Also provided herein are methods of using the genetically engineered microbes and the cell free compositions.

  11. Simulation research on carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas underground reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yu-fei; LIN Tao

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of mixing working gas and cushion gas in carbon sequestration technology, the feasibility of using cation dioxide as the cushion gas in reservoirs is discussed firstly. At the usual condition of reservoirs, carbon dioxide is a kind of supercritieal fluid with high condensability, high viscosity and high density. Secondly, this article studies the laws of formation and development of mixing zone by numerical simulation and analyses the impact on mixing zone brought by different injection modes and rational ratios of cushion gas in reservoirs. It is proposed that the appropriate injection ratio of cushion gas is 20% - 30%. Using carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas reservoirs is able to make the running of natural gas reservoirs economical and efficient.

  12. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte-Carlo simulations of methane/carbon dioxide and ethane/carbon dioxide mixture adsorption in zeolites and comparison with matrix treatment of statistical mechanical lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Furgani, Akrem; Jalili, Sayed; Manos, George

    2009-05-01

    Adsorption isotherms have been computed by Monte-Carlo simulation for methane/carbon dioxide and ethane/carbon dioxide mixtures adsorbed in the zeolite silicalite. These isotherms show remarkable differences with the ethane/carbon dioxide mixtures displaying strong adsorption preference reversal at high coverage. To explain the differences in the Monte-Carlo mixture isotherms an exact matrix calculation of the statistical mechanics of a lattice model of mixture adsorption in zeolites has been made. The lattice model reproduces the essential features of the Monte-Carlo isotherms, enabling us to understand the differing adsorption behaviour of methane/carbon dioxide and ethane/carbon dioxide mixtures in zeolites.

  14. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  15. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  16. Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K; Kato, Z [Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, 982-8577 (Japan); Kumagai, N; Izumiya, K, E-mail: koji@imr.tohku.ac.jp [Daiki Ataka Engineering Co. Ltd. Kashiwa, 277-8515 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

  17. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a win-win option? (the economic case)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G. [Future Energy Solutions, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The UK currently derived 90% of its primary energy and generates over 70% of its electricity from fossil fuels. Moreover, it has access to substantial carbon dioxide storage capacity. In particular there is potential for storage combined with Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) in the oil fields of the central and northern North Sea areas, while the gas fields of the southern North Sea offer a large near shore resource for storage. In the longer term saline aquifers offer an even large storage capacity. Consequently carbon dioxide capture and storage needs to be assessed as an important potential option for greenhouse gas abatement for the UK. This scoping study has examined the implementation, operation, economics and barriers to undertaking carbon dioxide capture and storage in the UK. It has concentrated on carbon dioxide capture from fossil fuel power stations; large 'point sources' of the gas that would need to be tackled in order to deliver significant levels of greenhouse gas abatement. Options for gas capture considered are retrofitting equipment to existing coal and natural gas fired plant as well as the construction of new coal (IGCC) and gas (GTCC) technology. Economic assessments have been made with 'present day' costs, and do not consider future improvements through technical innovation and; learning by doing', the potential of which is considerable for the mature carbon capture technologies.

  19. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  20. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  1. Microfluidic platform for studying the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Devin Talmage

    Diminishing supplies of conventional energy sources and growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions present significant challenges to supplying the world's rapidly increasing demand for energy. The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has the potential to address many of these issues by providing a means of storing electricity in chemical form. Storing electrical energy as chemicals is beneficial for leveling the output of clean, but intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. Electrical energy stored as chemicals can also be used as carbon neutral fuels for portable applications allowing petroleum derived fuels in the transportation sector to be replaced by more environmentally friendly energy sources. However, to be a viable technology, the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide needs to have both high current densities and energetic efficiencies (Chapter 1). Although many researchers have studied the electrochemical reduction of CO2 including parameters such as catalysts, electrolytes and temperature, further investigation is needed to improve the understanding of this process and optimize the performance (Chapter 2). This dissertation reports the development and validation of a microfluidic reactor for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (Chapter 3). The design uses a flowing liquid electrolyte instead of the typical polymer electrolyte membrane. In addition to other benefits, this flowing electrolyte gives the reactor great flexibility, allowing independent analysis of each electrode and the testing of a wide variety of conditions. In this work, the microfluidic reactor has been used in the following areas: • Comparison of different metal catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 4). • Investigation of the effects of the electrolyte pH on the reduction of CO2 to formic acid and carbon monoxide (Chapter 5). • Study of amine based electrolytes for lowering the overpotentials for CO2

  2. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  3. Carbon dioxide production during cardiopulmonary bypass: pathophysiology, measure and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Carboni, Giovanni; Cotza, Mauro; de Somer, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide production during cardiopulmonary bypass derives from both the aerobic metabolism and the buffering of lactic acid produced by tissues under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, carbon dioxide removal monitoring is an important measure of the adequacy of perfusion and oxygen delivery. However, routine monitoring of carbon dioxide removal is not widely applied. The present article reviews the main physiological and pathophysiological sources of carbon dioxide, the available techniques to assess carbon dioxide production and removal and the clinically relevant applications of carbon dioxide-related variables as markers of the adequacy of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  4. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  5. Carbon Dioxide As a Raw Material for Biodegradable Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianhong; QIN Yusheng; WANG Fosong

    2011-01-01

    @@ Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas, but it is also a renewable and abundant source of carbon.It has not onlv shown various phvsicai utilization in the manufacturing of food, beverage and other industry areas, but been chemically fixed into urea, salicylic acid, organic and inorganic carbonates (Mikkelsen, Jorgensen & Krebs, 2010).However, developing a high value-added fixation route to CO is badly needed.

  6. Chemoselective Alternating Copolymerization of Limonene Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide: A New Highly Functional Aliphatic Epoxy Polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Sablong, Rafaël J; Koning, Cor E

    2016-09-12

    The alternating copolymerization of biorenewable limonene dioxide with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) catalyzed by a zinc β-diiminate complex is reported. The chemoselective reaction results in linear amorphous polycarbonates that carry pendent methyloxiranes and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg ) up to 135 °C. These polycarbonates can be efficiently modified by thiols or carboxylic acids in combination with lithium hydroxide or tetrabutylphosphonium bromide as catalysts, respectively, without destruction of the main chain. Moreover, polycarbonates bearing pendent cyclic carbonates can be quantitatively prepared by CO2 insertion catalyzed by lithium bromide.

  7. Carbon dioxide free production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, L.; Fehling, T.; Geißler, T.; Baake, E.; Wetzel, T.

    2017-07-01

    The present report summarizes the theoretical modelling and experimental investigation results of the study on the direct thermal methane cracking. This work is a part of the LIMTECH-Project (Liquid Metal Technologies) funded of Helmholtz Alliance and was carried out from 2012 to 2017. The Project-part B5 “CO2-free production of hydrogen” focused on experimental testing and particularly on modelling the novel methane cracking method based on liquid metal technology. The new method uses a bubble column reactor, filled with liquid metal, where both the chemical reaction of methane decomposition and the separation of gas fraction from solid carbon occur. Such reactor system was designed and built in the liquid metal laboratory (KALLA) at KIT. The influences of liquid metal temperature distribution in reactor and feed gas flow rate on methane conversion ratio were investigated experimentally at the temperature range from 930°C to 1175 °C and methane flow rate at the reactor inlet from 50 to 200 mLn/min. In parallel with experimental investigations, a thermochemical model, giving insight in the influence of the above mentioned parameters has been developed at KIT and a CFD model was developed at LUH to get an overview about the bubble dynamics in the reaction system. The influence of different bubble sizes and shapes, multi-inlet coalescence effects as well as the potential of electromagnetic stirring have been investigated.

  8. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  9. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis.

  10. [Thoracoscopic thymectomy with carbon dioxide insufflation in the mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Coloma, C; Navarro-Martinez, J; Bolufer, S; Rivera-Cogollos, M J; Alonso-García, F J; Tarí-Bas, M I

    2015-02-01

    The case is presented of a 71 year-old male, diagnosed with a thymoma. A thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed using the carbon dioxide insufflation technique in the mediastinum. During the procedure, while performing one-lung ventilation, the patient's respiration worsened. The contralateral lung had collapsed, as carbon dioxide was travelling from the mediastinum to the thorax through the opened pleura. Two-lung ventilation was decided upon, which clearly improved oxygenation in the arterial gases and airway pressures. Both pH and pCO2 stabilized. The surgical approach and the carbon dioxide technique were continued because 2-lung ventilation did not affect the surgical procedure. This technique has many serious complications and it should always be performed using 2-lung ventilation.

  11. Novel carbon dioxide gas sensor based on infrared absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjun; Lui, Junfang; Yuan, Mei

    2000-08-01

    The feasibility of sensing carbon dioxide with a IR single- beam optical structure is studied, and a novel carbon dioxide gas sensor based on IR absorption is achieved. Applying the Lambert-Beer law and some key techniques such as current stabilization for IR source, using a high-quality IR detector, and data compensation for the influences of ambience temperature and atmosphere total pressure, the sensor can measure carbon dioxide with high precision and efficiency. The mathematical models for providing temperature and pressure compensation for the sensor are established. Moreover the solutions to the models are proposed. Both the models and the solutions to the models are verified via experiments. The sensor possesses the advantages of small volume, light weight, low power consumption, and high reliability. Therefore it can be used in many associated fields, such as environmental protection, processing control, chemical analysis, medical diagnosis, and space environmental and control systems.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  13. Progress of research and technology in conversion and utilization of carbon dioxide%CO2的绿色利用技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文珍; 张生琦; 倪炳华; 屈撑囤; 黄风林; 黄俊; 王丽莎

    2013-01-01

      近年来 CO2的综合利用越来越引起人们的重视。本文介绍了近年来通过化学途径实现CO2资源化利用的研究方向及进展,并报道了最新的研究技术和成果。通过适当的化学反应,CO2可以转化为液体燃料、甲醇、碳酸酯类等高附加值的产品,还可通过 CH4–CO2催化重整制成合成气来制备乙烯或含氧化合物等。另外,本文还介绍了其它新型 CO2化学利用技术,如通过合理设计的化学肺可将 CO2直接转换为氧气,利用太阳能、电能和生物微藻技术实现CO2向有用化学品的转化以及作为新型储氢材料的研究利用进展。%This paper reviewed and analyzed the progress on research and technology of conversion and utilization of CO2 by chemical route in recent years. CO2 can be converted into liquid fuel, methanol,carbonates,and other high value products through proper chemical reactions. CO2 can also be converted to olefin or oxygen-containing compounds through the process of CO2 – Methane synthesis. Other new technologies of CO2 utilization,including direct conversion of CO2 into oxygen through rational designed chemical lungs,conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals by solar energy, electricity and biological microalgae technologies,and progress of CO2 utilization as new hydrogen storage materials.

  14. The production of carbon nanotubes from carbon dioxide: challenges and opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey S. Simate; Sunny E. Iyuke; Sehliselo Ndlovu; Clarence S. Yah; Lubinda F. Walubita

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are reviewed with an emphasis on the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a sole source of carbon. Compared to the most widely used carbon precursors such as graphite, methane, acetylene, ethanol, ethylene,and coal-derived hydrocarbons, CO2 is competitively cheaper with relatively high carbon yield content. However, CNT synthesis from CO2 is a newly emerging technology, and hence it needs to be explored further. A theoretical and analytical comparison of the currently existing CNT-CO2 synthesis techniques is given including a review of some of the process parameters (i.e., temperature, pressure, catalyst, etc.) that affect the CO2 reduction rate. Such analysis indicates that there is still a fundamental need to further explore the following aspects so as to realize the full potential of CO2 based CNT technology: (1) the CNT-CO2 synthesis and formation mechanism,(2) catalytic effects of transitional metals and mechanisms, (3) utilization of metallocenes in the CNT-CO2 reactions, (4) applicability of ferrite-organometallic compounds in the CNT-CO2 synthesis reactions, and (5) the effects of process parameters such as temperature,etc.

  15. Interaction of carbon dioxide with Cu overlayers on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, N.; Andersson, Klas Jerker; Grabow, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of carbon dioxide with pseudomorphic and rough copper layers deposited on a platinum (111) single crystal are reported. Evidence for carbon dioxide dissociation and carbonate formation is presented and the relevance to methanol synthesis......) reveals a broad high temperature desorption state for CO2 with peak maximum around 450 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that approximately one third of the oxygen accumulated on the surface upon CO2 exposure remains after TPD, indicative of carbonate formation via CO2 dissociation supplying...... O-ads and then facile CO2 + O-ads association, as well as subsequent decomposition at higher temperatures. Density functional theory studies of stepped Cu and Cu/Pt slabs reproduce vibrational frequencies of the carbonate, suggesting a nearly flat tridentate configuration at steps/defect sites....

  16. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  17. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture processes: Simulation, design and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay Hyung; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    performance of the process to the L/G ratio to the absorber, CO2 lean solvent loadings, and striper pressure are presented in this paper. Based on the sensitivity analysis process optimization problems have been defined and solved and, a preliminary control structure selection has been made.......Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas and its major source is combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. The objective of this study is to carry out the steady-state sensitivity analysis for chemical absorption of carbon dioxide capture from flue gas using monoethanolamine solvent. First...

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide-based sterilization of decellularized heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ryan S; Jana, Soumen; Tefft, Brandon J; Helder, Meghana R; Young, Melissa D; Hennessy, Rebecca R; Stoyles, Nicholas J; Lerman, Amir

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research project encompasses finding the most efficient and effective method of decellularized tissue sterilization. Aortic tissue grafts have been utilized to repair damaged or diseased valves. Although, the tissues for grafting are collected aseptically, it does not eradicate the risk of contamination nor disease transfer. Thus, sterilization of grafts is mandatory. Several techniques have been applied to sterilize grafts; however, each technique shows drawbacks. In this study, we compared several sterilization techniques: supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide for impact on the sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Valve sterility was characterized by histology, microbe culture, and electron microscopy. Uniaxial tensile testing was conducted on the valve cusps along their circumferential orientation to study these sterilization techniques on their integrity. Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves were found to be sterile. The tensile strength of supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves (4.28 ± 0.22 MPa) was higher to those valves treated with electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (1.02 ± 0.15, 1.25 ± 0.25, 3.53 ± 0.41 and 0.37 ± 0.04 MPa, respectively). Superior sterility and integrity were found in the decellularized porcine aortic valves with supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization. This sterilization technique may hold promise for other decellularized soft tissues. Sterilization of grafts is essential. Supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide techniques were compared for impact on sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves were found to be sterile using histology, microbe

  20. Prelaunch spectral calibration of a carbon dioxide spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Lin, Chao; Li, Chengliang; Wang, Long; Ji, Zhenhua; Xue, Hao; Wei, Yuefeng; Gong, Chenghu; Gao, Minghui; Liu, Lei; Gao, Zhiliang; Zheng, Yuquan

    2017-06-01

    The carbon dioxide spectrometer (CDS) on board the Chinese Carbon Dioxide Observation Satellite (TanSat) is a high spectral and spatial resolution grating spectrometer with three specific spectral bands dedicated to atmospheric CO2 detection. The CDS’s design and on-ground spectral calibration are presented in this paper. The instrument line shape functions and spectral dispersion were characterized using a tunable diode laser-based testing system for all spectral pixels of the CDS placed in a thermal vacuum chamber.

  1. Carbon dioxide capture processes: Simulation, design and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay Hyung; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    performance of the process to the L/G ratio to the absorber, CO2 lean solvent loadings, and striper pressure are presented in this paper. Based on the sensitivity analysis process optimization problems have been defined and solved and, a preliminary control structure selection has been made.......Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas and its major source is combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. The objective of this study is to carry out the steady-state sensitivity analysis for chemical absorption of carbon dioxide capture from flue gas using monoethanolamine solvent. First...

  2. Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

    1992-03-01

    The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

  3. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a actors, (b resources, (c institutional settings, and (d the coordination of the support system.

  4. Acetate production enhancement from carbon dioxide reduction by using modified cathode materials in microbial electrosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei

    in the bioelectrochemical System (BES). The MES reactor can power with the solar photovoltaic system and harvest light energy to multi-carbon compounds to make it artificial photosynthesis system. Nevertheless, chemical production rate should be optimized for the commercialization of MES technology. Interestingly, it has......Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the emerging biosustainable technologies for the biological conversion of carbon dioxide to the value-added chemical precursor. The electro autotrophic bacteria fix CO2 via Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, accepting the electron derived from the cathode...... been demonstrated that the productivity was enhanced with the modified cathode surfaces by improving microbe-electrode electron transfer. Here, we have tested the different cathode materials for the improvement of acetate production from carbon dioxide and their behavior for the biofilm formation...

  5. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  6. Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

  7. Surface chemistry of carbon dioxide revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifan, William; Boily, Jean-François; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    This review discusses modern developments in CO2 surface chemistry by focusing on the work published since the original review by H.J. Freund and M.W. Roberts two decades ago (Surface Science Reports 25 (1996) 225-273). It includes relevant fundamentals pertaining to the topics covered in that earlier review, such as conventional metal and metal oxide surfaces and CO2 interactions thereon. While UHV spectroscopy has routinely been applied for CO2 gas-solid interface analysis, the present work goes further by describing surface-CO2 interactions under elevated CO2 pressure on non-oxide surfaces, such as zeolites, sulfides, carbides and nitrides. Furthermore, it describes additional salient in situ techniques relevant to the resolution of the interfacial chemistry of CO2, notably infrared spectroscopy and state-of-the-art theoretical methods, currently used in the resolution of solid and soluble carbonate species in liquid-water vapor, liquid-solid and liquid-liquid interfaces. These techniques are directly relevant to fundamental, natural and technological settings, such as heterogeneous and environmental catalysis and CO2 sequestration.

  8. Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in…

  9. 牛蒡根挥发油超临界CO2萃取的工艺研究%Technology for volatile oil extraction from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercrit-ical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦德宇; 柳春燕; 杨丽芬

    2013-01-01

      目的:对超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的工艺条件进行研究。方法:通过单因素试验研究萃取温度、萃取压力、萃取时间对萃取率的影响,并采用正交试验设计优化工艺条件。结果:最佳萃取条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5h,在此条件下,超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油的萃取率为2.92%。结论:超临界CO2流体萃取牛蒡根挥发油具有较高的萃取率,最佳条件为萃取温度45℃、萃取压力25 MPa、萃取时间1.5 h,且萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响。%  Objective:To study the technology for extracting volatile oil from the root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide. Methods:By single factor test,the effects on the yield were examined con-cerning the extraction temperature,pressure and time.Orthogonal experi-ment was used to optimize the extraction technology.Results:The optimal temperature was 45 ℃,pressure at 25 MPa and duration for 1.5 h.Such conditions had led to a yield of volatile oil by 2.92%.Conclusion:Ex-traction of volatile oil from root of Arctium Lappa L.using supercritical carbon dioxide can be productive under the optimum conditions described above.Of the three factors,extraction temperature may greatly affect the extraction yield of volatile oil.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  11. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  12. Preparation of calcium carbonate particles coated with titanium dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Lin; Ying-bo Dong; Le-yong Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new mineral composite material, calcium carbonate particles coated with titanium dioxide, was stud-ied. The mechanism of the preparation process was proposed. The new mineral composite material was made by the mechanochemi-eal method under the optimum condition that the mass ratio of calcium carbonate particles to titanium dioxide was 6.5:3.5. The mass ratios of two different types of titanium dioxide (anatase to rutile) and grinding media to grinded materials were 8:2 and 4:1 respec-tively, and the modified density was 60%. Under this condition, the new material was capable of forming after 120-min modification.The hiding power and oil absorption of this new material were 29.12 g/m~2 and 23.30%, respectively. The results show that the modi-fication is based on surface hydroxylation. After coating with titanium dioxide, the hiding power of calcium carbonate can be im-proved greatly. The new mineral composite materials can be used as the substitute for titanium dioxide.

  13. ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  15. Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Wendy M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Karberg, Noah J; King, John S; Giardina, Christian P

    2003-10-16

    In the Northern Hemisphere, ozone levels in the troposphere have increased by 35 per cent over the past century, with detrimental impacts on forest and agricultural productivity, even when forest productivity has been stimulated by increased carbon dioxide levels. In addition to reducing productivity, increased tropospheric ozone levels could alter terrestrial carbon cycling by lowering the quantity and quality of carbon inputs to soils. However, the influence of elevated ozone levels on soil carbon formation and decomposition are unknown. Here we examine the effects of elevated ozone levels on the formation rates of total and decay-resistant acid-insoluble soil carbon under conditions of elevated carbon dioxide levels in experimental aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands and mixed aspen-birch (Betula papyrifera) stands. With ambient concentrations of ozone and carbon dioxide both raised by 50 per cent, we find that the formation rates of total and acid-insoluble soil carbon are reduced by 50 per cent relative to the amounts entering the soil when the forests were exposed to increased carbon dioxide alone. Our results suggest that, in a world with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global-scale reductions in plant productivity due to elevated ozone levels will also lower soil carbon formation rates significantly.

  16. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  17. Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10°C, 20°C, 40°C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental

  18. Carbon dioxide fluxes from Tifway bermudagrass: early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, David L.; Zhang, G.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Raymer, P.; Steketee, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports for the first time preliminary data on carbon uptake of warm-season turfgrass at a well-managed sod farm in south central Georgia. It examines the changes in carbon uptake from one of the most widely used warm-season turfgrass cultivars in the world, Tifway Bermudagrass. It elucidates the role of canopy density and light avalaibility on the net carbon uptake using the eddy-covariance technique. Preliminary evidence suggests that turfgrass is effective at sequestering carbon dioxide during the summer months even when the canopy is being reestablished following a grass harvest.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  20. Photodissociation of carbon dioxide in the Mars upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the intensity of two of the emissions produced during the dissociative excitation of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Mars by solar ultraviolet radiation. The calculation tangential column emission rates of the atomic oxygen 2972-A line and the carbon monoxide Cameron bands produced by the photodissociative mechanism are found to be factors of 3 and 10, respectively, smaller than the emission rates observed by Mariner ultraviolet spectrometers.

  1. CHEMICAL FIXATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    SASAMOTO, Naoki; MASHIMO, Miki; MATSUMOTO, Shigeno; Yamamoto, Hideki; SHIBATA, Junji

    1996-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to create a chemical fixation process,where carbon dioxide and sodium chloride solution are converted to sodium hydrogen carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Because the reaction has a large and positive free energy change,it does not proceed unless a suitable condition is established.The reaction is able to proceed if hydrochloric acid,which is one of the reaction products,is removed from the reaction system by extraction with amine.Stripping of hydrochloric acid ...

  2. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  3. Intertidal zones as carbon dioxide sources to coastal oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    To understand the factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) exchanges near land-sea boundary diurnal observations have been made twice on CO sub(2) in the air and water in a coastal region. The results suggest that CO sub(2) enrichment...

  4. How Can We Use Carbon Dioxide as a Solvent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azmi; Eastoe, Julian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the work being undertaken to make more use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent. It discusses how the use of surfactants can address the limitations of supercritical CO[subscript 2] in dissolving solutes that are polar and of higher molecular weight. The design of appropriate hydrocarbon CO[subscript 2]-philic…

  5. Solubilities of sub- and supercritical carbon dioxide in polyester resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, SP; Picchioni, F; Janssen, LPBM; Patil, VE; Keurentjes, JTF; Staudt, R; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Patil, Vishal E.; Keurentjes, Jos T.F.

    In supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) assisted polymer processes the solubility of CO2 in a polymer plays a vital role. The higher the amount of CO2 dissolved in a polymer the higher is the viscosity reduction of the polymer. Solubilities Of CO2 in polyester resins based on propoxylated bisphenol

  6. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    with 1,3-regiospecific lipase at different temperatures (40 to 70°C) to produce diglycerides and ... Key words: Supercritical carbon dioxide, wheat germ oil, ethanolysis, .... Methanol (1 mL), replacing the extract, was used as the blank. The.

  7. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    2012-01-01

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also relativel

  8. Carbon dioxide concentration in Mediterranean greenhouses : how much lost production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Incrocci, L.; Gazquez, J.C.; Dimauro, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of artificial supply of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse environment, the CO2 absorbed in the process of photosynthesis must ultimately come from the external ambient through the ventilation openings. This requires that the CO2 concentration within the house must be lower than the ext

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  10. Design of Stable Catalysts for Methane-Carbon Dioxide Reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, K.; Bitter, J.H.; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    PtZrO2 is an active and stable catalyst for methane- carbon dioxide reforming reaction. The reaction between CO2 and CH4 to yield synthesis gas might proceed vie two different pethways. At high temperatures (>1075K) CO2 can be dissociated on Pt to CO and absorbed oxygen. Methane can be dissociated t

  11. Extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide at the pressure values changing from 16 to 56 MPa at the fixed value of temperature: 60oC. The amount of the recovered liquid phase of oil was calculated as a percentage of the extracted amount to the initial...

  12. Drivers of seasonality in Arctic carbon dioxide fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbufong, Herbert Njuabe

    and the potential for widespread feedbacks with global consequences. In this thesis, I present and discuss the findings of an investigation of comparable drivers of the seasonality in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes across heterogeneous Arctic tundra ecosystems. Due to the remoteness and the harsh climatic conditions...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  14. Open nanoporous morphologies from polymeric blends by carbon dioxide foaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, B.; Diekmann, K.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    We report the formation of open nanoporous polymer films composed of homogeneous polysulfone/polyimide blends. Porosity is introduced by expansion of carbon dioxide-saturated films at elevated temperatures. To interpret details of the porous morphologies in terms of the experimental conditions

  15. Distribution of carbon dioxide produced by people in a room:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baránková, Petra; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide produced by occupants can be used as a natural tracer gas for analysing air change rates in dwellings. However, a high level of concentration uniformity is necessary for tracer gas measurements. Therefore, mixing fans are usually used. The use of such fans in occupied homes...

  16. Solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Somayeh; Belandria, Veronica; Janssen, Nico

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the solubilities of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were measured using an analytical method in a quasi-flow apparatus. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied through an online sampling procedure to determine the concentration...

  17. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  18. Synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic carbon dioxide fixing reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of three amine-based carbon dioxide fixing reagents is presented. The reagents were designed so that they would be able to bind CO2 reversibly through the formation of the well known carbamates that was stabilized through forming a zwitterion. CO2 fixing experiments were performed...

  19. Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Produced by People in a Room:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev; Baránková, Petra; Sundell, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exhaled by people can be used as a tracer gas for air change measurements in homes. Good mixing of tracer gas with room air is a necessary condition to obtain accurate results. However, the use of fans to ensure mixing is inconvenient. The natural room distribution of metabolic CO2...

  20. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Dijkstra, H. B. S.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, new experimental data are presented on the solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions, for concentrations of 0.2 and 0.6 molar piperazine and temperatures of 25, 40, and 70°C respectively. The present data, and other data available in the literature, were

  1. Glaciers as indicators of the carbon dioxide warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 150 years, mountain glaciers have shown a worldwide retreat. It has been argued that this is related to the warming which is predicted to result from increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere; however, this warming has not been detected in a statistically significant way from

  2. Water vapour and carbon dioxide decrease nitric oxide readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMark, TW; Kort, E; Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH

    Measurement of nitric oxide levels in exhaled ah-is commonly performed using a chemiluminescence detector. However, water vapour and carbon dioxide affect the chemiluminescence process, The influence of these gases at the concentrations present in exhaled air has not vet been studied. For this in

  3. Dry-cleaning with high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosmalen, M.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dry-cleaning is a process for removing soils and stains from fabrics and garments which uses a non-aqueous solvent with detergent added. The currently most used dry-cleaning solvent is perchloroethylene (PER), which is toxic, environmentally harmful and suspected to be carcinogenic. Carbon dioxide

  4. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ven

  5. Hydrological restoration of Indonesian peatlands to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, H.; Jaenicke, J.; Budiman, A.; Siegert, F.

    2010-01-01

    Delta Session DS 9: The lowland deltas of Indonesia. Hydrological restoration of Indonesian peatlands to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions, Henk Wösten (2010). Presented at the international conference Deltas in Times of Climate Change, 29 September - 1 October, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  6. Green dyeing of cotton fabrics by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green dyeing process with zero waste water emission is a hot topic recently. This paper reveals that supercritical carbon dioxide is the best candidate for this purpose. Effects of thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy and entropy of activation, on dyeing process are studied experimentally.

  7. Glaciers as indicators of the carbon dioxide warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 150 years, mountain glaciers have shown a worldwide retreat. It has been argued that this is related to the warming which is predicted to result from increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere; however, this warming has not been detected in a statistically significant way from

  8. Carbon dioxide uptake by a temperate tidal sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the atmosphere and the Wadden Sea, a shallow coastal region along the northern Netherlands, has been measured from April 2006 onwards on a tidal flat and over open water. Tidal flat measurements were done using a flux chamber, and ship borne measurements using a

  9. Risk mitigation strategies and policy implications for carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in organically- amended ... matter yields significantly (P > 0.05) increased with increasing ratios of poultry manure in the poultry .... Figure 1. Pattern of CO2 evolved from soil with and without organic amendments over a 16-week ... time, there was a general decrease in plant height at the.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oil from Clanis bilineata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    % (w/w) of ... carbon dioxide extraction method (Model: HA 420-40-96, Jiangsu. Huaan Scientific ... pressure, 25 MPa; temperature, 35°C and time, 60 min. ... The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The fatty acid.

  11. TWO-PHASE EJECTOR of CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the calculus of the two-phase ejector for carbon dioxide heat pump. The method of calculus is based on the method elaborated by S.M. Kandil, W.E. Lear, S.A. Sherif, and is modified taking into account entrainment ratio as the input for the calculus.

  12. Solubilities of sub- and supercritical carbon dioxide in polyester resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, SP; Picchioni, F; Janssen, LPBM; Patil, VE; Keurentjes, JTF; Staudt, R; Nalawade, Sameer P.; Patil, Vishal E.; Keurentjes, Jos T.F.

    2006-01-01

    In supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) assisted polymer processes the solubility of CO2 in a polymer plays a vital role. The higher the amount of CO2 dissolved in a polymer the higher is the viscosity reduction of the polymer. Solubilities Of CO2 in polyester resins based on propoxylated bisphenol (P

  13. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Dijkstra, H. B. S.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, new experimental data are presented on the solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine solutions, for concentrations of 0.2 and 0.6 molar piperazine and temperatures of 25, 40, and 70°C respectively. The present data, and other data available in the literature, were corr

  14. Carbon Dioxide Absorption in a Membrane Contactor with Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleao, Ines; Portugal, Ana F.; Mendes, Adelio; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    A pedagogical experiment is described to examine the physical absorption of gases, in this case carbon dioxide, in a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) where the absorption concentration profile can be followed by a color change. The HFMC is used to teach important concepts and can be used in interesting applications for students, such as…

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  16. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  17. Fluxes of Methane and Carbon Dioxide from a Subarctic Lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammet, Mathilde Manon

    ) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the atmosphere. Yet uncertainties in the magnitude and drivers of these fluxes remain, partly due to a lack of direct observations covering all seasons of the year, but also because of the diversity in measurement methods that often miss components of the transport processes...

  18. Cryotherapy gas--to use nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, H; Cheyne, M F; Hobbs, G; Jeraj, H A

    1999-02-01

    Cryotherapy is regularly used in our clinic for treating genital warts. Nitrous oxide was used as the cryogenic gas. Following a health and safety review it was decided to monitor the nitrous oxide levels in the treatment room under different conditions. The Occupational Exposure Standard for nitrous oxide is 100 parts per million (PPM) (8-h time weighted average) and an indicative short-term exposure limit of 300 PPM (15-min reference period). High levels of gas were detected, especially when the exhaust was not vented to the outside. Venting of the gas to the outside could also present a hazard to adjacent areas. The situation was considered to be unacceptable and carbon dioxide was proposed as an alternative. The Occupational Exposure Standard for carbon dioxide is 5000 PPM (8-h time weighted average) and a short-term limit of 15,000 PPM (15-min reference period). Carbon dioxide levels were found to be within the Occupational Exposure Standard. There is no noticeable difference in the cryogenic efficacy of the 2 gases. Carbon dioxide is, therefore, a safer alternative. It also offers significant savings when compared with nitrous oxide.

  19. Continuous wave carbon dioxide treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, S K; Jacobs, H

    1982-05-01

    Herein is presented the first case of balanitis xerotica obliterans treated successfully by carbon dioxide-continuous wave (CW-CO2) laser vaporization. This method appears to be a safe addition to other well-known treatment modalities, offering minimal postoperative discomfort, preservation of anatomic landmarks and function, and excellent cosmetic results.

  20. Synthesis of fatty acid starch esters in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; van der Knoop, Sjoerd; Keijzer, Danielle; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an exploratory study on the synthesis of fatty acid/potato starch esters using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the solvent. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-25 MPa), temperature (120-150 degrees C) and various basic catalysts and fatty acid der

  1. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  2. Measurements and interpretation of oxygen isotopes in stratospheric carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325800146

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Its atmospheric mole fraction has increased from about 280 ppm (parts per million) in the pre-industrial atmosphere to more than 400 ppm at present. Investigation of the stable isotopic composition

  3. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve s

  4. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the...

  5. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  6. 76 FR 25236 - Carbon Dioxide; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... permissible level for residues of carbon dioxide. DATES: This regulation is effective May 4, 2011. Objections... carbon dioxide does pose some hazard at concentrations well above normal atmospheric levels, these data... discussion in Unit IV.D. on exposure reveals, even worst case theoretical levels of carbon dioxide residues...

  7. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve

  8. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene, helium, and nitrous oxide gases intended for drug use...

  9. Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats: Oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Hoenderken, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This paper records the effects of carbon dioxide when used for euthanasia, on behaviour, electrical brain activity and heart rate in rats. Four different methods were used. Animals were placed in a box (a) that was completely filled with carbon dioxide; (b) into which carbon dioxide was streamed at

  10. 46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage—T/ALL. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used after harvest in...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  13. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve s

  14. Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats: Oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Hoenderken, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This paper records the effects of carbon dioxide when used for euthanasia, on behaviour, electrical brain activity and heart rate in rats. Four different methods were used. Animals were placed in a box (a) that was completely filled with carbon dioxide; (b) into which carbon dioxide was streamed at

  15. 超临界 CO2萃取废弃油基钻屑的实验研究%Experimental study on waste oil-based drilling cuttings by utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵; 杜国勇; 朱盟翔; 杨露; 涂雯雯

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,supercritical carbon dioxide was used as an extracting agent to recovery the oil from the oil‐based drilling cuttings .By setting the residual oil contents as the main evaluation index , the effect of several factors including extracting pressure , extracting temperature , and extracting time were investigated .The results showed that the residual oil content was 0 .748% when the extracting pressure was 25 MPa ,the extracting temperature was 50 ℃ ,and the extracting time was 100 min .This extraction technology shows a favorable treatment efficiency .%采用超临界CO2为萃取剂,以萃取后油基钻屑的残油率为主要评价指标,研究了不同萃取条件(萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间)对废弃油基钻屑萃取的影响。实验结果表明,当萃取温度为50℃、萃取时间为100 m in、萃取压力为25 M Pa时,残油率为0.748%,此萃取工艺展现出了良好的处理效果。

  16. The need of research for developing the carbon dioxide disposal and utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. di Bari (Italy). METEA Research Center

    1996-12-31

    The idea of global warming correlating to the increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases is controversial. Assessing CO{sub 2}-mitigation technologies and a better knowledge of global effects of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level, will contribute to avoiding a non return point. Mitigation technologies can be categorized as follows: Efficiency technologies; energy saving; alternative energy sources; enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide fixation; recovery of carbon dioxide from concentrated sources (power plants or industries). The latter has a good potentiality for avoiding major amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, supposing that the questions about the fate of recovered CO{sub 2} (disposal or utilization) find a sound answer. Possible sites for disposal of CO{sub 2} are: depleted oil and gas fields, oceans, aquifers, deep geological cavities, and soil. The utilization of CO{sub 2} as solvent and reagent is beneficial for the environment: a non-toxic solvent is made available and a way to recycling carbon, with the double benefit of developing new benign syntheses and saving energy sources. This paper will discuss the research needed for implementing the CO{sub 2} recovery option.

  17. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  18. Ocean Acidification Consequences of Stabilization of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate ocean chemistry changes that would result from the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at different levels. To determine the fate of ocean chemistry after atmospheric carbon dioxide is stabilized, we perform a suite of simulations using the UVic Earth system model in which atmospheric CO2 is stabilized at levels ranging from 280 ppm to 5000 ppm. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed by the ocean, and makes the ocean more acidic (lowers ocean pH), decreasing carbonate-ion concentrations. These changes in ocean chemistry have the potential to significantly affect marine organisms. For example, a decrease in the saturation state of calcium carbonate minerals (aragonite and calcite) associated with the decrease in carbonate ion concentration will pose a great threat to the growth of calcifying organisms such as reef-building corals and pteropods. Before the industrial revolution, over 99 per cent of warm water coral reefs were bathed with open ocean waters with aragonite saturation greater than 3.25. If atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations stabilize at 550 ppm, only 2 per cent of existing coral reefs will be in such environments. Even with atmospheric CO2 stabilization at 450 ppm, parts of the Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, causing the shells of pteropods to dissolve. At 450 ppm, about 10 per cent of the global ocean will have experienced a pH reduction greater than 0.2 units, violating US EPA water quality criteria for pH changes in open ocean waters. These changes in ocean chemistry are largely independent of the amount of climate change. Thus, consideration of biological consequences of ocean chemistry changes may favor lower atmospheric CO2 stabilization targets than might be selected based on consideration of climate change consequences alone.

  19. Synthesis of Chiral Cyclic Carbonates via Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic synthesis of cyclic carbonates using carbon dioxide as a C1-building block is a highly active area of research. Here, we review the catalytic production of enantiomerically enriched cyclic carbonates via kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides catalysed by metal-containing catalyst systems.

  20. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous MDEA solutions with carbonic anhydrase at 298 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders-van Elk, Nathalie J. M. C.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Fradette, Sylvie; Versteeg, Geert F.

    In present work the absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase has been studied in a stirred cell at 298 K, with MDEA concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4 kmol m(-3) and carbonic anhydrase concentrations ranging from

  1. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  2. The carbon dioxide content in ice cores - climatic curves of carbon dioxide. Zu den CO sub 2 -Klimakurven aus Eisbohrkernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyke, H.E.

    1992-05-01

    The 'greenhouse effect', which implies a temperature of 15 deg C as against -18 deg C, owes its effect to 80% from water (clouds and gaseous phase) and to 10% from carbon dioxide, besides other components. Whereas water is largely unaccounted for, carbon dioxide has been postulated as the main cause of anticipated climatic catastrophe. The carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has risen presently to such levels that all previous figures seem to have been left far behind. The reference point is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air bubbles trapped in ice cores of Antartic and Greenland ice dated 160 000 years ago, which show much lower values than at present. A review of the most relevant publications indicates that many basic laws of chemistry seem to have been left largely unconsidered and experimental errors have made the results rather doubtful. Appropriate arguments have been presented. The investigations considered should be repeated under improved and more careful conditions. (orig.).

  3. High-pressure phase equilibria for the carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol and carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.; Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol system were measured at 313.2 K. The phase equilibrium apparatus used in this work was of the circulation type in which the coexisting phases were recirculated, on-line sampled, and analyzed. The critical pressure and corresponding mole fraction of carbon dioxide at 313.2 K were found to be 8.22 MPa and 0.974, respectively, for this binary system. The phase equilibria for the ternary carbon dioxide + 3-pentanol + water system were also measured at 313.2 K and pressures of 2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00, and 8.25 MPa. This ternary system showed the liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) phase behavior over the range of pressure up to the critical pressure of 8.25 MPa. The binary equilibrium data were all reasonably well-correlated with the Redlich-Kwong, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson, and Patel-Teja equations of state incorporated with the eight different mixing rules: the van der Waals, Panagiotopoulos-Reic, and six modified Huron-Vidal mixing rules with UNIQUAC parameters. For the prediction of high-pressure phase equilibria for the systems containing carbon dioxide and alcohols, the SRK-MHV2 might reproduce many features of the measured behavior although further tests are needed with other systems.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO{sub 2} to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO{sub 2} from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO{sub 2} levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  5. Carbon dioxide: A new material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amouroux

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Though carbon dioxide is the main green house gas due to burning of fossil resource or miscellaneous chemical processes, we propose here that carbon dioxide be a new material for energy storage. Since it can be the key to find the solution for three critical issues facing the world: food ecosystems, the greenhouse issue and energy storage. We propose to identify the carbon recovery through a circular industrial revolution in the first part, and in the second part we present the starting way of three business plants to do that from industrial examples. By pointing out all the economic constraints and the hidden competitions between energy, water and food, we try to qualify the phrase “sustainable development” and open the way of a huge circular economy.

  6. Effect of Solid Loading on Carbon Dioxide Absorptionin Bubble Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Khadhier Mageed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work experiments were conducted to study the effect of solid loading (1,5 and 9 vol.% on the enhancement of carbon dioxide absorption in bubble column at various volumetric gas flow rate (0.75, 1 and 1.5 m3/h and absorbent concentration (caustic soda( 0.1,0.5 and 1 M . Activated carbon and alumina oxide (Al2O3 are used as solid particles. The Danckwerts method was used to calculate interfacial area and individual mass transfer coefficients during absorption of carbon dioxide in a bubble column. The results show that the absorption rate was increased with increasing volumetric gas flow rate, caustic soda concentration and solid loading. Mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area were increased with increasing volumetric gas flow rate, and solid loading.

  7. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

    2008-07-22

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future.

  9. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  10. INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON INSECT DENSITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELUCIA, E.; DERMODY, O.; O' NEILL, B.; ALDEA, M.; HAMILTON, J.; ZANGERL, A.; ROGER, A.; BERENBAUM, M.

    2005-01-05

    The combustion of fossil fuels is profoundly altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased from approximately 280 to 370 {micro}l l{sup -1} in 2004, and it is expected to exceed 550 {micro}l l{sup -1} by 2050. Tropospheric ozone has risen even more rapidly than CO{sub 2} and average summer concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere are expected to continue to increase by 0.5-2.5% per year over the next 30 years. Although elevated CO{sub 2} stimulates photosynthesis and productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, ozone (O{sub 3}) is deleterious. In addition to directly affecting the physiology and productivity of crops, increased concentrations of tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are predicted to lower the nutritional quality of leaves, which has the potential to increase herbivory as insects eat more to meet their nutritional demands. We tested the hypothesis that changes in tropospheric chemistry affect the relationship between plants and insect herbivores by changing leaf quality. The susceptibility to herbivory of soybean grown in elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} was examined using free air gas concentration enrichment (SoyFACE). FACE technology has the advantage that plants are cultivated under realistic field conditions with no unwanted alteration of microclimate or artificial constraints on the insect community.

  11. Accelerating the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies : an innovation system perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to take up the twin challenge of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while meeting a growing energy demand, the potential deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies is attracting a growing interest of policy makers around the world. At present CCS is the only t

  12. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  13. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  14. Measurement and Image Processing Techniques for Particle Image Velocimetry Using Solid-Phase Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    form above this temperature. CO2 can easily be stored as a liquid in a high- pressure tank and injected as solid particles, which can be used as seed...Technology AFRL Air Force Research Lab Al2O3 Aluminum Oxide BBO Bassett Boussinesq-Oseen CO2 Carbon Dioxide CCD Charge-coupled device CFD ...Another advantage is that results can be directly compared with computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ). Challenges facing PIV stem from the development of

  15. Economic growth and pollution in the long run: the case of carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. Burke

    2008-01-01

    The concept underpinning the Environmental Kuznets Curve is that economic growth results in reduced pollution in the long run. In this report, an extension of Andreoni and Levinson’s (2001) theoretical model is presented. It demonstrates that an Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship can occur because high incomes allow more adoption of low-emission technologies at higher income levels. Evidence on the determinants of carbon dioxide emissions changes for OECD countries over the period 1961-...

  16. Photoassisted carbon dioxide reduction and formation of twoand three-carbon compounds. [prebiological photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmann, M.; Aurian-Blajeni, B.; Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoassisted reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide in the presence of naturally occurring minerals is investigated as a possible abiotic precursor of photosynthesis. Aqueous carbon dioxide saturated suspensions or surfaces of the minerals nontronite, bentonite, anatase, wolframite, molybdenite, minium, cinnabar and hematite were irradiated with high-pressure mercury lamps or sunlight. Chemical analyses reveal the production of formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol and methane, and the two and three-carbon compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and malonaldehyde (CH2(CHO)2). It is suggested that such photosynthetic reactions with visible light in the presence of semiconducting minerals may provide models for prebiological carbon and nitrogen fixation in both oxidized and reduced atmospheres.

  17. Disparity between mainstream and sidestream end-tidal carbon dioxide values and arterial carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdemir, Murat; Cinar, Orhan; Yilmaz, Serkan; Yaka, Elif; Yuksel, Melih

    2013-07-01

    Measuring and monitoring end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) is an important aspect of caring for critically ill patients. The 2 methods used for PETCO2 measurement are the mainstream and sidestream methods. To assess the agreement between PETCO2 measurements performed by mainstream and sidestream methods with the PaCO2 values. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 114 subjects were enrolled in the study. PETCO2 measurements using mainstream and sidestream methods were performed simultaneously with the arterial blood sampling in subjects who were observed in the emergency department and required arterial blood gas analysis. Agreement between the PETCO2 measurements and the PaCO2 values obtained from arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. Sixty subjects (52.6%) were female, and the mean age was 60.9 years (95% CI 58.3-63.6). The mean PaCO2 was 35.16 mm Hg (95% CI 33.81-36.51), the mainstream PETCO2 was 22.11 (95% CI 21.05-23.18), and the sidestream PETCO2 was 25.48 (95% CI 24.22-26.75). Bland-Altman analysis showed an average difference between mainstream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values of 13 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -0.6 to 25.5) and moderate correlation (r = 0.55, P < .001). The average difference between the sidestream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values was 9.7 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -5.4 to 24.7) and poor correlation (r = 0.41, P < .001). PETCO2 values obtained by mainstream and sidestream methods were found to be significantly lower than the PaCO2 values. There was essentially no agreement between the measurements obtained by 2 different methods and the PaCO2 values.

  18. Supply of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 15, 1976--September 1, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rump, W.M.; Hare, M.; Porter, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Results are presented from a study of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. Candidate oil reservoirs were identified, and the carbon dioxide requirements and the potential recoverable oil for some of these were estimated. A survey of carbon dioxide sources has been conducted within the geographic areas where candidate oil reservoirs exist. Sources considered were both high and low quality gases from combustion vents, chemical process stacks, and naturally occurring gas deposits. The survey shows more than enough carbon dioxide is available from above-ground sources alone to meet expected demands. Systems to purify and deliver the carbon dioxide were designed and the costs of the delivered carbon dioxide estimated. Lowest cost is carbon dioxide from natural source with credit for by-product methane. A more comprehensive survey of above-ground and natural sources is recommended.

  19. Measuring of carbon dioxide in water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, Karol

    2004-12-01

    Prevention of corrosion of the water/steam cycle caused by anionic contamination is based on control of acid conductivity. The contribution of carbon dioxide to the corrosion is very limited and yet it contributes considerably to the acid conductivity as one of the most common contaminants. Monitoring of the dangerous anionic contamination has therefore been on the agenda for many years. Commercial monitors for this purpose are based on separation of carbon dioxide from stronger acids due to its high volatility. A systematic error in these monitors comes from high volatility of other anionic contaminants, e.g. formic and acetic acid. The aim of this investigation was to show that the separation could be made on a weak base anion exchanger working on the basis of differences in the strength of acids. This simple method was expected to give reliable results with low investment and low operating costs. The results showed that the separation is indeed effective. However, reliable data are received only if the anion exchange resin is in equilibrium with the actual concentration of carbon dioxide in the sample. It may take several hours to reach this equilibrium by natural flow of the sample through the anion exchange column. Changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the sample will therefore temporarily give false results until a new equilibrium is achieved. The simple monitoring method can be used only in places, where verification of carbon dioxide contamination is required by long-term operation with elevated and stable acid conductivity in the steam. For future design it is suggested to install a forced achievement of the new equilibrium by conditioning of the resin by means of short-lived additions of carbon dioxide or sodium hydroxide to the sample. In these periods the output from the monitor will be suspended. Output close to the equilibrium is expected to be reached within 10 minutes. This new suggested procedure will complicate the monitoring to such a

  20. Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Hydrological Properties of Geologic Storage Formations on Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    concluded that the hydrological properties of a storage formation must be properly characterized and considered when more rigorous and reasonable predictions of effective and optimal injection schemes for geologic storage of carbon dioxide are to be obtained using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model. This work was supported by the Korea Research Council for Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  1. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a polar environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Strazzulla, Giovanni, E-mail: brantmj@hawaii.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν{sub 3} band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO{sub 2} band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H{sub 2}O)-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν{sub 3} band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  2. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  3. Weathering approaches to carbon dioxide sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of enhanced weathering is to capture CO2 by the carbonation of silicates, or by dissolution of these silicates during which the greenhouse gas CO2 is converted to bicarbonate in solution. Research in this field is still focused on increasing the rate of reaction, but the required additional

  4. The long-term effects of carbon dioxide on natural systems: issues and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Robert

    2003-06-01

    Research on the responses of plants to increasing levels of carbon dioxide has largely assessed physiological, phenotypic, and community-level effects. Little attention has been directed to investigating the possibility that escalating levels of carbon dioxide may serve as a selection pressure altering the genetic diversity of plant populations. Plant populations exposed to elevated levels of heavy metals or ozone have been shown to undergo selection, and it is reasonable to consider that populations experiencing long-term exposure to escalating levels of carbon dioxide may show similar responses. Selection of this nature could be particularly significant because of the global extent of the effect. Genetic selection occurs when plants are subject to an agent of selection and three conditions for a property responsive to the agent are satisfied at the population level. In the population, variation must exist in the property, part of the variation must be genetically controlled, and variation in the property must affect reproductive fitness. If these conditions are satisfied, the frequency distribution of the property, and the gene frequency associated with it, will change over time in response to the agent of selection. Research on the selection pressure effects of carbon dioxide involves assessments that integrate across temporal, spatial, and biological scales, and embrace variation in the environment and genetics. To be effective, the research will have to adopt approaches that have not been commonly employed in previous air quality studies. The questions posed are biologically complex, and new research approaches and methods are required to answer them. Some of the new approaches that can be used to assess changes in gene frequency include use of natural carbon dioxide gradients, model plant systems, molecular markers, and DNA microarray technology.

  5. Fractionation for Biodiesel Purification Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yi Wei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable and alternative biodiesel has attracted increased attention worldwide. Producing biodiesel from biomass involves critical separation and purification technology. Conventional technologies such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration, water washing, acid washing, organic solvent washing and absorbent applications are inefficient, less cost effective and environmentally less friendly. In this study supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 with few steps and a low environmental impact, was used for biodiesel fractionation from impure fatty acid methyl ester (FAME solution mixes. The method is suitable for application in a variety of biodiesel production processes requiring subsequent stages of purification. The fractionation and purification was carried out using continuous SC-CO2 fractionation equipment, consisting of three columns filled with stainless steel fragments. A 41.85% FAME content solution mix was used as the raw material in this study. Variables were a temperature range of 40–70 °C, pressure range of 10–30 MPa, SC-CO2 flow rate range of 7–21 mL/min and a retention time range of 30–90 min. The Taguchi method was used to identify optimal operating conditions. The results show that a separated FAME content of 99.94% was verified by GC-FID under optimal fractionation conditions, which are a temperature of 40 °C of, a pressure level of 30MPa and a flow rate of 7 mL/min of SC-CO2 for a retention time of 90 min.

  6. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Functionally within the MDF, ORNL operates DOE’s unique Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)—a 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility and works with leading...

  7. Using LMDI approach to analyze changes in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: China is confronting with tremendous pressure in carbon emission reduction. While logistics industry seriously relies on fossil fuel, and emits greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide. The aim of this article is to estimate the carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics sector, and analyze the causes for the change of carbon dioxide emission, and identify the critical factors which mainly drive the change in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry. Design/methodology/approach: The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method has often been used to analyze decomposition of energy consumption and carbon emission due to its theoretical foundation, adaptability, ease of use and result interpretation. So we use the LMDI method to analyze the changes in carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in this paper. Findings: By analyzing carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics, the results show that the carbon dioxide emission of logistics in China has increased by 21.5 times, from 45.1 million tons to 1014.1 million tons in the research period. The highway transport is the main contributor to carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. The energy intensity and carbon dioxide emission factors were contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in overall study period. Originality/value: Although there are a lot of literature analyzed carbon dioxide emission in many industry sectors, for example manufacturing, iron and steel , pulp and paper, cement, glass industry, and so on. However, few scholars researched on carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. This the first study is in the context of carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics industry.

  8. Hydrogen Storage in the Carbon Dioxide - Formic Acid Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Cornel; Montandon-Clerc, Mickael; Laurenczy, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    This year Mankind will release about 39 Gt carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas. The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important, as the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. One approach to contribute to the decrease of this hazardous emission is to recycle CO(2), for example reducing it to formic acid. The hydrogenation of CO(2) can be achieved with a series of catalysts under basic and acidic conditions, in wide variety of solvents. To realize a hydrogen-based charge-discharge device ('hydrogen battery'), one also needs efficient catalysts for the reverse reaction, the dehydrogenation of formic acid. Despite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of these reactions are carried out using precious metals-based catalysts (mainly Ru), we review here developments for catalytic hydrogen evolution from formic acid with iron-based complexes.

  9. Syneresis of Vitreous by Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, T. J.; Patel, C. K. N.; Strnad, A. R.; Wood, O. R.; Brewer, E. S.; Karlin, D. B.

    1983-03-01

    In carbon dioxide laser surgery of the vitreous a process of vaporization has been advocated. In this report syneresis, a thermal liquefaction of gel, is shown to be over ten times more efficient on an energy basis than vaporization. Syneresis of vitreous is experimentally shown to be a first-order kinetic process with an activation energy of 41 ± 0.5 kilocalories per mole. A theory of laser surgery in which this figure is used agrees closely with results from laser experiments on human eye-bank vitreous. The syneresis of vitreous by carbon dioxide laser radiation could lead to a more delicate form of ocular microsurgery, and application to other biological systems may be possible.

  10. Simulation of the interaction of methane, carbon dioxide and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Baisheng; Wang Longkang; Li Xiangchun; Wang Chao; Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Gas adsorption has an important influence on gas flow in a coal body. Research on the characteristics of coal and gas adsorption is the theoretical basis for studying gas flow in coal. In this paper, the interaction between methane, carbon dioxide and surface molecules of anthracite was simulated using the quantum chemistry method. Adsorption energy and adsorption configurations of different quantities of gas mole-cules absorbed on the coal surface were calculated. The results show that adsorption between coal and the two kinds of gas molecules is a physical adsorption process and there is an optimal configuration. Gas molecules are more easily adsorbed in the hydroxyl-containing side chain, while it is difficult for them to be adsorbed at the position of the benzene ring. Besides, carbon dioxide molecules are more readily adsorbed on the coal surface than methane molecules. The findings have an important signifi-cance in revealing the nature of gas adsorption in coal.

  11. Salinity Effect on Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) measured by Aquarius and the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) over global ocean is used to characterize the change of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea (pCO2sea). A statistical model on satellite retrieval of pCO2sea is used to examine the relation between the two parameters over two selected regions. One is the tropical western Atlantic, where hydrological forcing by Amazon River discharge causes major changes, and the other is the equatorial eastern Pacific, where ocean thermodynamics is more important. In both regions, pCO2sea tracks SSS closely in seasonal and year-to-year changes. In the Pacific, tropical instability wave is a major factor in the high frequency changes of both parameters. The manifestations of this relation in ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange and ocean acidification are explored.

  12. Evidence for super-exponentially accelerating atmospheric carbon dioxide growth

    CERN Document Server

    Hüsler, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the growth rates of atmospheric carbon dioxide and human population, by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model. Our empirical calibrations confirm that human population has decelerated from its previous super-exponential growth until 1960 to ``just' an exponential growth, but with no sign of more deceleration. As for atmospheric CO2 content, we find that it is at least exponentially increasing and most likely characterized by an accelerating growth rate as off 2009, consistent with an unsustainable FTS power law regime announcing a drastic change of regime. The coexistence of a quasi-exponential growth of human population with a super-exponential growth of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is a diagnostic of insignificant impr...

  13. Heterogeneously Catalysed Chemical Reactions in Carbon Dioxide Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musko, Nikolai E.

    In this PhD-study the different areas of chemical engineering, heterogeneous catalysis, supercritical fluids, and phase equilibrium thermodynamics have been brought together for selected reactions. To exploit the beneficial properties of supercritical fluids in heterogeneous catalysis, experimental...... studies of catalytic chemical reactions in dense and supercritical carbon dioxide have been complemented by the theoretical calculations of phase equilibria using advanced thermodynamic models. In the recent years, the use of compressed carbon dioxide as innovative, non-toxic and non-flammable, cheap......, and widely available reaction medium for many practical and industrial applications has drastically increased. Particularly attractive are heterogeneously catalysed chemical reactions. The beneficial use of CO2 is attributed to its unique properties at dense and supercritical states (at temperatures...

  14. An intercomparison exercise for oceanic carbon dioxide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Andrew G.

    The Joint Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR)/United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO/International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)/International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO) Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards (JPOTS) recently established a Sub-Panel on Standards for Carbon Dioxide Measurements. The terms of reference for this subpanel are coordination and assessment of work done toward preparing carbon dioxide standards for oceanographic measurements, and development of recommendations for the production and use of such standards. Members are A. G. Dickson (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), chairman; F. Culkin (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, U.K.), A. Poisson (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris), C. S. Wong (Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, Canada), and F. J. Millero (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.).

  15. Schwannoma of tongue base treated with transoral carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzad, H; Persaud, R; Papadimitriou, N; Kaniyur, S; Mochloulis, G

    2006-12-01

    Schwannomas are benign slow growing solitary tumours of nerve sheath origin and can arise from any myelinated nerve. They have been reported to occur in most parts of the body with the highest incidence (25%) in the head and neck region, although tongue base lesions are rare. The tumour is resistant to radiotherapy, and therefore, the treatment of choice is surgery. We present a case of a tongue base schwannoma which was completely extirpated with a carbon dioxide laser via the transoral approach. The patient experienced virtually no morbidity from the use of the laser. Whilst tongue base schwannoma has been documented, we could not find an earlier report in the English literature describing our method of treatment. We conclude that transoral carbon dioxide laser can be added to the surgical armamentarium for the management of other similar cases in the future.

  16. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Petrov

    2016-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients’ satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist.

  17. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the middle atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2007-01-01

    The isotopic composition of long-lived trace molecules provides a window into atmospheric transport and chemistry. Carbon dioxide is a particularly powerful tracer, because its abundance remains >100 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the mesosphere. Here, we successfully reproduce the isotopic composition of CO2 in the middle atmosphere, which has not been previously reported. The mass-independent fractionation of oxygen in CO2 can be satisfactorily explained by the exchange reaction with...

  18. Effect of temperature on carbon dioxide absorption in monoethanolamine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocio Maceira; Estrella Alvarez; M. Angeles Cancela [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain). Chemical Engineering Department

    2008-05-01

    The effect of temperature on volumetric mass transfer coefficient was studied during the absorption process of carbon dioxide in monoethanolamine aqueous solutions, using a square bubble column. Our studies provide an empirical correlation type Boltzmann to estimate the temperature operated, at different amine concentrations and gas flow rates. An excellent agreement has been shown between predicted and experimental data (r{sup 2} {gt} 0.991).

  19. Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-07-14

    The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO.sub.2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.

  20. Extraction of olive oil with supercritical carbon dioxide / Ilana Geerdts

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdts, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to extract olive oil from the fruit of Olea europaea by means of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-C02) as an alternative to traditional methods. Extractions were performed on a laboratory scale supercritical fluid extractor of the latest design, featuring three mutually independent flow systems and extremely high flow rates. A number of extraction runs based on a statistical design was performed to establish the conditions (time, pressu...