WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies artificial insemination

  1. New Artificial Insemination Technologies for Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzo, F P; Menegat, M B; Mellagi, A P G; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I

    2015-07-01

    Better efficiency in swine artificial insemination (AI) is accomplished by reducing the necessary number of sperm cells and achieving high reproductive performance. Some strategies have been developed for use under field conditions, such as the site of sperm deposition (post-cervical AI), a single AI with control of oestrus and ovulation (fixed-time AI), and the better use of high genetic merit boars, to spread their genes as much as possible. To apply these technologies, it is important to understand some anatomical limits, physiological aspects and farm requirements. In this review, we point out some strategies to achieve higher efficiency on the use of sperm for AI technology application in swine species.

  2. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  3. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  4. Highlights on artificial insemination (AI technology in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Khalifa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a the current status of swine AI in the world, (b significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in-vitro sperm storage, (d the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.

  5. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  6. Artificial insemination in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2013-01-10

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an important technique in all domestic species to ensure rapid genetic progress. The use of AI has been reported in camelids although insemination trials are rare. This could be because of the difficulties involved in collecting as well as handling the semen due to the gelatinous nature of the seminal plasma. In addition, as all camelids are induced ovulators, the females need to be induced to ovulate before being inseminated. This paper discusses the different methods for collection of camel semen and describes how the semen concentration and morphology are analyzed. It also examines the use of different buffers for liquid storage of fresh and chilled semen, the ideal number of live sperm to inseminate and whether pregnancy rates are improved if the animal is inseminated at the tip of the uterine horn verses in the uterine body. Various methods to induce ovulation in the female camels are also described as well as the timing of insemination in relation to ovulation. Results show that collection of semen is best achieved using an artificial vagina, and the highest pregnancy rates are obtained if a minimum of 150×10(6) live spermatozoa (diluted in Green Buffer, lactose (11%), or I.N.R.A. 96) are inseminated into the body of the uterus 24h after the GnRH injection, given to the female camel to induce ovulation. Deep freezing of camel semen is proving to be a great challenge but the use of various freezing protocols, different diluents and different packaging methods (straws verses pellets) will be discussed. Preliminary results indicate that Green and Clear Buffer for Camel Semen is the best diluent to use for freezing dromedary semen and that freezing in pellets rather than straws result in higher post-thaw motility. Preservation of semen by deep-freezing is very important in camelids as it prevents the need to transport animals between farms and it extends the reproductive life span of the male, therefore further work needs to be

  7. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms.

  8. Late evening artificial insemination of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Renner, P A

    1982-12-01

    Turkey hens were artificially inseminated at three times (0800, 1100, or 2200 hr) under conditions where high or low fertility would be expected. Four trials were conducted and the same two persons collected semen and inseminated the hens in all trials. Each hen was inseminated with .025 cc undiluted semen. There was no significant difference in fertility when hens were inseminated at different times of the day in the first three trials. In a fourth trial, where high fertility was expected, hens inseminated at 0800 hr had lower fertility than those inseminated at 2200 hr. There was no significant difference between inseminating at 0800 or 1100 hr and 1100 or 2200 hr. The results of this study indicate that late evening insemination is not necessary for high fertility.

  9. Clinical techniques of artificial insemination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makloski, Chelsea L

    2012-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the current breeding techniques used in small animal reproduction today with an emphasis on artificial insemination techniques such as transvaginal and transcervical insemination as well as surgical deposition of semen in the uterus and oviduct. Breeding management and ovulation timing will be mentioned but are discussed in further detail in another article in this issue.

  10. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  11. Assessment on problems associated with artificial insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle owners, 3 artificial insemination technicians and 8 animal health profes- sionals. The result of ... total agricultural GDP and 16 to 17% of national foreign currency earnings. (Fitaweke ... Cattle breeding in Ethiopia are mostly uncontrolled making genetic improve- ment difficult ... with total human population of 14,648.

  12. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  13. A revised artificial insemination schedule for broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Krey, H P; Siegel, P B

    1976-03-01

    Broiler type hens maintained in individual cages were artificially inseminated with either 0.023, 0.035, or 0.047 ml. of pooled semen. Insemination intervals were nine, nine, and ten days on a repetitive basis. This schedule was adopted because it allowed an extension of the conventional insemination interval and yet remained compatible with a five-day industrial work-week. The results demonstrated that maintaining broiler breeder hens in cages and utilizing artificial insemination as a means of obtaining fertile eggs were feasible. The data also indicated that extending the insemination interval to 10 days is possible providing the number of spermatozoa inseminated is increased.

  14. ADVANCES IN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN CATTLE: FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bertolini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El afán por controlar los procesos reproductivos en animales ha llevado a una gran ganancia en conocimiento, impulsando el desarrollo de cuatro tecnologías reproductivas asistidas (ARTS para animales y humanos. El uso de ARTS ha sido de gran importancia en la producción ganadera. En términos generales, las tres principales generaciones de ART, incluyendo 1 inseminación artificial (AI y congelación de gametos y embriones, 2 superovulación y transferencia de embriones (MOET y 3 procedimientos de fertilización in Vitro, han madurado en aplicaciones comerciales exitosas, facilitando el incremento en la producción a través de la genética, reducción del intervalo generacional, control de enfermedades, y reducción de costos de producción. La cuarta generación de ARTS incluye procesos que aún son muy experimentales, como transferencia de núcleos (NT de células somáticas, transgénesis, y biología de células madre. Estas tecnologías se intercalan las unas con las otras y con las herramientas moleculares actuales, dependen completamente de las generaciones de tecnologías previas. Sin embargo, hay muchos retos reproductivos que no permiten alcanzar el potencial reproductivo máximo, afectando la productividad y la rentabilidad. Es claro que la aplicación de tales tecnologías como actividades lucrativas se mantendrán cuestionadas si no se asocian a otros componentes de la producción pecuaria, como la salud animal, nutrición, y prácticas de manejo adecuadas.

  15. Training Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Artificial Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) K. V. Keller, Jr. 1a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT IlYai. WMt...ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (Tursiops truncatus) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION Karl V. Keller Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory Kailua, HI 96734...INTRODUCTION The Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory, for the past eight years has maintained an artificial insemination (AI) program for

  16. ADVANCES IN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN CATTLE: FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO CLONING
    AVANCES EN BIOTECNOLOÍA REPRODUCTIVA EN BOVINOS: DE LA INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL A LA CLONACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, L.R; Bertolini, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T) for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1) artificial insemination (AI) and gamete and embryo freezing, 2) multiple ovulation and embryo transfe...

  17. Efficacy of fertilization in artificially inseminated turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, V L; Bagley, L G

    1989-05-01

    Research was conducted to develop an artificial insemination protocol optimizing the use of spermatozoa by turkey breeder hens. Large White turkey hens were inseminated on Days 14 and 17 postphotostimulation with 200 million spermatozoa from one male phenotype to fill the oviductal storage sites. Artificial inseminations were then performed weekly for 20 wk with different spermatozoa numbers of another male phenotype. Fertility and phenotype of each poult were determined at hatch to ascertain which insemination, initial or subsequent, was responsible for fertility. Inseminating weekly with 200 million viable spermatozoa cells resulted in better fertility but did not optimize the hen's utilization of spermatozoa from the initial inseminations. When fewer spermatozoa were inseminated weekly (50 million cells), more progeny were fertilized by spermatozoa already residing in the oviduct than would be expected. When the number of spermatozoa inseminated weekly was increased at intervals during a laying cycle, spermatozoa from the initial inseminations were utilized more efficiently, but fertility was depressed at times during the laying cycle. Gradually increasing weekly inseminated numbers of spermatozoa from 50 to 200 million viable cells/hen as the hens age results in nearly equivalent fertility to that resulting from insemination by 200 million cells each week. This represents a savings of 1.4 billion spermatozoa/hen over a 20-wk laying period.

  18. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  19. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  20. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Dairy Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs are commonly used in the dairy industry for lactating cows, but less so in replacement heifers. Excellent programs using combinations of prostaglandin F2α and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in protocols relying on timed AI without detection of estrus or in protocols that combine timed AI with inseminations performed after detected estrus are able to achieve acceptable pregnancy percentages. In herds with excellent estrus detection, timed AI programs serve as a failsafe system to address cows or heifers not yet inseminated after a defined period of estrus detection.

  1. Sperm storage and transport following natural mating and artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P

    1993-05-01

    Recent observations in turkey and chicken hens show that sperm storage in both species is a highly inefficient process. After artificial insemination (AI), less than 1% of spermatozoa inseminated are selected for transport to and enter the sperm storage tubules (SST). It has been shown that the sperm selection process is orchestrated within the vagina and not at the level of the SST. At least two mechanisms are involved in the selection of spermatozoa fit for sperm storage, one being mechanical (motility) and the other biochemical in nature (sperm-vaginal mucosa interactions). Furthermore, it was also observed that the sperm storage efficiency in the chicken is dependent upon the logarithm of the number of spermatozoa inseminated. From a practical standpoint, inseminations performed frequently with a moderate number of spermatozoa should be more efficient than inseminations performed with higher doses at longer intervals. Maximal filling of the SST of hens in egg production requires only 1 day for the chicken and 2 days for the turkey. By contrast, the release of sperm from the SST is about seven times faster in the chicken than the turkey hen. The efficiency of oviducal sperm storage is related to a number of factors including age of the hen, stage of the ovulatory cycle when inseminated, and, in the turkey, if the hen was inseminated before or after the onset of egg production. Two different categories should be considered among factors that affect sperm survival in vivo. 1) Factors affecting sperm storage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  3. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrategies to improve fertility in cattle: artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruselli PS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is currently the major biotechnique used worldwide to disseminate superior genetics and to improve reproductive efficiency in bovine herds. Conversely, reports from different parts of the world indicate low pregnancy rates in cattle submitted to AI, due to both mistakes in heat detection or a high incidence of anestrous. In dairy cattle, the use of AI following visual detection of estrus is relatively easier to be used because their routine of management is intense (milking two to three times a day, allowing a frequent contact with cows for estrus observation. However, for beef cattle, the implementation of AI programs based on estrus detection is harder to be used because of several management conditions. Beef cows are frequently raised extensively, with great walking distances between their pasture to the corral where the AI is performed, the number of employers designated for cattle management is reduced and they have several activities besides reproduction. Because of the necessity of at least two periods of estrus observation per day and the conduction of cattle to the corral around 12 h following estrus detection to be inseminated, the AI is somehow unfeasible in beef farms. The development of timed AI (TAI enabled insemination of cows in commercial scale, because it allows the programmed AI of large number of cows in the same day without the need for estrus detection. Besides, the use of TAI in early postpartum dairy and beef females reduces the interval partum-conception and, consequently the interval between parturitions, which has a dramatic effect on farm economic return. For beef cattle, TAI also brings the advantages of concentrating around half of the conceptions at the first days of the breeding season and stimulating cyclicity and a synchronous estrus return in cows that did not become pregnant at TAI. Thus, the calving season is also concentrate in the best periods of the year to generate offspring

  5. Uterine leucocyte infiltration after artificial insemination in bitches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Russiano Vicente, Wilter Ricardo; Apparicio, Maricy; Figueiredo Gadelha, Carla Renata; Alves, Aracelle Elisane; Covizzi, Gabriela Jayme

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were enumerated to evaluate acute uterine inflammation after artificial insemination in the bitch. It was concluded that the canine seminal plasma possessed an immunomodulating action. However, the most commonly used extender for freezing can

  6. Importance of oviduct relaxation in artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, K A; Biellier, H V

    1976-01-01

    This experiment was designed to determine whether or not relaxation of the turkey oviduct prior to the release of the semen was necessary for optimal fertilization to occur with artificial insemination. A total of 96 large type turkey caged laying hens were inseminated with 0.025 ml. of pooled semen near the area of the uterovaginal junction while the oviduct was still everted or after pressure on the hen was released and the oviduct returned to its non-everted position with the insemination tube in place. The difference in fertility of 9% between the non-everted (87.4%) and everted (78.5%) group was significant (P less than 0.01). The embryonic mortality of the non-everted group (10.6%) was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than in the everted group (13.2%).

  7. The Application of Artificial Insemination Technology in Distant Hybridization Between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica%人工授精技术在柞蚕与栗蚕远缘杂交中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿桂梅; 刘凤云; 戚俐; 徐亮; 孟宪民; 焦阳

    2011-01-01

    研究柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi)与栗蚕(Dictyoploca japonica)的人工授精技术,并应用于柞蚕与栗蚕的种间杂交试验,为利用远缘杂交改良柞蚕的经济性状提供试验技术.从种内交配40~60min的柞蚕雌蛾交配囊中采集精子细胞用于对柞蚕处女蛾的人工授精,其受精蛾率为61.5%,受精卵率为70.5%,孵化卵率为60.8%.栗蚕精子可在种内交配40~75 min的雌蛾交配囊中采集.利用单蛾精液授精和单蛾与多蛾精液互补授精的方法,分别获得了栗蚕♀×柞蚕♂的越冬卵和蚁蚕及柞蚕♀×栗蚕♂的活胚胎.试验结果表明,采用初步建立的人工授精技术,可以进行柞蚕与栗蚕的远缘杂交.%In present study, the artificial insemination technique for tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) and camphor silkworm (Dictyoploca japonica) was studied and applied in interspecific hybridization between tussah silkworm and camphor silkworm to improve economic traits of tussah silkworm through distant hybridization. Sperm cells of tussah silkworm were collected from copulatory pouches of female tussah silkworm moths after 40 to 60 min of intraspecific mating and were used to artificially inseminate the unmated tussah silkworm moths, which could lead to 61.5% of moths fertilized, 70.5% of eggs fertilized, and 60.8% of eggs hatched. Sperm cells of camphor silkworm could be collected from copulatory pouches of female camphor silkworm moths after 40 to 75 min of intraspecific mating. By means of insemination with single moth's sperm and complementary insemination with single and multiple moths' sperm, hibernating eggs of camphor silkworm ♀ xtussah silkworm ♂ and live embryos of tussah silkworm ♀ xcamphor silkworm ♂ were obtained respectively. This result indicated that a distant hybridization between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica can be conducted based on the newly established artificial insemination technology.

  8. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas.

  9. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle.

  10. Effect of time of day of artificial insemination and oviposition-insemination interval of the fertility of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, A F; McDaniel, G R; Sexton, T J

    1980-11-01

    Two experiments using two populations of 160 broiler-type females in each were conducted to study the effect of time of day of artificial insemination and the effect of oviposition-insemination interval on fertility. Each population was subdivided into eight groups of 20 hens and inseminated with .05 ml of semen once a week at one of the following times: 2400, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, or 2100 hr for 5 weeks in Experiment 1 and for 6 weeks in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, the highest level of fertility was obtained from hens inseminated at 2100 hr, while in Experiment 2, significantly higher levels of fertility were obtained from hens inseminated at 2100, 2400, and 0300 hr. In both experiments, fertility of females inseminated in mid-morning and mid-afternoon did not differ significantly and lower levels of fertility were obtained when hens oviposited within 3 hr after insemination. Lower fertility occurred when morning and mid-day inseminations were followed by oviposition within 3 hr after insemination.

  11. Directional postcopulatory sexual selection revealed by artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Zane, Lorenzo; Francescato, Samuela; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-23

    Postcopulatory sexual selection comprises both sperm competition, where the sperm from different males compete for fertilization, and cryptic female choice, where females bias sperm use in favour of particular males. Despite intense current interest in both processes as potential agents of directional sexual selection, few studies have attributed the success of attractive males to events that occur exclusively after insemination. This is because the interactions between pre- and post-insemination episodes of sexual selection can be important sources of variation in paternity. The use of artificial insemination overcomes this difficulty because it controls for variation in male fertilization success attributable to the female's perception of male quality, as well as effects due to mating order and the relative contribution of sperm from competing males. Here, we adopt this technique and show that in guppies, when equal numbers of sperm from two males compete for fertilization, relatively colourful individuals achieve greater parentage than their less ornamented counterparts. This finding indicates that precopulatory female mating preferences can be reinforced exclusively through postcopulatory processes occurring at a physiological level. Our analysis also revealed that relatively small individuals were advantaged in sperm competition, suggesting a possible trade-off between sperm competitive ability and body growth.

  12. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

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    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  13. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

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    Ismeth Inounu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  14. ADVANCES IN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN CATTLE: FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO CLONING AVANCES EN BIOTECNOLOÍA REPRODUCTIVA EN BOVINOS: DE LA INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL A LA CLONACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolini, L.R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1 artificial insemination (AI and gamete and embryo freezing, 2 multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET and 3 in vitro fertilization (IV F procedures, have matured into successful commercial applications, facilitating the increase in production through genetics, the reduction in generation intervals, the control of diseases, and the cutback in production costs. The fourth generation of AR T encompasses processes that are still more experimental, comprising cloning by nuclear transfer (NT of embryonic or somatic cells, transgenesis, and stem cell biology. Such technologies are intertwined with one another and with currently available molecular tools, being completely dependent upon the previous generations of technologies. However, many reproductive challenges still hinder maximal livestock reproductive performance, affecting productivity and profitability. It is clear that the application of such technologies as lucrative activities will remain questionable if not associated with other components of animal production, such as animal health, nutrition and adequate animal husbandry practices.El afán por controlar los procesos reproductivos en animales ha llevado a una gran ganancia en conocimiento, impulsando el desarrollo de cuatro tecnologías reproductivas asistidas (AR Ts para animales y humanos. El uso de AR Ts ha sido de gran importancia en la producción ganadera. En términos generales, las tres principales generaciones de AR T, incluyendo 1 inseminación artificial (AI y congelación de gametos y embriones, 2 superovulación y transferencia de

  15. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  16. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The...

  17. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P inseminations performed in different seasons (P insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds.

  18. Effect of sex ratios, spiking and extra artificial insemination on the breeding efficiency of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végi, Barbara; Váradi, Eva; Szőke, Zsuzsanna; Barna, Judit

    2013-09-01

    Since early fertility decline is a permanent problem of broiler breeders, the aim of this study was to test the effects of various sex ratios, spiking strategies and additional artificial inseminations (AI) on their breeding efficiency. Six breeder flocks were analysed during the whole reproduction cycle. In Flock A the sex ratio was maintained at 10% during the whole cycle (control), while in Flock B the number of males was increased to a final ratio of 16%. In Flocks C (technological control), D, E and F the ratio of males was gradually decreased from 10% to 6.5% until the end of the cycle. Moreover, at the age of 44 weeks in Flocks D and E 50 and 100% of cockerels were replaced by young ones, respectively, while in Flock F additional artificial inseminations were applied in the second half of the reproduction cycle. The increase of sperm transport was successful only in Groups B (increase in male numbers) and D (50% replacement of old cockerels with young ones); however, it was not sufficient for increasing the fertility rates in either group. Nor did additional artificial inseminations (Flock F) have an effect on fertility. As a conclusion, it can be established that increasing the sperm count in the hens' oviducts in any way could not improve fertility in the last third of the production cycle. The results also suggest that the expensive and labour-intensive spiking technique used in broiler breeder management is useless. The prime factor responsible for the shortened persistence of fertility may be the reduced ability of the female oviduct to accept and store sperm.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

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    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field

  20. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  1. Use of immobilized cryopreserved bovine semen in a blind artificial insemination trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standerholen, Fride Berg; Waterhouse, Karin Elisabeth; Larsgard, Anne Guro; Garmo, Randi Therese; Myromslien, Frøydis Deinboll; Sunde, Jan; Ropstad, Erik; Klinkenberg, Geir; Kommisrud, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    To make timing of artificial insemination (AI) relative to ovulation less critical, methods for prolonging shelf life of spermatozoa in vivo after AI have been attempted to be developed. Encapsulation of sperm cells is a documented technology, and recently, a technology in which sperm cells are embedded in alginate gel has been introduced and commercialized. In this study, standard processed semen with the Biladyl extender (control) was compared with semen processed by sperm immobilization technology developed by SpermVital AS in a blind field trial. Moreover, in vitro acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was assessed and compared with AI fertility data for possible correlation. Semen from 16 Norwegian Red young bulls with unknown fertility was collected and processed after splitting the semen in two aliquots. These aliquots were processed with the standard Biladyl extender or the SpermVital extender to a final number of 12 × 10(6) and 25 × 10(6) spermatozoa/dose, respectively. In total, 2000 semen doses were produced from each bull, divided equally by treatment. Artificial insemination doses were set up to design a blinded AI regime; 5 + 5 straws from each extender within ejaculates in ten-straw goblets were distributed to AI technicians and veterinarians all over Norway. Outcomes of the inseminations were measured as 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR). Postthaw sperm quality was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Alexa 488-conjugated peanut agglutinin to assess the proportion of plasma membrane and acrosome-intact sperm cells, respectively. In total, data from 14,125 first inseminations performed over a 12-month period, 7081 with Biladyl and 7044 with SpermVital semen, were used in the statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in 56-day NRR for the two semen categories, overall NRR being 72.5% and 72.7% for Biladyl and SpermVital, respectively. The flow cytometric results revealed a significant higher level of acrosome-intact live

  2. Quantifying sperm egg interaction to assess the breeding efficiency through artificial insemination in guinea fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, G H; Omprakash, A V; Premavalli, K; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2017-01-24

    1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE), and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Per cent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the per cent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating. Dose dependent improvement in fertility was noticed with both diluents. 3. There was a beneficial effect of vaginal douching, which was more pronounced at lower insemination doses. 4. For optimum fertility and hatchability in guinea fowl, insemination of 75 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE once in 4 d and 100 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE or IMV once in 5 d coupled with vaginal douching is recommended.

  3. Evaluation of artificial insemination techniques on fertility in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, B S; Fiser, P S

    1983-11-01

    The effects of depth of intravaginal insemination of two subsequent semen ejaculates from Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Light Sussex (LS) cockerels on fertility and embryonic mortality of eggs from RIR hens were investigated. Intravaginal insemination to a depth of 3.5 cm resulted in significantly higher fertility than shallow insemination to .5 cm (74.0 vs. 62.3%). Although not statistically significant, fertilizing capacity of first ejaculate of semen collected from either RIR or LS males was greater than the second ejaculate (71.4 vs. 64.9%).

  4. The postoperative nursing experience of 308 cases of patients for pure artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss artificial insemination lie on your back after the surgery time and to obtain ideal pregnancy outcome. Methods: Thisstudy retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing for pure artificial insemination in in Renji Hospital,Shanghai Jiao Tong University School, during 2012-2013. According to different patients after artificial insemination lie low time into three groups,D30min group: 102 cases, D45min groups: 120 cases, D60min groups: 86 cases, comparison of three groups of ages,basal FSH, surgery date intrauterine membrane thickness, statistical analysis of three groups of clinical pregnancy rate, early abortion rate and live-birth rate if there is a difference. Results: Three groups of ages, basal FSH, surgery date intrauterine membrane thickness were of no statistical difference. D30min group, the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.6%, early abortion rate was 5%, the live birth rate was 18.6%. D45min groups, the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.2%, the early abortion rate was 4.3%, the live birth rate was 18.3%. D60min groups,the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.8%, the early abortion rate was 0%,the live birth rate was19.8%. P > 0.05, found no statistical differences. Conclusion: Patients lie long does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate since the implementation of artificial insemination postoperatively. Lying down for 30 minutes enables the patients to achieve ideal artificial insemination pregnancy effect. 

  5. Sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Michelle A; Blum, Katherine M; Burd, Matthew A

    2011-07-01

    During artificial insemination of horses, it is important to accurately estimate the number of spermatozoa in each insemination dose. However, little research exists regarding sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination. Therefore, spermatozoal losses were quantified in the dismount loss (187.6×10(6)±62.5×10(6)spermatozoa), gel fraction (179.8×10(6)±61.7×10(6)spermatozoa), and the collection receptacle (136.1×10(6)±26.9×10(6)spermatozoa). Spermatozoal losses were examined in the centrifuge tube (25.8×10(6)±2.1×10(6)spermatozoa), AI pipette during the air removal (90.9×10(6)±8.5×10(6)spermatozoa), and spermatozoa remaining in the AI pipette after insemination (342.9×10(6)±21.4×10(6)spermatozoa). The average cumulative loss was 14.2±2.9% of the total spermatozoa ejaculated with approximately half of the loss due to the process of semen collection and half due to the process of artificial insemination. Spermatozoa retained in the AI pipette, after insemination with extended semen, represented the greatest source of loss.

  6. The potential risk of infectious disease dissemination via artificial insemination in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, G C; Rossow, K

    2011-09-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the most widely used assisted reproductive technologies in swine. To maintain a healthy semen trade, it is crucial that diligence be given to managing and minimizing the chance of extended semen playing an epidemiological role in the transmission of infectious disease. In swine, pathogens of primary importance, which may be transmitted through semen include Aujeszky's disease, brucellosis, chlamydophilosis, porcine circovirus type 2, classical swine fever, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, rubulavirus, foot-and-mouth disease and swine vesicular disease. This paper will summarise the current state of knowledge pertaining to these pathogens in relation to swine AI. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  8. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  9. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P AI in spring. It remains to be determined whether scheduling the dates of insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  10. Effect of artificial insemination protocol and dose of frozen/thawed stallion semen on pregnancy results in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaere, J L J; Hoogewijs, M K; De Schauwer, C; De Vliegher, S; Van Soom, A; Duchateau, L; de Kruif, A

    2014-06-01

    Deep intra-uterine insemination is commonly accepted as a routine procedure for artificial insemination in horses. The motives and principles of deep insemination are well described, but the equipment used may differ. In this trial, the efficiency of two different insemination pipettes for deep intra-uterine insemination in the mare was compared with insemination into the uterine body using commercially available frozen-thawed semen of two stallions of proven fertility. These inseminations were performed using two different doses. The semi-flexible Minitube pipette was compared with a newly designed insemination device with a more flexible telescopic insemination catheter (Ghent device). The semi-flexible Minitube pipette performed better than the newly designed insemination device with respect to pregnancy outcome (p = 0.008). The superiority of deep horn insemination over uterine body insemination was reflected by the better pregnancy rates obtained after deep insemination using the same low doses (30.6% better pregnancy rates) (p = 0.0123).

  11. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  12. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  13. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem.

  14. Effects of added caffeine on results following artificial insemination with fresh and refrigerated rabbit semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F J; Alvariño, J M

    2000-02-28

    Lactating rabbits (n=1335) were artificially inseminated to study the effect of the addition of caffeine on rabbit semen stored for up to 96 h. Concentration of 0-5 mM/l were tested. Whereas a concentration of 0.2 mM/l increased spermatozoa motility, higher concentration values adversely affected reproductive parameters. Spermatozoa stored at 18 degrees C for 72-96 h did not have the capacity to react with caffeine when it was added before insemination. Caffeine did not enhance fertility or prolificacy, regardless of its ability to increase sperm motility.

  15. Reproductive performance and backflow study in cervical and post-cervical artificial insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Izquierdo-Rico, M José; Matás, Carmen; Carvajal, Juan A; Vieira, Luis; Abril, Dario; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Francisco A

    2012-12-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate multiparous sow reproductive performance and backflow in post-cervical artificial insemination (post-CAI) using a reduced number of sperm than in cervical artificial insemination (CAI). The experimental groups were divided into sows inseminated by: 1) cervical artificial insemination (CAI): 3×10(9) spermatozoa/80 ml; 2) post-CAI: 1.5×10(9) spermatozoa/40 ml (post-CAI 1); 3) post-CAI using 1×10(9) spermatozoa/26 ml (post-CAI 2). Post-CAI 1 reproductive parameters were similar to those of post-CAI 2 (except for live born litter size which was greater in post-CAI 1) and better than for the CAI group (pinsemination dose incubated inside a colostomy bag (sperm quality control group). The present study shows that the use of post-CAI (either post-CAI 1 or 2) in field conditions can be recommended because the efficiency is similar (in the case of post-CAI 2) or higher (post-CAI 1) than when using the traditional method (CAI), representing a reduction cost.

  16. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  17. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated hens receiving saline drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Moreng, R E; Balnave, D

    1991-04-01

    Laying hens were selected at random and placed in individual cages in a commercial type layer shed. One hundred hens received town water and one hundred received town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L. Half the hens on each water treatment were inseminated every 7 days with mixed semen collected from six cockerels of a commercial table egg strain maintained on town water. The remaining hens were inseminated with semen from six cockerels receiving town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L. Eggs were collected and stored at 12 C over a 7-day period before eggs with defective shells were identified and removed. All remaining eggs were incubated and candled at 7 and 18 days of incubation to detect infertile eggs and embryonic deaths. Data from six consecutive hatches were analyzed. The incidence of eggs with defective shells doubled in hens receiving the saline drinking water. These hens had a significantly (twofold) higher incidence of embryonic deaths and a significantly lower (13%) hatchability of fertile eggs. For every 100 eggs laid the numbers of settable eggs and chicks hatched were significantly reduced in hens receiving the saline drinking water. The saline water reduced the numbers hatched by 20% for every 100 eggs laid. The water treatment given to the cockerels had little effect on reproductive performance.

  18. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

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    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  19. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

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    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  20. Comparison of efficiency between two artificial insemination methods using frozen-thawed semen in domestic cat (Felis catus): artificial insemination in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel Silva Balbin; Melo, Cely Marini; Martin, Ian; Ferreira, Tatiana Henriques; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Taconeli, Cesar Augusto; Lopes, Maria Denise

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of the intravaginal (IVAI) vs. intrauterine artificial insemination (IUAI) using frozen-thawed sperm in the domestic cat. Semen was collected from two tom cats using an artificial vagina and samples were assessed for motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA)), sperm morphology and plasma membrane integrity. After dilution with TRIS/OEP/YOLK (4% of glycerol), sperm samples were loaded into 0.25 mL straws (25 x 10(6)motile sperm/straw), incubated at 5 degrees C for 20 min and cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor for 15 min and then immersed in LN(2). For each AI, four straws from the same male were thawed (12s at 46 degrees C) and centrifuged at 250 x g for 8 min to pellet the sperm. The supernatant was discarded and sperm pellet resuspended with the remaining liquid, approximately 100 microL, and analyzed as described above. Queens were treated with a single im injection of 100 IU eCG to induce ovarian follicular development. Final oocyte maturation and ovulation was induced with 100 IU hCG given im at 82-84 h after eCG administration. Thirty hours after hCG administration, females were inseminated either intrauterine (n=8 queens) or intravaginally (n=8 queens), using thawed sperm from a single male. Although a pronounced decrease in sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was observed in sperm samples from both cats, a pregnancy rate of 75% was achieved when using the intrauterine AI method compared with 0% pregnancy when inseminated intravaginally.

  1. [Infectious endocarditis following artificial insemination. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, E; Cortesi, G; Villani, R; Caccia, M E; Lauria, F; Nava, S

    1994-10-01

    We describe a case of infective endocarditis in a 33 year old patient, with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), who underwent nine attempts of artificial insemination with semen by donor. Several blood cultures demonstrated the presence of Enterococcus faecalis; the same agent was identified in some vaginal cultures. Despite antibiotic therapy, infective endocarditis was complicated by severe mitral regurgitation, followed by the rupture of a chorda tendinea. The patient underwent cardiac surgery: valvuloplasty of posterior mitral cusp, chordae tendineae in Goretex and anulus reinforcement with autologous pericardium. MVP is the most common heart disease associated with infective endocarditis in non-drug addict patients (32-54%). The review of the literature did not show any other case of infective endocarditis after artificial insemination procedures. Because of the large spread of these procedures, we think antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis should be considered in patients with MVP.

  2. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  3. [Artificial insemination with donor sperm in the Netherlands: future-proof?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, P A L Femke; Janssens, Pim M W; Mochtar, Monique H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years much has changed in care for artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID). Since new laws and regulations were implemented, a large number of sperm banks have closed and the total number of sperm donors and their availability have decreased. Long waiting times and the use of sperm donors recruited by foreign commercial sperm banks can indicate a shortage of sperm donors. The fact that the internet offers women the possibility of ordering donor sperm and starting treatment without the intervention of a sperm bank means that future donor-conceived children may be prevented from obtaining the identity of their sperm donor as stipulated in the Dutch law on donor information in the context of artificial insemination. In order to comply with this law, an active recruitment policy is needed for Dutch sperm donors, to prevent waiting lists and treatments outside Dutch sperm banks. Only then can current AID care be guaranteed in the Netherlands in the future.

  4. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm.

  5. Timing associated with oviductal sperm storage and release after artificial insemination in domestic hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmings, N.; Birkhead, T.R.; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Froment, Pascal; Brière, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Female birds store sperm in sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the uterovaginal junction of their reproductive tract for days or weeks (depending on species) prior to fertilisation. Sperm are transported from the SSTs to the infundibulum where fertilisation occurs immediately following ovulation of each ovum. The timing of sperm release from the SSTs relative to ovulation is unknown for any bird. Here we show that, following artificial insemination of domestic fowl Gallus domesticus, sperm are n...

  6. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  7. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Wishart, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  8. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  9. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus.

  10. Effect of timing of artificial insemination after synchronization of ovulation on reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayril, Tahir; Yilmaz, Orhan

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of timing of artificial insemination on pregnancy rates, calving rates, abortion rates, twinning rates, and calf gender ratio after synchronization of ovulation with Ovsynch protocol in Holstein dairy cows. The ovulation of 219 lactating Holstein dairy cows was synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol. Therefore, cows received an injection of GnRH followed by an injection of prostaglandin F(2α) 7 days later and a second treatment with GnRH 2 days later. Cows were artificially inseminated at 0, 12, or 24 h after the second injection of GnRH. Reproductive performance did not differ between cows inseminated at 0 h (n = 82), 12 h (n = 66), or 24 h (n = 71) after the last injection of GnRH (pregnancy rate: 0 h 48 %, 12 h 47 %, 24 h 52 %; abortion rate: 0 h 5 %, 12 h 0 %, 24 h 11 %; calving rate: 0 h 43 %, 12 h 47 %, 24 h 41 %; twinning rate: 0 h 2 %, 12 h 0 %, 24 h 0 %; calf gender ratio (F/M): 0 h 61:39 %, 12 h 48:52 %, 24 h 39:61 %; P > 0.05). Pregnancy rates for cows inseminated in postpartum times of 50-75, 76-100, and >100 days within the first and ≥ 3 parities were statistically similar (P > 0.05), but pregnancy rates for cows inseminated at different postpartum times of 50-75, 76-100, and >100 days within the second parity were different (P inseminated at different postpartum times (P artificial insemination at different times after synchronization were similar. These results also indicate that the timing of artificial insemination after synchronization did not influence calf gender ratio. Furthermore, pregnancy rates of Holstein dairy cows inseminated after synchronization were significantly influenced by postpartum time and parity number.

  11. Egg yolk and LDL: possibilities for artificial insemination in equines

    OpenAIRE

    Canisso, Igor F.; Souza,Fernando A.; Erotides C. Silva; Mastoby Martinez M; Anali L. Lima

    2008-01-01

    La industria equina ejerce un importante papel como fuente generadora de empleo y renta. Las biotecnologías de la reproducción constituyen una valiosa herramienta para la mejora mundial en la especie equina. Dentro de las técnicas se encuentra la inseminación artificial (IA), que probablemente es la biotecnología con mayor impacto en la equino-cultura, una vez que un garañón pueda producir centenas de productos de buena calidad a lo largo de su vida reproductiva. En algunos países la yema de ...

  12. Effects of progestagen exposure duration on estrus synchronization and conception rates of crossbreed ewes undergoing fixed time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschi, Wanessa; Lunardelli, Paula A; Marinho, Luciana S R; Max, Marilu C; Santos, Gustavo M G; Silva-Santos, Katia C; Melo-Sterza, Fabiana A; Baldassarre, Hernan; Rigo, Thales R; Seneda, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of estrus and ovulation are of paramount importance in modern livestock improvement programs. These methods are critical for assisted reproduction technologies, including artificial insemination and embryo transfer, that can increase productivity. In the current study, subcutaneous implants containing norgestomet were placed for long (14 days), medium (9 days), and short (5 days) periods of time in 70 crossbred ewes undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination. The resulting effects on estrus synchronization and conception rates were subsequently evaluated. Among the synchronized ewes, 85.7% (60/70) underwent estrus over a period of 72 h after progestagen treatment ceased. The shortest mean interval between withdrawal of the device and onset of estrus (34.2 ± 8.9 h) was observed in the G14 days of P4 group (p < 0.05). The conception rate of the G14 days of P4 group was statistically higher than that of the other groups (83.3% vs. 60.9% vs. 47.8%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, 14 days of norgestomet treatment produced higher conception rates and a greater number of pregnancies at the beginning of the breeding season.

  13. A study of artificial insemination in relation to fertility and hatchability in white Leghorn birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R A; Johari, D C; Singh, R P; Singh, B P

    1977-02-01

    To each of 24 cocks, 3 hens were alloted for artifical insemination. Seman was collected by the massage method. Freshly collected semen (.1 ml) was introduced into the oviduct of each hen every week. All eggs were incubated. On the 7th day of incubation, eggs were tested and infertile ones removed. On the 18th day eggs containing live embryos were kept for hatching. On the 21st days the number of chicks hatched was recorded. 86.3% or 667 eggs were fertile and 69.8% of them hatched. Fertility was similar to natural mating. There was a statistically significant difference in fertility between cocks but hatchability of fertile eggs was similar. It is suggested that artificial insemination may be used as a practical mating system for caged birds.

  14. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  15. The Role of Improper Use of Artificial Insemination on Infertility and Abortion in Cows in Basrah Province, Iraq: Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, H. A-L. [حيدر عبد اللطيف موسى; Aziz, M A; Bakr, S. S. [سندس صديق بكر; Jamaladdin, N. M. [نظام محمد جمال الدين

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to demonstrate the infectious causes and their mode of transmission in cases of infertility and abortion in cows. There were 434 artificially inseminated cows, of which 155 (35.7%) did not conceive after several trials. Seventy cows were naturally inseminated, of which 30 (42.8%) did not conceive. Delayed oestrus after normal delivery was found in 398 (99%) of 402 cows. Many microorganisms, known to be causative agents of infertility and abortion in cows, wer...

  16. Cauda Epididymis Spermatozoa: Cryopreservation and Utilization for Artificial Insemination and In Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Aji Pamungkas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic material either from animals of economical interest or from wildlife conservation can be lost anytime by unexpected death of the animal, low libido, or disorder at reproduction. In this case, an effort can be made occur to avoid the total lost of that genetic material by using an epididymis spermatozoa. Cauda epididymis spermatozoa generally motile, mature and can be used to fertilize oocytes as well as ejaculated spermatozoa. Some research indicated that cryopreservation of cauda epididymis spermatozoa for the purpose of artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization showed the ability to fertilize oocytes and produce offspring.

  17. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  18. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alvarez-Gallardo

    Full Text Available A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs, specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2 to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS, of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB, Celosil® (PGF2α (Shering-Plough and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL. In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037. Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  19. Profile and artificial insemination practices of technicians and the artificial insemination success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D; Caindec, Maxine O; Mani, Louie V; Abela, Julius V; Nuñez, Edgar S; Royo, Johnson T; Lopez, Ivy Fe M

    2017-02-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is a reproductive biotechnology that may be influenced by several factors, including the profile of the technicians and the practices used. Assessing technician's profile and their AI practices can be significant in improving AI success rate. This study aimed to know the profile and current practices used by AI technicians (AITs), to determine the success rates of AI in water buffaloes in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran from 2011 to 2015, and to evaluate the possible association between the parameters investigated. A total of 50 AITs from Leyte, Samar and Biliran, Philippines, were interviewed using a fixed questionnaire about their profile and employed AI practices, and 20,455 AI-related records of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) at Visayas State University (VSU), Baybay City, Leyte, were screened and analyzed. AI success rates were determined by retrospective analysis of the gathered data. Statistical analysis was performed between the technician profile and practices and the AI success rates. Results revealed that most of the technicians were male, around 31-40 years old, married, college graduates, working under local government units, had other sources of income, and with 1-5 years of continuous AI practice averaging 51-100 inseminations per year. Most of them attended only one basic training seminar, which was conducted more than 3 years ago in PCC in VSU. AI success rates were recorded highest in 2011 and lowest in 2015. Statistical analyses showed that some technician profile parameters (civil status, average AI per year, and the training center) and several practices (checking of soft cervix, rectal palpation, thawing temperature method, straw cutting method, and semen deposition) might have an influence on the success of AI. This study documents the first report on AIT's profile and their employed AI practices and the AI success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines. Selected profile parameters and AI practices may

  20. Delayed insemination of non-estrous heifers and cows when using conventional semen in timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus before FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across 3 locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (controlled internal drug-release [CIDR] insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR insert on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR insert removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or 2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54 versus 46%; P = 0.01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49 versus 34%; P = 0.02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = 0.24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR insert removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR insert removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR insert removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on age, days postpartum, and BCS: 1) FTAI (concurrent with Gn

  1. Plasma testosterone profiles, semen characteristics, and artificial insemination in yearling and adult captive Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunden, C E; Bluhm, C K; Cheng, K M; Rajamahendran, R

    1998-06-01

    Testosterone profiles and semen characteristics were determined using yearling and adult captive wild-strain Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes. Wild-strain Mallard hens were artificially inseminated by modifying a technique developed for domesticated poultry. In both adult and yearling drakes, there was a change in the concentration of circulating plasma testosterone during the reproductive season. Testosterone concentrations increased from basal levels in March, peaked in April, and decreased to basal levels in May. The decrease in testosterone concentration to basal level was 2 wk earlier in yearlings than in adults (P 0.05). Overall mean fertility for yearling and adult drakes obtained with artificial insemination was 70.4%. These results suggest that artificial insemination may be used successfully in the propagation of captive wild-strain Mallard ducks.

  2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate.

  3. Embryo retrieval after hormonal treatment to control ovarian function and non-surgical artificial insemination in African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeritz, F; Painer, J; Jewgenow, K; Hermes, R; Rasmussen, K; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B

    2012-12-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Evaluation of hormone-free protocols based on the "male effect" for artificial insemination in lactating goats during seasonal anestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Boissard, Karine; Forgerit, Yvonnick; Pougnard, Jean Louis; Bonné, Jean Luc; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2016-03-15

    Goat estrous and ovulatory responses to the "male effect" were characterized to determine the time range over which fertile ovulations occur after buck exposure. The results were used to explore the efficacy of different hormone-free artificial insemination (AI) protocols aimed at diminishing the number of inseminations needed to optimize fertility. Adult bucks and does were exposed to artificially long days during winter and then exposed to a natural photoperiod before buck exposure (Day 0). Most goats (>70%) ovulated twice, developing a short cycle followed by a normal cycle over 13 days after buck exposure. Among them, 21% were in estrus at the short cycle and 94% at the normal cycle. This second ovulation occurred within 48 hours of Day 6 and was the target for AI protocols. In protocol A (n = 79), goats were inseminated 12 hours after estrus detection from Day 5 to Day 9. Up to six AI times over 4 days were needed to inseminate goats in estrus. Forty-nine percent of the inseminated goats kidded. In protocol B (n = 145), estrus detection started on Day 5. The earlier (group 1) and later (group 2) buck-marked goats received one single insemination at fixed times on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8, respectively; unmarked goats (group 3) were inseminated along with group 2. In protocol C (n = 153), goats were inseminated twice on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8 without needing to detect estrus. Goats induced to ovulate by hormonal treatment were used as the control (n = 319). Fertility was lower in protocol B than in protocol C and controls (47% vs. 58% and 65% kidding; P ≤ 0.05), whereas this was higher in buck-marked goats than in unmarked ones (64% vs. 33%; P ≤ 0.05). In protocol B, fertility can increase (>60%) when only goats coming into estrus are inseminated. The best kidding rate (∼70%) was achieved when does were inseminated within 24 hours of the LH surge. Protocols involving insemination on Day 7 instead of Day 6.5 led to more goats being inseminated during this

  5. Tarsal lameness of dairy bulls housed at two artificial insemination centers: 24 cases (1975-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargai, U; Cohen, R

    1992-10-01

    Degenerative joint disease of the tarsi was diagnosed in 20 of 24 Holstein bulls with tarsal lameness at 2 artificial insemination centers from 1975 to 1987. Each of the 2 centers housed about 100 bulls/yr. Of the 24 bulls with tarsal lameness, 22 were from the artificial insemination center designated as A, and 2 were from the center designated as B. Examination of the housing and management procedures revealed that center A had concrete floors with cuboidal-shaped yards, whereas center B had deep sand flooring, with long, narrow yards. The only other difference between the 2 centers was that center A used 1- and 2-year-old bulls as teasers for older, heavier bulls to mount, whereas center B used bulls that were at least 6 years old to withstand the stress placed on their hind limbs by the weight of bulls undergoing semen collection. Radiographic lesions of tarsi of bulls from both centers ranged from distention of the tibiotarsal joint pouch to hypertrophic degenerative osteoarthritis of the distal, intertarsal, and tarsometatarsal joints. It was concluded that the concrete flooring and the semen collecting practices were responsible for the high prevalence of tarsal lameness and degenerative joint disease of the tarsi in bulls housed at center A.

  6. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  7. Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination in sows receiving porcine luteinising hormone at oestrus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D L; Ulguim, R R; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-01-30

    Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination (FTPCAI) allows a wider use of high indexing boars and a considerable reduction in labour requirements in swine production. The aim of this study was to evaluate fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) efficiency using different artificial insemination protocols and porcine luteinising hormone (pLH) to induce ovulation. A total of 597 weaned sows in which oestrus detection was performed once daily (08:00 am) was allocated to three groups: FTPCAI1 (n=199) - sows received a 5-mg (4 ml) intramuscular injection of pLH at oestrus onset, and were inseminated 24h later; FTPCAI2 (n=199) - sows received 5mg of pLH and were inseminated at oestrus onset (0 h) and 24h after; and MultPCAI (n=199) - sows did not receive pLH, and the first AI was performed at oestrus onset (0 h) and repeated every 24h during oestrus. Homospermic doses (1.5 × 10(9) total sperm cells/50 ml) were used in post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI) in all the treatments. Hormonal treatment did not affect (P>0.05) the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation (overall 32.4h) and there were no differences (P>0.05) in farrowing rate (overall 91.6%) or litter size (overall 12.6 piglets born) among treatments. In sows treated with pLH at oestrus onset, a single PCAI with 1.5 billion sperm cells did not compromise reproductive performance compared with a double PCAI at 24h intervals.

  8. Profile and artificial insemination practices of technicians and the artificial insemination success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines (2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Ybañez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination (AI is a reproductive biotechnology that may be influenced by several factors, including the profile of the technicians and the practices used. Assessing technician’s profile and their AI practices can be significant in improving AI success rate. Aim: This study aimed to know the profile and current practices used by AI technicians (AITs, to determine the success rates of AI in water buffaloes in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran from 2011 to 2015, and to evaluate the possible association between the parameters investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 AITs from Leyte, Samar and Biliran, Philippines, were interviewed using a fixed questionnaire about their profile and employed AI practices, and 20,455 AI-related records of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC at Visayas State University (VSU, Baybay City, Leyte, were screened and analyzed. AI success rates were determined by retrospective analysis of the gathered data. Statistical analysis was performed between the technician profile and practices and the AI success rates. Results: Results revealed that most of the technicians were male, around 31-40 years old, married, college graduates, working under local government units, had other sources of income, and with 1-5 years of continuous AI practice averaging 51-100 inseminations per year. Most of them attended only one basic training seminar, which was conducted more than 3 years ago in PCC in VSU. AI success rates were recorded highest in 2011 and lowest in 2015. Statistical analyses showed that some technician profile parameters (civil status, average AI per year, and the training center and several practices (checking of soft cervix, rectal palpation, thawing temperature method, straw cutting method, and semen deposition might have an influence on the success of AI. Conclusion: This study documents the first report on AIT’s profile and their employed AI practices and the AI success rates in Leyte, Samar

  9. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born.

  10. Development of a new transcervical artificial insemination method for sheep: effects of a new transcervical artificial insemination catheter and traversing the cervix on semen quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Lewis, Gregory S

    2002-10-15

    The difficulty of traversing the cervix severely limits transcervical artificial insemination (TC AI) in sheep. Cervical trauma and poorly designed instruments can reduce fertility after AI. To overcome problems associated with TC AI, we developed a new TC AI catheter. Three bench experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the new TC AI catheter on semen quality independent of the effects of moving the catheter through the cervix. In each of the three bench experiments, the standard laparoscopic instrument for intrauterine AI in sheep was used as the control for the TC AI catheter. In Experiment 1, the total volume of semen extender expelled and void volumes for both types of AI instrument (TC versus laparoscopic) were determined. In Experiment 2, the effects of each type of AI instrument (TC versus laparoscopic) on semen quality, estimated as percentage motility and percentage forward progressive motility, of frozen-thawed semen was determined. In Experiment 3, the effects of both types of AI instrument (TC versus laparoscopic) on number of spermatozoa expelled was determined. The type of AI instrument affected neither semen quality nor the number of spermatozoa expelled. However, void volume differed (P synchronize estrus, progestogenated pessaries were inserted and left in place for 12 days. On Day 5 after pessary insertion, PGF2alpha (15 mg) was given i.m. At pessary removal, 400 IU of eCG were administered i.m. Ewes were inseminated 48-52 h after pessary removal using fresh diluted semen (200 x 10(6) to 350 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.2 ml) pooled from the same four rams each day during the experiment. At 72 h after AI, uteri were collected postmortem and flushed. Oocytes and embryos were recovered and evaluated. Treatments did not affect (P > 0.01) ovum and embryo recovery rate (mean = 87.3%), fertilization rate (59.3%), or Day 3 pregnancy rate (mean = 66.6%). We conclude from these data that the use of our new TC AI catheter for TC AI or

  11. Factors affecting the outcome of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Rengui; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Zhi; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Hemin

    2012-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an important component of captive breeding programs for endangered species, such as the giant panda. The panda has been the subject of increasingly successful captive breeding programs involving a compilation of assisted breeding techniques, including AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. AI implementation is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the factors that may cause failure. We investigated factors influencing the probability of success of AI for 14 giant panda females housed at the China Center for Research and Conservation of the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) inseminated in a total of 20 instances using cryopreserved spermatozoa from 11 males currently residing in 6 different captive breeding institutions. One of the pandas was the oldest giant panda female to ever successfully conceive from AI (20.5 years old). The success of AI was significantly affected by the timing of AI in relationship to both timing of peak urinary estrogen of the female and percent decline in urinary estrogen between the peak level and the first AI attempt. Our results suggest that the window for successful AI in giant pandas may be narrower than previously suspected, although individual differences in rates of decline in urinary estrogen may reflect some degree of variation in this crucial window across females. Our results are consistent with recent research on pandas and other species that demonstrates the efficacy of cryopreserved spermatozoa for AI and highlights the need for more in-depth analysis of factors related to female physiology that may influence its success.

  12. Use of a novel double uterine deposition artificial insemination technique using low concentrations of sperm in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo-Martín, R; Gil, L; Gómez-Rincón, C F; Dahmani, Y; García-Tomás, M; Úbeda, J L; Grandía, J

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the three most important non-surgical artificial insemination systems used in pigs are the conventional, the post-cervical (IUI), and the deep-intrauterine (DIUI) methods. In this study, a new system, termed double uterine deposition insemination (DUDI), which combines aspects of both IUI and DIUI, was evaluated. This method used a thinner, shorter and more flexible catheter than those normally used for DIUI and resulted in the deposition of semen post-cervically, approximately half-way along the uterine horn, thus potentially by-passing the threat of 'unilateral' insemination or pregnancy when using sperm of low concentration. The experiment was carried out over 8 weeks on a group of 166 sows, which were divided into seven groups, inseminated with semen of varying concentration, using the conventional system (control group) or by DUDI. There were no significant differences in fertility at day 35 post-insemination between the controls and the various DUDI sub-groups. Only sows inseminated with 500 million viable spermatozoa in a total of 30 mL of fluid using the DUDI system demonstrated decreased total litter sizes when compared to conventional insemination (Pinsemination normally uses 2.5-3.5 billion sperm, the findings of this study suggest that DUDI can be used under 'field' conditions with sperm concentrations as low as 750 million spermatozoa in 50-30 mL without any detrimental effect on fertility or litter size. DUDI may provide a viable, robust alternative to IUI and DIUI, and has the potential to become incorporated into on-farm insemination systems.

  13. Understanding farmers' preferences for artificial insemination services provided through dairy hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Zander, K K; Bauer, S; Baltenweck, I

    2017-04-01

    Africa has a shortage of animal products but increasing demand because of population growth, urbanisation and changing consumer patterns. Attempts to boost livestock production through the use of breeding technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) have been failing in many countries because costs have escalated and success rates have been relatively low. One example is Kenya, a country with a relatively large number of cows and a dairy industry model relevant to neighbouring countries. There, an innovative dairy marketing approach (farmer-owned collective marketing systems called dairy hubs) has been implemented to enhance access to dairy markets and dairy-related services, including breeding services such as AI. So far, the rate of participation in these dairy hubs has been slow and mixed. In order to understand this phenomenon better and to inform dairy-related development activities by the Kenyan government, we investigated which characteristics of AI services, offered through the dairy hubs, farmers prefer. To do so, we applied a choice experiment (CE), a non-market valuation technique, which allowed us to identify farmers' preferences for desired characteristics should more dairy hubs be installed in the future. This is the first study to use a CE to evaluate breeding services in Kenya and the results can complement findings of studies of breeding objectives and selection criteria. The results of the CE reveal that dairy farmers prefer to have AI services offered rather than having no service. Farmers prefer AI services to be available at dairy hubs rather than provided by private agents not affiliated to the hubs, to have follow-up services for pregnancy detections, and to use sexed semen rather than conventional semen. Farmers would further like some flexibility in payment systems which include input credit, and are willing to share the costs of any AI repeats that may need to occur. These results provide evidence of a positive attitude to AI services

  14. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  15. Combined use of Ovsynch and progesterone supplementation after artificial insemination in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forro, A; Tsousis, G; Beindorff, N; Sharifi, R; Jäkel, L; Bollwein, H

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different Ovsynch protocols combined with progesterone (P4) supplementation after artificial insemination (AI) of Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were randomly synchronized at 52 to 63 d after parturition with either the classical Ovsynch protocol (GnRH on d 0, PGF(2α) on d 7, GnRH 48 h after PGF(2α)) or with a modified Ovsynch protocol (second GnRH 60 h after PGF(2α)). On d 4 after timed AI (TAI), the cows were blocked by parity and randomly divided into 2 groups. Half of the cows were supplemented with P4 (P4+) by applying a P4-releasing intravaginal device intravaginally for 14 d, whereas the other half remained untreated (P4-). In 50% of randomly chosen cows, plasma P4 was measured on d 4, 5, and 18 after TAI. Sonographic pregnancy diagnosis was performed on d 33 after TAI in a total of 398 cows. Health status and body condition score (BCS) of all cows were examined at several stages of the study. Cows in the modified Ovsynch protocol tended to have higher P4 values on d 4 after TAI than cows in the classical Ovsynch protocol (2.1 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL), but no difference in pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was observed between the 2 Ovsynch protocols (38.4% vs. 44.1%). Independent of the Ovsynch protocols, P4+ cows tended to have higher P/AI compared with P4- cows (44.4% vs. 38.1%). The retention of fetal membranes and BCS at the time of insemination affected P/AI. Moreover, an interaction between BCS at the time of insemination and P4 supplementation was apparent; that is, the difference in P/AI between P4+ and P4- cows was significant in cows with BCS ≥3.25. Progesterone-supplemented cows showed higher P4 values on d 5 (4.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2) and d 18 (7.8 ± 0.2 vs. 6.3 ± 0.2) after TAI, respectively. In conclusion, the elongation of the time interval between the injections of PGF(2α) and the second GnRH from 48 to 60 h had no effect on P/AI. Progesterone supplementation after insemination

  16. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

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    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  17. Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, R S; Lean, I J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of

  18. SPERM MORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN BULL SEMEN COLLECTED FROM THREE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION CENTERS IN INDONESIA

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    B. Purwantara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically abnormal sperm in semen has been associated with the sub fertility and sterilityfor many years. This study assessed the sperm morphology of Friesian Holstein bull semen which wascollected from three Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 22 bulls were used in thisstudy; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. Three to four glass slides were prepared for each bullsample; a drop of semen was placed on each glass slide, smeared, and air-dried. The smeared sampleswere stained with carbolfuchsin-eosin (Williams stain. Morphological abnormality types were recordedfrom total of 500 spermatozoa. Results demonstrated that all 22 bulls had low sperm abnormality(<10%. Pearshaped was the most frequently type of sperm abnormality found in the samples(0.81±0.93%; while detached head was the lowest (0.01±0.04%.

  19. Comparison of conventional and computer-assisted semen analysis in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and evaluation of different insemination dosages for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Neumann, D; Wehrend, A; Lierz, M

    2014-09-01

    Many psittacine species are threatened in the wild and also rare in captivity. Therefore, successful conservation and breeding programs are important to save these species. Unfortunately, clutches in conservation programs are frequently infertile. Semen evaluation is beneficial to investigate the causes of infertility and is advisable before artificial insemination (AI). In this study, we analyzed the semen of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) using two different methods and investigated different insemination dosages for AI. Cockatiels (n = 30) were divided into two groups (group A: nine males; group B: six males). The males in group B were endoscopically sterilized, whereas the males in group A were used as semen donors. In the first part of the study, the semen of males in group A was evaluated by semen analysis. Semen samples were collected by the massage technique and examined using a conventional light microscope and a computer-assisted semen analyzer for comparison. Results demonstrated that the evaluations of motility, progressive motility, and sperm concentration, but not of live/dead ratio, correlated strongly for both methods. However, the results for sperm concentration, progressive motility, and live/dead ratio differed significantly. In the second part of our study, the volume and quantity of spermatozoa of the semen samples were adjusted and used for AI of females of group B. Intravaginal insemination with 250,000 spermatozoa resulted in five of 17 (29%) eggs fertilized; however, intracloacal insemination resulted in only four of 57 (7%) eggs fertilized at 232,000 and 250,000 spermatozoa but none at higher or lower dosages.

  20. Artificial insemination with cryopreserved sperm from feline epididymides stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Mari; Sato, Yuuka; Sasaki, Ayako; Kaihara, Aya; Tsutsui, Toshihiko

    2011-08-01

    Recovering and storing sperm from the epididymides of males of rare felidae is useful for preserving the species. The objective of the present study was to determine pregnancy rates following artificial insemination (AI) of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm, which were cryopreserved following low-temperature storage of the epididymides. In this study, these sperm were used for unilateral intrauterine AI (UIUAI) or unilateral intratubal AI (UITAI) using 40 × 10(6) and 10 × 10(6) sperm, respectively. The caudal epididymides of 17 cats were stored at 4 °C for 24 h after castration. Artificial insemination of seven female cats was performed on Days 3 or 4 (start of estrus = Day 1) by UIUAI, 20 h after injection of 100 IU hCG to induce ovulation. Furthermore, UITAI at 24 h (UITAI-24) or 30 h (UITAI-30) after hCG were also done (five cats per group). It was noteworthy that AI by UIUAI and UITAI-24 was performed before ovulation, whereas AI by UITAI-30 was performed after ovulation. Pregnancy rates were 28.6% (2/7) by UIUAI, 80% (4/5) by UITAI-24, and 20% (1/5) by UITAI-30. Litter size was one or two by UIUAI, and one to four by UITAI. Spontaneous abortion occurred on Days 25-30 of pregnancy in one of the two female cats pregnant following UIUAI, and in two of five female cats pregnant following UITAI. Based on the high pregnancy rate obtained with 10 × 10(6) sperm in the UITAI-24 group (AI performed before ovulation), we concluded that this was the most appropriate method for AI with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm after initial low-temperature storage of epididymides.

  1. Hormone-free protocols for the control of reproduction and artificial insemination in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sebastián, A; Coloma, M A; Toledano, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2014-10-01

    The dairy goat industry is of great economic importance to certain rural areas of the European Union (EU), especially the Mediterranean region. Its sustainability, however, is severely affected by the seasonality of goat reproduction, which leads to fluctuations in the availability of final products. Classical hormone treatments based on progestagens and eCG are the main tools employed in the effort to achieve fertility outside of the normal breeding season. They are also used to induce and synchronize oestrus and ovulation in artificial insemination programs. The food safety policy of the EU is becoming ever stricter with regard to the use of hormonal treatments for reproductive purposes, pushing livestock-raising towards ever cleaner and greener production systems. Recent advances in the use of natural methods able to generate endocrine signals that induce the ovulatory process have improved our capacity to foster reproduction in the non-breeding season. When used in a fashion appropriate for the latitude at which animals live, their breed, and the management system under which they are raised, environmental (photoperiod), nutritional and sociosexual (the male effect) signals offer alternatives to classic hormonal techniques. This affords the fragile and heterogeneous goat production sector with new opportunities. This article describes the most representative advances made in the use of the male effect as a natural method of inducing ovulation during seasonal anoestrus. Its association with other methods for optimizing responses and synchronizing induced ovulation is also discussed; such associations allow it to be used as an alternative to hormonal treatment in artificial insemination programs.

  2. A comparison of timed artificial insemination and automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention in 3 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows inseminated based on automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention (AAM) to cows from the same herds inseminated using only an intensive timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Cows (n=523) from 3 commercial dairy herds participated in this study. To be considered eligible for participation, cows must have been classified with a body condition score of at least 2.50, but no more than 3.50, passed a reproductive tract examination, and experienced no incidences of clinical, recorded metabolic diseases in the current lactation. Within each herd, cows were balanced for parity and predicted milk yield, then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: TAI or AAM. Cows assigned to the TAI group were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol consisting of presynchronization, Ovsynch, and Resynch for up to 3 inseminations. Cows assigned to the AAM treatment were fitted with a leg-mounted accelerometer (AfiAct Pedometer Plus, Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) at least 10 d before the end of the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP). Cows in the AAM treatment were inseminated at times indicated by the automated alert system for up to 90 d after the VWP. If an open cow experienced no AAM alert for a 39±7-d period (beginning at the end of the VWP), hormone intervention in the form of a single injection of either PGF2α or GnRH (no TAI) was permitted as directed by the herd veterinarian. Subsequent to hormone intervention, cows were inseminated when alerted in estrus by the AAM system. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 33 to 46 d after insemination. Pregnancy loss was determined via a second ultrasound after 60 d pregnant. Timed artificial insemination cows experienced a median 11.0 d shorter time to first service. Automated activity-monitored cows experienced a median 17.5-d shorter service interval. No treatment difference in probability of pregnancy to first AI, probability

  3. Pregnancy rate in Bulgarian White milk goats with natural and synchronized estrus after artificial insemination by frozen semen during breeding season

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    Stanimir A. Yotov

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The goats with natural estrus and GnRH treatment tend to enhance pregnancy rate after double artificial insemination 8 h apart. The insemination number has no significant impact on pregnancy rate in synchronized goats as the overall pregnancy rate is better than in animals with natural estrus without GnRH administration.

  4. Identification of changes in bovine oviductal mRNA expression by RNAseq from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high concentrations of estradiol at time of insemination are known to impact pregnancy success by 27%±5% compared to animals with low estradiol. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms responsible for this biological variation is key to improving repro...

  5. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (Pinseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique.

  6. Effect of progesterone concentrations, follicle diameter, timing of artificial insemination, and ovulatory stimulus on pregnancy rate to synchronized artificial insemination in postpubertal Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T; Peres, R F G; Rodrigues, A D P; Pohler, K G; Pereira, M H C; Day, M L; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of treatments with low versus high serum progesterone (P4) concentrations on factors associated with pregnancy success in postpubertal Nellore heifers submitted to either conventional or fixed timed artificial insemination (FTAI). Heifers were synchronized with a new controlled internal drug release device (CIDR; 1.9 g of P4 [CIDR1]) or a CIDR previously used for 18 days (CIDR3) plus 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate on Day 0 and 12.5 mg of prostaglandin F2α on Day 7. In experiment 1 (n = 723), CIDR were removed on Day 7 or 9 and heifers were inseminated after estrus detection. In experiment 2 (n = 1083), CIDR were all removed on Day 9 and FTAI was performed either 48 hours later in heifers that received E2 cypionate (ECP) on Day 9 (0.5 mg; E48) or 54 or 72 hours later in conjunction with administration of GnRH (100 μg; G54 or G72). Synchronization with CIDR1 resulted in greater serum P4 concentrations and smaller follicle diameters on Days 7 and 9 in both experiments. In experiment 1, treatment with CIDR for 9 days decreased the interval from CIDR removal to estrus (Day 7, 3.76 ± 0.08 days vs. Day 9, 2.90 ± 0.07; P < 0.01) and improved conception (Day 7, 57.1% vs. Day 9, 65.8%; P = 0.05) and pregnancy rates (Day 7, 37.6% vs. Day 9, 45.3%; P = 0.04). In experiment 2, treatment with ECP improved (P < 0.01) the proportion of heifers in estrus (E48, 40.9%(a); G54, 17.1%(c); and G72, 32.0%(b)), but the pregnancy rate was not affected (P = 0.64) by treatments (E48, 38.8%; G54, 35.5%; G72, 37.5%). Synchronization with CIDR3 increased follicle diameter at FTAI (CIDR1, 11.07 ± 0.10 vs. CIDR3, 11.61 ± 0.10 mm; P < 0.01), ovulation rate (CIDR1, 82.8% vs. CIDR3, 88.0%; P < 0.01) and did not affect conception (CIDR1, 42.2 vs. CIDR3, 45.1%; P = 0.38) or pregnancy rates (CIDR1, 34.7 vs. CIDR3, 39.4%; P = 0.11). In conclusion, length of treatment with P4 affected the fertility of heifers bred based on estrus detection

  7. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P; Reynolds, James P; Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Juchem, Sérgio O; Overton, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Objectives were to determine factors associated with conception rate (CR) and pregnancy loss (PL) in high producing lactating Holstein cows. In Study 1, CR was evaluated in 7633 artificial inseminations (AI) of 3161 dairy cows in two dairy farms. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by palpation per rectum 39+/-3 days after AI. Environmental temperature was recorded at different intervals prior to and after AI. In Study 2, 1465 pregnancies from 1393 cows diagnosed at 31+/-3 days after AI by ultrasonography on three dairy farms were re-examined 14 days later to determine PL. Temperature > or =29 degrees C was considered to be heat stress (HS). Exposure to HS was defined as following: NH, no heat stress; HS1, exposure to at least 1 day of maximum temperature > or =29 degrees C and average daily maximum temperature (ADMT) or =29 degrees C. In Study 1, exposure of cows to HS1 and HS2 from 50 to 20 prior to AI was associated with reduced CR compared to cows not exposed to HS (28.8, 23.0, and 31.3%, respectively). Post-AI HS was not associated with CR. Cows inseminated following estrus detection or timed AI had similar CR. As the number of AI increased, CR decreased. Multiparous cows had lower CR than primiparous cows, and occurrence of milk fever and retained placenta was associated with decreased CR. In Study 2, PL was not associated with exposure to HS either prior to or after AI. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis experienced increased PL, but parity, number of AI, AI protocol, milk production, and days postpartum at AI were not associated with PL. In conclusion, CR was affected by HS prior to AI, parity, number of AI, and postparturient diseases, whereas PL was affected by clinical mastitis.

  8. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

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    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  9. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2α injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7

  10. The concurrent and carry over effects of long term changes in energy intake before insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M H; Crowe, M A; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Fair, T; Diskin, M G

    2015-06-01

    Follicle development in a period of negative energy balance (NEB), as experienced by the postpartum dairy cow, could be affected by undesirable metabolic changes, and may contain a developmentally incompetent oocyte with an impaired potential to establish a pregnancy. A differential feeding model in heifers was developed to evaluate the concurrent and carryover effects of reduced energy intake before insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Heifers were randomly assigned to either (i) control feed intake group (CF), n=68, 1.3 times estimated maintenance energy (M) requirements for 50 days and 2.0 M for 83 days or (ii) restricted feed intake (RF), n=88, 0.65 M for 50 days and 2.0 M for 83 days. Pregnancy per AI was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at day 30 following AI. Despite significant loss of live weight (LW; 5.8±2.1 vs 70.5±2.8 kg, respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 0.05±0.03 vs 0.45±0.03) and a significant elevation in systemic concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids in RF heifers, there was no concurrent effect on P/AI (69 vs 72%) following AI at day 50. However, there was a carryover effect on P/AI as there was an 18 percentage point difference (64 vs 82%) between CF and RF heifers following AI on day 93. The results of the study indicate that a reduction in energy intake for a 50-day period pre-insemination had no concurrent effect but had a positive carryover effect on P/AI.

  11. Delayed insemination of nonestrous cows improves pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in timed artificial insemination of suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Lock, S L; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-04-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.

  12. Development of a modified artificial insemination technique combining penile vibration stimulation and the swim-up method in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Suzuki, Yuiko; Katoh, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is used as a New World monkey species in biomedical studies because of its small body size and good reproduction in captivity. A modified artificial insemination technique was developed in this species to encourage breeding of lines carrying interesting genes and traits. Fresh semen was collected by penile vibratory stimulation. Medium containing highly motile sperm was inseminated into the uterus using a catheter. Seven females were inseminated using freshly prepared sperm from different males every day for 3 days including the expected ovulation day. As a result, four females conceived, and three females delivered six offspring in total (two singletons and one quadruplet). The paternity of the newborns was determined using microsatellite markers to accurately pinpoint the timing of insemination and ovulation. It is expected that our artificial insemination protocol can be effectively used to establish marmoset lines and genetically manage marmoset colonies.

  13. Presence of contagious agalactia causing mycoplasmas in Spanish goat artificial insemination centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; De la Fe, C

    2011-04-15

    Male goats admitted to artificial insemination centres come from herds that have shown no clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia (CA) for the last 6 mo. However, prior reports suggest that this control measure may not be completely effective. This study was designed to detect the presence of CA-causing mycoplasmas in 9 Spanish centres, comprising 159 goats (147 males and 12 teaser does) of 8 different breeds. A microbiological study was conducted during 8 mo on 448 samples (318 ear swabs, 119 semen samples and 11 milk samples). In 86 samples (84 swabs, 1 semen sample and 1 milk sample), CA-causative mycoplasmas were detected by PCR or culture, and 52 animals (49 goat males and 3 teaser does) tested positive. Most of these positive animals were auricular carriers (n = 50), mainly of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), although some M. agalactiae (Ma) and, interestingly, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) carriers were also identified. At least 1 animal infected by CA-causing mycoplasmas was detected in 8 of the 9 centres (88.8%) although in most (66.7%) no infected animals or only 1 or 2 positive animals were identified. Our results indicate the presence of CA carriers as asymptomatic animals in reproductive programmes. These findings have already prompted efficient measures to detect and avoid the entry of these carriers in Spanish centres. We recommend similar measures for all centres in areas where CA is endemic.

  14. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  15. Timing associated with oviductal sperm storage and release after artificial insemination in domestic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, N; Birkhead, T R; Brillard, J P; Froment, P; Briere, S

    2015-04-15

    Female birds store sperm in sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the uterovaginal junction of their reproductive tract for days or weeks (depending on species) before fertilization. Sperm are transported from the SSTs to the infundibulum where fertilization occurs immediately after ovulation of each ovum. The timing of sperm release from the SSTs relative to ovulation is unknown for any bird. Here, we show that, after artificial insemination of domestic fowl Gallus domesticus, sperm are not accepted into any region of the oviduct before sexual maturity. Once hens reach maturity, there is a temporal shift in the distribution of sperm throughout the oviduct. Sperm are first accepted into and accumulate in the SSTs 6 to 8 days before ovulation but are at this point significantly less numerous in the infundibulum. From 1 to 6 days before ovulation, approximately 10-fold more sperm (235 × 10(3) sperm) populate the infundibulum than at 6 to 8 days before ovulation (26 × 10(3) sperm; P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the mechanisms underlying sperm acceptance and release in the oviduct are under fine temporal control, most likely mediated by female hormones.

  16. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; Pinseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols.

  17. Efficient Boar Semen Production and Genetic Contribution: The Impact of Low-Dose Artificial Insemination on Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Gaustad, A H; Bolarin Guillén, A; Knol, E F

    2015-07-01

    Diluting semen from high fertile breeding boars, and by that inseminating many sows, is the core business for artificial insemination (AI) companies worldwide. Knowledge about fertility results is the reason by which an AI company can lower the concentration of a dose. Efficient use of AI boars with high genetic merit by decreasing the number of sperm cells per insemination dose is important to maximize dissemination of the genetic progress made in the breeding nucleus. However, a potential decrease in fertility performance in the field should be weighed against the added value of improved genetics and, in general, is not tolerated in commercial production. This overview provides some important aspects that influence the impact of low-dose AI on fertility: (i) the importance of monitoring field fertility, (ii) the need for accurate and precise semen assessment, (iii) the parameters that are taken into account, (iv) the application of information from genetic and genomic selection and (v) the optimization when using different AI techniques. Efficient semen production, processing and insemination in combination with increasing use of genetic and genomic applications result in maximum impact of genetic trend.

  18. Effect of time of artificial insemination on embryo sex ratio in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h

  19. Partial replacement of chicken semen by turkey semen in artificial insemination of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavora, J S; Hodgson, G C

    1976-07-01

    Chicken semen undiluted, diluted with a diluent containing fructose and/or mixed with turkey semen was used to inseminate Leghorn hens. In two of three experiments there was an improvement in fertility from insemination by mixed semen as compared to semen diluted to the same extent with the diluent.

  20. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy.

  1. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  2. An in situ hybridization study of the effects of artificial insemination on the localization of cells expressing MHC class II mRNA in the chicken oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W M; Nishibori, M; Isobe, N; Yoshimura, Y

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of artificial insemination on the localization of antigen-presenting cells expressing MHC class II mRNA in chicken oviducts. Laying hens (35 weeks old) were inseminated with fresh semen or sham-inseminated with saline daily for 3 days. In situ hybridization was performed to detect chicken MHC class II (B-LB21 major gene) mRNA on frozen sections of oviductal infundibulum, uterovaginal junction and vagina by using digoxigenin-labelled PCR probes. Cells expressing MHC class II were observed mainly in the oviductal mucosal stroma and occasionally in the mucosal epithelium. After 24 h, the population of cells expressing MHC class II in the infundibulum was significantly higher in laying hens inseminated with fresh semen than in the control hens sham-inseminated with saline (P artificially inseminated and control hens. These results indicate that anti-sperm immune responses, including the influx of cells expressing MHC class II and enhanced MHC class II mRNA expression, probably occur in the infundibulum after artificial insemination.

  3. Estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Sethi, Debabrata; Gulyani, Rajiv; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the success of estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region. A total of 471 ewes belonging to 17 farmers of four villages in Tonk district of Rajasthan (Jelmiya, Dhani Jaisinghpura, Tantiya and Bheepur) were synchronized for estrus during the years 2011 and 2012. Synchronization of estrus was done by AVIKESIL-S, cost-effective intra-vaginal sponges developed by the Institute and eCG protocol. The sponges were kept in situ in the vagina for 12 days and 200 IU eCG (Folligon, Intervet) was administered intramuscularly at the time of sponge withdrawal on the 12th day. Fixed-time cervical insemination was performed twice in ewes exhibiting estrus (restlessness, shaking of tail, slightly swollen vulva, moist and reddish cervical external os), 48 and 56 h after sponge removal, using liquid chilled semen of Patanwadi/Malpura rams containing 100 million sperm per dose. The estrus response recorded was 79.4 % (374/471) and lambing rate was 60.42 % (226/374). It may be concluded from the encouraging results of the present study that FTAI can be used effectively to take advantage of both the genetic improvement and economic benefit that can be realized by the use of estrus synchronization in conjunction with artificial insemination (AI).

  4. Artificial insemination of individually caged broiler breeders. 1. Reproductive performance of males in relation to age and strain of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, G A; Crober, D C; Buckland, R B; Sefton, A E; Kennedy, B W

    1980-02-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the reproductive capacity of male broiler breeders used for artificial insemination over an extended period and mated to females of six strains. Biweekly determinations were made of semen volume, semen concentration, and spermatozoal motility for each of the 47 males caged individually from their 39th to 63rd week of age. The percent fertility, duration of fertility, and percent hatchability were determined at five-week intervals (periods) using three young and three force-molted broiler female strains. With young female strains, the mean percent fertility for a 7-day collection of eggs following a single insemination (1 to 7 days) ranged from 95.7 to 81.1 over six consecutive periods. The mean duration of fertility (days) and the mean percent hatchability of fertile eggs was 13.3 and 13.0, and 92.5 and 84.9 respectively, for the first two periods. With force-molted hens, the mean percent fertility (1 to 7 days) ranged between 97.2 and 86.0 over the first three periods, and the mean duration of fertility and the mean percent hatchability was 13.2 and 12.8, and 91.5 and 84.1, respectively, for the first two periods. Fertility of eggs collected for 10 days following a single insemination was slightly but consistently lower than fertility over 7 days for both female groups. Significant differences among males and between periods existed for each semen trait. The effects of male, young female strain and period on fertility and duration of fertility were significant. Hatchability was significantly affected by period only. No male by female strain interaction existed for percent fertility or hatchability. A significant male by period interaction existed for percent fertility, semen volume and concentration. The results obtained are considered to support the feasibility of maintaining broiler breeders in cages and the use of artificial insemination (AI) to produce broiler hatching eggs.

  5. The use of PGF2α as ovulatory stimulus for timed artificial insemination in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Leonardi, C E P; Castro, N A; Viana, J H M; Siqueira, L G B; Castilho, E M; Singh, J; Krusser, R H; Rubin, M I B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a PGF2α-analogue (PGF) on ovulation and pregnancy rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in cattle. In experiment 1, crossbred dual-purpose heifers, in a crossover design (3 × 3), were given an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) plus 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) intramuscularly (im) and 250 μg of a PGF-analogue im on Day 0. The CIDR inserts were removed 5 days after follicular wave emergence, and the heifers were randomly divided into three treatment groups to receive the following treatments: (1) 1 mg of EB im (EB group, n = 13); (2) 500 μg of PGF im (PG group, n = 13); or (3) saline (control group, n = 13), 24 hours after CIDR removal. Ovulation occurred earlier in EB (69.81 ± 3.23 hours) and PG groups (73.09 ± 3.23 hours) compared with control (83.07 ± 4.6 hours; P = 0.01) after CIDR removal. In experiment 2, pubertal beef heifers (n = 444), 12 to 14 months of age were used. On Day 0, the heifers were given a CIDR insert plus 2 mg EB im. On Day 9, the CIDR was removed and the heifers were given 500 μg of PGF im. Heifers were randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups: (1) 1 mg of EB (EB group; n = 145); (2) 500 μg of PGF (PG group; n = 149), both 24 hours after CIDR removal; or (3) 600 μg of estradiol cypionate (ECP group; n = 150) at CIDR removal. Timed artificial insemination occurred 48 hours after CIDR removal in the ECP group and 54 hours in the PG and EB groups. The percentage of heifers ovulating was higher in the PG group compared with the other groups (P = 0.08). However, the pregnancy rates did not differ among groups (47.6%, 45%, and 46.6%, for EB, PG, and ECP, respectively; P = 0.9). In experiment 3, 224 lactating beef cows, 40 to 50 days postpartum with 2.5 to 3.5 of body condition score were treated similarly as described in experiment 2, except for the ECP group, which was excluded. The treatments were as follows

  6. Reproductive performance of dairy cows managed with a program aimed at increasing insemination of cows in estrus based on increased physical activity and fertility of timed artificial inseminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Chandler, W C; Watters, R D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows using a treatment (TRT) program for second and subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services aimed at (1) increasing AI upon estrus detection based on increased physical activity (AIAct) and (2) increasing fertility of timed AI (TAI) services for cows not AIAct through presynchronization of the estrous cycle and improved physiological milieu before TAI. Cows in the control (CON) group were managed with a program that combined AIAct and TAI after the Ovsynch protocol. After nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) by transrectal ultrasonography at 31 ± 3 d after AI, cows received the following treatments: (1) CON (n=634), AIAct any time after a previous AI and resynchronization with the Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI) 1d after NPD, or (2) TRT (n = 616): cows with a corpus luteum (CL) ≥ 20 mm (TRT-CL) received a PGF2α injection 1d after NPD, whereas cows with no CL or a CL insemination after NPD were greater for cows in the TRT (17 d) than the CON (10 d) group, which coupled with similar fertility to AIAct, and TAI failed to improve overall reproductive performance. A low proportion of cows with a CL at NPD (65.2%) and a poor response to PGF2α may explain the poor estrus detection efficiency in the TRT group. We concluded that, when compared with a typical estrus detection and TAI program for cows failing to conceive to previous AI services, a program aimed at increasing the proportion of cows AIAct after NPD and fertility of TAI services increased the proportion of cows AIAct but failed to reduce days to pregnancy during lactation because of greater days to AI after NPD.

  7. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males.

  8. Genetic parameters of reproductive traits in Brown Tsaiya ducks artificially inseminated with semen from Muscovy drakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poivey, J P; Cheng, Y S; Rouvier, R; Tai, C; Wang, C T; Liu, H L

    2001-06-01

    A selection experiment on maximum duration of fertility of Brown Tsaiya ducks after artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen has been conducted since 1992. The Brown Tsaiya ducks were divided into two lines: a control line (T) with no selection and a selected line (S). The traits measured were the number of eggs set that were laid from Days 2 to 15 after one AI (NES), the number of fertile eggs at candling (NEF), the total number of dead embryos (NED), the maximum duration of fertility (MD), and the number of hatched mule ducklings (NEH). The selected trait was NEF. Six generations with a total of 2,127 females were measured. The variance components were estimated for each line in a multiple-trait animal model, using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology, which yields estimates free of bias caused by selection and inbreeding. Estimates of the heritability and genetic correlation from the two lines were very similar. Heritabilities in the S and T lines, respectively, were 0.14 and 0.10 for NES, 0.30 and 0.26 for NEF, 0.06 and 0.09 for NED, 0.28 and 0.21 for MD, and 0.18 and 0.19 for NEH. High and favorable genetic correlations existed between NEF and MD (0.96 and 0.92), between NEF and NEH (0.86 and 0.91), and between MD and NEH (0.90 and 0.82). The results suggested that selection for NEF could improve the maximum duration of fertility, but it could be useful to check the estimates of genetic parameters in a meat-type female duck.

  9. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ESTABLISHING AN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI CENTER FOR CARABAOS IN SAN ILDEFONSO, BULACAN, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Arrienda II

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the carabao subsector is influenced by several constraints such as social,technical, economic and policy factors. The need to enhance the local production of carabaos will helplocal farmers to increase their income. Thus, producing thorough breeds of carabaos and improving itgenetically is the best response to these constraints. This study was conducted to present the feasibilitystudy of establishing an Artificial Insemination (AI Center and its planned area of operation in Brgy.San Juan, Ildefonso, Bulacan. The market, production, organizational and financial viability of operatingthe business would also be evaluated. This particular study will provide insights in establishing an AICenter. Included in this study is the identification of anticipated problems that could affect the businessand recommendation of specific courses of action to counteract these possible problems. Primary datawere obtained through interviews with key informants from the Philippine. Carabao Center (PCC. Togain insights about the present status of an AI Center, interviews with the technicians of PCC and privatefarm were done to get additional information. Secondary data were acquired from various literatures andfrom San Ildefonso Municipal Office. The proposed area would be 1,500 square meters that would beallotted for the laboratory and bullpen. The AI Center will operate six days a week and will be openedfrom 8 AM until 5 PM. However, customers or farmers can call the technicians beyond the office hoursin case of emergency. The total initial investment of Php 3,825,417.39 is needed in establishing the AICenter. The whole amount will be sourced from the owner’s equity. Financial projection showed an IRRof 30% with a computed NPV of Php 2,415,597.00 and a payback period of 3.97 years. Based on all themarket, technical, organizational, financial factors, projections and data analysis, it is said that thisbusiness endeavor is viable and feasible.

  10. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Kolb

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  11. Protein expression pattern of PAWP in bull spermatozoa is associated with sperm quality and fertility following artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chelsey E; Krieger, Kari Beth; Sutovsky, Miriam; Xu, Wei; Vargovič, Peter; Didion, Bradley A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hennessy, Madison E; Verstegen, John; Oko, Richard; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Post-acrosomal WW-domain binding protein (PAWP) is a signaling molecule located in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS) of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized that the proper integration of PAWP in the sperm PAS is reflective of bull-sperm quality and fertility. Cryopreserved semen samples from 298 sires of acceptable, but varied, fertility used in artificial insemination services were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for PAWP protein. In normal spermatozoa, PAWP fluorescence formed a regular band around the proximal PAS. Anomalies of PAWP labeling in defective spermatozoa were reflected in flow cytometry by varied intensities of PAWP-induced fluorescence. Distinct sperm phenotypes were also identified, including morphologically normal and some defective spermatozoa with moderate levels of PAWP; grossly defective spermatozoa with low/no PAWP; and defective spermatozoa with high PAWP. Analysis by ImageStream flow cytometry confirmed the prevalence of abnormal sperm phenotypes in the spermatozoa with abnormal PAWP content. Live/dead staining and video recording showed that some abnormal spermatozoa are viable and capable of progressive motility. Conventional flow-cytometric measurements of PAWP correlated significantly with semen quality and fertility parameters that reflect the sires' artificial insemination fertility, including secondary sperm morphology, conception rate, non-return rate, and residual value. A multiplex, flow-cytometric test detecting PAWP, aggresomes (ubiquitinated protein aggregates), and acrosomal integrity (peanut-agglutinin-lectin labeling) had a predictive value for conception rate, as demonstrated by step-wise regression analysis. We conclude that PAWP correlates with semen/fertility parameters used in the cattle artificial insemination industry, making PAWP a potential biomarker of bull fertility.

  12. Intravaginal artificial insemination in bitches using frozen/thawed semen after dilution in powdered coconut water (ACP-106c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, D C; Silva, T F P; Mota Filho, A C; Silva, L D M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ACP-106c, 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, cooled and frozen. In the first phase of the study, straws with frozen semen were thawed and immediately subjected to the same analysis as the fresh semen and, in addition, to Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). In phase 2, 10 bitches that had been subjected to natural breeding during a preceding oestrous cycle were vaginally inseminated with thawed semen that had been re-diluted in ACP-106c. After thawing, a mean of 77% sperm motility was obtained through subjective analysis and 77.3% through CASA. Following artificial insemination, a 60% pregnancy rate was observed, resulting in a 50% parturition rate and a mean litter size of 3.4 (SEM 0.6), with 47.1% males and 52.9% females. ACP-106c can be successfully used for freezing canine semen, and vaginal deposition of such semen yields similar pregnancy rates to those reported in other studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination improves pregnancy success in exogenous gonadotropin-treated domestic cats as a model for endangered felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Bateman, Helen L; Schook, Mandi W; Newsom, Jackie; Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Deddens, James A; Swanson, William F

    2013-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats traditionally uses equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular development and ovulation, with subsequent bilateral laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. However, long-acting hCG generates undesirable secondary ovulations in cats. Uterine AI also requires relatively high numbers of spermatozoa for fertilization (~8 × 10(6) sperm), and unfortunately, sperm recovery from felids is frequently poor. Using short-acting porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) instead of hCG, and using the oviduct as the site of sperm deposition, could improve fertilization success while requiring fewer spermatozoa. Our objectives were to compare pregnancy and fertilization success between 1) uterine and oviductal inseminations and 2) eCG/hCG and eCG/pLH regimens in domestic cats. Sixteen females received either eCG (100 IU)/hCG (75 IU) or eCG (100 IU)/pLH (1000 IU). All females ovulated and were inseminated in one uterine horn and the contralateral oviduct using fresh semen (1 × 10(6) motile sperm/site) from a different male for each site. Pregnant females (11/16; 69%) were spayed approximately 20 days post-AI, and fetal paternity was genetically determined. The number of corpora lutea (CL) at AI was similar between hormone regimens, but hCG increased the number of CL at 20 days post-AI. Numbers of pregnancies and normal fetuses were similar between regimens. Implantation abnormalities were observed in the hCG group only. Finally, oviductal AI produced more fetuses than uterine AI. In summary, laparoscopic oviductal AI with low sperm numbers in eCG/hCG- or eCG/pLH-treated females resulted in high pregnancy and fertilization percentages in domestic cats. Our subsequent successes with oviductal AI in eCG/pLH-treated nondomestic felids to produce healthy offspring supports cross-species applicability.

  14. Sperm distribution and fertilization after unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen-thawed goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakkul, Nitira; Suwimonteerabutr, Junpen; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Khunmanee, Sarawanee; Diloksumpan, Paweena; Berg, Debra K; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2014-11-01

    Generally, laparoscopic artificial insemination (LAI) provides a higher success rate than of cervical insemination in goats. However, the sperm distribution after LAI in goats remains unknown, particularly when frozen-thawed semen is used. This study evaluated the distribution of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa after LAI and compared the effects of sperm numbers and deposition sites (unilateral and bilateral sites) on pregnancy rate. In experiment 1, the frozen-thawed spermatozoa were stained either with CellTracker Green CMFDA (CT-Green) or CellTracker Red CMPTX (CT-Red), and in vitro evaluations of viability and motility were performed. In experiment 2, the labeled spermatozoa were deposited via LAI into the left (CT-Green) and right (CT-Red) uterine horns (n = 4). After ovariohysterectomy (6 hours after insemination), the distributions of green- and red-colored spermatozoa were assessed via tissue section, flushing, and the oviductal contents were also collected. Experiment 3 was designed to test the pregnancy rates in a group of 120 does after LAI using different numbers of spermatozoa (60 and 120 × 10(6) sperm per LAI) and different deposition sites. The results demonstrated that the fluorochromes used in this study did not impair sperm motility or viability. Frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa can migrate transuterinally after LAI, as evidenced by the observations of both CT-Green- and CT-Red-labeled spermatozoa in both uterine horns. Lower numbers of spermatozoa (60 × 10(6)) that are inseminated unilaterally (either ipsilateral or contralateral to the site of ovulation) can efficiently be used for LAI in goats (with a 56.67% pregnancy rate).

  15. Fertility after deep intra-uterine artificial insemination of concentrated low-volume boar semen doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtawan, Tuempong; Saravia, Fernando; Wallgren, Margareta; Caballero, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2006-03-01

    Boar semen can be successfully frozen - highly packed - in small containers (medium-straw, MS or MiniFlatPack, MFP). The use of deep intra-uterine artificial insemination (DIU-AI) can make possible the deposition of small volumes of this thawed, non re-extended semen deeply intra-uterine, close to the sperm reservoir. The present experiments studied the fertility achieved after single or double DIU-AI per oestrus, with special attention to the interval between AI and spontaneous ovulation. Semen from two boars of proven fertility was frozen in MS or MFP holding 1 x 10(9) total spermatozoa. Multiparous (2-5 parity, n=42) crossbred sows were checked for oestrous behaviour after weaning and the occurrence of spontaneous ovulation was checked with transrectal ultrasonography (TUS) to establish the mean interval between onset of oestrus (OO) and ovulation which was found to be when approximately 2/3 of the oestrus period has passed. The sows were, in the following standing oestrus, subjected to DIU-AI using thawed semen from either MS (n=20) or MFP (n=22), inseminated without further re-extension. The sows were randomly allotted to one of three groups: (1) single DIU-AI 8 h before expected ovulation (control group, n=19); (2) single DIU-AI 4 h before expected ovulation (treatment group S, n=15); and (3) double DIU-AI 12 and 4 h before expected ovulation (treatment group D, n=8). Occurrence of spontaneous ovulation was confirmed by TUS, performed as during the first oestrous period and used to determine the real interval of DIU-AI and ovulation. Pregnancy was also confirmed by TUS 28 days after OO in those sows not returning to oestrus. These sows were slaughtered (30-45 days of pregnancy), and the appearance of the reproductive tract and ovaries, the number of live and dead foetuses, of implantation sites and of corpora lutea (CL) were recorded. Sows (n=9) returning to oestrus ("open") were re-inseminated (either once [n=4] or twice [n=5]) the following oestrus with

  16. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the breed (percentage of Rideau Arcott genotype) and lifetime lamb production in seasonally anestrous ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before

  17. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  18. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  19. Latent infection of male goats with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri at an artificial insemination centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Gómez Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Corrales, Juan C; Sánchez, Antonio; Poveda, José B; Contreras, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Contagious agalactia affects goats and is caused by several species of mycoplasma including Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc). Male goats, latently infected with M. agalactiae and Mmc, were identified at a dairy goat breeding artificial insemination centre. In three samplings, conducted over 1 year, ear swabs were assessed for both of the above organisms using culture and PCR techniques. Serological examination for antibodies against these organisms was performed at each time-point and conjunctival, nasal, rectal and preputial swabs were taken from a sub-sample of animals. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and M. agalactiae were detected in 80 and four ear swabs, respectively and serology confirmed the presence of both agents. A point prevalence of 0.06 goats infected with Mmc at the first sampling point increased to 0.97 at the last sampling, suggesting spread of infection. Both organisms were also detected in preputial and conjunctival swabs suggesting the shedding of these pathogens by other routes. These findings should inform World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines on avoiding the introduction of such pathogens into artificial insemination centres and suggest the need to review current recommendations.

  20. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP: hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA. Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF, which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P0.05. The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required.

  1. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  2. Timed artificial insemination should be performed early when used norgestomet ear implants are applied for synchronizing ovulation in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Penteado, L; Siqueira, G R; Soares, J G; Mendanha, M F; Macedo, G G; Baruselli, P S

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the type of norgestomet ear implant (new vs. used) on the ovarian follicular response (experiment 1) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) (P/AI; experiment 2) of beef heifers subjected to an estradiol plus progestin timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. In experiment 1, 57 cyclic beef heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the type (new or previously used for 9 days) of norgestomet ear (NORG) implant. At the time of NORG implant insertion, the heifers were treated with 2 mg of intramuscular estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the NORG implants were removed, and the heifers received an intramuscular administration of 150 μg of d-cloprostenol, 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate. The heifers had their ovaries scanned every 12 hours from the time of NORG implant removal to 96 hours after verifying the occurrence and timing of ovulation. No difference (P = 0.89) was observed in the ovulation rates between the two treatments (new = 80.0%; 24/30 vs. used = 81.5%; 22/27). However, the heifers treated with a used NORG implant had (P = 0.04) higher proportion (36.4%; 8/22) of early ovulation (between 36 and 48 hours after NORG implant removal) compared with the heifers treated with a new NORG implant (8.3%; 2/24). In experiment 2, at the beginning of the synchronization protocol, 416 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two groups, as described in the experiment 1. Two days after the NORG implant removal, the heifers were reassigned to be inseminated at 48 or 54 hours after NORG implant removal. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between the type of NORG implant and the timing of TAI on P/AI. The timing of insemination only had an effect (P = 0.02) on the P/AI when the heifers were treated with a used NORG implant [(TAI 54 hours = 41.9% (44/105) vs. TAI 48 hours = 58.6% (58/99)]. In conclusion, beef heifers synchronized with a used NORG implant

  3. Effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination on expression of interferon-stimulated genes and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Ribeiro, E S; Maciel, R P; Dias, A L G; Solé, E; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Sartori, R; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination (AI) on expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in blood leukocytes and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Weekly cohorts of Holstein cows were blocked by parity (575 primiparous and 923 multiparous) and method of insemination (timed AI or AI on estrus) and allocated randomly within each block to untreated controls, a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) containing 1.38g of progesterone from d 4 to 18 after AI (CIDR4), or a CIDR on d 4 and another on d 7 after AI and both removed on d 18 (CIDR4+7). Blood was sampled to quantify progesterone concentrations in plasma and mRNA expression in leukocytes for the ubiquitin-like IFN-stimulated gene 15-kDa protein (ISG15) and receptor transporter protein-4 (RTP4) genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34±3 and 62±3 after AI. Treatment increased progesterone concentrations between d 5 and 18 after AI in a dose-dependent manner (control=3.42, CIDR4=4.97, and CIDR4+7=5.46ng/mL). Cows supplemented with progesterone tended to have increased luteolysis by d 19 after AI (control=17.2; CIDR4=29.1; CIDR4+7=30.2%), which resulted in a shorter AI interval for those reinseminated after study d 18. Pregnancy upregulated expression of ISG in leukocytes on d 19 of gestation, but supplementing progesterone did not increase mRNA abundance for ISG15 and RTP4 on d 16 after insemination and tended to reduce mRNA expression on d 19 after AI. For RTP4 on d 19, the negative effect of supplemental progesterone was observed only in the nonpregnant cows. No overall effect of treatment was observed on pregnancy per AI on d 62 after insemination and averaged 28.6, 32.7, and 29.5% for control, CIDR4, and CIDR4+7, respectively. Interestingly, an interaction between level of supplemental progesterone and method of AI was observed for pregnancy per AI. For cows receiving exogenous progesterone, the lower supplementation with CIDR4

  4. Changes in the expression of estrogen receptor mRNA in the utero-vaginal junction containing sperm storage tubules in laying hens after repeated artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubash Chandra; Nagasaka, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2006-03-01

    The objective was to determine whether expression of estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) of laying hens was altered after repeated artificial insemination (AI). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of mRNA of the two types of receptor, ERalpha and ERbeta. Only ERalpha mRNA was expressed in all segments of the oviducts of both virgin and artificially inseminated birds, whereas ERbeta mRNA was expressed in ovarian follicles but not in the oviduct. The expression of ERalpha mRNA in the UVJ was significantly decreased after repeated AI, whereas that in the uterus was not significantly different between virgin and inseminated birds. Since estrogen may be involved in maintaining the sperm storage function of sperm storage tubules, the decreased expression of ERalpha mRNA in the UVJ after repeated AI may contribute to reduced fertility in these birds.

  5. Effect of exogenous progesterone supplementation in the early luteal phase post-insemination on pregnancy per artificial insemination in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M H; Crowe, M A; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Rizos, D; Diskin, M G

    2014-11-10

    One of the main determining factors of pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) is an optimum concentration of progesterone (P4) in the early luteal phase. This study examined the effects of P4 supplementation on P/AI in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 453 cows in 8 spring-calving herds were used in the study. Following AI, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) no subsequent treatment (control; n=221); (2) insertion of a Controlled Internal Drug Release device (CIDR) from day 4 to day 9 post-estrus (supplemented; n=232). Pregnancy per AI was determined by transrectal ultrasonography at day 30 following AI. Insertion of a CIDR increased concentrations of milk P4 in supplemented cows by 4.78ng/mL between day 4 and 4.5 in comparison with a 0.55ng/mL increase in control cows. Progesterone supplementation from day 4 to 9 after AI decreased P/AI by 12 percentage points (56 vs 44%). There was a positive linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and milk concentration of P4 on day 4 post-estrus in control cows. An optimum concentration of 2.5ng/mL on day 4 was calculated from the logistic regression curve to achieve a probability of P/AI of 65%. When both treatments groups were included in the analysis, there was no association between P/AI and concentrations of P4 on day 4. The results of the study indicate that supplementation with P4 initiated in the early luteal phase had a negative effect on P/AI in dairy cows.

  6. Factors affecting conception rates following artificial insemination or embryo transfer in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Demetrio, C G B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that may affect conception rates (CR) following artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET) in lactating Holstein cows. Estrous cycling cows producing 33.1 +/- 7.2 kg of milk/d received PGF2alpha injections and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (AI or ET). Cows detected in estrus (n = 387) between 48 and 96 h after the PGF2alpha injection received AI (n = 227) 12 h after detection of estrus or ET (n = 160) 6 to 8 d later (1 fresh embryo, grade 1 or 2, produced from nonlactating cows). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 42 d after estrus, and embryonic loss occurred when a cow was pregnant on d 28 but not pregnant on d 42. Ovulation, conception, and embryonic loss were analyzed by a logistic model to evaluate the effects of covariates [days in milk (DIM), milk yield, body temperature (BT) at d 7 and 14 post-AI, and serum concentration of progesterone (P4) at d 7 and 14 post-AI] on the probability of success. The first analysis included all cows that were detected in estrus. The CR of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 32.6% vs. ET, 49.4%) and 42 (AI, 29.1% vs. ET, 38.8%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7) and DIM. The second analysis included only cows with a corpus luteum on d 7. Ovulation rate was 84.8% and was only negatively affected by DIM. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.9% vs. ET, 59.4%) and 42 (AI, 33.8% vs. ET, 46.6%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). The third analysis included only ovulating cows that were 7 d postestrus. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.5% vs. ET, 63.2%) and 42 (AI, 31.7% vs. ET, 51.7%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). There was a positive effect of serum concentration of P4 and a negative effect of milk production on the probability of conception for the AI group but not for the ET group. The fourth analysis was embryonic loss (AI, 10.8% vs. ET, 21.5%). The transfer

  7. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  8. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Shahram; Abdulahnejad, Ahad; Rashidi, Farzad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2016-06-17

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 10(9) sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks.

  9. Comparative fertility of freshly collected vs frozen-thawed semen with laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambo, C A; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A; Bateman, H l; Newsom, J; Swanson, W F

    2012-12-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is potentially invaluable as an adjunct to natural breeding for the conservation management of non-domestic felid populations. The efficacy of AI, however, must be substantially improved for applied use, especially when using frozen semen. Our recent advances in using laparoscopic oviductal AI (LO-AI) with low sperm numbers and freezing of cat semen in a soy lecithin-based cryoprotectant medium suggest that combining these two approaches might improve pregnancy outcomes with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. In this study, our objectives were to (i) assess the effect of two gonadotropin dosages (100 vs 150 IU eCG) on ovarian response in domestic cats and (ii) compare the relative fertility of frozen-thawed and fresh semen in vivo following LO-AI. All 16 females ovulated after gonadotropin treatment and were inseminated with fresh semen from one male and frozen-thawed semen from a second male. There were no differences between gonadotropin dosages in CL number, pregnancy percentage or litter size. Half (8/16) of the females conceived, with seven females giving birth to a total of 36 offspring. Paternity analysis showed that more kittens resulted from LO-AI with fresh (28/36, 78%) than frozen-thawed (8/36, 22%) semen, possibly due to impaired motility and longevity of thawed sperm. These results demonstrated that viable offspring can be produced by AI using semen frozen in a soy lecithin-based medium. Insemination with greater numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, combined with further refinement of cat sperm cryopreservation methods, may be necessary to optimize pregnancy success with LO-AI in domestic and nondomestic cats.

  10. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals.

  11. Impact of the quality of life of inseminators on the results of artificial insemination programs in beef cattle Impacto da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nos resultados de programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte

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    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of factors of personal life and work conditions on the results obtained by inseminators in conventional and fixed-timed artificial insemination programs in beef cattle. Inseminators from three farms (21 in the total were interviewed and evaluated according to the general obtained pregnancy rates. The differences among the pregnancy rates obtained in the farms, motivation and its association with the obtained pregnancy rate and the effect of each variable of the groups of needs on the pregnancy rate at first insemination were evaluated. The open questions were grouped by similarity and then analyzed by frequency of the answers. Pregnancy rates obtained by the inseminators ranged from 12 to 57%, with a mean service index of 3.10 ± 1.62 doses/pregnancy. It was also observed that the satisfaction of biological, financial, and training needs was more intimately related to the pregnancy rate than the satisfaction of the other needs, although none had shown an antagonistic relationship with it. Factors concerned to life quality and to the work can be important in determining the performance of these professionals.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho sobre os resultados obtidos por inseminadores em programas de inseminação artificial convencional e em tempo fixo em bovinos de corte. Inseminadores de três propriedades rurais (21 no total foram entrevistados e avaliados quanto à taxa de gestação geral obtida. Foram avaliadas as diferenças entre as taxas de gestação obtidas nas fazendas, a motivação e sua associação com a taxa de gestação obtida e o efeito de cada variável dos grupos de necessidades sobre a taxa de gestação à primeira inseminação. As questões abertas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade, foram analisadas por frequência de respostas. A taxa de gestação obtida pelos inseminadores variou entre 12 e 57%, com

  12. Relationship between oxidative stress and the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows in a pasture-based system.

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    Celi, Pietro; Merlo, Mariacristina; Barbato, Olimpia; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2012-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether the outcome of artificial insemination (AI) was affected by the metabolic and oxidative status of dairy cows. Seventy-nine inseminations in 40 cows, were classified, on the basis of blood progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations and clinical confirmation of pregnancy into, three categories: (1) positive (AI+, resulted in pregnancy, n=26; 33%), (2) negative (AI-, did not result in pregnancy, n=49; 62%), and (3) embryonic mortality (EM, n=4; 5%). Reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, oxidative stress index, body condition score, glucose, total proteins, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, triglycerides, haptoglobin and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) were measured on the day of AI (day 0), and 30 and 42 days later. Cows with EM had lower BCS scores (2.5) than AI+ (2.8) and AI- (2.9) cows (P<0.05). During the post-partum period, body condition score (BCS) increased and NEFAs decreased (P<0.05) suggesting a recovery from the negative energy balance (NEB). The only significant differences found were that the mean concentration of AOPPs was higher and that of albumin lower in EM cows than in AI+ and AI- (P<0.05) animals. Plasma concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites and biological antioxidant potential were not related to AI outcome. Further studies are required to confirm this finding and to clarify the role of oxidative status on cows' fertility.

  13. Investigation into omocysteine, vitamin E and malondialdehyde as indicators of successful artificial insemination in synchronized buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis).

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    Barbato, Olimpia; Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Barile, Vittoria Lucia; Pierri, Francesca; de Sousa, Noelita Melo; Terracina, Luigi; Canali, Claudio; Avellini, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe modifications in plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin E (VitE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the first 56 days after artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo. Thirty-five buffalo cows were divided, ex post, into three groups on the basis of pregnancy diagnosis: pregnant, not pregnant, with embryonic mortality. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Our results showed that, in pregnant buffaloes, included those with embryonic mortality, MDA increased progressively while VitE decreased. In non-pregnant buffaloes, MDA and Vit E were unchanged. Hcy concentrations also remained unchanged within each group throughout the study period, but were lower in non-pregnant buffaloes than in the pregnant ones and in those with embryonic mortality. In conclusion, present data suggest that successful pregnancy in buffalo cows might be linked to Hcy metabolism and oxidative stress involvement.

  14. A rapid and effective nonsurgical artificial insemination protocol using the NSET™ device for sperm transfer in mice without anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara J; Steele, Kendra H; Fath-Goodin, Angelika

    2015-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an assisted reproductive technique that is implemented successfully in humans as a fertility treatment, performed extensively for commercial breeding of livestock, and is also successful in laboratory rodents. AI in the mouse may be especially useful for breeding of transgenic or mutant mice with fertility problems, expansion of mouse colonies, and as an alternative to in vitro fertilization. Nonsurgical AI techniques for the mouse have been described previously but are not often implemented due to technical difficulties. Here we compare various protocols for preparation of CD1 recipients prior to AI for naïve (in estrus), ovulation-induced, and superovulated females. Timing of hormone administration relative to sperm delivery is also compared. An improved protocol for nonsurgical AI in mice is described, which incorporates a convenient hormone administration schedule for female recipients and rapid, non-stressful sperm transfer without the need for anesthesia or analgesia.

  15. Preliminary Results on Artificial Insemination of Cattle in Suriname. Case Study : Commewijne District

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    Bastiaensen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990 and with the help of the European Development Fund, a new and completely equipped Al-station was set up in an attempt to improve the genetic basis of the dairy herd in Suriname. Countering the dramatic decrease in local milkproduction being the main consideration. The author reviews the technical results of three years of Al in the eastern district of Commewijne. The Al-service which was directed from the capital in 1992 and 1993, was decentralised towards the regional veterinary service early 1994. The effects of this decentralisation are also discussed. Technical results realised during the first three years, of Al in the Commewijne district are in general disappointing. Only a small number of dairy farmers makes use of Al, while conception rates are low. The results clearly indicate that heat detection is a major problem, leading to long calving intervals. The kind (breed of semen used does not influence conception rates. On the other hand, the technical skills of the inseminators involved do influence conception rates. So does the ethnie origin of the farmers involved, although this parameter is closely linked to the scale of the farms and the management level. At first sight, it would seem that decentralisation had a positive effect on technical results. Due to an increase in the number of inseminations performed, the number of Al-calves born increased substantially. Technical results however were inferior to those prior to decentralisation.

  16. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

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    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  17. Birth of puppies of predetermined sex after artificial insemination with a low number of sex-sorted, frozen-thawed spermatozoa in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Chen, Fang-Liang; Tang, Shu-Sheng; Mao, Ai-Guo; Li, Li-Guang; Cheng, Lu-Guang; Chen, Chao; Li, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Bin; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Jing; Wan, Jiu-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 10(6) unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 10(6) sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25.0%) and Y (4/20; 20.0%) group (P > 0.05), but lower than controls (11/20; 55.0%) (P out of the 32 puppies produced from X group were female (87.5%) and 19/22 (86.4%) puppies of Y group were male. In contrast, sex ratio (51.4% to 48.6%) in the control was significantly different from the X, Y group (P < 0.05). However, male and female puppies in the control had similar birth weights and weaning weights to those from the X and Y groups. This preliminary information indicated that normal puppies of predicted sex can be produced with low numbers of sorted cryopreserved dog spermatozoa at a farm level, making sperm-sexing technology potentially applicable for elite breeding units. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination in weaned sows following buserelin use combined with/without eCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncello, E; Bernardi, M L; Kummer, A D; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2017-02-01

    Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination (FTAI) drastically reduces labour requirements and increases the use of boars with higher genetic merit. This study evaluated the efficiency of eCG administration combined with/without the GnRH agonist buserelin for the induction and synchronization of ovulation in weaned sows submitted to FTAI. The sows were allocated into three groups. In the control group, the first artificial insemination was performed at the onset of oestrus and repeated every 24 hr. In the eCG+GnRH group, sows received 600 IU eCG at weaning and buserelin (10 μg) after 86-89 hr of eCG, and in the GnRH group, sows received only buserelin after 86-89 hr of weaning. The hormone-treated sows received a single FTAI after 30-33 hr of buserelin application. All the sows were inseminated with homospermic doses (1.5 × 10(9)  sperm cells/50 ml). The interval between weaning and ovulation was shorter (p sows ovulated earlier (p sows was not compromised when only sows exhibiting oestrus at the time of insemination were considered, but lower farrowing rate and smaller litter size were observed in eCG+GnRH sows. The reproductive performance of eCG+GnRH sows was primarily compromised because the insemination was performed outside the optimal time relative to ovulation; therefore, it is advisable to inseminate them before 116-122 hr after weaning. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

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    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  20. Effect of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and fertility after artificial insemination with liquid-stored turkey semen.

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    Long, J A; Kramer, M

    2003-11-01

    Turkey sperm plasma membranes contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to lipid peroxidation during in vitro storage at 4 degrees C. Herein we assessed the degree of lipid peroxidation and fertility potential of semen liquid-stored for 24 h with the antioxidant vitamin E. Semen was collected weekly from 44 males and pooled as pairs (total = 22); the individuals in paired samples exhibited similar semen quality parameters. After initial semen evaluation, pooled samples were extended with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender containing no supplement (control) or 10 or 40 microg/mL vitamin E and then stored at 4 degrees C with constant aeration for 24 h. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA) in aliquots (50 x 10(6) sperm) of fresh (0 h) and stored (24 h) semen. Sperm mobility was also evaluated. A total of 176 hens (8 hens/tom pair; 4 hens/0 h, 4 hens/24 h) were inseminated (150 x 10(6) sperm) weekly for 6 wk, and fertility was determined after 7 d of incubation. Initial MDA values of the 22 tom pairs ranged from 0.928 to 1.36 uM. Males varied in production of MDA during in vitro storage, with most pairs exhibiting a threefold increase. Results indicated that supplemental vitamin E did not reduce lipid peroxidation during liquid storage. Not surprisingly, artificial insemination with stored semen (with much higher MDA values) yielded lower fertility rates than control regardless of the presence of vitamin E. These results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation is a significant factor affecting the fertility of stored turkey sperm and that methods to prevent or reduce lipid peroxidation remain to be elucidated.

  1. Effects of acrosomal conditions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa on the results of artificial insemination in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kazumi; Sakase, Mitsuhiro; Minami, Kenta; Arai, Miyuki M; Syoji, Reiko; Kohama, Namiko; Akiyama, Takayuki; Oka, Akio; Harayama, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Moriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between male artificial insemination (AI) fertility and sperm acrosomal conditions assessed by new and conventional staining techniques and to identify possible reproductive dysfunctions causing low conception rates in AI using frozen-thawed spermatozoa with poor acrosomal conditions in Japanese Black bulls. We investigated individual differences among bulls in the results concerning (1) acrosomal conditions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa as assessed by not merely peanut agglutinin-lectin staining (a conventional staining technique) but also immunostaining of acrosomal tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins (a new staining technique), (2) routine AI using frozen-thawed spermatozoa as assessed by pregnancy diagnosis, (3) in vivo fertilization of frozen-thawed spermatozoa and early development of fertilized eggs as assessed by superovulation/AI-embryo collection tests and (4) in vitro fertilization of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with oocytes. The percentages of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with normal acrosomal conditions assessed by the abovementioned staining techniques were significantly correlated with the conception rates of routine AI, rates of transferable embryos in superovulation/AI-embryo collection tests and in vitro fertilization rates. These results are consistent with new suggestions that the distribution of acrosomal tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins as well as the acrosomal morphology of frozen-thawed spermatozoa are AI fertility-associated markers that are valid for the prediction of AI results and that low conception rates in AI using frozen-thawed spermatozoa with poor acrosomal conditions result from reproductive dysfunctions in the processes between sperm insemination into females and early embryo development, probably failed fertilization of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with oocytes.

  2. Increasing length of an estradiol and progesterone timed artificial insemination protocol decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; De Carvalho, R J; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-03-01

    Our hypothesis was that increasing the length of an estradiol and progesterone (P4) timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol would improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=759) yielding 31 ± 0.30 kg of milk/d with a detectable corpus luteum (CL) at d -11 were randomly assigned to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 2 treatments: (8d) d -10 = controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and 2.0mg of estradiol benzoate, d -3 = PGF2α(25mg of dinoprost tromethamine), d -2 = CIDR removal and 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate, d 0 = TAI; or (9 d) d -11 = CIDR and estradiol benzoate, d -4 = PGF2α, d -2 CIDR removal and estradiol cypionate, d 0 TAI. Cows were considered to have their estrous cycle synchronized in response to the protocol by the absence of a CL at artificial insemination (d 0) and presence of a CL on d 7. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60. The ovulatory follicle diameter at TAI (d 0) did not differ between treatments (14.7 ± 0.39 vs. 15.0 ± 0.40 mm for 8 and 9 d, respectively). The 9 d cows tended to have greater P4 concentrations on d 7 in synchronized cows (3.14 ± 0.18 ng/mL) than the 8d cows (3.05 ± 0.18 ng/mL). Although the P/AI at d 32 [45 (175/385) vs. 43.9% (166/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] and 60 [38.1 (150/385) vs. 40.4% (154/374) for 8d and 9 d, respectively] was not different, the 9 d cows had lower pregnancy losses [7.6% (12/166)] than 8d cows [14.7% (25/175)]. The cows in the 9 d program were more likely to be detected in estrus [72.0% (269/374)] compared with 8d cows [62% (240/385)]. Expression of estrus improved synchronization [97.4 (489/501) vs. 81% (202/248)], P4 concentrations at d 7 (3.22 ± 0.16 vs. 2.77 ± 0.17 ng/mL), P/AI at d 32 [51.2 (252/489) vs. 39.4% (81/202)], P/AI at d 60 [46.3 (230/489) vs. 31.1% (66/202)], and decreased pregnancy loss [9.3 (22/252) vs. 19.8% (15/81)] compared with cows that did not show estrus, respectively. Cows not detected in estrus with small

  3. Changes in the expression of interleukin-1beta and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor in the oviduct of laying hens in response to artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubash Chandra; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological significance of interleukin-1beta (IL1B) and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF) in the fate of sperm in the oviduct of laying hens after artificial insemination (AI). Laying hens were inseminated with fresh semen, PBS or seminal plasma and tissues from different oviductal segments were collected to observe the general histology, changes in the mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF and the localization of positive cells expressing immunoreactive IL1B (irIL1B). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to observe the changes in mRNA expression of these molecules in the infundibulum, uterus, utero-vaginal junction (UVJ), and vagina after insemination. Intact sperm in the lumen and between the primary or secondary folds of the vagina were found until 6 h after insemination but were degraded at 12 h. The mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF was significantly increased in the vagina until 6 h after AI but remained unchanged in the other oviductal segments. In the tissue of the vagina and UVJ, irIL1B was localized in the mucosal stroma. The number of irIL1B-positive cells was increased in the vagina but almost unchanged in UVJ after insemination with semen. Significant changes were not observed in the mRNA expression and irIL1B-positive cells in the vagina after PBS or seminal plasma insemination. The increase of IL1B and LITAF in the vagina may lead to sperm degradation and elimination by cilia of surface epithelium, whereas their lower levels in UVJ may permit sperm to survive in sperm storage tubules.

  4. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination.

  5. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

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    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  6. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H

    2016-08-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first insemination. The parameters considered for the model are readily available on farm at the time a farmer makes breeding decisions. In the first step, variables are selected for the prognostic model that have prognostic value for the likelihood of a successful first insemination. In the second step, farm effects on the likelihood of a successful insemination are quantified and the prognostic model is cross-validated. Logistic regression with a random effect for farm was used to develop the prognostic model. Insemination and test-day milk production data from 2,000 commercial Dutch dairy farms were obtained, and 190,541 first inseminations from this data set were used for model selection. The following variables were used in the selection process: parity, days in milk, days to peak production, production level relative to herd mates, milk yield, breed of the cow, insemination season and calving season, log of the ratio of fat to protein content, and body condition score at insemination. Variables were selected in a forward selection and backward elimination, based on the Akaike information criterion. The variables that contributed most to the model were random farm effect, relative production factor, and milk yield at insemination. The parameters were estimated in a bootstrap analysis and a cross-validation was conducted within this bootstrap analysis. The parameter estimates for body condition score at insemination varied most, indicating that this effect varied most among Dutch dairy farms. The cross-validation showed that the prognosis of insemination success closely resembled the mean insemination success observed in the data set. Insemination success depends on

  7. Additional value of computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) compared to conventional motility assessments in pig artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Soštarić, E; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2011-11-01

    In order to obtain a more standardised semen motility evaluation, Varkens KI Nederland has introduced a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) system in all their pig AI laboratories. The repeatability of CASA was enhanced by standardising for: 1) an optimal sample temperature (39 °C); 2) an optimal dilution factor; 3) optimal mixing of semen and dilution buffer by using mechanical mixing; 4) the slide chamber depth, and together with the previous points; 5) the optimal training of technicians working with the CASA system; and 6) the use of a standard operating procedure (SOP). Once laboratory technicians were trained in using this SOP, they achieved a coefficient of variation of CASA. CASA results are preferable as accurate continuous motility dates are generated rather than discrimination motility percentage increments of 10% motility as with motility estimation by laboratory technicians. The higher variability of sperm motility found with CASA and the continuous motility values allow better analysis of the relationship between semen motility characteristics and fertilising capacity. The benefits of standardised CASA for AI is discussed both with respect to estimate the correct dilution factor of the ejaculate for the production of artificial insemination (AI) doses (critical for reducing the number of sperm per AI doses) and thus to get more reliable fertility data from these AI doses in return. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selenium status and GSH-Px activity in semen and blood of boars at different ages used for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, B; Błaszczyk, B; Seremak, B; Udała, J

    2004-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between selenium (Se) content and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood and semen, and semen quality of boars at different age used in an artificial insemination (AI) station. Routine macroscopic and microscopic analyses of semen quality were accompanied by measurement of Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen. The Se concentration in blood plasma, seminal fluid and spermatozoa was measured by fluorometric method, the GSH-Px activity by a method based on NADPH-coupled reaction. A total of 155 ejaculates and 58 blood samples were investigated. The results of this study showed that there was no direct relationship between the Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma and semen, and semen quality of sexual matured boars. The mechanisms controlling Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen seem to be independent. The age of boars as a differentiating factor for Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen is possible. It is concluded that a determination of Se status and/or GSH-Px activity in organism before Se supplementation is indicated.

  9. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  10. Improved effectiveness of artificial insemination of turkey hens associated with ahemeral light-dark cycles and age at photostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopes, T D

    1999-06-01

    In lighting studies with turkey hens, long ahemeral (AH; non-24 h) light-dark cycles have consistently resulted in greater, although not statistically significant, fertility than control 24 h light-dark cycles. The present study was designed to further evaluate AH lighting effects on fertility by an evaluation of the effectiveness of artificial insemination (AI) under less than optimal conditions for normal fertility, that is, single AI and early age at lighting. Turkey hens had greater percentage fertility of eggs when photostimulated at 30 wk (95.0) than 26 wk (76.3) of age following single, but not double, AI. Ahemeral lighting dramatically improved the effectiveness of a single AI of hens photostimulated at 26 wk of age as compared to controls (89.3 vs 76.3% fertility, respectively). However, with multiple AI, benefits of AH lighting on fertility exceeding that of control hens was not significant. It may be concluded that AH lighting can dramatically improve the effectiveness of AI under certain adverse conditions, such as early age at lighting and reduced exposure of the hen to sperm.

  11. Effect of age and physiological status on sperm storage 24 hours after artificial insemination in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, E E; Krista, L M; McDaniel, G R

    1988-06-01

    1. Uterovaginal junction (UVJ) tissues were collected 24 h after artificial insemination (AI) from 85- and 125-week-old broiler breeder hens in three physiological states: laying hard shell eggs (HS), laying shell-less eggs (SL) and non-laying (NL). This was confirmed by egg production records and visual appraisal of the oviduct at the time of necropsy. 2. Three longitudinal sections of each UVJ were evaluated microscopically and sperm host glands (SHG) were scored in 5 categories: glandular morphology evident but not lumen present, basophilic stained epithelium and no spermatoza present, glands that contained one to five spermatozoa; glands that contained 6 to 20 spermatozoa and glands that contained more than 20 spermatozoa. 3. Laying hens (HS and SL) at 85 weeks of age had significantly more sperm host glands (SHG) containing spermatozoa than NL hens. At 125 weeks of age HS and SL hens had significantly more unscorable glands. 4. The only category that showed no difference between age and physiological status group was the empty category. No significant differences were observed for any gland category in 82- and 125-week-old NL hens. 5. A greater proportion of the 85-week-old group of HS and SL hens had more SHG containing spermatozoa and fewer unscorable glands that the 125-week-old birds. The only category that showed any difference within the SL group was the low category.

  12. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocilon Gomes de Sá Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.

  13. Use of porcine luteinizing hormone at oestrous onset in a protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Rampi, J Z; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) given at oestrous onset in gilts, by different routes and doses, on the interval between onset of oestrus and ovulation (IOEO) and reproductive performance using a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). A total of 153 gilts were submitted to oestrous detection at 8-h intervals and assigned to three groups: control - without hormone application and inseminated at 0, 24 and 48 h after oestrous onset; VS2.5FTAI - 2.5 mg pLH by the vulvar submucosal route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later; IM5FTAI - 5 mg pLH by the intramuscular route at oestrous onset and a single FTAI 16 h later. More VS2.5FTAI gilts (47.1%; p  0.05). The IOEO tended to be shorter (p = 0.06) in VS2.5FTAI (30.2 ± 1.4 h) than in control (34.7 ± 1.4 h) gilts, but there was no difference (p > 0.05) between control and IM5FTAI (32.8 ± 1.4 h) gilts. Farrowing rate was not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. Total born piglets (TB) was lower (p < 0.05) in VS2.5FTAI (12.3 ± 0.4) than in control gilts (14.1 ± 0.4), whereas intermediate TB was observed in IM5FTAI gilts (13.3 ± 0.4). Due to the advancement of ovulation, reduction of the hormonal dose and the ease of application, the vulvar submucosal route would be the best option for FTAI protocols, but their negative impact on litter size remains to be elucidated. Taking into account the good fertility results obtained in IM5FTAI gilts whose ovulation was not advanced, the possibility of a single FTAI without any hormonal treatment should be further investigated, to establish reliable FTAI protocols for gilts.

  14. Infiltration of local immune cells in the sow reproductive tracts after intra-uterine and deep intra-uterine insemination with a reduced number of spermatozoa is less than conventional artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tienthai, Paisan

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the infiltration of leukocyte subpopulations in the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and each part of the oviducts at about 24 hr after intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and deep intra-uterine insemination (DIUI) compared to conventional artificial insemination (CAI) in sows. Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire multiparous sows were used (CAI, n=5; IUI, n=5; DIUI, n=5). The sperm dose contained 3,000 × 10(6) (100 ml), 1,000 × 10(6) (50 ml) and 150 × 10(6) (5 ml) motile spermatozoa for CAI, IUI and DIUI, respectively. The sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen at 6 to 8 hr prior to the expected time of ovulation. At 25.2 ± 1.6 hr after insemination, the oviducts and the UTJ were collected. The tissue samples of UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla were transversely cut to a thickness of 5 µm and stained with H&E. The total numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and plasma cells were determined under light microscope. It was found that the numbers of lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages after CAI, IUI and DIUI were not significantly different (P>0.1) in both epithelial and sub-epithelial connective tissue layer of the UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. Intra-epithelial neutrophils in the UTJ were higher than cranial isthmus (P<0.05) and ampulla (P<0.05). In the UTJ, the intra-epithelial neutrophil in the CAI group was higher than DIUI group (P<0.01). Plasma cells in sub-epithelial layer of the endosalpinx in the CAI group were higher than DIUI group (P<0.05) and tended to be higher than the IUI group (P=0.08). In conclusion, compared to CAI, IUI and DIUI do not influence the infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and eosinophils in the UTJ and the oviduct prior to fertilization. But a lower number of neutrophils in the intra-epithelial layer of the UTJ and plasma cells in the sub-epithelial layers of the oviduct was observed in the DIUI group compared to CAI.

  15. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  16. Administration of prostaglandin F2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G timed artificial insemination protocol increased circulating progesterone prior to artificial insemination and reduced pregnancy loss in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Gholizadeh, M; Deldar, H; Masoumi, R; Kazemifard, M; Colazo, M G

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of PGF2α treatment 14 d before the initiation of a G6G or G7G (PGF2α, 2 d, GnRH, 6 or 7 d, Ovsynch) protocol on ovarian response, synchronization protocol on ovarian response, progesterone (P4) concentration, pregnancy per AI (P/AI), and pregnancy loss in multiparous Holstein cows. Cows (3.6±1.1 lactations and yielding >30kg/d of milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocols: 1) G6G (n=240), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 d later and a 7-d Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d, PGF2α, 56 h, GnRH 16 h TAI) was initiated 6 d later; 2) PG6G (n=250), PGF2α 14 d before the initiation of the G6G protocol; 3) G7G (n=200), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 d later, and a 7-d Ovsynch protocol initiated 7 d later; and (4) PG7G (n=200), a PGF2α injection 14 d before the initiation of the G7G protocol. Blood samples from a subset of 269 cows were collected at the times of first and second GnRH, and PGF2α of the Ovsynch protocol to measure P4. Ultrasound examinations were performed to evaluate ovarian response to GnRH and PGF2α of Ovsynch, and to determine pregnancy status at 32 and 60 d after TAI. The proportion of cows with high (≥1ng/mL) P4 at first GnRH of Ovsynch was greater for PG6G and PG7G compared with G6G and G7G groups (combined 79.7 vs. 59.3%). In addition, mean (±SEM) plasma P4 concentration (ng/mL) at PGF2α of Ovsynch was also greater in PG6G (6.5±0.2) and PG7G (6.7±0.3) compared with G6G (5.1±0.2) and G7G (5.0±0.2). Cows given PGF2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G TAI (PG6G and PG7G) tended to have a greater P/AI at 32 d compared with those cows not receiving PGF2α (G6G and G7G). However, P/AI at 60 d was greater in cows subjected to PG6G and PG7G protocols (31.1 vs. 39.2%), with a lower pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d (11.65 vs. 19.7%). In summary, administration of PGF2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G TAI protocol increased P4 concentrations

  17. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  18. Heritabilities for duration of fertility traits in brown Tsaiya female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by artificial insemination with pooled muscovy (Cairina moschata) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R

    1994-03-01

    1. Fertility traits in 348 Brown Tsaiya female ducks were analysed following intergeneric crossbreeding by artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. The females descended from 18 sires and 107 dams. At 50 weeks of age, the ducks were intra-vaginally inseminated once with 0.03 ml of pooled Muscovy semen. Subsequently eggs were collected for 15 d and set for incubation up to candling 10 d later. 2. Average fertility decreased from 87% at day 2 after AI to 53% at day 6 and less than 7% from day 10 onwards. 3. The best criterion of selection for duration of fertility seems to be the number of fertile eggs from 2nd day up to the 15th day after AI. Heritability estimates for this trait were hs2 = 0.29 +/- 0.18., hD2 = 0.38 +/- 0.22.

  19. The Potential Use of Intrauterine Insemination as a Basic Option for Infertility: A Review for Technology-Limited Medical Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman M. Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings.

  20. Effect of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin on day 5 after timed artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A B; Bender, R W; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Araujo, R R; Guenther, J N; Sartori, R; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation can ovulate a smaller than normal follicle, potentially resulting in inadequate progesterone (P4) concentrations after artificial insemination (AI). Ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can produce an accessory corpus luteum and increase circulating P4 concentrations. This manuscript reports the results of 2 separate analyses that evaluated the effect of hCG treatment post-AI on fertility in lactating dairy cows. The first study used meta-analysis to combine the results from 10 different published studies that used hCG treatment on d 4 to 9 post-AI in lactating dairy cows. Overall, pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) were increased 3.0% by hCG treatment post-AI [34% (752/2,213) vs. 37% (808/2,184); Control vs. hCG-treated, respectively]. The second study was a field research trial in which lactating Holstein cows (n=2,979) from 6 commercial dairy herds were stratified by parity and breeding number and then randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: control (no further treatment, n=1,519) or hCG [Chorulon i.m.: 2,000 IU (in 3 of the herds) or 3,300 IU (in 3 herds); n=1,460] on d 5 after a timed AI (ovulation synchronized with Ovsynch, Presynch-Ovsynch, or Double-Ovsynch). In a subset of cows, the hCG profile and P4 changes were determined. Treatment with hCG increased P4 (4.3 vs. 5.3 ng/mL on d 12). Pregnancies per AI were greater in cows treated with hCG (40.8%; 596/1,460) than control (37.3%; 566/1,519) cows. Interestingly, an interaction among treatment and parity was observed; primiparous cows had greater P/AI after hCG (49.7%; 266/535) than controls (39.5%; 215/544). In contrast, older cows receiving hCG (35.7%; 330/925) had similar P/AI to controls (36.0%; 351/975).Thus, targeted use of hCG on d 5 after TAI enhances fertility about 3.0% (based on meta-analysis) to 3.5% (based on our field trial). Surprisingly, this

  1. Pregnancy per artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows subjected to 2 different intervals from presynchronization to initiation of Ovsynch protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Ponce-Barajas, P; Ambrose, D J

    2013-01-01

    A protocol for presynchronization of ovarian status with 2 injections of PGF2α given 14 d apart, with the last PGF2α injection given 12 or 14 d before Ovsynch increases pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in dairy cows. We determined the efficacy of reducing the interval from the last PGF2α injection (500 μg of cloprostenol) of presynchronization to initiation of Ovsynch on response to treatment and P/AI. Lactating dairy cows were assigned to an Ovsynch protocol, with the initial injection of GnRH given either 9 (PRE-9; n=135) or 12d (PRE-12; n=135) after the second PGF2α injection of presynchronization. The Ovsynch protocol consisted of 2 injections of 100 μg of GnRH given 9 d apart and 1 injection of PGF2α given 7 d after the initial GnRH injection, and cows were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI; 70±3.5 DIM) approximately 16 h after the second GnRH injection. Body condition score (1-5 scale) was recorded at TAI. Blood samples were taken for progesterone determination at the PGF2α injection of Ovsynch, at TAI, and at 11 d after TAI. Ultrasonographic examinations were done in all cows at the second PGF2α injection of presynchronization, initial GnRH injection, PGF2α injection of Ovsynch, at TAI, and 24 h after TAI for cyclicity status and ovarian responses to treatments, and at 32 and 60 d after TAI for confirmation of pregnancy. Overall, 29 cows (10.7%) were determined acyclic or cystic and excluded from the study. The percentage of cows responding to initial GnRH injection (62.2 vs. 61.5%) did not differ between PRE-9 and PRE-12 but more cows in the PRE-9 group failed to respond to PGF2α treatment of Ovsynch compared with PRE-12 (22.7 vs. 10.7%). Body condition score at TAI (2.9±0.02) and mean ovulatory follicle diameter (16.4±0.2 mm) were not different between treatments. Overall P/AI at 32 d was reduced in PRE-9 (33.6%) compared with PRE-12 (44.3%) but pregnancy losses (5.0 vs. 3.7%) did not differ between treatments

  2. Controlling contagious agalactia in artificial insemination centers for goats and detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri in semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Amores, J; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Paterna, A; De la Fe, C

    2012-04-01

    Many goat artificial insemination (AI) centers in Spain have adopted new measures to control contagious agalactia (CA). To avoid the introduction of male goats carrying mycoplasma organisms subclinically in their external ear canal (auricular carriers) in these centers, two ear swabs and a blood sample are obtained from all candidate animals for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture (swabs) and serologic tests to detect the presence of mycoplasmas. In addition, the semen produced at these centers is routinely cultured and PCR tested also to detect the presence of mycoplasmas. One y after the introduction of this program, we tested 48 ear swabs and 24 blood samples from 24 candidates for admission to these AI Centers. Three of these ear swab samples (3/48, 6.25%) scored positive for the presence of mycoplasmas; Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) was detected in two samples and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in one. All animals were serologically negative for Ma. Also, out of 173 semen samples obtained from 137 admitted animals (2 and 3 samples were obtained in 16 and 10 bucks, respectively), one (1/173, 0.56%) was positive for Mmc. Our findings suggest that ear swab and semen samples are useful tools to control CA at AI Centers. The introduction of this program has also resulted in the first detection of Mmc in semen from a naturally infected goat, confirming the ability of this mycoplasma to colonize the reproductive tract of male goats. These results highlight the need to improve control measures in semen producing centers to minimize the risk of CA transmission.

  3. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72 h (cows) or 54 h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45 days following TAI and ≥ 45 days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P ≥ 0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥ 55 days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and < 55 days postpartum (39%) or ≥ 55 days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows.

  4. Serum profile of cytokines interferon gamma and interleukin-10 in ewes subjected to artificial insemination by cervical retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, C T G; Cruz, J F; Romano, C C; Brandão, F Z

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluated the influence of artificial insemination (AI) by cervical retraction (CRI) on serum levels of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ewes. Synchronized pluriparous Santa Inês ewes were subjected to natural mating (NM, n = 8) and AI, which was performed for a fixed time (55 ± 1 hour) by CRI (n = 8) or laparoscopy (n = 8). Ewes were classified as pregnant, with return to estrus (RE) or with embryonic loss (EL). Blood samples were collected on Day 0, Day 3, Day 5, Day 12, and Day 17 (Day 0 = AI/NM) for progesterone dosage and cytokines were quantified from Day 0 to Day 12. Progesterone levels were constant, except for a decrease in ewes with RE at Day 17 (P IL-10 levels at any time, with averages of 642.1, 713.2, and 741.2 pg/mL for IFNγ and 667.1, 616.8, and 721.1 pg/mL for IL-10 when using CRI, laproscopy, and NM, respectively. Regarding the physiological status, ewes with EL had lower serum levels of IFNγ and IL-10 than pregnant ewes and ewes with RE, regardless of the reproductive method used, with averages of 769.1, 714.9, and 555.7 pg/mL for IFNγ and 713.8, 699.3, and 578.7 pg/mL for IL-10 in pregnant ewes, ewes with RE and EL, respectively (P IL-10 and does not induce an inflammatory reaction that can compromise pregnancy.

  5. Effect of extending the interval from Presynch to initiation of Ovsynch in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol on fertility of timed artificial insemination services in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Thomas, M J; Catucuamba, G; Curler, M D; Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Masello, M

    2016-01-01

    The specific objective of this study was to determine if increasing the interval between the Presynch and Ovsynch portion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (Presynch: PGF2α-14 d-PGF2α and Ovsynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16-20 h-timed artificial insemination) from 12 to 14 d would reduce the fertility of lactating dairy cows not detected in estrus after Presynch that receive timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms (n=3,165) were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to a 12 (PSOv14-12; n=1,566) or 14 d (PSOv14-14; n=1,599) interval between the second PGF2α (PGF) injection of Presynch (P2) and the beginning of Ovsynch. Cows detected in estrus any time between P2 and the day of the TAI were inseminated (AIED group). From a subgroup of cows (177 and 150 in PSOv14-12 and PSOv14-14, respectively), ovarian parameters and ovulation were evaluated through determination of concentrations of progesterone (P4) in blood and transrectal ultrasonography at the time of the first GnRH (GnRH1) and the PGF injection of Ovsynch. Overall, 52.8% (n=1,671) of the cows were AIED, whereas 47.2% (n=1,494) received TAI. For cows that received TAI, pregnancies per artificial insemination 39 d after artificial insemination were similar for PSOv14-12 (36.3%) and PSOv14-14 (36.0%) but were greater for primiparous (41.5%) than multiparous cows (33.6%). Pregnancy loss from 39 to 105 d after artificial insemination was similar for PSOv14-12 (4.8%) and PSOv14-14 (8.6%), for primiparous (6.4%) and multiparous cows (7.0%), but a tendency for a treatment by parity interaction was observed. Both treatments had a similar proportion of cows with a follicle ≥ 10 mm and similar follicle size at GnRH1; however, the ovulatory response to GnRH was greater for PSOv14-12 (62.2%) than PSOv14-14 (46.4%). A greater proportion of cows with a functional corpus luteum (75.3 vs. 65.6%) and greater concentrations of P4 (3.9 vs. 3.3 ng/mL) at GnRH1 in

  6. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress.

  7. Comparison of three superovulation protocols with or without GnRH treatment at the time of artificial insemination on ovarian response and embryo quality in Thai native heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Pitchayapipatkul, Jakkhaphan; Chuawongboon, Phirawit; Rakwongrit, Dumrongrak; Sakhong, Denpong; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-03-01

    To optimize the superovulation protocol in Thai native cattle, the present research was designed to (1) compare three different protocols designed to induce superstimulation and (2) study the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at insemination time (to induce ovulation) on ovarian follicular activities in terms of the number of large follicles, corpora lutea (CLs) and unovulated follicles, and the number and quality of ova/embryos recovered in Thai native heifers. Initially, the estrous cycles of animals (n = 36) at unknown stages were synchronized by two prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) injections at an interval of 12 days. Follicular development of heifers was randomly superstimulated with one of three different treatment protocols: treatment A-a total of 100 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (pFSH; Folltropin®-V) administered in eight decreasing doses; treatment B-a single dose of 100 mg pFSH dissolved in 30% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone; or treatment C-ablation of all follicles ≥5 mm with a single dose of pFSH. All heifers received PGF2α 48 h after the initiation of FSH treatment to induce luteolysis from the previous cycle, and they were twice inseminated at 12 and 24 h after the onset of estrus. Heifers in each treatment were assigned to be injected or not with GnRH at the time of first insemination with frozen/thawed semen to induce ovulation. About 7 days after artificial insemination (AI), ova/embryos were collected and classified. The numbers of large follicles at the onset of estrus were not statistically significantly different; meanwhile, the maximum diameters of follicles at the time of first insemination in treatment C were smaller compared with the other treatment groups (p < 0.001). The administration of GnRH at the first insemination time resulted in a greater number of CLs and fewer unovulated follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection (p = 0.001), which subsequently resulted in a higher number of total

  8. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or prostaglandin F(2α)-based estrus synchronization programs for first or subsequent artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, R G S; Farias, A M; Hernández-Rivera, J A; Navarrette, A E; Hawkins, D E; Bilby, T R

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of GnRH or PGF(2α)-based synchronization and resynchronization programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. For experiment 1, cows (n=1,521) were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF given at 36 and 50 DIM and assigned to 1 of 3 protocols: Ovsynch [OVS; n=552; GnRH injection, PGF(2α) injection 7 d later, GnRH injection 56 h later, and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h later] beginning at 14 d after presynchronization (PS), GnRH-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (GGPG; n=402) treatment with a GnRH injection given 7 d after PS and OVS 7 d later, or PGF(2α)-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (P7GPG; n=567) treatment with a PGF(2α) injection given 7 d after PS and OVS beginning 7 d later. Experiment 2 cows (n=2,327) were assigned to 1 of 3 resynchronization protocols 7 d before nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD): GGPG cows (n=458) received a GnRH injection at enrollment and OVS at NPD; P7GPG cows (n=940) received a PGF(2α) injection at NPD and OVS 7 d later; and P11GPG cows (n=929) received a PGF(2α) injection 3 d after NPD and OVS 11 d later. In both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated upon estrus detection (ED). In experiment 1, 52.3% of cows were artificially inseminated upon ED, with GGPG having reduced ED (GGPG=46.8 vs. OVS=50.7 and P7GPG=57.7%). Treatments did not affect overall pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%, respectively) or pregnancy loss but cows artificially inseminated upon ED had higher P/AI than cows undergoing TAI (ED cows=37.9 vs. TAI cows=28.8%). Treatment did not affect P/AI for cows artificially inseminated upon ED or TAI at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%). Median days in milk at first AI was affected by treatment (P7GPG=59 vs. OVS=68 and GGPG=68 d). In experiment 2, GGPG reduced ED (GGPG=23.3 vs. P7GPG=74.9 and P11GPG=79.6%). Treatment did not affect overall

  9. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  10. Pregnancy rates to timed artificial insemination in dairy cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone or porcine luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Gordon, M B; Rajamahendran, R; Mapletoft, R J; Ambrose, D J

    2009-07-15

    We compared the effects of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulatory response and pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in 605 lactating dairy cows. Cows (mean+/-SEM: 2.4+/-0.08 lactations, 109.0+/-2.5 d in milk, and 2.8+/-0.02 body condition score) at three locations were assigned to receive, in a 2x2 factorial design, either 100 microg GnRH or 25mg pLH im on Day 0, 500 microg cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 7, and GnRH or pLH on Day 9, with TAI 14 to 18h later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed in a subset of cows on Days 0, 7, 10, and 11 to determine ovulations, presence of corpus luteum, and follicle diameter and in all cows 32 d after TAI for pregnancy determination. In 35 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations were determined 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12 d after ovulation. The proportion of noncyclic cows and cows with ovarian cysts on Day 0 were 12% and 6%, respectively. Ovulatory response to first treatment was 62% versus 44% for pLH and GnRH and 78% versus 50% for noncyclic and cyclic cows (PpLH or GnRH, cyclic status, presence of an ovarian cyst, and preovulatory follicle size did not affect pregnancy rate. Plasma progesterone concentrations after TAI did not differ among treatments. Pregnancy rate to TAI was greater (PpLH group (42%) than in the other three groups (28%, 30%, and 26% for GnRH/PGF/GnRH, pLH/PGF/GnRH, and pLH/PGF/pLH, respectively). Although only 3% of cows given pLH in lieu of GnRH on Day 9 lost their embryo versus 7% in those subjected to a conventional TAI using two GnRH treatments, the difference was not statistically significant. In summary, pLH treatment on Day 0 increased ovulatory response but not pregnancy rate. Cows treated with GnRH/PGF/pLH had the highest pregnancy rate to TAI, but progesterone concentrations after TAI were not increased. In addition, preovulatory follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy rate.

  11. Seasonal fluctuations in the response of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes to synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Pasquale; Vecchio, Domenico; Neglia, Gianluca; Di Palo, Rossella; Gasparrini, Bianca; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the efficiency of synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI) was undertaken in a large group of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes at a commercial dairy. A total of 2791 synchronization protocols were carried out on 857 animals over 3 years. Of these protocols, 823 (29.5%) did not proceed beyond Day 7 (due to the absence of a vascularized CL) and 620 (22.2%) were discontinued on Day 10 (due to the absence of follicles >1.0 cm and tonic uteri); hence, 1443 (51.7%) protocols did not progress to TAI. Data were analyzed for four periods: P1, transition to spring (from breeding season to low breeding season); P2, low breeding season; P3, transition to fall (low breeding season to breeding season); and P4, breeding season. No differences were found among the four periods in terms of the proportion of protocols that did not result in TAI. Of the 857 buffaloes, 660 (77%) conceived and delivered a calf. The average number of TAI per pregnancy was 2.1 and ranged from 1.9 to 2.3 across years. Logistic regression analysis showed that buffaloes that calved during P3 had a higher odds ratio for pregnancy (1.380; P < 0.05) than buffaloes that calved in other periods. Pregnancy was also influenced by the calving to service period (odds ratio = 0.977; P < 0.01) and the pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at successive TAI (odds ratio = 1.480; P < 0.01). The pregnancy per AI at the first TAI (424/857, 49.5%) was greater (P < 0.01) than in subsequent TAI. The occurrence of late embryonic mortality (between Days 27 and 45 after TAI) was similar among the four periods. These findings indicated that there are distinct seasonal differences in the response of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes to synchronization and TAI.

  12. Multivariate analysis on effect factors of clinical outcomes of artificial insemination%影响供精人工授精临床结局多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 王兴玲; 管一春; 李巍巍; 李真; 覃瑶琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨多种因素对AID治疗结局的影响.方法:回顾2008年11月~2010年5月在生殖中心实施AID助孕治疗的418名妇女639个治疗周期的病例,综合分析不孕妇女的年龄、输卵管情况、治疗周期、促排卵用药及授精次数等因素对AID治疗妊娠结局的影响.结果:AID周期妊娠率为34.90%(223/639),例数妊娠率为53.34%(223/418).临床妊娠率与女方年龄、是否合并输卵管因素、授精与排卵时间等有一定关系.排卵前后短时内单次授精的平均妊娠率反而高于排卵前后双次授精.639个AID周期中,随治疗周期的增加累计妊娠率随之增高,但周期妊娠率下降,第1~3周期临床妊娠率依次为37.08%、31.98%、21.95%.AID促排卵周期妊娠率与自然周期无差异(34.02%、35.63%).结论:不孕妇女的年龄、输卵管情况及授精时机的掌握是影响供精人工授精成功率的重要因素.对超过3周期仍不孕者,可考虑改行供精体外授精-胚胎移植进行助孕.%Objective: To explore the effect of multiple factors on outcomes of artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) .Methods: 639 cycles of 418 women receiving AID in the hospital from November 2008 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively; the effects of age of infertile women, oviduct situation, treatment cycle, drug use of ovulation induction and times of insemination on pregnancy outcomes of cases receiving AID were analyzed comprehensively. Results: The pregnancy rate per cycle was 34. 90% (223/639), the case pregnancy rate was 53.34% (223/418); clinical pregnancy rate in a way was related to female age, combining with oviduct factors or not,insemination and ovulation time; the average pregnancy rate of single insemination within short time before and after ovulation was significantly higher than that of double insemination; in 639 cycles, the cumulative pregnancy rate increased with treatment cycle, but the cycle pregnancy rate decreased, the clinical

  13. 供精人工授精后代近亲婚配的伦理学新思考%A New Ethical Reflection on Intermarriage between Offsprings of Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉; 王海燕; 乔杰; 刘平; 马彩虹; 白泉

    2011-01-01

    With the wide application of artificial insemination by donor ( AID ) technology, offsprings produced by the technology will successively arrive their marriage age, which draws an ever increasing concern of preventing the intermarriage between those offsprings of AID.China's Ministry of Health has released regulations in 2001 and 2003 respectively for the strict management in the aspects of collecting sperm, sperm distribution and artificial insemination of sperm for future use, and premarital investigation, aiming to avoid offspring inbreeding.However, a couple of problems still exist in clinical practice, urgently calling for solution.This paper aims to put forward the problems existing in the medical practice and provide reference for formulating more complete regulations.%随着供精人工授精技术的广泛应用,应用该技术生育的后代将陆续到达结婚年龄,防止后代近亲婚配日益受到关注.我国卫生部已经在2001年及2003年出台相关法规,从精子募集、精子流通和精子使用以及供精人工授精后代婚前排查等环节进行严格管理,避免后代近亲婚配,但是在-临床实践中我们发现一些问题亟待解决.旨在提出实际工作中存在的问题,为制定更加完善的法规提供参考.

  14. Changes in the localization of antigen presenting cells and T cells in the utero-vaginal junction after repeated artificial insemination in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubash Chandra; Nagasaka, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2005-10-01

    The goal of our present study was to observe whether the populations of antigen presenting cells (Ia+ cells) and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) change in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) of Rhode Island Red laying hens that showed dramatic declines in fertility after repeated artificial insemination (AI). Rhode Island Red laying hens were divided into two groups: a virgin group (R-V) and artificial inseminated group (R-AI), which was exposed to weekly AI for a period of 3 mo. Undiluted fresh semen collected from healthy Tosa-Jidori roosters, a native Japanese breed maintained in Kochi Prefecture, was used for AI. The UVJ tissues were processed for frozen sections, and Ia+ cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. The Ia+ cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in the stroma and mucosal epithelium of UVJ in both the R-AI and R-V birds. The frequencies of them in the stroma were significantly higher in R-AI than R-V. The higher frequency of Ia+ cells in the UVJ of R-AI group indicated a greater potential capability for antigen presentation to CD4+ cells. The significant increase in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the UVJ of R-AI birds might be the result of a homing process of lymphocytes, which may affect sperm survivability and fertility.

  15. Fundamental studies of the reproductive biology of the endangered persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) result in first wild equid offspring from artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Mandi W; Wildt, David E; Weiss, Rachael B; Wolfe, Barbara A; Archibald, Kate E; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-08-01

    We studied the Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager), an endangered equid subspecies. The objective was to characterize endocrine patterns and ovarian follicular dynamics of females as well as seminal traits and sperm sensitivity to cryopreservation in males as a prerequisite to testing the feasibility of artificial insemination (AI). Urinary progesterone and estrogen metabolite profiles were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 11 females. Serial ultrasonography of ovarian activity was performed for 2 mo in a subset of four females. Females were seasonally polyestrous (June-November). Ovarian morphometry via ultrasonography and urinary progesterone profiles were more reflective of reproductive events than urinary estrogen patterns, and preovulatory follicle size was smaller than reported for other equid species. There was evidence for lactational suppression of estrus for up to 1.5 yr in nursing dams. Electroejaculation allowed recovery of highly motile sperm from 7, anesthetized males on 57% of occasions. Spermatozoa, including motility and acrosomal integrity, were resilient to freeze-thawing. Artificial insemination was successful in 2 of 3 females following detection of a dominant follicle and deslorelin administration, resulting in births of a healthy female and male foal by using fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed sperm, respectively.

  16. Single fixed-time artificial insemination in gilts and weaned sows using pLH at estrus onset administered through vulvar submucosal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in gilts and weaned sows using 2.5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) administered through vulvar submucosal route, at the onset of estrus. In experiment 1 (Exp.1), 318 pubertal gilts were assigned to two groups: control-G-no hormonal application and artificial inseminations (AIs) at 12, 36, and 60 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; and FTAI-G-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 12 hours later. In experiment 2 (Exp. 2), 309 weaned sows were assigned to three groups: Control-S-no hormone application and AIs at 0, 24, and 48 hours after the onset of estrus if they were still in standing estrus; FTAI-NH-no hormone application and a single FTAI at 24 hours after the onset of estrus, and FTAI-pLH-use of pLH at the onset of estrus and a single FTAI 24 hours later. Transabdominal real time B-mode ultrasonography was performed to determine whether the insemination had been performed within 24 hours before ovulation, considered as the optimal interval. In Exp. 1, ultrasound evaluation (12-hour intervals) was carried out to determine the interval between the onset of estrus and ovulation. In both experiments, 2 × 10(9) sperm cells in 80 mL were used to perform cervical and postcervical deposition of semen in gilts and sows, respectively. Compared with control-G, FTAI-G gilts had shorter (P pLH: 88.0%) and TPB (Control-S: 12.8; FTAI-NH: 12.7, and FTAI-pLH: 12.0 piglets) among treatments. The presence of semen backflow reduced (P pLH and FTAI-NH sows. In the FTAI-pLH, a single insemination performed too late relative to ovulation reduced the AFR (P pLH applied at the vulvar submucosa at the onset of estrus advances the ovulation in gilts, but a single FTAI performed 12 hours later reduces the farrowing rate. A single FTAI performed at 24 hours after the onset of estrus in weaned sows does not affect their reproductive

  17. Hormonal manipulations in the 5-day timed artificial insemination protocol to optimize estrous cycle synchrony and fertility in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Ribeiro, E S; Bisinotto, R S; Greco, L F; Martinez, N; Amstalden, M; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of GnRH at the initiation of the 5-d timed artificial insemination (AI) program combined with 2 injections of PGF2α on ovarian responses and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in dairy heifers, and the role of progesterone concentrations on LH release and ovulation in response to GnRH. In study 1, heifers received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone on d 0, an injection of 25 mg of PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 5, and an injection of 100 μg GnRH concurrently with AI on d 8. Heifers were assigned to receive no additional treatment (control; n=559) or an injection of GnRH on d 0 and a second injection of PGF2α on d 6 (G2P; n=547). In study 2, all heifers were treated as described for the control in study 1, and were allocated to receive no additional treatment (control; n=723), an injection of PGF2α on d 6 (NG2P; n=703), or an injection of GnRH on d 0 and an injection of PGF2α on d 6 (G2P; n=718). In study 3, heifers received a CIDR on d 7 after ovulation and were assigned randomly to a low-progesterone (LP; n=6) treatment in which 2 injections of 25 mg of PGF2α each were administered 12h apart, on d 7 and 7.5 after ovulation, or to a high-progesterone (HP; n=12) treatment in which no PGF2α was administered. On d 8, heifers received 100 μg of GnRH and blood was sampled at every 15 min from -30 to 180 min relative to the GnRH for assessment of LH concentrations. Additionally, 94 heifers were assigned to LP or HP and ovulation in response to GnRH was evaluated. In study 1, P/AI was greater for G2P than for the control on d 32 (59.4 vs. 53.5%) and 60 after AI (56.6 vs. 51.3%). In study 2, administration of GnRH on d 0 increased the proportion of heifers with a new corpus luteum on d 5 (control=21.9 vs. NG2P=20.1 vs. G2P=34.4%). Administration of a second PGF2α increased the proportion of heifers with progesterone <0.5 ng/mL at AI (control=83.1 vs. NG2P=93.0 and G2P=87.2%). Pregnancy per

  18. Economic comparison of reproductive programs for dairy herds using estrus detection, timed artificial insemination, or a combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Federico, P; De Vries, A; Schuenemann, G M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the economic outcome of reproductive programs using estrus detection (ED), timed artificial insemination (TAI), or a combination of both (TAI-ED) using a stochastic dynamic Monte-Carlo simulation model. Programs evaluated were (1) ED only; (2) TAI: Presynch-Ovsynch for first AI, and Ovsynch for resynchronization of open cows at 32 d after AI; (3) TAI-ED: Presynch-Ovsynch for first AI, but cows underwent ED and AI after first AI, and cows diagnosed open 32 d after AI were resynchronized using Ovsynch. Evaluated were the effect of ED rate (40 vs. 60%; ED40 or ED60), accuracy of estrus detection (85 vs. 95%), compliance with the timed AI protocol (85 vs. 95%), and milk price ($0.33 vs. 0.44/kg). Conception rate to first service was set at 33.9% and then decreased by 2.6% for every subsequent service. Abortion was set at 11.3%. Cows were not AI after 366 d in milk, and open cows were culled after 450 d in milk. Culled cows were immediately replaced. Herd size was maintained at 1,000 cows, and the model accounted for all incomes and costs. Simulation was performed until steady state was reached (3,000 d), and then average daily values for the subsequent 2,000 d were used to calculate profit/cow per year. Net daily value was calculated by subtracting the costs (replacement, feeding, breeding, and other costs) from the daily income (milk sales, cow sales, and calf sales). The ED40 models resulted in greater profits than the TAI-85 model but lower profits than the TAI-95 model. Both ED60 models resulted in greater profits than the TAI-95 model. Combining TAI and ED increased profits within each level of accuracy or compliance. Adding TAI to ED would increase overall profit/cow per year by $46.8 to $74.7 with 40% ED, and by $8.9 to $30.5 with 60% ED. Adding ED to TAI would increase profit/cow per year by $64.2 to $99.4 with 85% compliance and by $31.8 to $59.7 with 95% compliance. Although combining TAI and ED increased profits

  19. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  20. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  1. Turkey hen fertility and egg production after artificial insemination and multiple oviduct eversion during the pre-laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, M R

    1988-07-01

    The onset of egg production (mean 18.3 days after the onset of photostimulation) and the rate of egg production (flock averaged 4.9 eggs per bird per week for the first 8 weeks of egg production) were not affected by 5 days of twice daily oviduct eversion ('venting') in the pre-laying period when compared to unvented controls. After the onset of photostimulation, pre-laying hens were inseminated twice daily on Days 12 to 16 with 3 microliter semen containing 15 x 10(6) spermatozoa, and compared with groups of hens inseminated once daily on Days 15 and 16 with 15 microliters semen containing 75 x 10(6) spermatozoa or 41 microliter semen containing 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Fertility remained high for the first 5 weeks of egg production. However, by Week 6 the fertility of the hens receiving frequent low doses of semen dropped significantly below that of the others, which suggests that multiple inseminations with a low semen volume containing relatively low numbers of spermatozoa does not lead to an increase in the efficacy of sperm transport and storage in the oviduct.

  2. The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + timed artificial insemination protocols in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Fishman, Heidi J; Jones, Arthur L; Ferrer, Maria S; Jenerette, Mathews; Vaughn, Aimee

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (P/TAI) in dairy heifers treated with 4- versus 5-day Co-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocols. A total of 120 Holstein heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The heifers received an intravaginal CIDR insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone for 4 days (Monday-Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60) or 5 days (5-day Co-Synch + CIDR; n = 60). At the time of CIDR removal, 25 mg of PGF2α was injected intramuscularly, and 72 hours after CIDR removal, the heifers received 100 μg of GnRH intramuscularly and were artificially inseminated. Artificial insemination was performed by an experienced technician, using commercial frozen-thawed semen from a single sire. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography per rectum 32 days after TAI. Categorical data were analyzed using proc logistic and the chi-square test, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using the t-test of Statistical Analysis Systems. Heifers in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group had an acceptable P/TAI32 (55.0%, 33 of 60), which was not different (P = 0.35) from that observed in the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (63.3%, 38 of 60). Progesterone concentration at CIDR insertion or estradiol concentration at TAI did not influence the pregnancy outcomes. Interestingly, estradiol concentration at TAI was greater in the 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR group compared to the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the Monday to Friday 4-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol resulted in adequate P/TAI in dairy heifers, which was similar to that of the 5-day Co-Synch + CIDR protocol. This novel protocol might represent a promising hormonal treatment for TAI in dairy heifers, facilitating their reproductive management routine, while maintaining an adequate fertility.

  4. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows managed for first service using timed artificial insemination with or without detection of estrus using an activity-monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, P M; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C; Carvalho, P D

    2014-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=1,025) on a commercial dairy farm were randomly assigned at 10 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to 1 of 3 treatments for submitting cows to first artificial insemination (AI) and were fitted with activity-monitoring tags (Heatime; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) at 24 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=339) in treatment 1 were inseminated based on increased activity from the end of the voluntary waiting period (50 DIM) until submission to an Ovsynch protocol; cows without increased activity from 21 to 65 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM, whereas cows without increased activity from 21 to 50 DIM but not from 51 to 79 DIM began an Ovsynch protocol at 79 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=340) in treatment 2 were inseminated based on activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol at 50 DIM, and cows without increased activity began an Ovsynch protocol at 65 ± 3 DIM. Cows (n=346) in treatment 3 were monitored for activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, but all cows received timed AI (TAI) at 75 ± 3 DIM after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. The activity-monitoring system detected increased activity in 56, 69, and 70% of cows in treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Treatment-2 cows had the fewest average days to first AI (62.5), treatment-3 cows had the most average days to first AI (74.9), and treatment-1 cows had intermediate average days to first AI (67.4). Treatment-1 and -2 cows in which inseminations occurred as a combination between increased activity and TAI had fewer overall pregnancies per AI (P/AI) 35 d after AI (32% for both treatments) compared with treatment-3 cows, all of which received TAI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (40%). Based on survival analysis, although the rate at which cows were inseminated differed among treatments, treatment did not affect the proportion of cows pregnant by 300 DIM. Thus, use of an activity-monitoring system to inseminate cows based on

  5. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

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    Rayf Roberto Tirloni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  6. Fertility after implementation of long- and short-term progesterone-based ovulation synchronization protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2015-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term (LT; a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR]-PGF2α [PGF]-GnRH) and short-term (ST; 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR) progesterone-based protocols on pregnancy rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In experiment 1, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 1887) at nine locations received a body condition score and a reproductive tract score (RTS). Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-56 protocol groups. Heifers in the LT-72 group received a CIDR from Days 0 to 14, followed by 25 mg of PGF 16 days later (Day 30). Heifers in the ST-56 group received a CIDR and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 25 followed by 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 30 and a second dose of PGF 6 hours later (Day 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 56 hours (Day 32) after CIDR removal for the ST-56 group and at 72 hours (Day 33) after CIDR removal for the LT-72 group, and all heifers were given GnRH (100 μg, intramuscular) at the time of AI. In experiment 2, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 718) at four locations received a body condition score and an RTS. Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-72 protocol groups. The protocol was similar to experiment 1 except that AI was performed at 72 hours after CIDR removal for both LT-72 and ST-72 groups. In experiment 1, no difference in AI pregnancy rates between the LT-72 and ST-56 groups was observed (54.5% [489 of 897] and 55.5% [549 of 990], respectively; P = 0.92) after accounting for the RTS. The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 52.6%, 53.6%, and 59.9%, respectively (P insemination in 33 days with the LT protocol compared with just 8 days with the ST protocol.

  7. Dose inseminante para fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado Insemination dose for artificial fertilization of dourado oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a dose inseminante adequada para uso na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis. Os ovócitos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e fertilizados com uma das relações espermatozoides/ovócito 6,0×10³; 6,0×10(4; 6,0×10(5; 6,0×10(6 ou 3,0×10(7, cada uma com quatro repetições. Considerou-se unidade experimental uma incubadora de volume útil de 2,5 L, contendo 2,0 mL de ovócitos não-hidratados. As taxas de fertilização foram mensuradas 8 horas após o início da fertilização. Com intuito de verificar possíveis efeitos da diluição seminal na movimentação dos espermatozoides, realizou-se a mensuração do tempo de duração da motilidade espermática dos espermatozoides de dourado, ativados por meio de diferentes relações de diluição: 6,8×10-5; 6,8×10-4; 6,8×10-3; 6,8×10-2; 3,4×10-1 e 1,0 mL de sêmen por mL de água. O tempo de duração da motilidade foi avaliado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado composto de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As taxas de fertilização apresentaram relação quadrática com o número de espermatozoides por ovócito. As relações de diluição do sêmen tiveram efeito inversamente proporcional sobre a duração da motilidade espermática. A relação que proporcionou melhores taxas de fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis foi de 30.722 espermatozoides por ovócio.The objective of the present study was to determine the proper insemination dose of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis oocytes. The oocytes were placed in a randomized complete design and fertilized with one of the spermatozoa.oocytes-1 ratio, 6.0×10³, 6.0×10(4, 6.0×10(5, 6.0×10(6, 3.0×10(7 SPZ:OOC, each one with four replications. An experimental unit was considered to be an incubator with a 2.5L useful volume containing 2.0 mL non-hydrated oocytes. The fertilization rates were measured eight hours

  8. [Intrauterine insemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, Philippe; Cabry, Rosalie; Lourdel, Emmanuelle; Barbier, Frédéric; Scheffler, Florence; Mansouri, Naïma; Devaux, Aviva; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm is an assisted reproductive technologie, as proposed in the case of cervical infertility, moderate male infertility, dysovulation, mild or moderate endometriosis or unexplained infertility. In the last three indications the ovarian stimulation is necessary. The couple demographic criteria (age of both partners, lifestyle, duration of infertility) and the results of the infertility evaluation (ovarian reserve, uterus, spermogram-spermocytogram) increase the chances of pregnancy by intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm and reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies. Pregnancy rates observed ranged from 8 to 20% per cycle according to indications.

  9. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: II. Comparing pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate split-time artificial insemination (AI) in beef heifers following administration of the 14-day controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-prostaglandin F2α (PG) protocol and to compare pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI. Estrus was synchronized for 1138 heifers across six locations. Heifers received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG (25 mg), 16 days after CIDR removal on Day 30. Heifers were assigned to balanced treatments based on reproductive tract score and weight, and treatments were represented within each location. Split-time AI was performed at 66 and 90 hours after PG, and estrus was recorded at these times. Heifers in both treatments that exhibited estrus by 66 hours were inseminated and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 hours. For heifers in treatment 1 that were inseminated at 90 hours, GnRH (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 hours. Heifers in treatment 2 that were inseminated at 90 hours did not receive GnRH. Estrous response did not differ between treatments at 66 hours after PG (treatment 1 = 70%; treatment 2 = 71%; P = 0.58) or during the 24-hour delay period (treatment 1 = 59%; treatment 2 = 52%; P = 0.21). There was no effect of treatment on pregnancy rates resulting from AI for heifers inseminated at 66 hours (treatment 1 = 58%; treatment 2 = 62%; P = 0.86) or 90 hours (treatment 1 = 44%; treatment 2 = 39%; P = 0.47) after PG; and there was no difference between treatments when considering total AI pregnancy rate (treatment 1 = 54%; treatment 2 = 56%; P = 0.60). Ovulation was confirmed via ultrasonography for a subset of heifers that failed to exhibit estrus prior to 90 hours after PG. For heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 90

  10. Intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboulghar, M.; Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Somigliana, E.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovarian stimulation is a common treatment for infertility. Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of IUI treatment is not consistent, and the role of IUI and in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in practice protocols has not been clarified. Medlin

  11. Resources in Technology: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Introduces the concept of artificial intelligence, discusses where it is currently used, and describes an expert computer system that can be used in the technology laboratory. Included is a learning activity that describes ideas for using intelligent computers as problem-solving tools. (Author/CH)

  12. Effect of PGF2α and GnRH on the reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows subjected to synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination during the warm or cold periods of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarabadi, M Afsari; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A; Shahsavari, M H

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows (Holstein Friesian) after the injection of PGF2α analogue on Day 15 postpartum, and GnRH analogue on Day 23 after artificial insemination (AI) with Presynch (two injections of PGF2α, administered 14 days apart starting at 30-35 days postpartum) + Ovsynch-based (GnRH-7 days-PGF2α-2 days-GnRH-16-20 hours-timed artificial insemination) treatments, during the warm and cold periods of the year. All the cows (n = 313) were assigned to one of the four groups including: M1 (n = 72) in which the cows were treated with PGF2α on Day 15 postpartum + Presynch-Ovsynch + GnRH on Day 23 post-AI; M2 (n = 41) in which the cows received PGF2α on Day 15 postpartum + Presynch-Ovsynch; M3 (n = 100) including the cows that got Presynch-Ovsynch; and control group (n = 100) including the cows that were not treated and were inseminated at natural estrus. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 28 to 35 days post-insemination by means of ultrasound. The results showed that treatment with PGF2α on Day 15 postpartum significantly decreased the days to conception and the number of services per conception (P 0.05). In contrast, administration of GnRH on Day 23 post-AI increased the days to conception and the number of service per conception (P artificial insemination after Presynch-Ovsynch protocol but also reduced that.

  13. Effect of different gonadorelin (GnRH) products used for the first or resynchronized timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, S E; Lamberson, W R; Lucy, M C

    2015-09-01

    Different GnRH products are used for timed artificial insemination (AI) in postpartum dairy cows. Previous studies reported greater LH release and increased ovulation percentage for gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate compared with gonadorelin hydrochloride but pregnancies per AI (P/AI) were not evaluated. The objective, therefore, was to compare P/AI for cows treated with either gonadorelin hydrochloride or gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate before the first timed AI or resynchronized timed AI. Holstein cows (n = 3938) in a confinement dairy in northeast Missouri were assigned to weekly cohorts (n = 22) on the basis of calving date. Cows were treated with "Presynch Ovsynch" (PGF2α, 14 days; PGF2α, 14 days; GnRH, 7 days; PGF2α, 56 hours; GnRH, 16 hours; timed AI) so that the first timed AI was 70 to 76 days postpartum. The PGF2α was Lutalyse (5 mL; 25 mg; Zoetis). The GnRH product was either gonadorelin hydrochloride (2 mL; 100 μg; n = 1945) or gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (2 mL; 100 μg; n = 1993) and alternated weekly for cows assigned to cohorts. There were first timed AI (n = 1790) and resynchronized timed AI (n = 2148) cows within each cohort. The resynchronization began 32 days after timed AI (GnRH, 6 days; ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis, 1 day; and then for nonpregnant cows: PGF2α, 56 hours; GnRH, 16 hours; timed AI). The trial was conducted from January to February 2012 (n = 1203) and July to October 2012 (n = 2735). Cows were fed a total mixed ration, milked thrice daily, and milk tested monthly for volume, somatic cell count (SCC), fat percentage, protein percentage, and milk urea nitrogen. Data were analyzed by fitting the binary response data to a generalized linear mixed model for repeated measures. There was no effect of the GnRH product (treatment) on P/AI (38.4 ± 1.2 vs. 35.7 ± 1.3; gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate vs. gonadorelin hydrochloride). Treatment interactions with parity, month of breeding

  14. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

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    Dubiel Andrzej

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI. Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1 and 11 year (bull 2. Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France, whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II. The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II, and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell, whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II. Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report

  15. Diameter of the ovulatory follicle at timed artificial insemination as a predictor of pregnancy status in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Behrouzi, A; Ambrose, D J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    Ovulation of an early-stage dominant follicle induced by exogenous GnRH reportedly results in a reduced ovulatory follicle size and fertility in beef and dairy cattle. Objectives were to examine factors associated with ovulatory follicle diameter and the relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based programs for timed artificial insemination (TAI). A total of 1048 ovulations from 1576 breedings of cows that had or had not been presynchronized and subjected to a 5- or a 7-day GnRH-based protocol with or without progesterone supplementation between initial GnRH and PGF2α were analyzed. Ultrasonography was used to determine cyclicity, ovulation, and pregnancy status and to measure diameter of the ovulatory follicle at the time of TAI. Mean (±standard error) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was 16.4 ± 0.1 mm (range, 11-25 mm; n = 1048); the most common diameters were 15 (n = 170), 16 (n = 169), and 17 mm (n = 170). Multiparous cows and those subjected to a 7-day protocol had larger ovulatory follicles (P < 0.05). On average, multiparous cows that did not ovulate after the initial GnRH had the largest ovulatory follicles (17.0 ± 0.1 mm; n = 290), whereas all cows that ovulated after the initial GnRH and were subjected to a 5-day GnRH-based protocol had the smallest ovulatory follicles (15.6 ± 0.2 mm; n = 207). The associations between ovulatory follicle diameter and P/AI at 32 and 60 days after TAI were not significant. However, a significant linear relationship between ovulatory follicle diameter and pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 days after TAI was observed, with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of pregnancy loss in cows with an ovulatory follicle greater than 20 mm in diameter. In summary, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle preceding TAI was affected by interactions between ovulatory response to initial GnRH and parity and between

  16. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep.

  17. Reducción a un servicio en los programas de inseminación artificial de hembras bovinas - Reduction to a service in the programs of artificial insemination of bovine females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botello, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo propone reducir a un servicio de Inseminación Artificial (IA en hembras bovinas, para abaratar los costos por concepto de inseminación y disminuir el tiempo de trabajo de los inseminadores. Por un período de tres años (2006-2008 se investigaron 810 hembras bovinas del cruce (Holstein x Cebú con condición corporal mayor e igual a 3,5 y se conformaron dos tratamientos, cada uno compuesto por 405 animales, el primer grupo se le realizó un solo servicio de IA y al segundo dos, a los quese les midió: proporción de gestación y nacimientos. Las comparaciones se realizaron mediante una prueba de hipótesis de Z. Se demostró que no existieron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, en cuanto a la proporción de gestaciones y nacimientos. Se concluye que un solo servicio de IA, es una opción viable para los programas de reproducción animal. SummaryThe present work intends to reduce to a service of Artificial Insemination (IA in bovine females, to reduce the costs for insemination concept and to diminish the time of work of the inseminators. For a three year-old period (2006-2008 810 bovine females of the crossing were investigated (Holstein xCebú with more corporal condition and similar to 3,5 and they conformed to two treatments, each one composed by 405 animals, the first group was carried out a single service of IA and a second two, to those that were measured: gestation proportion and births. The comparisons were carried out by means of a test of hypothesis of Z. It was demonstrated that significant differences didn't exist among the treatments, as for the proportion of gestations and births. You conclude that a single service of I A, is a viable option for the programs of animal reproduction.

  18. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Leite

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.The objective of this research was to determine the insemination dose for artificial fertilization and describe the embryonic development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun. The gametes were collected from induced breeding hormonally. An artificial fertilization was performed with different sperm/oocyte ratios of D1-50666, D2-75999, D3-101 332, 126 665-D4, D5-151 998 sperm/oocyte. Embryonic development was monitored through periodic stereoscopic observations until hatching. When embryos reached the blastopore closure stage, the rate of fertilization in different insemination doses was calculated. A regression equation was estimated to determine the ideal proportion of the gametes. The fertilization rate increased linearly according to the equation Ŷ = 0

  19. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  20. Cattle farmers: profile and speech content analysis while undergoing training to adopt artificial insemination in Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Lucas Gordo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to verify major issues present in the discourse of cattle farmers when discussing the use of artificial insemination (AI. Seventy-one beef and dairy cattle farmers in the state of Goiás, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires during AI training courses in 2010 and 2011. Data analyses were done using the classic method of textual speech content analysis, performing the pre-analytical, analytical and inferential stages. The written questions were separated in elementary context units (ECU and sorted into similar thematic groups. These groups originated categories and subcategories, which were nominated based on an a posteriori criteria. Overall, personal motivation was the main issue characterizing discourse by farmers about adoption of AI. This motivation stems from the strong points (highlights and positive expectations AI offers. The positive expectations were mainly related to perceptions of farmers of animal phenotype improvement rather than to the financial features of cattle production. Basic necessity was the second major issue, with emphasis on work force, infrastructure and animal handling, followed by social influence, with eminence of the institutions and people involved with AI and with the everyday life of cattle farmers. The little emphasis on human resource management and on the use of scientific knowledge may have affected the impact of AI over the years, explaining discreet indices of adoption of AI in Brazil.

  1. Cytogenetic survey of Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination company to determine prevalence of bulls with centric fusion and chimeric anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, B E; Zhang, T Q; Buoen, L C; Weber, A F; Ruth, G R

    2000-01-01

    To determine prevalence of Holstein bulls with chromosomal anomalies, particularly the 1/21 centric fusion (CF), at a commercial artificial insemination (AI) company in the United States. Cross-sectional cytogenetic prevalence study. All 606 Holstein bulls at a commercial AI company were cytogenetically screened to detect CF, chimerism, and other chromosomal abnormalities. Lymphocytes from heparinized blood samples were cultured by standard cytogenetic techniques, and chromosome spreads were prepared for microscopic examination. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected by examining 10 chromosome spreads per bull. Pedigree analysis was performed. None of the bulls had any type of CF. However, 6 bulls were identified as chimeras (i.e., contained lymphocytes with male [XY] and female [XX] chromosomes). One bull was sire or maternal grandsire to 85 of the bulls tested, and 739 of 1,212 (61%) sire and maternal-grandsire possibilities were accounted for by just 18 bulls. Analysis of these results supports previous indications that CF is extremely rare in Holstein bloodlines available commercially via AI in the United States. However, chimeric bulls are more common, and they reportedly have decreased reproductive performance. Therefore, identification of chimeric sires in the AI facility reported here and the possibility of de novo onset of CF at any time indicates that early cytogenetic screening should be encouraged for prospective bulls intended for use in AI programs.

  2. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration or a controlled internal drug-releasing insert after timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Kwan; Choi, In Soo; Kang, Hyun Gu; Hur, Tai Young

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration (Experiment 1) and a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert (Experiment 2) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the pregnancy rates of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 569 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following short-term synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 307) or injection of 100 µg of gonadorelin on day 5 (GnRH, n = 262). In Experiment 2, 279 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following Ovsynch were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 140) or CIDR insert treatment from days 3.5 to 18 (CIDR, n = 139). The probability of pregnancy following TAI did not differ between the GnRH (34.4%) and control (31.6%, p > 0.05) groups. However, the probability of pregnancy following TAI was higher (odds ratio: 1.74, p < 0.05) in the CIDR group (51.1%) than in the control group (39.3%). Overall, CIDR insert treatment at days 3.5 to 18 increased pregnancy rates relative to non-treated controls, whereas a single GnRH administration on day 5 did not affect the pregnancy outcomes of dairy cows. PMID:27030200

  3. Ovarian responses of dairy buffalo cows to timed artificial insemination protocol, using new or used progesterone devices, during the breeding season (autumn-winter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Bruno Moura; de Souza, Diego Cavalcante; Vasconcellos, Guilherme Souza Floriano Machado; Corrêa, Thalita Bueno; Vecchio, Domenico; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of new or used P4 devices on the ovarian responses of dairy buffalo that were administered an estradiol (E2) plus progesterone (P4)-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol during the breeding season. On the first day of the TAI protocol, 142 cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the following: a new device (New; 1.0 g of P4; n = 48); a device that had previously been used for 9 days (Used1x, n = 47); or a device that had previously been used for 18 days (Used2x, n = 47). Ultrasound was used to evaluate the following: the presence of a corpus luteum (CL); the diameter of the dominant follicle (ØDF) during protocol; ovulatory response; and pregnancies per AI (P/AI). Despite similar responses among the treatments, there was a significant positive association of the ØDF during TAI protocol with ovulatory responses and number of pregnancies. In conclusion, satisfactory ovarian responses and a satisfactory pregnancy rate were achieved when grazing dairy buffalo were subjected to the TAI protocol in breeding season, independent of whether a new or used P4 device was used. Furthermore, the presence of the larger follicle was associated with a higher ovulation rate and higher P/AI following TAI.

  4. Influence of category--heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows--in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcio de Oliveira; Morotti, Fábio; da Silva, Camila Bizarro; Júnior, Mario Ribeiro; da Silva, Rubens César Pinto; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of category (heifers, primiparous or multiparous cows) on pregnancy rates in a large scale resynchronization ovulation program. Nelore heifers (n = 903), primiparous lactating cows (n = 338) and multiparous lactating cows (n = 1,223) were synchronized using a conventional protocol of estradiol/P4-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Thirty days after ultrasonography, females who failed the first FTAI were resynchronized with the same hormonal protocol prior to a second FTAI. The pregnancy status of each cohort was evaluated by ultrasonography 30 days after each FTAI. The average conception rate after the first FTAI and resynchronization was 80.5%. Heifers had a higher conception rate (85%) than primiparous (76%) or multiparous cows (78%; p = 0.0001). The conception rate after the first FTAI was similar among heifers (57%), primiparous cows (51%) and multiparous cows (56%; p = 0.193). After the second FTAI, heifers exhibited a higher conception rate (66%) than primiparous or multiparous cows (51%; p = 0.0001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of resynchronization in large beef herds for providing consistent pregnancy rates in a short period of time. We also demonstrated that ovulation resynchronization 30 days after FTAI is particularly effective for heifers, providing a conception rate of up to 66%.

  5. The value of microscopic semen motility assessment at collection for a commercial artificial insemination center, a retrospective study on factors explaining variation in pig fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.; Sostaric, E.; Feitsma, H.; Gadella, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between boar and semen related parameters and the variation in field fertility results. In 8 years time semen insemination doses from 110 186 ejaculates of 7429 boars were merged to fertility parameters of inseminations of 165 000 sows and these

  6. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-02-15

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  7. 64 EFFECTS OF NANOPURIFIED BOAR SEMEN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ON PROTEIN DETECTION IN SWINE OFFSPRING MUSCLE AND FAT TISSUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, W A; Durfey, C L; Liao, S; Devost-Burnett, D; Gastal, G D A; Ryan, P L; Willard, S T; Feugang, J M

    2016-01-01

    Standard extended semen contains both viable and non-viable spermatozoa. Magnetic nanoparticles have proven to be effective in the purification of boar semen by targeting nonviable spermatozoal cells (Feugang et al. 2015 IVF Reprod. Med. Genet. 3, 2), allowing potentially greater efficiency within the pork production industry. Previous research lacks data regarding the biochemical effects on offspring produced from such nanopurified semen. Here, we aim to determine whether there is a difference in protein expression between offspring produced with standard and nanopurified semen. Myoglobin (MYO) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were chosen as the protein markers for this study because they are often studied in reference to meat quality. Myoglobin provides meat its red colour, and FAS assembles fatty acids contributing to tenderness and palatability. The results produced here will provide a baseline for further research in the meat quality and the safety of consuming meat produced with this nanopurification method. Six sows maintained on our experimental farm were inseminated with standard (CTRL) and nanopurified (NANO) boar semen, leading to the birth of viable full-term piglets. At weaning, 10 pigs (5 male and 5 female) were randomly selected from each group and allowed to grow to market weight. Samples of longissimus muscle and SC back fat were then collected from each pig and prepared for protein analyses. Western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence of tissue samples were performed using anti-MYO and anti-FAS antibodies. Images were appropriately captured and quantified (ImageJ). Data (mean±SEM) were analysed (ANOVA/Wilcoxon) with Pfat tissues, respectively, and there were no differences between groups for each protein. Compared with the CTRL group, immunofluorescence signals of MYO in fat tissues and FAS in muscle tissues were significantly reduced in NANO group pigs, irrespective of the sex. However, MYO immunofluorescence levels in fat tissues and FAS levels

  8. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  9. Health profile and efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination of cattle herds owned by small-scale producers in the region of Piracicaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD, enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, and neosporosis. The laboratory tests were conducted according to the methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. All herds had at least one animal that tested positive for one or more reproductive system diseases. Brucellosis was detected in 3/20 (15% herds, IBR and BVD in 19/20 (95%, EBL in 20/20 (100%, neosporosis in 13/20 (65%, and tuberculosis in 8/8 (100%. Six months later, cows (n=203 of the different herds were submitted to hormone treatment consisting of estradiol-progesterone and PGF2α for heat synchronization and ovulation and subsequent FTAI. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rates at 30 and 60 days after FTAI were 55.7% and 48.3%, respectively. These rates were not influenced by herd, inseminator, body score, post-calving days, or number of lactations. The calving rate (42.4% differed from the pregnancy rate at 30 (P=0.01, but not at 60 (P=0.27 days after FTAI. The gestation loss until calving was 23.2% (26/112, but no exact cause of this event was identified. Despite the presence (seroreactivity of reproductive diseases, cattle herds owned by small-scale producers exhibit acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI. However, additional prophylactic measures such as vaccination and improvement of livestock management should be adopted.

  10. Comparação entre diferentes métodos de inseminação artificial em suínos Comparison between different methods of artificial insemination in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Auri dos Santos Flores

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três métodos de inseminação artificial(IA no suíno em relação ao tempo de infusão e perdas por refluxo da DI durante a IA e aos 120 minutos após a IA, bem como dados de operacionalidade medido pelo grau de dificuldade verificado para execução da IA e dados de desempenho reprodutivo. Foram utilizadas 604 matrizes até a parição 7 e IDE 0,05. As taxas de retorno ao estro foram 10,3, 7,4 e 8,5 %, a taxa de parto ajustada foi de 90,8, 94,0 e 91,7% com 10,9, 11,1 e 11,1 leitões nascidos totais em T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. O método auto IA e o método intermediário proporcionam IAs mais rápidas e podem substituir o método tradicional sem prejuízos ao desempenho reprodutivo.This study was performed to compare the Hands-free insemination method, i.e., the high degree automation procedure, with an intermediate method, which allows less participation of the inseminator during the application of the inseminating dose (ID, and the conventional method, which is widely used in Brazil. The comparison was based on infusion time and losses due to semen backflow during AI and 120 minutes after AI, degree of difficulty experienced during AI procedure, and reproductive performance data. A number of 604 sows on the parity up to 7 and a weaning to estrus interval 0.05 in return to estrus rate, adjusted farrowing rate and number of born piglets. The return to estrus rates were 10.3, 7.4 and 8.5%, adjusted farrowing rates were 90.8, 94.0 and 91.7%, with 10.9, 11.1 e 11.1 total born piglets in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The Hands free method and the intermediate method allowed faster AI and can replace the traditional method without influence on the reproductive performance.

  11. [Assisted reproduction and artificial insemination and genetic manipulation in the Criminal Code of the Federal District, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena Sesma, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The article that one presents has for purpose outline and comment on the recent modifications to the Penal Code for the Federal District of México which establish, for the first time, crimes related to the artificial procreation and to the genetic manipulation. Also one refers to the interaction of the new legal texts with the sanitary legislation of the country. Since it will be stated in some cases they present confrontations between the penal and the sanitary reglamentation and some points related to the legality or unlawfulness of a conduct that stayed without the enough development. These lacks will complicate the application of the new rules of the Penal Code of the Federal District.

  12. Timing of prostaglandin F2α treatment in an estrogen-based protocol for timed artificial insemination or timed embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Sanches, C P; Guida, T G; Rodrigues, A D P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Borges, P T; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate progesterone concentrations and fertility comparing 2 different intervals from PGF(2α) treatment and induced ovulation in an estrogen-based ovulation synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET) in lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,058 lactating Holstein cows [primiparous (n=371) and multiparous (n=687)], yielding 34.1 ± 0.33 kg of milk/d at various days in milk were randomly assigned to receive treatment with PGF(2α) on either d 7 or 8 of the following protocol: d 0: 2mg of estradiol benzoate + controlled internal drug release device; d 8: controlled internal drug release device removal + 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate; d 10: TAI or d 17: TET. Only cows with a corpus luteum at d 17 received an embryo and all cows received GnRH at TET. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by detection (transrectal ultrasonography) of an embryo on d 28 or a fetus on d 60. Fertility [pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) or pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET)] was affected by breeding technique (AI vs. ET) and time of PGF(2α) treatment (d 7 vs. 8) at the 28-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [32.9% (238) vs. 20.6% (168)] and TET cows [47% (243) vs. 40.7% (244)] and at the 60-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [30% (238) vs. 19.2% (168)] and TET cows [37.9% (243) vs. 33.5% (244)]. The progesterone (P4) concentration at d 10 altered fertility in TAI cows, with higher P/AI in cows with P4 concentration <0.1 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ≥ 0.1 ng/mL, and in ET cows, with higher P/ET in cows with P4 concentration <0.22 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ≥ 0.22 ng/mL. Prostaglandin F(2α) treatment at d 7 increased the percentage of cows with P4 <0.1 ng/mL on d 10 [39.4 (85) vs. 23.2 (54)]. Reducing the period between PGF(2α) and TAI from 72 to 48 h in dairy cows resulted in a clear reduction in fertility in cows bred by TAI and a subtle negative effect in cows that received

  13. Timed artificial insemination programs during the summer in lactating dairy cows: comparison of the 5-d Cosynch protocol with an estrogen/progesterone-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; Martins, T; Oliveira, W V C; Silveira, P S A; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a GnRH-based to an estrogen/progesterone (E2/P4)-based protocol for estrous cycle synchronization and fixed timed artificial insemination (TAI), both designed for synchronization of ovulation and to reduce the period from follicular emergence until ovulation in cows with a synchronized follicular wave. A total of 1,190 lactating Holstein cows (primiparous: n=685 and multiparous: n=505) yielding 26.5 ± 0.30 kg of milk/d at 177 ± 5.02 d in milk were randomly assigned to receive one of the following programs: 5-d Cosynch protocol [d -8: controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + GnRH; d -3: CIDR removal + PGF2α; d -2: PGF2α; d 0: TAI + GnRH] or E2/P4 protocol (d -10: CIDR + estradiol benzoate; d -3: PGF2α; d -2: CIDR removal + estradiol cypionate; d 0: TAI). Rectal temperature and circulating progesterone (P4) were measured on d -3, -2, 0 (TAI), and 7. The estrous cycle was considered to be synchronized when P4 was ≥ 1.0 ng/mL on d 7 in cows that had luteolysis (P4 ≤ 0.4 ng/mL on d 0). To evaluate the effects of heat stress, cows were classified by number of heat stress events: 0, 1, and 2-or-more measurements of elevated body temperature (≥ 39.1 °C). Pregnancy success (pregnancy per artificial insemination, P/AI) was determined at d 32 and 60 after TAI. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had increased circulating P4 at the time of PGF2α injection (2.66 ± 0.13 vs. 1.66 ± 0.13 ng/mL). The cows in the E2/P4 protocol were more likely to be detected in estrus (62.8 vs. 43.4%) compared with the cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol, and expression of estrus improved P/AI in both treatments. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had greater percentage of synchronized estrous cycle (78.2%), compared with cows in the E2/P4 protocol (70.7%). On d 60, the E2/P4 protocol tended to improve P/AI (20.7 vs. 16.7%) and reduced pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d (11.0 vs. 19.6%), compared with the 5-d Cosynch protocol. In cows withtheir

  14. Increasing estradiol benzoate, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and impediments for successful estradiol-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Borsato, M; Silva, F L M; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2015-06-01

    With the objective to optimize fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P4), we performed 2 experiments (Exp.) in dairy cows. In Exp. 1 (n=44), we hypothesized that increased EB (EB3=3 mg vs. EB2=2 mg) on d 0 would improve synchronization of ovarian follicle wave emergence. Likewise, in Exp. 2 (n=82), we hypothesized that a GnRH treatment on d -3 (early in a follicular wave on d 0) versus d -7 (presence of a dominant follicle on d 0) would better synchronize wave emergence. Moreover, results from both experiments were combined to identify reasons for the lack of synchronization. All cows were treated with EB at the time of introduction of a P4 implant (d 0). On d 7, cows were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α; on d 8, the implant was removed and cows were given 1mg of estradiol cypionate. All cows received FTAI on d 10. In both experiments, daily ultrasound evaluations were performed and, in Exp. 2, circulating P4 was evaluated during the protocol. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) was determined on d 31 and 59 after FTAI. In Exp. 1, EB dose did not change time to wave emergence, but EB3 compared with EB2 decreased the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum on d 7 (19.8 vs. 55.3%) and time to ovulation (10.4 vs. 10.9 d). In Exp. 2, although we detected a tendency for delayed follicle wave emergence after the start of the FTAI protocol in cows ovulating to GnRH given on d -7, there was no difference in percentage of cows with a synchronized wave emergence (~80%). Regardless of treatment, more cows with P4<0.1 ng/mL, compared with P4≥0.1 and <0.22 ng/mL at the time of AI, ovulated to the protocol (81.2 vs. 58.0%) and had increased P/AI (47.4 vs. 21.4%). An analysis of data from both experiments showed that only 73.8% (93/126) of cows had synchronized wave emergence, and only 77.8% (98/126) of cows ovulated at the end of the protocol. Fertility was much greater in cows that had emergence of a

  15. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p hCG (66.7%) groups as compared to their control counterparts (30.8%). Furthermore, the buffalo of dAI-hCG group had improved (p  0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For the pres

  17. Combined use of progesterone inserts, ultrasongraphy, and GnRH to identify and resynchronize nonpregnant cows and heifers 21 days after timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D E; Ibarbia, L; Daetz, R; Bittar, J H; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Galvão, K N

    2016-01-15

    The objective was to decrease the reinsemination interval (RI) when dairy cows and heifers are inseminated using all timed artificial insemination (TAI) programs. Holstein cows (n = 211) and heifers (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a control or 21-day Resynch (21dRES) at 13 days after TAI. Animals in 21dRES (n = 109 cows and 77 heifers) had a progesterone device inserted on Day 13 and removed on Day 20 after TAI and ovaries scanned by ultrasonography. Animals found not to have an active CL (<15 mm) or a CL that decreased 10 mm or greater from Days 13 to 20, and to have a follicle of 12 mm or greater received GnRH and TAI on Day 21. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 32. Nonpregnant control cows (n = 102) were resynchronized immediately using Ovsynch-56, and control heifers (n = 76) were resynchronized using 5-day Cosynch starting on Day 34; therefore, cows and heifers were reinseminated on Day 42. Nonpregnant 21dRES animals that had not been reinseminated on Day 21 were resynchronized concurrently with the control animals. Pregnancy per AI (PAI) for the initial TAI was similar (P = 0.80) for 21dRES and control cows (30.3% vs. 29.4%) and heifers (49.4% vs. 51.3%). Of the nonpregnant 21dRES animals, 33 of 76 cows (43.4%) and 22 of 39 heifers (56.4%) had been reinseminated on Day 21. Therefore, the RI was decreased by 9.9 days (33.3 ± 1.0 vs. 43.2 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.001) in 21dRES cows and by 12.2 days in 21dRES heifers (30.1 ± 1.3 vs. 42.3 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.001) compared with controls. The overall resynchronized PAI was similar for 21dRES cows compared with controls (31.6% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.23). The PAI was 24.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 21 and 37.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 42. The overall resynchronized PAI was increased for 21dRES heifers compared with controls (57.5% vs. 32.4%; P = 0.03) because 21dRES heifers reinseminated on Day 21 had similar PAI compared with controls (43.5% vs. 32

  18. Viabilidade financeira da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo de bezerros cruzados Nelore e Aberdeen Angus = Economic feasibility of timed artificial insemination of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zuchi Neto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O cruzamento entre taurinos e zebuínos através de Inseminação Artificial em Tempo Fixo [IATF] é uma realidade presente em várias propriedades rurais no Brasil. Visando as vantagens da IATF em conjunto com as vantagens do cruzamento industrial o objetivo foi verificar a viabilidade financeira desta atividade em uma propriedade no município de Nova Lacerda, MT. Para tal, utilizou-se as ferramentas de matemática financeira Valor Presente Líquido [VPL], Taxa Interna de Retorno [TIR] e Payback. O projeto se mostrou viável com um VPL acima de R$ 300 mil, TIR de 23,03% e Payback descontado de aproximadamente oito anos. A venda de descartes e a suplementação dos bezerros em sistema de “creep feeding” se mostraram importantes para a viabilidade deste projeto. = Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbred through Timed Artificial Insemination [TAI] is present in several farms in Brazil. Aiming the advantages of the TAI together with industrial crossing, the objective was to verify the economic feasibility of this activity on a farm in the city of Nova Lacerda, MT. Financial mathematics tools like Net Present Value [NPV], Internal Rate of Return [IRR] and Payback were used. The project was feasible with a NPV above R$ 300 thousand, an IRR of 23.03% and a Discounted Payback of approximately eight years. The sale of discards matrix and the supplementation of calves in a creep feeding system showed to be important for the viability of this project.

  19. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-04-01

    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  20. Does the amount of progesterone in intravaginal implants used to synchronise oestrus affect the reproductive performance of Brahman heifers artificially inseminated at a fixed time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N J; Fordyce, G; Burns, B; Williams, P; Mayer, D; Bo, G A; McGowan, M R

    2010-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that reduced intravaginal implant progesterone (P(4)) concentration to synchronise oestrus would increase pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in Bos indicus heifers. Brahman heifers (n = 294; 2 year) were body condition scored (BCS), weighed and scanned for presence of a corpus luteum (CL). Only cyclic heifers were selected and allocated randomly within BCS and 25 kg bodyweight category to one of three P(4) treatment groups. On day 10, heifers received a P(4) implant (CueMate-1-pod, 0.78 g P(4); CueMate-2-pod, 1.56 g P(4); or CIDR-B, 1.9 g P(4)), 2 mg oestradiol benzoate (ODB) intramuscularly (i.m.) and 250 ug cloprostenol i.m.. At day 2, the implant was removed, 250 ug cloprostenol was injected i.m. and tail paint applied. The heifers received 1 mg ODB 24 h later and were FTAI 48-54 h after implant removal (day 0). Ten randomly selected heifers per group were blood sampled and scanned at days 10, 2, 0 and 6 to define the P(4) profiles pre- and post-FTAI. Heifers were heat-detected 18-20 days post-FTAI and oestrous heifers AI'd by the AM/PM rule. Bulls joined the heifers on day 27 post-FTAI. Transrectal ultrasonography estimated conception date on day 72. Statistical analysis examined the effects of treatment, technician, semen, ovarian status, BCS and liveweight, on pregnancy rate (PR) to FTAI. There was no significant difference (p = 0.362) in PR between treatment groups (CueMate 1-pod, 36.4%; CueMate 2-pod, 39.6%: CIDR-B, 28.3%), but PR was higher in those heifers with increased BCS between FTAI and pregnancy diagnosis (p = 0.005). Thirty-three per cent of monitor heifers had plasma P(4) concentrations of Brahman heifers in northern Australia. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Selection responses for the number of fertile eggs of the Brown Tsaiya duck (Anas platyrhynchos) after a single artificial insemination with pooled Muscovy (Cairina moschata) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Poivey, Jean Paul; Tai, Jui Jane Liu; Tai, Chein; Huang, Shang Chi

    2002-01-01

    A seven-generation selection experiment comprising a selected (S) and a control (C) line was conducted with the objective of increasing the number of fertile eggs (F) of the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Both lines consisted of about 20 males and 60 females since parents in each generation and each female duck was tested 3 times, at 26, 29 and 32 weeks of age. The fertile eggs were measured by candling at day 7 of incubation. The selection criterion in the S line was the BLUP animal model value for F. On average, 24.7% of the females and 15% of the males were selected. The direct responses to the selection for F, and correlated responses for the number of eggs set (Ie), the number of total dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) were measured by studying the differences across the generations of selection between the phenotypic value averages in the S and C lines. The predicted genetic responses were calculated by studying the differences between the S and C lines in averaged values of five traits of the BLUP animal model. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. There was no genetic change for Ie. After seven generations of selection, the average selection responses per generation were 0.40, 0.33, 0.42, 0.41 genetic standard deviation units for F, M, Dm, and H respectively. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. For days 2-8 after AI, the fertility rates (F/Ie) were 89.2% and 63.8%, the hatchability rates (H/F) were 72.5% and 70.6%, and (H/Ie) were 64.7% and 45.1% in the S and C lines respectively. It was concluded that upward selection on the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen may be effective in ducks to increase the duration of the fertile period and the fertility and hatchability rates with AI once a week instead of twice a week.

  2. Selection responses for the number of fertile eggs of the Brown Tsaiya duck (Anas platyrhynchos after a single artificial insemination with pooled Muscovy (Cairina moschata semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Jui

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-generation selection experiment comprising a selected (S and a control (C line was conducted with the objective of increasing the number of fertile eggs (F of the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Both lines consisted of about 20 males and 60 females since parents in each generation and each female duck was tested 3 times, at 26, 29 and 32 weeks of age. The fertile eggs were measured by candling at day 7 of incubation. The selection criterion in the S line was the BLUP animal model value for F. On average, 24.7% of the females and 15% of the males were selected. The direct responses to the selection for F, and correlated responses for the number of eggs set (Ie, the number of total dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H were measured by studying the differences across the generations of selection between the phenotypic value averages in the S and C lines. The predicted genetic responses were calculated by studying the differences between the S and C lines in averaged values of five traits of the BLUP animal model. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. There was no genetic change for Ie. After seven generations of selection, the average selection responses per generation were 0.40, 0.33, 0.42, 0.41 genetic standard deviation units for F, M, Dm, and H respectively. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. For days 2–8 after AI, the fertility rates (F/Ie were 89.2% and 63.8%, the hatchability rates (H/F were 72.5% and 70.6%, and (H/Ie were 64.7% and 45.1% in the S and C lines respectively. It was concluded that upward selection on the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen may be effective in ducks to increase the duration of the fertile period and the fertility and hatchability rates with AI once a week instead of twice a week.

  3. Neither plasma progesterone concentrations nor exogenous eCG affects rates of ovulation or pregnancy in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols for puberal Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorer, M Figueira; Ereno, R L; Satrapa, R A; Pinheiro, V G; Trinca, L A; Barros, C M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and exogenous eCG on ovulation and pregnancy rates of pubertal Nellore heifers in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. In Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), on Day 0 (7 d after ovulation), heifers (n = 15) were given 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) im and randomly allocated to receive: an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device containing 0.558 g of P4 (group 0.5G, n = 4); an intravaginal device containing 1 g of P4 (group 1G, n = 4); 0.558 g of P4 and PGF(2α) (PGF; 150 μg d-cloprostenol, group 0.5G/PGF, n = 4); or 1 g of P4 and PGF (group 1G/PGF, n = 3). On Day 8, PGF was given to all heifers and intravaginal devices removed; 24 h later (Day 9), all heifers were given 1 mg EB im. In Exp. 2, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 292) were treated as in Exp. 1, with FTAI on Day 10 (30 to 36 h after EB). In Exp. 3, pubertal heifers (n = 459) received the treatments described for groups 0.5G/PGF and 1G/PGF and were also given 300 IU of eCG im (groups 0.5G/PGF/eCG and 1G/PGF/eCG) at device removal (Day 8). In Exp. 1, plasma P4 concentrations were significantly higher in heifers that received 1.0 vs 0.588 g P4, and were significantly lower in heifers that received PGF on Day 0. In Exp. 2 and 3, there were no significant differences among groups in rates of ovulation (65-77%) or pregnancy (Exp. 2: 26-33%; Exp. 3: 39-43%). In Exp. 3, diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Day 9 was larger in heifers given 0.558 g vs 1.0 g P4 (10.3 ± 0.2 vs 9.3 ± 0.2 mm; P decreased plasma P4 from Days 1 to 8 and increased diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9. However, neither of these nor 300 IU of eCG on Day 8 significantly increased rates of ovulation or pregnancy.

  4. The effect of timing of the induction of ovulation on embryo production in superstimulated lactating Holstein cows undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M; Rodrigues, C A; Vieira, L M; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Sá Filho, M F; Baruselli, P S

    2012-09-15

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of timing of the induction of ovulation in superstimulated lactating Holstein donor cows that were fixed-time artificially inseminated. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of the timing of progesterone (P4) device removal (Experiment 1) or the addition of a second norgestomet implant (Experiment 2) during superstimulation. In Experiment 1, 12 cows were allocated to one of four treatment groups with the timing of P4 device removal (24 or 36 h) and pLH treatment (48 or 60 h), after the first PGF as main factors, in a Latin Square (cross-over) design. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between time of P4 device removal and time of pLH treatment. Mean (± SEM) numbers of transferable embryos were higher when the P4 device was removed at 36 h and pLH was administered at 60 h after the first PGF (P36LH60 =6.3 ± 1.4) compared to other treatments (P24LH60 =3.7 ± 1.1; P24LH48 =2.4 ± 0.8; or P36LH48 =2.2 ± 0.7). In Experiment 2, 40 cows were randomly allocated into one of four treatments with the number of norgestomet implants (one or two) and the time of induction of ovulation with GnRH relative to the first PGF (48 vs. 60 h) as main effects. The mean number of transferable embryos was higher (P = 0.02) when GnRH was administered at 60 h (4.2 ± 1.3) compared to at 48 h (2.7 ± 0.8), and the number of freezable embryos was increased (P = 0.01) in cows receiving two (3.0 ± 1.0) rather than one norgestomet implant (1.5 ± 0.5). In summary, embryo production in lactating Holstein cows was increased when the ovulatory stimulus (pLH or GnRH) was given 60 h after the first PGF, particularly when the P4 device was removed 36 h after the first PGF and when two norgestomet ear implants were used during the superstimulation protocol.

  5. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  6. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use

  7. The Role of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Crisis Response

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2008-01-01

    Crisis response poses many of the most difficult information technology in crisis management. It requires information and communication-intensive efforts, utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In this paper, we explore the benefits of artificial intelligence technologies in crisis response. This paper discusses the role of artificial intelligence technologies; namely, robotics, ontology and semantic web, and multi-agent systems in crisis response.

  8. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  9. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  10. Influência de diferentes intervalos da inseminação artificial e do estresse do manejo da inseminação na produção e fertilidade de fêmeas avícolas Effect of intervals and stresses of artificial insemination on broiler breeder females production and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pires Rosa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes intervalos da inseminação artificial (IA sobre a fertilidade dos ovos e do manejo desta prática sobre a taxa de postura, peso médio dos ovos e peso corporal de fêmeas Plymouth Rock Barred, conduziram-se estes experimentos. A influência de diferentes intervalos de IA sobre a fertilidade (experimento I, foi avaliada utilizando-se 75 fêmeas com 50 semanas de idade, submetidas a três tratamentos. Sendo T1 = duas IA semanais, T2 = uma IA semanal e T3 = uma IA a cada duas semanas. As aves que apresentaram maior fertilidade foram as inseminadas duas vezes por semana (P0,05 para os parâmetros avaliados.One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different time intervals of artificial insemination (AI on egg fertility. the stress produced by this practice on egg production, average egg weight and body weight of Plymouth Rock Barred hens was evaluated. The effect of different time intervals of artificial insemination on fertility was evaluated on hens wich were under three treatments. T1 = 2 times a week , T2 = once a week and T3 = once every two weeks. The females were 50 week-old. the hens inseminated twice a week were more fertile than others (P<0.05. To evaluate the stress due to procedures of AI (experiment 2 fifty weeks old hens (280 were either inseminated or not. There was no significant difference between these two treatments. Therefore, the results demonstrate that AI does not cause physiological disturbs on hens.

  11. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120 Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Rodrigues Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 ± 1.1h vs. 13.8 ± 2.6h vs. 13.3 ± 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 ± 7.3h vs. 29.6 ± 3.2h vs. 32.8 ± 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times was effective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset

  12. Factors Influencing the Superovulation and Artificial Insemination of Sheep%影响绵羊超数排卵和人工授精效果因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪立芹; 李乃新; 韩冰; 李洪林; 黄俊成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]获得低成本高效率的绵羊超数排卵处理方案和较好人工授精效果的方法.[方法]使用常规超数排卵和人工授精的方法,从可能影响其效果的FSH激素与海绵栓的组合、发情时间间隔、输精次数、公羊个体等4个方面进行研究分析.[结果]海绵栓结合北京产FSH组合的超排效果最差,显著低于其他试验组(P<0.01),使用宁波生产的FSH,结合海绵栓或者CIDR栓,都能获得较好的超排效果;最后一次注射FSH后12 h发情的细毛羊供体超排效果最好,显著高于36 h组(P<0.01),与0和24 h间没有差异;人工输精2次的怀孕率显著高于输精1次(P<0.01);不同公羊个体的受精效果不同.[结论]使用国产FSH和国产海绵栓的组合,能在不影响超排效果的前提下显著降低成本;选择受精效率高的公羊个体,连续输精2次能获得较好的受胎效果.%[Objective] This study aimed to find out a method for low-cost and highly efficient sheep superovulation treatment and artificial insemination.[Method] The factors those probably influencing the results of conventional superovulation and insemination,such as combination of FSH hormone and sponge suppository,estrus interval,number of insemination,and ram individuals were analyzed.[Result] The combination of sponge suppository and FSH produced in Beijing exhibited the poorest effect to superovulation,significantly worse than that of other combinations (P<0.01).The FSH produced in Ningbo,combined with sponge suppository or CIDR produced better effect to superovulation.The superovulation effect was better when the interval from the last FSH injection to estrus was 12 h,significantly better than that when the interval was 36 h (P<0.01); and there was no difference in the superovulation results when the interval was 0,12 and 24 h.The pregnancy rate of two artificial inseminations was significantly higher than that of only one insemination (P<0.01).Rams themselves

  13. Comparison between an exclusive in vitro-produced embryo transfer system and artificial insemination for genetic, technical, and financial herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, K; Block, J; Hansen, P J; De Vries, A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest. Each donor was assumed to yield on average 4.25 transferable embryos per collection. The remaining animals in the herd were used as recipients and received either a fresh embryo or a frozen embryo when fresh embryos were not available. Selection of donors was random or based on the greatest estimated breeding value (EBV) of lifetime net merit (NM$), milk yield, or daughter pregnancy rate. For both the IVP-ET and AI systems, culling of surplus heifer calves not needed to replace culled cows was based on the lowest EBV for the same traits. A herd of 1,000 milking cows was simulated 15 yr over time after the start of the IVP-ET system. The default cost to produce and transfer 1 embryo was set at $165. Prices of fresh embryos at which an exclusive IVP-ET system financially breaks even with the comparable AI system in yr 15 and for an investment period of 15 yr were also estimated. More surplus heifer calves were sold from the IVP-ET systems than from the comparable AI systems. The surplus calves from the IVP-ET systems were also genetically superior to the surplus calves from the comparable AI systems, which might be reflected in their market value as a premium price. The most profitable scenario among the 4 IVP-ET scenarios in yr 15 was the one in which NM$ was maximized in the herd. This scenario had an additional profit of $8/cow compared with a

  14. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P < 0.0001) interaction between the selection strategy and the AI technique-dose combination was identified for the gross return; meanwhile, significant (P < 0.0001) additive effects of the selection strategy and AI technique-dose combination were observed for the net

  15. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  16. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  17. Manipulation of progesterone to increase ovulatory response to the first GnRH treatment of an Ovsynch protocol in lactating dairy cows receiving first timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2015-12-01

    Ovulation to the first GnRH (G1) treatment of the Ovsynch protocol improves synchronization rate and pregnancies per AI (P/AI). Elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations at G1 decrease the ovulatory response by decreasing the magnitude of the GnRH-induced LH surge. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the effect of temporarily decreasing P4 concentrations before initiation of an Ovsynch protocol on ovulatory response to G1 and P/AI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=800) at 53±3 (herd A) or 51±3 (herd B) d in milk (DIM) were synchronized using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol [pre-Ovsynch protocol (d 0, GnRH; d 7, PGF2α; d 10, GnRH) followed 7 d later by an Ovsynch-56 protocol (d 0, G1; d 7, PGF2α; d 8, PGF2α; d 9.5, GnRH)] to receive first timed artificial insemination (TAI; 80±3 DIM) 16h after the last GnRH treatment. Cows were randomly assigned to receive 12.5mg of PGF2α (a half-dose of dinoprost tromethamine) 2 d before G1 (low-P4) or serve as untreated controls (high-P4). Overall, high-P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at G1 compared with low-P4 cows (3.0 vs. 1.3ng/mL, respectively). Ovulatory response to G1 was greater for low-P4 than high-P4 cows [81.1 vs. 60.3%, respectively]. Premature luteal regression during the second Ovsynch protocol did not differ between treatments [15.0% vs. 10.7%; for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, P/AI did not differ between treatments 32 d after TAI [56.3 vs. 52.9%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively] or 67 d after AI [50.5 vs. 47.6%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments [9.9 vs. 9.3%, for low-P4 vs. high-P4 cows, respectively]. Overall, cows that ovulated to G1 had more P/AI than cows that did not ovulate [58.2 vs. 41.8%, respectively]. The increase in P/AI for cows that ovulated to G1 (16.4%) combined with the observed increase in ovulation to G1 due to treatment (20.8%; low-P4 - high-P4) resulted in the expected

  18. Evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone hydrogen chloride at 3 doses with prostaglandin F2α for fixed-time artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, J R; Meeuwse, D M; LaGrow, C; Tena, J-K S; Wood-Follis, S L; Hallberg, J W

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the efficacy and field safety of GnRH HCl administered at 3 doses in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) programs (Ovsynch) in dairy cows. A common protocol was conducted at 6 commercial dairies. Between 188 and 195 cows were enrolled at each site (total enrolled = 1,142). Cows had body condition scores ≥ 2 and ≤ 4, were between 32 to 140 d in milk, and were clinically healthy. Within pen and enrollment day (enrollment cohort), cows were assigned randomly in blocks of 4 to each of 4 treatments: (1) 25mg of PGF2α on d 7 with FTAI 72 ± 2 h later (control); (2) 100 μg of GnRH on d 0, d 7 a dose of 25mg of PGF2α, and the second administration of 100 μg of GnRH (T100) administered either at 48 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α with FTAI 24 ± 2 h later or 56 ± 2 h (d 9) after PGF2α and FTAI 17 ± 2 h later; (3) same as T100 with both injections of 150 μg of GnRH (T150); and (4) same as T100 with both injections of 200 μg of GnRH (T200). Three sites selected the first option and 3 sites selected the second option for the timing of the second injection of all doses of GnRH. Cows were observed daily for signs of estrus and adverse clinical signs. Cows not returning to estrus had pregnancy diagnosis between 42 and 65 d following FTAI. Pregnancies per FTAI (P/FTAI) were analyzed as a binary variable (1 = pregnant, 0 = not pregnant) using a generalized linear mixed model with a binomial error distribution and a logit link function. The statistical model included fixed effects for treatment, random effects of site, site by treatment, enrollment cohort within site, and residual. Parity (first vs. second or greater) was included as a covariate. For demonstration of effectiveness, α=0.05 and a 2-tailed test were used. Fifty-two cows were removed from the study because of either deviation from the protocol, injury, illness, culling, or death. Among the remaining 1,090 cows, 33.9% were primiparous and 66.1% were

  19. Altered progesterone concentrations by hormonal manipulations before a fixed-time artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program in suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S L; Perry, G A; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Jaeger, J R; Olson, K C; Stevenson, J S

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that pregnancy outcomes may be improved by inducing luteal regression, ovulation, or both (i.e., altering progesterone status) before initiating a timed-artificial insemination (TAI) program in suckled beef cows. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments in which cows were treated with either PGF2α (PG) or PG + GnRH before initiating a TAI program to increase the proportion of cows starting the program in a theoretical marginal (<1 ng/mL; experiment 1) or elevated (≥1 ng/mL; experiment 2) progesterone environment, respectively. The control was a standard CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) program employed in suckled beef cows (100 μg GnRH intramuscularly [IM] [GnRH-1] and insertion of a progesterone-impregnated intravaginal CIDR insert on study Day -10, 25 mg PG and CIDR insert removal on study Day -3, and 100 μg GnRH IM [GnRH-2] and TAI on study Day 0). In both experiments, blood was collected before each injection for later progesterone analyses. In experiment 1, cows at nine locations (n = 1537) were assigned to either: (1) control or (2) PrePG (same as control with a PG injection on study Day -13). The PrePG cows had larger (P < 0.05) follicles on study Day -10 and more (P < 0.05) ovulated after GnRH-1 compared with control cows (60.6% vs. 36.5%), but pregnancy per TAI was not altered (55.5% vs. 52.2%, respectively). In experiment 2, cows (n = 803) at four locations were assigned to: (1) control or (2) PrePGG (same as control with PG injection on study Day -20 and GnRH injection on study Day -17). Although pregnancy per TAI did not differ between control and PrePGG cows (44.0% vs. 44.4%, respectively), cows with body condition score greater than 5.0 or 77 or more days postpartum at TAI were more (P < 0.05) likely to become pregnant than thinner cows or those with fewer days postpartum. Presynchronized cows in both experiments were more (P < 0.05) likely than controls to have luteolysis after initial

  20. Artificial intelligence applications in information and communication technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguila, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    This book presents various recent applications of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication Technologies such as Search and Optimization methods, Machine Learning, Data Representation and Ontologies, and Multi-agent Systems. The main aim of this book is to help Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) practitioners in managing efficiently their platforms using AI tools and methods and to provide them with sufficient Artificial Intelligence background to deal with real-life problems.  .

  1. Efeito do intervalo das duas últimas inseminações sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen fresco diluído Effect of interval between the two last artificial inseminations on mares fertility inseminated with diluted fresh semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Mattana Saturnino

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta e duas fêmeas eqüinas foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois grupos experimentais de acordo com o intervalo da penúltima à última inseminação artificial de cada ciclo (48h ou 72h. As éguas foram rufiadas e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir do momento em que apresentavam um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5 cm de diâmetro, com sêmen de apenas um garanhão de fertilidade comprovada, diluído para um volume inseminante de 10 mL com diluidor de mínima contaminação. As taxas de concepção referentes ao primeiro ciclo, para os intervalos de 48h e 72h foram de 66,67% (24/36 e 65,22% (15/23, respectivamente, sendo as taxas de concepção/ciclo de 53,45% (31/58 e 56,76% (21/37, na mesma ordem anterior. Com base nos resultados obtidos, recomendam-se inseminações às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, sem perda da fertilidade.Sixty two mares were randomly assigned to two experimental group, according to two intervals between the penultimate and the ultimate artificial insemination (48 or 72h. The mares were teased and inseminated on monday, wednesday and friday, when a follicle size was equal or greater than 3.0 cm in diameter, with semen from a stallion of proven fertility diluted with minimum contamination extender. The conception rates for the first cycle for the 48h and 72h intervals were 66.67% (24/36 and 65.22% (15/23 respectively, and the conception/cicle were 53.45% (31/58 and 56.76% (21/37, in the same order. Based on these results, one should consider recommending inseminations on monday, wednesday and friday, without fertility loss.

  2. Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Johanna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the challenges faced by equine breeders is ensuring delivery of good quality semen doses for artificial insemination when the mare is due to ovulate. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC has been shown to select morphologically normal spermatozoa with intact chromatin and good progressive motility from the rest of the ejaculate, and to prolong the life of these selected spermatozoa in vitro. The objective of the present study was a proof of concept, to determine whether fertilizing ability was retained in SLC-selected spermatozoa during prolonged storage. Findings Sixteen mares were inseminated with SLC-selected sperm doses that had been cooled and stored at 6°C for 48 h, 72 h or 96 h. Embryos were identified in 11 mares by ultrasound examination 16–18 days after presumed ovulation. Conclusion SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa stored for up to 96 h are capable of fertilization.

  3. A comparison of the reproductive and growth performances of offspring from broiler breeder males selected for early growth rate using artificial insemination and unselected males kept on deep litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, F; Moermans, R; De Groote, G

    1981-01-01

    Broiler breeder males were selected for early growth rate at 5 weeks of age (average weight + 0.5 SD). The reproductive and growth performances of the offspring of these males using artificial insemination with stored semen was compared with those from non-selected males kept on deep litter under conditions of natural mating. On three different occasions (31, 41 and 51 weeks of age), the eggs of the two treatments were incubated and, although the reproductive performances showed little difference over the entire period, hatchability of eggs set was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher for the field hens on the first occasion. The opposite was true after 50 weeks of age due to a serious decline in fertility in natural mating. At all periods, the selected males produced significantly (p less than 0.01) heavier offspring at six weeks of age.

  4. Artificial Intelligence-The Emerging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Shenoy

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI, once considered as an obscure branch of computer science, is now having a growing number of adherents in a wide variety of fields. AI is particularly useful for combat automation in defence. The combined works of computer scientists and technologists and cognitive scientists have brought out for intelligent information processing knowledge is the key factor. In the last few years, AI has been tried out with a high degree of success in certain areas such as the Expert Systems and the Computer Vision Systems. Both these have great potential in target classification and identification, information fusion, multiradar Air Defence Network, C2 (Command andControl operations etc. in defence.

  5. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  6. Effect of initial insemination and insemination interval on fertility in turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, D R; Christensen, V L

    1985-08-01

    Large White turkey hens were used to observe fertility through a 20-week laying cycle (31 to 51 weeks of age), following early initial inseminations (EI) and late initial inseminations (LI). Early initial inseminations were made on Days 13 and 15 following photostimulation with subsequent artificial insemination (AI) every 7 (EI + 7) or 14 (EI + 14) days. Late initial inseminations were made on Days 20 and 22 postlighting with subsequent AI every 7 (LI + 7) or 14 (LI + 14) days. Percent of egg production, fertility, and hatch of fertile eggs were measured following the initial AI in each treatment. No significant differences in egg production were seen between treatments. Percent of fertility was greatest in Weeks 6 to 20 with 7-day AI intervals as compared to 14-day intervals. Early inseminations resulted in higher fertility than LI with 14-day AI intervals, but no difference was observed with 7-day intervals. Greater fertility in EI + 14 hens through 20 weeks of egg production, as compared to LI + 14 hens, seems to lend further support to the concept of enhanced oviduct receptiveness to spermatozoa before egg production commences.

  7. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  8. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  9. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  10. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZAÇÃO DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORÁRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three groups according to the AI or FTAI protocol. A group of cows was artificial inseminated according estrous detection after 10 days of definitive weaning during a period of 30 days (EW-AI, n= 53. Estrous synchronization programs to FTAI were carried out in two groups in different moments after EW. In the group EW-FTAI (n= 50, cows were treated at the moment calves were removed while in EW-FTAI 10 (n= 50 the hormonal treatment began 10 days later.  The hormonal treatment consisted of an intravaginal implant containing 1,9g of Progesterone, for 8 days, and an injection of  Estradiol benzoate (EB, 2mg, im. When the dispositives were removed, 75mcg of Cloprostenol were injected, im, and after 24 hours, 1mg of EB, im. Cows were fixed-time artificial inseminated 52 to 56 hours after implants removal. In TW-FTAI group (n= 52, cows were treated with the same hormonal therapy, but a temporary weaning of 60 hours was done after the implant removal and the FTAI moment. The breeding season was 60 days in EW-FTAI and TW-FTAI groups, 50 days in EW-FTAI10 group and 30 days in EW-AI group. In a sample of 20% of cows ovaries were scanned by ultrasound and it was determined that 55% of the cows were in anestrous. Follicular diameters were determined at beginning of hormonal treatment and at FTAI moment in cows submitted to estrous synchronization (EW-FTAI= 10, EW-FTAI10= 10 and TW-FTAI= 10 by ultrasound. The means of follicular diameters were not different (P>0.05 between groups

  11. Eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial prefixada em rebanhos Bos taurus e Bos indicus Efficacy of the Ovsynch treatment associated to fixed-time artificial insemination in Bos taurus and Bos indicus herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial em tempo prefixado em vacas Bos taurus e Bos indicus. Foram utilizados rebanhos das raças Holandesa, Caracu, Nelore e Mantiqueira. Também foi incluído um rebanho de vacas Gir, com problemas de fertilidade. Cada rebanho foi dividido em três grupos. O grupo 1 recebeu o tratamento Ovsynch e foi inseminado em tempo prefixado. O grupo 2 foi inseminado no cio induzido com cloprostenol. O grupo 3 foi inseminado no cio natural. As taxas de concepção e de prenhez foram determinadas por ultra-sonografia. Não existiu interação significativa das variáveis reprodutivas analisadas para rebanho, idade, período pós-parto, número de parição e presença do bezerro. A taxa de concepção não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos, ao passo que a taxa de prenhez foi superior (PThe present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Ovsynch treatment associated with prefixed-time artificial insemination on Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows. Herds of Holstein, Caracu, Nelore and Mantiqueira breeds were used. A herd of Gir cows with poor reproductive performance was also included. Each breed was divided in tree groups. Group 1 received Ovsynch treatment and was inseminated at prefixed time. Group 2 was induced to estrus with cloprostenol and inseminated thereafter. Group 3 was inseminated at natural heat. Conception and pregnancy rates were determined by ultra-sound. No significant interactions were detected among breeds, age, parity, postpartum period and lactating cows with or without their calves. Conception rates did not differ (P>0.05 among groups while pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05 for group 1 and 2 comparing to group 3. In the Gir herd Ovsynch treatment did not enhance conception nor pregnancy rates. Independently of breed, conception rate is similar after Ovsynch, cloprostenol and control treatments, and pregnancy rate can be improved with

  12. 猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液的人工授精试验%Studies on artificial insemination with 0.5 mL straws frozen semen in boar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张渭斌; 孙世铎; 刘丑生; 朱芳贤; 谷合勇

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 0.5 mL straws frozen boar semen were produced to observe the result of artificial insemination.【Method】 Thirty-six sows were randomly divided into eight groups.Group A-1(n=5) and A-2(n=5) sows were inseminated with fresh semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,using 80 mL extender.group A-1 using conventional AI and A-2 using IUI catheter.Group B-1(n=4) and B-2(n=4) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with 20 mL extender.B-1 with a dose of 1×109 spermatozoa and B-2 with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa.Group C-1(n=5) and C-2(n=5) sows were used for intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.Group D-1(n=4) and D-2(n=4) sows were used to intrauterine insemination with frozen semen with a dose of 4×109 spermatozoa,C-1 using 60 mL extender and C-2 using 80 mL extender.The pregnancy rate(PR),farrowing rate(FR) and total number of piglet born(TNB) were recorded.【Result】 The above procedures yielded the highest post-thaw motility of(42.4±0.9)% and the plasma integrity of(47.2±0.3)%,together with the normal acrosome was(46.8±0.4)%.Inseminations with fresh semen yielded a pregnanty rate of 100% and a mean litter size of 9.00±0.63 NBA(Number boar alive) piglets.Insemination with frozen semen yieled a pregnancy rate of 72% and a mean litter size of 6.64±0.82 NBA piglets.Compared fresh with frozen semen,the pregnancy and farrowing rates were higher than those in frozen semen groups.【Conclusion】 Artificial insemination with fresh sperm was better than frozen semen.Frozen semen diluted with 60 and 80 mL volume had no significant effect on the birth rate,and the number born alive.In conclusion,frozen boar semen can be used successfully by using IUI catheter at a dose of 2×109 spermatozoa,diluted with 60 mL of semen extender.%【目的】制备猪0.5mL细管冷冻精液,并

  13. History of artificial cold, scientific, technological and cultural issues

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The history of artificial cold has been a rather intriguing interdisciplinary subject (physics, chemistry, technology, sociology, economics, anthropology, consumer studies) which despite some excellent monographs and research papers, has not been systematically exploited. It is a subject with all kinds of scientific, technological as well as cultural dimensions. For example, the common home refrigerator has brought about unimaginably deep changes to our everyday lives changing drastically eating habits and shopping mentalities. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st, issues related to the production and exploitation of artificial cold have never stopped to provide us with an incredibly interesting set of phenomena, novel theoretical explanations, amazing possibilities concerning technological applications and all encompassing cultural repercussions. The discovery of the unexpected and “bizarre” phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity, the necessity to incorporate macroscopi...

  14. Artificial intelligence and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Artificial Intelligence Task Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Task Team was organized to review the status of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, identify guidelines for AI work, and to identify work required to allow the nuclear industry to realize maximum benefit from this technology. The state of the nuclear industry was analyzed to determine where the application of AI technology could be of greatest benefit. Guidelines and criteria were established to focus on those particular problem areas where AI could provide the highest possible payoff to the industry. Information was collected from government, academic, and private organizations. Very little AI work is now being done to specifically support the nuclear industry. The AI Task Team determined that the establishment of a Strategic Automation Initiative (SAI) and the expansion of the DOE Technology Transfer program would ensure that AI technology could be used to develop software for the nuclear industry that would have substantial financial payoff to the industry. The SAI includes both long and short term phases. The short-term phase includes projects which would demonstrate that AI can be applied to the nuclear industry safely, and with substantial financial benefit. The long term phase includes projects which would develop AI technologies with specific applicability to the nuclear industry that would not be developed by people working in any other industry.

  15. Reproductive Performance of Rabbit does Artificially Inseminated with Semen Supplemented with GnRH Analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH Ethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate, the ability of a GnRH synthetic analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 138 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into 4 groups that at the time of insemination received following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 μg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group); 5 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D5 group); 10 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D10 group); 15 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D15 group). Kindling rates were 68.8% in D10 and 66.7% in D15 groups and were comparable to that obtained in the control group (72.2%). The kindling rate in group D5 (29.4%) was significantly lower than those recorded in the other groups. The number of live born kits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. The results of this study show that [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added directly into the semen dose can effectively stimulate ovulation in rabbits. The dose of 10 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide per doe was sufficient to produce results comparable to those obtained by intramuscular administration of buserelin.

  16. Sperm concentration on the intrauterine artificial insemination in swine Concentrações espermáticas na inseminação artificial intra-uterina suína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Miller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the intrauterine insemination (IUI in swine, considering the conception rate, farrowing rate, litter size (alive born pigs. For the IUI, the females had been insemination at 24 and 48 hours after the estrus detection, and the inseminating doses of 500 million, 1 billion, 1.5 billion and 2 billion spermatozoa in 20 mL extender had been used. The procedure of catheter insertion through the cervical canal was successfully performed in 97.9% of the females. The conception rate was 6.3% in the IUI. The farrowing rate in IUI was 87.2% but the farrowing rate was 100% for the sperm concentration of 500 million. Regarding the number of born pigs and alive born pigs observed in females inseminated with IUI, no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05. The concentration of 500 x 10(6 spermatozoa in 20 mL extender in the intrauterine insemination resulted in an optimal reproductive performance.Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da inseminação intra-uterina (IIU em suínos, considerando as taxas de retorno ao estro, aborto, parto, além do tamanho da leitegada (número de leitões nascidos e nascidos vivos. Na IIU, as fêmeas foram inseminadas nos tempos de 24 e 48 horas após a detecção do estro, utilizando-se as concentrações de 500 milhões, 1 bilhão, 1,5 bilhão e 2 bilhões de espermatozóides, em 20mL de diluente. A passagem do cateter de IIU através da cérvix foi possível em 97,9% das fêmeas. Foi realizado diagnóstico de retorno ao estro a partir do 18º dia e diagnóstico de gestação por ultrassonografia transcutânea entre o 28º e 30º dias após a inseminação. A taxa de retorno ao estro foi de 6,3% na IIU. A taxa de parto na IIU foi de 87,2%, sendo a taxa de parto para a concentração de 500 milhões de 100%. Com relação ao número de leitões nascidos totais e nascidos vivos, não houve diferenças, entre as diferentes concentra

  17. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER TRANSCERVICAL INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION (the sumarize of ours results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. STANČIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the potential advantages of transcervical artificial insemination into the caudal portion of the uterus (corpus uteri, compared with conventional sperm-dose deposition into the posterior region of the cervix. Three experiments was carried out to investigate: (1 the influence of insemination-dose volume, (2 sperm number per dose and (3 type of insemination catheter on sows fertility (farrowing rate and litter size. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Significant greater farrowing rate (88% and live born piglet per litter (10,77 or 11,86 was found after intrauterine insemination, then after intracervical insemination (76 or 72% farrowing rate, and 10,42 or 9,89 live born piglets per litter. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with different catheter type. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with 5x109,3,7x109 or 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. No significant differences in farrowing rate was found between intracervical and intrauterine insemination (83,3 to 86,7%. Significant greater live born piglet per litter was found after intrauterine insemination with 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. Obtained results suggest that intrauterine insemination can be performed by significant reduction of insemination dose volume and sperm number in dose, without decreasing sows fertility. It can result in significant increasing of boar reproductive efficiency.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing continuation of assisted reproductive technology with conversion to intrauterine insemination in patients with low follicle numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Mumford, Sunni; Royster, G Donald; Segars, James; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-08-01

    To compare the cost effectiveness of proceeding with oocyte retrieval vs. converting to intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients with ≤4 mature follicles during assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Probabilistic decision analysis. The cost effectiveness of completing ART cycles in poor responders was compared to that for converting the cycles to IUI. Not applicable. Not applicable. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost effectiveness, which was defined as the average direct medical costs per ongoing pregnancy. In patients with 1-3 mature follicles, completing ART was more cost effective if the cost of a single ART cycle was between $10,000 and $25,000. For patients with 4 mature follicles, if an ART cycle costcost effective to continue with oocyte retrieval than to convert to IUI. In patients with ≤4 mature follicles following ovarian stimulation in ART cycles, it was on average more cost effective to proceed with oocyte retrieval rather than convert to IUI. However, important factors, such as age, prior ART failures, other fertility factors, and medications used in each individual case need to be considered before this analysis model can be adapted by individual practices. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECT OF TIMING OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ON THE FERTILITY AND SEX RATIO IN NELORE HEIFERS INFLUÊNCIA DO MOMENTO DA INSEMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL SOBRE A FERTILIDADE E O SEXO DA CRIA DE NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Almeida de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of artificial insemination on the fertility and calf sex ratio in Nelore heifers (n = 200 submitted a protocol of timed artificial insemination (TAI.  The heifers, distributed into five groups (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 and GT24, presented a mean of 2.5 years old and 342 Kg of body weight. The inseminations were performed in the moments 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 and 24 (GT24 hours after the injection of GnRH. The conception rates were 87.5% (GC, 82.5% (GT6, 77.5% (GT12, 85.0% (GT18 and 77.5% (GT24. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 in the conception rates between the five treatments. The percentage of calved males was 38.2% (GC, 48.5% (GT6, 45.2% (GT12, 55.9% (GT18 and 58.6% (GT24. The male/female ratio was 0.62 (GC, 0.94 (GT6, 0.82 (GT12, 1.27 (GT18 and 1.42 (GT24. Statistical difference was found (p<0.05 in the male/female ratio between the five treatments. The timing of artificial insemination has influence on the sex ratio, showing an increase in the proportion of calved males when the insemination is progressively delayed. Within of the measured interval of time (0-24h after GnRH, the fertility of Nelore heifers is not influenced by the moment of the artificial insemination.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, management, pregnancy test, ultrasound, sexing. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do momento da inseminação artificial (IA sobre a fertilidade e a proporção do sexo da cria de novilhas da raça Nelore (n = 200 submetidas a protocolo de IATF. As novilhas, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 e GT24, apresentavam idade média de 2,5 anos e peso médio de 342 kg. Realizaram-se as inseminações nos momentos 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 e 24 (GT24 horas após a aplicação do GnRH. As taxas de concepção foram de 87,5% (GC, 82,5% (GT6, 77,5% (GT12, 85,0% (GT18 e de 77,5% (GT24. Não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05 entre as taxas de

  20. Developing a scalable artificial photosynthesis technology through nanomaterials by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.

    2016-12-01

    An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes. I highlight the key steps that have been taken towards delivering a fully functional solar fuels generator, which have exploited advances in nanotechnology at all hierarchical levels of device construction, and include the discovery of earth-abundant electrocatalysts for fuel formation and materials for the stabilization of light absorbers. Finally, I consider the remaining scientific and engineering challenges facing the fulfilment of an artificial photosynthetic system that is simultaneously safe, robust, efficient and scalable.

  1. Developing a scalable artificial photosynthesis technology through nanomaterials by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-12-06

    An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes. I highlight the key steps that have been taken towards delivering a fully functional solar fuels generator, which have exploited advances in nanotechnology at all hierarchical levels of device construction, and include the discovery of earth-abundant electrocatalysts for fuel formation and materials for the stabilization of light absorbers. Finally, I consider the remaining scientific and engineering challenges facing the fulfilment of an artificial photosynthetic system that is simultaneously safe, robust, efficient and scalable.

  2. Study on the psychological health status and interventional measures among the patients treated with artificial insemination of husband%AIH治疗患者心理健康状态及心理干预措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀平; 郑虔

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effect of psychological intervention nn psychological status and pregnancy outcome of the patients after artificial insemination of husband (AIH) . Methods: SCI, -90 was used to survey the infertile women after AIH treatment. The scores of self - evaluation questionnaire of the respondents and norm were compared, the psychological health status of the patients after AIH was analyzed. AH the patients were divided into four groups according to the opportunity and frequency of psychological intervention, the psychological status and clinical pregnancy rates in the four groups were compared after five weeks. Results: There was significant difference in psychological health status between the respondents and norm. After psychological intervention, the psychological health status of the respondents was improved, especially depressive factor, there was significant difference (P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion; The patients after AIH treatment have psychological subhealth problems at different degrees; systematic psychological intervention can improve psychological status of the patients and achieve high clinical pregnancy rate.%目的:探讨心理干预对接受夫精人工授精(Artificial Insemination of Husband AIH)治疗的患者心理状态及妊娠结局的影响.方法:采用90项症状自评量表(SCL - 90)对符合并接受AIH治疗的不孕妇女进行问卷凋查.比较受调查者和国内常模间的自评量表得分,分析AIH患者的心理健康状态.按照心理干预时机及干预频率的不同,将患者随机分为4组,实施AIH后5周比较4组患者心理状态及临床妊娠率.结果:受调查者的心理健康状态与国内常模相比差异有统计学意义.心理干预后受调查者的心理健康状态较干预前得到改善,其中以抑郁因子改善最为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).4组患者中,C组妊娠率最高,A组、B组次之,但组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:接受AIH治疗的患

  3. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A

    2006-01-01

    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  4. Vaccination of sows against type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) before artificial insemination protects against type 2 PRRSV challenge but does not protect against type 1 PRRSV challenge in late gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the commercially available type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)-based modified live vaccine against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in pregnant sows. Half of the sows in the study were vaccinated with a type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine 4 weeks prior to artificial insemination while the other half remained non-vaccinated. Sows were then challenged intranasally with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV at 93 days of gestation. The sows which received the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine followed by type 2 PRRSV challenge had significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against type 2 PRRSV than they did against type 1 PRRSV. These same sows had higher frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting cells when stimulated with type 2 PRRSV compared to those stimulated with type 1 PRRSV. Subsequent virological evaluation demonstrated that the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine reduced the type 2 PRRSV load but not the type 1 PRRSV load present in the blood of the sows. Additionally, vaccination of pregnant sows with the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine effectively reduced the level of type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids observed in fetal tissues from type 2 PRRSV-challenged sows but did not reduce the level of type 1 PRRSV nucleic acid observed in fetal tissues from type 1 PRRSV-challenged sows. This study demonstrates that the vaccination of pregnant sows with the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine protects against type 2 PRRSV challenge but does not protect against type 1 PRRSV challenge. PMID:24484238

  5. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  6. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  7. Inseminação artificial de éguas Percheron e Bretão com sêmen fresco diluído em água de côco e leite em pó desnatado Artificial insemination of Percheron and Breton breed mares with fresh semen diluted in extenders with skimmed powder milk and coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Reprodução Animal e no Setor de Eqüideocultura da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período de setembro/97 a março/98, com o objetivo de testar os efeitos de dois diluidores na inseminação artificial de éguas das raças Percheron e Bretão. Foi utilizado um garanhão da raça Percheron e dezesseis éguas, as quais foram inseminadas com sêmen fresco, diluído em meios formulados à base de leite de vaca em pó desnatado (LD e à base de água de côco (AC. As inseminações foram realizadas quando se observaram folículos ovarianos com 3,5 cm de diâmetro. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito éguas em cada tratamento. Para as análises utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e análise de variância. A análise dos dados mostrou que não houve diferença (P > 0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o índice de prenhez das éguas no primeiro, segundo e terceiro ciclos estrais, no número de inseminações artificiais fecundas e não-fecundas, na prenhez/inseminação artificial (IA, no índice de prenhez total, na IA/prenhez e entre a motilidade progressiva e o vigor dos espermatozóides após diluição. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que os dois meios foram eficientes na inseminação artificial dessas raças de éguas, utilizando-se o sêmen fresco.This experiment was carried out at Animal Reproduction Laboratory and Equine Section of the Experimental Farm of Universidade Estadual de Maringá, in the period of September 97 trough March 98. The objective was to study the effects of two extenders on artificial insemination (AI of Percheron and Breton breeding mares. One Percheron stallion and sixteen mares were used. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen diluted in two extenders formulated with skimmed powder cow milk (LS and coconut water (AW on the day ovarian follicles with 3.5 cm of diameter were observed. They. were alloted in a

  8. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes changes in spontaneous myometrial activity around estrus, factors that affect myometrial activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during estrus

  9. TECHNOLOGY OF ARTIFICIAL DEPOSIT PRESERVATION AT THE KURSK MAGNETIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Pashkevich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of existing insulation and remediation technologies for solid mineral waste storages is carried out. Results of field observations at one of the largest tailings in Russia are given. A quality of atmospheric air, and surface and ground water are estimated in the impact areas of a magnetic separation waste storage at an iron ore deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. An effective method of landfill’s surface insulation using polymeric materials is offered. The technological insulation process by means of a self-propelled screening machine is described. The suggested method will allow preserving an artificial deposit until the time of its rational mining, stopping water and wind erosion from its surface. Environmental conditions in its location area will be improved and pollution of atmosphere, soil, and natural water will be reduced.

  10. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...

  11. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  12. 75 FR 62844 - Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous System); Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous... various development plans for the Artificial Pancreas System. The discussion of these general...

  13. Comportamento sexual de touros Zebuínos e Angus em central de coleta e processamento de sêmen Sexual behavior of Zebu and Angus bulls at an artificial insemination center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sartori Rocha Bascuñan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento sexual foi avaliado em 88 touros das raças Angus, Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, com 5 anos de idade, em média, peso médio de 906 kg e circunferência escrotal média de 41 cm, submetidos ao manejo reprodutivo em central de coleta e processamento de sêmen. Os touros da raça Angus apresentaram menor tempo de reação se comparados aos das raças zebuínas. O tipo de estímulo manequim em movimento influenciou positivamente o tempo de reação em todas as raças estudadas. Touros mais velhos tiveram maior tempo de reação em comparação aos mais jovens. A ordem do salto no dia não influenciou o tempo de reação dos touros. Todos os eventos comportamentais dos touros Angus ocorreram próximo ao serviço completo em vagina artificial. Os eventos comportamentais cheirar e lamber genitália, golpear o manequim com a cabeça ou o chifre, gotejamento de líquido seminal, ereção e protusão de pênis e monta abortada foram realizados em maior freqüência pelos touros zebuínos que pelos Angus. Na espécie indiana, os padrões comportamentais contração prepucial e monta abortada foram mais realizados pelos touros Nelore que pelos Guzerá. O evento serviço completo sem arranque final, no entanto, foi mais observado nos Nelore e nos Guzerá que nos touros Gir.This study aimed to evaluate the sexual behavior of 88 bulls of the Angus and Zebu (Gyr, Guzerat and Nellore breeds managed for collection and processing of semen at an artificial insemination center. On average, bulls were at 5 years of age, 906 kg of live weight and 41 cm for scrotal circumference. Reaction time in all breeds was positively influenced by the "moving" stimuli teaser. Reaction time in Angus bulls was smaller than in bulls of the zebu breeds and longer in older than in younger bulls. The daily mount order did not influence the reaction time. All sexual behavior traits in the Angus bulls were close to complete mount with artificial vagina. The behavior for

  14. 高寒牧区柯尔克孜羊同期发情和人工授精试验%Experiment on Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination of Kirgiz Sheep in Alpine Pastoral Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    依斯拉穆·麦麦提吐尔逊; 高庆华; 买尔旦·依米提

    2016-01-01

    To increase the reproduction rate of Kirghiz sheep, 600 Kirghiz sheep in reproduction season were selected and divided into two groups of experiment and comparison, the sheep in the experiment group are treated through pregnancy (PG) with one time, while another group are natural estrus with no any treatments. By observing the oestrus in the first season and the status of ovary after oestrus, and counting the rates of synchronous estrus, pregnancy and reproduction, it is showed that the synchronous estrus rate in the experimental group is 60%(120/200) that is obviously higher than the one in comparison group that is 20%(80/400), and the difference is significantly (P0.05), so is the one of reproduction rate that is 94.4%and 85.2% respectively. It is concluded that PG with one time for Kirgiz sheep in reproduction season in Alpine Pastoral region improves the level of sheep estrous synchronization and achieves the purpose of intensive artificial insemination, but reaches the expected rates of synchronous estrus, pregnancy and reproduction, so such method is worthy of widespread.%为了提高柯尔克孜羊的繁殖率,本试验选择处于繁殖季节的600只柯尔克孜羊,随机分为试验组和对照组,试验组母羊采用一次PG方法处理;对照组为母羊自然发情,不做任何处理.观察第一情期的发情情况和发情后卵巢状态,统计同期发情率、受胎率和产羔率.结果显示:试验组同期发情率60%(120/200)显著高于对照组20%(80/400),差异显著(P0.05),产羔率分别为94.4%和95.2%,差异均不显著(P>0.05)结论:通过在高寒牧区使用一次PG法对处于繁殖季节的柯尔克孜羊进行处理不仅达到促进母羊发情同期化程度、集中进行人工授精的目的,而且取得了预期的同期发情率、受胎率及产羔率,值得广泛推广.

  15. Short communication: presynchronization for timed artificial insemination in grazing dairy cows by using progesterone for 14 days with or without prostaglandin F2α at the time of progesterone withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Mathew, D J; Martin, W R; Newsom, E M; Hamilton, S A; Pohler, K G; Lucy, M C

    2012-09-01

    Progesterone-containing devices can be inserted intravaginally for 14 d to presynchronize the estrous cycle for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef heifers ("14-day CIDR-PG" or "Show-Me-Synch" program). The progesterone treatment is effective for presynchronization because cattle develop a persistent dominant follicle during treatment that ovulates within 3 d after progesterone removal. The subsequent estrous cycle can be effectively used for a TAI program. Some cattle will retain a functional corpus luteum (CL) for the entire 14-d treatment period and will not be synchronized effectively because the interval to ovulation depends on the lifespan of their existing CL. The objective was to test the effect of a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) at progesterone removal for improving synchrony of estrus after treatment and increasing conception rate to a subsequent TAI in dairy cows. Postpartum cows (n = 1,021) from 2 grazing dairy herds were assigned to 1 of 2 presynchronization programs that used a controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) device containing progesterone: 14dCIDR (CIDR in, 14 d, CIDR out; n = 523) or 14dCIDR+PGF(2α) (CIDR in, 14 d, CIDR out, and PGF(2α); n = 498). Cows were body condition scored (BCS; 1 to 5, thin to fat) and tail painted at CIDR removal. Paint score (PS) was recorded after CIDR removal [PS = 0 (all paint removed, indication of estrus), PS = 3 (paint partially removed), or PS = 5 (no paint removed; indication of no estrus)]. At 19 d after CIDR removal, all cows were treated with PGF(2α), 56 h later treated with GnRH, and then 16 h later were TAI. Treating cows with PGF(2α) at CIDR removal increased the percentage with PS = 0 within 5 d (58.1% vs. 68.9%; 14dCIDR vs. 14dCIDR+PGF(2α)). We found no effect of treatment, however, on conception rate at TAI (41.1% vs. 43.6%; respectively). The TAI conception rate increased with increasing BCS and was greater for cows that had PS = 0 within 5 d after CIDR removal. In summary, treating

  16. Reducción a un servicio en los programas de inseminación artificial de hembras bovinas - Reduction to a service in the programs of artificial insemination of bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    A. Botello; Gómez, I.; Kirenia Pérez; Rodríguez, Y.

    2010-01-01

    ResumenEl presente artículo propone reducir a un servicio de Inseminación Artificial (IA) en hembras bovinas, para abaratar los costos por concepto de inseminación y disminuir el tiempo de trabajo de los inseminadores. Por un período de tres años (2006-2008) se investigaron 810 hembras bovinas del cruce (Holstein x Cebú) con condición corporal mayor e igual a 3,5 y se conformaron dos tratamientos, cada uno compuesto por 405 animales, el primer grupo se le realizó un solo servicio de IA y al s...

  17. Assessment on problems associated with artificial insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    majority of the dairy cattle owners do not know one or more signs of oestrus in order to report cows to .... problems associated with the AI service with regards to properly carrying out .... П. Sperm production capacity and semen charac- teristics.

  18. Efeito da concentração espermática e do número de inseminações artificiais sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen fresco diluído Effects of sperm concentration and number of artificial inseminations on fertility of inseminated mares with diluted fresh semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Z. Brandão

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta e duas fêmeas eqüinas (tipo militar foram distribuídas, ao acaso, em dois grupos experimentais para estudar o efeito da concentração espermática (200× 10(6 e 400× 10(6 de espermatozóides progressivamente móveis/dose inseminante e do número de inseminações/ciclo (duas, três e quatro ou mais inseminações sobre a fertilidade. As éguas foram rufiadas e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir de um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5cm de diâmetro, com sêmen de apenas um garanhão com fertilidade comprovada, diluído para um volume inseminante de 10ml com diluidor de mínima contaminação. As taxas de concepção ao primeiro ciclo para as concentrações de 200 e 400 milhões foram de 66,7% (20/30 e 65,5% (19/29, e as taxas de concepção/ciclo, após quatro ciclos, de 52,0% (26/50 e 57,8% (26/45, respectivamente (P>0,05. As taxas de concepção ao primeiro ciclo para os grupos com duas, três e quatro ou mais inseminações/ciclo foram, respectivamente, 72,0% (18/25, 65,2% (15/23 e 54,6% (6/11, sem que se observassem diferenças entre elas (P>0,05. Após quatro ciclos, as taxas de concepção foram de 59,0% (23/39, 52,5% (21/40 e 50,0% (8/16, respectivamente, na mesma ordem de citação (P>0,05. Com base nos resultados, recomendam-se inseminações às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, utilizando-se a concentração de 200×10(6 SPTZ/dose inseminante, sem que haja perda da fertilidade, independente do número de inseminações/ciclo.This work aimed to study the effects of spermatic concentrations (200× 10(6 and 400×10(6 spermatozoa/inseminated dose and number of inseminations (two, three and four or more on the fertility of 62 mares (military type. Mares were teased and inseminated on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays with diluted semen from only one stallion of proven fertility. The conception rates during the first cycle for the two spermatic concentrations were, respectively, 66.7%(20/30 and 65.5%(19/29 and

  19. Making Artificial Heart Components – Selected Aspects Of Casting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczak J.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shown possibilities of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RP and metal casting simulation software (MCSS, including non inertial reference systems. RP and MCSS have been used in order to design and produce essential elements for artificial heart. Additionally it has been shown possibilities of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and DodJet technology using prototyped elements of rotodynamic pump. MAGMASOFT® software allowed to verify the cast kit heart valves model. Optical scanner Atos III enabled size verification of experimental elements supplied by rapid prototyping together with metal casting elements. Due to the selection of ceramic materials and assessment of molten metal – ceramic reactivity at high temperatures together with pattern materials selection model it was possible to design, manufacture a ceramic mould for titanium based alloys. The casting structure modification has been carried out by means of high isostatic pressure technique (HIP. The quality assessment of the casting materials has been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, ARL 4460 Optical Emission Spectrometer, metallographic techniques and X-ray computed tomography.

  20. Randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of different timing and number of fixed timed artificial inseminations, following a seven-day progesterone-based protocol, on pregnancy outcomes in UK dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John Paul; Coates, Amy; Lima, Fabio; Smith, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-09-25

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect on pregnancy outcome of either inseminating heifers twice (at 48 and 72 hours after withdrawal of a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing progesterone) or once (56 hours after CIDR withdrawal) following a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol. Dairy heifers (n=267) from five farms, with an age range of 388-736 days, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (group A heifers were inseminated twice; group B heifers were inseminated once). Both groups received a CIDR on day (D) 0 and an intramuscular injection of d-cloprostenol on D6; the CIDR was withdrawn on D7. Measurements of withers height, body condition score and hearth girth (used to estimate weight) were taken on D0. The diameter of the largest follicles and corpora lutea was recorded on both D0 and D6. Data were analysed with the use of multivariable logistic regression modelling. Treatment group and farm were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy per treatment (P/T). Age and dominant follicle size on D6 were significantly associated with P/T. Heifers with the largest dominant follicle sizes (16-22 mm) were 5.54 times less likely to be pregnant than those heifers with the smallest dominant follicles (8-10 mm) on D6. It was shown that the cost associated with inseminating heifers twice after a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol is not justified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Microorganisms applying for artificial soil regeneration technology in space greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivobok, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    increased up to 30 % from initial roots dry weight. When the bacterial association derived from organic compost was used, the roots dry weight reduction was not exceeded 20 % in liquid state fermentation after 21 days. But the total cellulose was quietly steady, only the readily accessible soluble fractions were consumed. It was found that the most promising microorganisms for pointed task are anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum F9 and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725. It has been shown that its' in the liquid medium with the roots residuals during 10 days provides root biomass degradation up to 45 % and double decrease of crystalline cellulose. It's known that one of the possible ways to improve biodegradation process efficiency is applying of physical-chemical pretreatment for plant biomass. We used the pretreatment of BIONA substrate in microwave irradiation in 0,7 % sodium hydroxide water solution with addition of 0,5 % of hydrogen peroxide. It has allowed hydrolyzing the roots biomass partially and making the cellulose portion accessible to subsequent biodegradation. The alkaline pretreatment and the subsequent degradation by anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, had lead to root biomass decrease up to 85% during 10 days. The examined procedure has allowed to restore the initial pore space volume of BIONA substrate and its' hydro-physical properties. It has made used-up BIONA suitable for the subsequent plant cultivation. The obtained results are the basis for future development of fibrous artificial soils regeneration technologies particularly for space greenhouses

  2. Relación entre el lapso detección del celo-inseminación y el porcentaje de preñez en vacas lecheras Celo-inseminación y porcentaje de preñez Relationship between the time elapsed from estrus detection to artificial insemination and pregnancy in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Marini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la relación entre la duración del período transcurrido desde la detección del celo hasta la inseminación y la tasa de preñez en vacas lecheras y si, de existir, dicha relación se ve afectada por la identidad del toro donante del semen y/o por la época del año en que se lleva a cabo la inseminación. En un estudio de carácter retrospectivo se evaluó información disponible sobre 755 períodos celos-servicios correspondientes a 755 vacas lecheras Holando Argentino. En función de esta información las vacas se categorizaron de acuerdo al lapso en horas transcurrido, entre la detección del celo y su inseminación en tres grupos: The aim of this work was to study the relationship between the duration of the period of time between heat detection and insemination and pregnancy rate in dairy cows and whether, if any, this relationship is affected by the season of the year or the bull. A retrospective observational study on 755 periods of time elapsed from estrus detection to artificial insemination of Holstein dairy cows was performed. Based on the duration of the aforementioned period cows were categorized into the three following groups: <6 hours, 6 to 12 hours and 12 to 18 hours. Independently of the low pregnancy rates observed during the four seasons all comparisons were statistically not significant either among periods within season or between seasons within period or between bulls within period. It is concluded that the effectiveness of artificial insemination would not be affected by the time elapsed since heat detection and that this homogeneous behavior described for pregnancy rates is not affected by the season of the year or the source of the semen (bull used.

  3. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  4. Analysis on clinical factors related to artificial insemination with husband sperm in 1 382 cycles%1382周期宫腔内夫精人工授精临床因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧; 权孝珍; 谢明霞; 徐蓓; 曾丹; 刘玉芹; 艾继辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:对官腔内夫精人工授精患者的临床资料进行分析,评估相关因素对夫精人工授精妊娠率的影响.方法:选择2007年1月~2009年3月因不孕于同济医院生殖医学中心进行官腔内人工授精(IUI)治疗的夫妇943对,共1 382个周期.分析女性年龄、不孕年限、不孕原因、IUI治疗周期数及促排卵方案等临床因素和妊娠率之间的关系.结果:①年龄超过40岁妊娠率明显下降(P<0.05);不孕年限超过10年的妊娠率明显下降(P<0.05).②继发性不孕的妊娠率高于原发性不孕的妊娠率(P<0.05).③女方因素中,妊娠率最高的是多囊卵巢综合征,最低的是子宫内膜异位症;男方因素中,以性功能障碍和精液液化不良的妊娠率最高,畸精症的妊娠数为0.④促排卵周期的妊娠率高于自然周期,但差异无统计学意义.结论:在夫精人工授精中,患者年龄、不孕年限、不孕类型、不孕原因和促排方案均可影响妊娠率,治疗时应综合考虑多种因素的影响.%Objective: To analyze the clinical data of patients receiving intrauterine insemination with husband sperm, evaluate the effect of relative factors on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination. Methods: 943 infertile couples who received intrauterine insemination in the hospital from January 2007 to March 2009 were selected, 1 382 cycles were included. The relationship between clinical factors including maternal age, infertile time, infertile causes, cycles of intrauterine insemination, ovulation induction protocol and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: The pregnancy rate of the patients more than 40 years decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . The pregnancy rate of the patients with infertile time > 10 years decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . The pregnancy rate of the patients with secondary infertility was significantly higher than that of the patients with primary infertility (P < 0. 05) . Among female factors, the

  5. Monitoring Artificial Pancreas Trials Through Agent-based Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Stefania; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the availability and reliability of network connections lets envision systems supporting a continuous remote monitoring of clinical parameters useful either for overseeing chronic diseases or for following clinical trials involving outpatients. We report here the results achieved by a telemedicine infrastructure that has been linked to an artificial pancreas platform and used during a trial of the AP@home project, funded by the European Union. The telemedicine infrastructure is based on a multiagent paradigm and is able to deliver to the clinic any information concerning the patient status and the operation of the artificial pancreas. A web application has also been developed, so that the clinic staff and the researchers involved in the design of the blood glucose control algorithms are able to follow the ongoing experiments. Albeit the duration of the experiments in the trial discussed in the article was limited to only 2 days, the system proved to be successful for monitoring patients, in particular overnight when the patients are sleeping. Based on that outcome we can conclude that the infrastructure is suitable for the purpose of accomplishing an intelligent monitoring of an artificial pancreas either during longer trials or whenever that system will be used as a routine treatment. PMID:24876570

  6. Influence of spermatozoa numbers and insemination frequency on fertility in dwarf broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P; McDaniel, G R

    1986-12-01

    The effects of hen age (28 to 31 vs. 49 to 52 weeks of age), sperm concentration (dose used for artificial insemination), and frequency of insemination on fertility and embryonic survival of dwarf broiler breeder hens were examined. Hens in Groups 1 and 2 were inseminated weekly with single doses of either 250 million (Group 1) or 125 million (Group 2) sperm during the 4 weeks of each period. Hens in Groups 3 and 4 were inseminated every other week with duplicate doses on 2 consecutive days, with 250 million sperm/dose in Group 3 and 125 million/dose in Group 4. Hens in Groups 5 and 6 were inseminated weekly with either 250 million (Group 5) or 125 million (Group 6) sperm dose, except the 1st week of each period when they received duplicate doses as in Groups 3 and 4. In Groups 1 and 2, insemination with weekly single doses of semen (250 or 125 million sperm) had no significant effect on fertility of young or old hens. Percent fertility during the 2nd week after artificial insemination was lower in Group 4 than in Group 3 (73.0 vs. 82.9 in young hens and 70.4 vs. 80.7 in old hens). There were no significant differences in fertility between semen doses or age periods in Groups 5 and 6. In these two groups, overall fertility ranged from 94.3 to 95.9%. Complementary studies on individual fertility and embryonic survival showed the beneficial effects of duplicate followed by single inseminations of moderate doses (125 million sperm) practiced at weekly intervals in old hens. This method should be of practical application in commercial practice.

  7. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  8. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  9. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227, 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0. On day six, cloprostenol (125µg and eCG (400IU were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group or on day eight (TAI group. All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit standing estrus received GnRH (100µg on day 9. In experiment I, the follicular growth was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound exams, from day 6 to day 9. The average size of the dominant follicle on day nine was 11.1±0.99mm (BioRep, n=7 and 11.5±0.65mm (TAI, n=7 and all animals ovulated. In experiment II, the BioRep group cows (n=106 were observed for estrous behavior after withdrawal of the device, twice a day for 48h, and inseminated 12h after detection. In the TAI group (n=107, the devices were withdrawn on day eight and after 24h these cows and those from the BioRep group, which were not stand in estrus, received 100µg of GnRH and TAI 16h later. The pregnancy rates were 57.6% (BioRep and 52.3% (TAI. In conclusion, an increase on MPA exposure time did not affect the follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates and allow TAI without estrous observation. Furthermore, the treatment for eight days provides an efficient TAI system in suckled beef cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação, avaliando o intervalo entre a retirada do progestágeno e a aplicação de GnRH sobre a dinâmica folicular e a prenhez. Para tanto, vacas (n=227 em pós-parto de 60 a 80 dias receberam benzoato de estradiol (5mg e um pessário vaginal de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (250mg MAP; dia 0. No dia seis, os animais receberam cloprostenol sódico (125µg, gonadotrofina

  10. Nascimento de bezerros normais após inseminação artificial utilizando espermatozóides criopreservados obtidos de epidídimos refrigerados de bovinos após a morte Birth of normal calves after artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from refrigerated epididymides of death bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Melo Costa

    2011-05-01

    epidydimides for long periods and cryopreserved. Bovine testicles were collected in abattoir, transported to the laboratory and stored at 5°C for 0, 24, 48h e 72 hours (n=10 for each storage time treatment group. The spermatozoa were retrieved from each epidydimides, evaluated and diluted in tris-egg yolk-glycerol 7% medium and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The morphological and functional characteristics of the spermatozoa were analyzed in vitro, by microscopic evaluation and in vivo, using artificial insemination. Morphological alterations as sperm immaturity and motility reduction decreased after 72h of epididymides refrigeration and after thaw sperm were observed. The membrane and acrosome integrity were only affected in G48 and G72 groups after cryopreservation. However, the sperm capacity of fertilization post-cryopreservation was sufficient to promote two pregnancies and birth of healthy calves from G24 h and G72h groups. These results indicated that recovery and cryopreservation of chilled epididymal sperm until 72h from dead animals is a viable option to preserve male gametes to compose a germplasm bank.

  11. Impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of cows nellore under pasture in fixed time artificial insemination (tai programImpacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas da raça nelore sob regime de pasto em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (iatf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Christine Nascimento Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of Nellore cows, commercial herd undergoing artificial insemination programs in fixed time (TAI. 181 cows were used multiparous Nellore, the coastal plains region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with more than one hundred days after birth, kept on pasture and divided into two groups subjected to the same synchronization protocol for TAI (D0-2 , 0 mg of estradiol benzoate + device with 1.0 g bovine intravaginal progesterone implant removal D8-250?g of cloprostenol + + 300 IU of eCG, D9-Bz 1.0 mg. Estradiol, D10-TAI. The groups were divided according to body condition score (BCS with scale of 1-5 in Group I, n=96: BCS ? 3,0, Group II, n=85: BCS ? 2.5 ? 2.0. All females were exposed to bulls, from 24 hours to pass after TAI, remaining with them until the end of the breeding season. The overall pregnancy rate was 86.5% (83:96 and 65.9% (56:85 for group I and group II, respectively. Data were evaluated by chi-square analysis and the results show a statistically significant difference (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore, rebanho comercial, submetidas a programas de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 181 vacas multíparas da raça Nelore, na região das baixadas litorâneas do estado do RJ, com mais de cem dias decorridos do parto, mantidas em regime de pasto e divididas em dois grupos submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de sincronização para IATF (D0- 2,0mg de benzoato de estradiol + dispositivo intravaginal bovino com 1,0g de progesterona, D8- retirada do implante + 250?g de cloprostenol sódico+ 300 UI de eCG, D9- 1,0mg Bz. Estradiol, D10- IATF. Os grupos foram divididos segundo escore de condição corporal (ECC com escala de 1-5 em: grupo I, n=96: vacas com ECC ? 3,0 e grupo II, n=85: vacas com ECC ? 2,5 ? 2,0. Todas as fêmeas foram expostas aos touros, a partir

  12. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats = Uso do mesmo CIDR por até três vezes para sincronização do estro e inseminação artificial de cabras leiteiras

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    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 ƒÝg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, thesame hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 „b 1.1h vs. 13.8 „b 2.6h vs. 13.3 „b 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 „b 7.3h vs. 29.6 „b 3.2h vs. 32.8 „b 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times waseffective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilizacao do mesmo dispositivo de liberacao controlada de drogas (CIDR por ate tres vezes sobre odesempenho reprodutivo de cabras leiterias exploradas no semiarido do Nordeste Brasileiro. Foram utilizadas 45 cabras divididas em tres tratamentos de sincronizacao do estro, sendo: CIDR1x, tratadas com CIDR novo durante nove dias. Dois dias antes da retirada do dispositivo, foram aplicados 75 ƒÝg de d-cloprostenol e 300 UI de gonadotrofina corionica equina (eCG. Para os demais tratamentos, foi utilizado o mesmo protocolo hormonal, diferindo apenas pelo uso do mesmo CIDR pela segunda vez no grupo CIDR2x e uso pela terceira vez no grupo CIDR3x. O intervalo entre

  13. Correlation analysis of P, IFN-γ level of artificial insemination during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome%人工授精妊娠期孕酮、γ-干扰素水平与妊娠结局的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红莲; 连蔚; 林冰; 郭顺添; 黄秀丽; 刘佳

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨人工授精妊娠期孕酮(P)、γ-干扰素(IFN-γ)水平与妊娠结局的相关性.方法 选择因不孕症行468个人工授精治疗周期患者,术后口服地屈孕酮予以黄体支持,对妊娠的54例患者观察P、IFN-γ水平.结果 正常妊娠组P与IFN-γ水平呈负相关(r=-0.576,P<0.05).生化妊娠组第9天开始P水平下降,与正常妊娠组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=12.319,P<0.05).流产组P水平从第16天开始下降,与正常妊娠组差异有统计学意义(t=7.663、19.315,均P<0.05).与正常妊娠组比较,流产组及生化妊娠组的IFN-γ水平均显著升高(P<0.05).结论 使用黄体支持方法提高体内P水平对预防生化妊娠和自然流产有着积极的作用,人工授精后监测P、IFN-γ的水平,可以预测患者的预后.%Objective To investigate the correlation of P,IFN-γlevel of artificial insemination during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome.Methods 468 patients with infertility were done artificial insemination treatment cycles.The dydrogesterone were taken orally after surgery to luteal support.The blood P and IFN-γlevel of 54 patients with pregnant were observed.Results The correlation analysis of P,IFN-γ level of normal pregnancy group showed that the P level was negatively correlated with IFN-γlevel (r =-0.594,P < 0.05).In the biochemical pregnancy group,the P level was decreased from the ninth days begin,and compared with the normal pregnancy group,the difference was significant(t =12.319,P <0.05).In the abortion group,the P level was decreased from the sixteenth days begin,and compared with the normal pregnancy group,the difference was significant (t =7.663,19.315,all P <0.05).Compared with the normal pregnancy group,the IFN-γ level of the biochemical pregnancy group and abortion group was significantly increased,the difference was significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion The use of luteal support methods to raise the level of P in vivo has a positive effect on the

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PUERPERAL AFFECTIONS ON INSEMINATION INDEX AND UTERINE REPOSE IN COWS

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    PĂCALĂ N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made, through a year, at SD Timisoara on cows fromHolstein-Friesian and Fleckvieh breed. The puerperal period was observed, theincidence of the endometrites was recorded and there were calculated tworeproduction parameters: the Insemination Index (Ig and the Uterine Reposeduration (UR (Open days. The Insemination Index (service/conception (Igrepresents the mean number of artificial inseminations performed in order to obtaina pregnancy. Uterine Repose represents the time interval, in days, from calving untilthe fecund insemination. The Uterine Repose has two components: VoluntaryWaiting Period (VWP (time interval from calving until the introduction of thefemale to reproduction and Service Period (SP (time interval from the end of theVWP until the fecund insemination. There were noticed that the incidence of theuterine infections were significant higher (p<0.05 at cows from Holstein-Friesianbreed (63.3%, compared to the cows from Fleckvieh breed (41.3%. TheInsemination Index was significant lower (p<0.05 at cows without uterine infections(1.9, compared to the cows with uterine infections (2.5. The mean duration of theUterine Repose was significant lower (p<0.05 at healthy cows (114.7 days,compared with cows with uterine infections after calving (182.2 days. It seams thatthe cows from Fleckvieh breed are more resistant to the exploitation conditions formilk production than compared with cows from Holstein-Friesian breed.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PUERPERAL AFFECTIONS ON INSEMINATION INDEX AND UTERINE REPOSE IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. PĂCALĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made, through a year, at SD Timisoara on cows fromHolstein-Friesian and Fleckvieh breed. The puerperal period was observed, theincidence of the endometrites was recorded and there were calculated tworeproduction parameters: the Insemination Index (Ig and the Uterine Reposeduration (UR (Open days. The Insemination Index (service/conception (Igrepresents the mean number of artificial inseminations performed in order to obtaina pregnancy. Uterine Repose represents the time interval, in days, from calving untilthe fecund insemination. The Uterine Repose has two components: VoluntaryWaiting Period (VWP (time interval from calving until the introduction of thefemale to reproduction and Service Period (SP (time interval from the end of theVWP until the fecund insemination. There were noticed that the incidence of theuterine infections were significant higher (p<0.05 at cows from Holstein-Friesianbreed (63.3%, compared to the cows from Fleckvieh breed (41.3%. TheInsemination Index was significant lower (p<0.05 at cows without uterine infections(1.9, compared to the cows with uterine infections (2.5. The mean duration of theUterine Repose was significant lower (p<0.05 at healthy cows (114.7 days,compared with cows with uterine infections after calving (182.2 days. It seams thatthe cows from Fleckvieh breed are more resistant to the exploitation conditions formilk production than compared with cows from Holstein-Friesian breed.

  16. Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1998-10-01

    Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.

  17. Keeping Pace with New Technology: An Introduction to Robotics, FORTH, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Gene

    A course was developed to introduce students at a community college to four major areas of emphasis in emerging technologies: FORTH programming language, elementary electronic theory, robotics, and artificial intelligence. After a needs assessment indicated the importance of such a course, a pretest focusing on the four areas was given to students…

  18. Technical and analytical support to the ARPA Artificial Neural Network Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-16

    Strategic Analysis (SA) has provided ongoing work for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology program. This effort provides technical and analytical support to the ARPA ANN technology program in support of the following information areas of interest: (1) Alternative approaches for application of ANN technology, hardware approaches that utilize the inherent massive parallelism of ANN technology, and novel ANN theory and modeling analyses. (2) Promising military applications for ANN technology. (3) Measures to use in judging success of ANN technology research and development. (4) Alternative strategies for ARPA involvement in ANN technology R&D. These objectives were accomplished through the development of novel information management tools, strong SA knowledge base, and effective communication with contractors, agents, and other program participants. These goals have been realized. Through enhanced tracking and coordination of research, the ANN program is healthy and recharged for future technological breakthroughs.

  19. Efficacy of a combined protocol for re-insemination of open cows after early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography and its effect on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Gaja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present field study was to establish the beneficial effects of re-insemination of non-pregnant cows using ultrasonography 20 to 23 days after the artificial insemination. A total of 245 Japanese Black cows were artificially inseminated and early pregnancy diagnosis (EPD was performed on 92 cows 20 days after insemination, using ultrasonography. The remaining 153 cows were considered as negative controls in which routine rectal palpation was performed for pregnancy diagnosis 45-50 days post-insemination. EPD revealed that eleven of the 92 cows (12% were infertile due to ovarian abnormalities and were thus excluded from the rest of the study. Forty-eight (59% of the remaining 81 cows were diagnosed as pregnant, while the other 33 (41% were diagnosed as non-pregnant. Of these non-pregnant cows, 17 of them received a dose of an analogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue and were then timed-inseminated, while the other 16 were observed for estrus signs, and 13 of them (81% were artificially inseminated. Rates of conception were 35% and 38% in the GnRH and the artificially inseminated groups, respectively (P>0.05. Total pregnancy rate for the EPD group increased significantly (74% (P<0.01 when compared to the control cows (54% within the same period. In conclusion, our field study demonstrated that re-insemination of non-pregnant cows following EPD is highly efficacious not only in improving the rate of fertility via reducing inter-insemination and inter-calving intervals, but also aids in the early detection of ovarian disorders.

  20. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI.

  1. The Reality of the Artificial Nature, Technology and Naturoids

    CERN Document Server

    Negrotti, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The human ambition to reproduce and improve natural objects and processes has a long history, and ranges from dreams to actual design, from Icarus's wings to modern robotics and bioengineering. This imperative seems to be linked not only to practical utility but also to our deepest psychology. Nevertheless, reproducing something natural is not an easy enterprise, and the actual replication of a natural object or process by means of some technology is impossible. In this book the author uses the term naturoid to designate any real artifact arising from our attempts to reproduce natural instance

  2. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  3. 影响人工授精妊娠率的多因素分析%Analysis on factors related to the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination with husband sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓莉; 王迪; 王霞; 马晓琳; 张美云; 郭丰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the related factors affect pregnancy rate of intrau-terine insemination(IUI). Methods:146 infertile couples (277 cycles),who received IUI in Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from March 2013 to Sep. 2014,were included in this study. The relationship between female age,duration of infertility,cycles of intrauterine insemi-nation,ovulation induction protocol and triggering methods with pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results:The overall pregnancy rate was 14. 4% per cycle. The pregnancy rate of women older than 30 years old decreased significantly comparing to those younger than 25 years old (11. 2%vs 25. 8%,P30岁组(25.8% vs 11.2%,P<0.05);妊娠组的扳机日促黄体生成素( LH)水平高于非孕组[(29.7±8.44) vs (16.6±1.52),P<0.05]。子宫内膜分型为A型者的妊娠率显著高于非A型者(P<0.05)。 GnRH-a扳机后排卵率优于HCG(P<0.05);4个治疗周期内随着周期数的增加累计妊娠率上升,卵泡期为10~16天妊娠率最高。结论:夫精人工授精治疗中,患者年龄、HCG日LH值、子宫内膜分型与妊娠率相关, GnRH-a 扳机后排卵率优于HCG。

  4. Application of Artificial Intelligence technology to the analysis and synthesis of reliable software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Christian; Eckhardt, Dave

    1987-01-01

    The development of a methodology for the production of highly reliable software is one of the greatest challenges facing the computer industry. Meeting this challenge will undoubtably involve the integration of many technologies. This paper describes the use of Artificial Intelligence technologies in the automated analysis of the formal algebraic specifications of abstract data types. These technologies include symbolic execution of specifications using techniques of automated deduction and machine learning through the use of examples. On-going research into the role of knowledge representation and problem solving in the process of developing software is also discussed.

  5. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  6. From Divine Transcendence to the Artificial One. Challenges of the New Technologies

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    Loredana TEREC-VLAD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of the new technologies in our lives and the current dependence upon them makes us believe that in a not too distant future we will be made of more technology than biological matter. If until recently computers had hardly been discovered, today we are witnessing a real technological revolution in all the fields: biology, medicine etc. The evolution of the new technologies has raised various questions related to the future of mankind and the current human species, which determines us to make speculations regarding a future event that may occur. For this reason, in this paper I shall analyze the concept of artificial intelligence and singularity and I shall also outline the relationship between the ontological argument and the possible worlds. The idea of possible world can serve as a way of describing a metaphor (heretofore in the philosophy of science, as singularity can exist in a possible world only if one creates the conditions of a new concept regarding fiction. We believe that technological singularity will change the values of the current society and the individual will have to face a world that depersonalizes the individual, as transhumanism draws the theoretical frameworks of a ‹‹brave new world››. In this paper, we have also analyzed the logical explanation of God's existence and the explanation of singularity through artificial intelligence. Therefore, we shall bring up for discussion the idea of virtual universe in the context of downloaded consciousness, which can be operated through artificial intelligence. Our conclusions refer to the fact that eternal life could exist artificially, but it cannot be demonstrated in terms of the ontological argument.

  7. Artificial intelligence and exponential technologies business models evolution and new investment opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a huge breakthrough technology that is changing our world. It requires some degrees of technical skills to be developed and understood, so in this book we are going to first of all define AI and categorize it with a non-technical language. We will explain how we reached this phase and what historically happened to artificial intelligence in the last century. Recent advancements in machine learning, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence technology will be addressed, and new business models introduced for and by artificial intelligence research will be analyzed. Finally, we will describe the investment landscape, through the quite comprehensive study of almost 14,000 AI companies and we will discuss important features and characteristics of both AI investors as well as investments. This is the “Internet of Thinks” era. AI is revolutionizing the world we live in. It is augmenting the human experiences, and it targets to amplify human intelligence in a future not so distant from...

  8. Analysis on the pregnancy outcome of the artificial insemination and the subsequent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer%人工授精及继用体外受精-胚胎移植助孕临床结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帆; 苏迎春; 孙莹璞; 郭艺红; 孙婧; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical pregnancy of artificial insemination with husband sperm (AIH - IUI) , and the clinical outcome of the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF - ET) following the failure of the AIH - IUI. Methods: The related data of 1,657 cycles of AIH - IUI conducted in this centre for 1,038 infertile couples were collected. The clinical outcomes of the AIH - IUI cycles and those of IVF - ET subsequent to the failure of AIH - IUI were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate of AIH - IUI cycles was 13.88% (230/1,657 ). With the increase in age of female patients , the pregnancy rate was decreased. There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between the patients with single or double unobstructed oviducts or between the patients with different cycles of AIH - IUI. The pregnancy rate of the patients with secondary infertility was significantly higher than that of the patients with primary infertility ( P < 0. 05 ). The pregnancy rate was the highest in the patients inseminated with 10 ~ 20 × 106 sperm (P < 0.05). The pregnancy rate of IVF - ET following the failed AIH - IUI was 52. 34% (201/384). There was no significant difference in Gn dose, number of retrieved oo-cytes, fertilization rate, high - quality embryo rate, number of embryos transferred, or clinical pregnancy rate among the patients with different failed AIH - IUI cycles. Conclusion; The age of female patients, type of infertility and the quantity of sperm inseminated can affect the pregnancy rate of AIH - IUI. The patients may receive the treatment of up to 3 cycles of AIH - IUI. For the elder patients or those with longer duration of infertility, it is suggested that IVF - ET be conducted earlier.%目的:分析宫腔内人工授精(IUI)助孕及继用体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)助孕的临床结局.方法:回顾性分析本中心接受夫精人工授精(AIH)助孕1 038例患者(年龄<40岁)的1 657周期

  9. Fertility and embryonic livability as influenced by depth of insemination of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, K A; Biellier, H V

    1976-05-01

    In two separate artificial insemination trials with individually caged breeder turkeys, semen release in the oviduct at depths of 3.0 and 7.5 cm from the exterior surface of the relaxed vent were compared. In the first trial, 7.5 cm. insemination at two-week intervals produced significantly higher (82.3 vs 78.5%) fertility and lower embryonic mortality (16.8 vs 20.2%) than the 3.0 cm. depth. In the second trial, insemination at three-week intervals, 7.5 cm. depth also produced significantly higher (79.2 vs 73.9%) fertility and lower embryonic mortality 11.2 vs 15.6%). The net gain in reproduction efficiency due to the combined effects was 6% in Trial 1 and 8% in Trial 2.

  10. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; FUNAHASHI, Takashi; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; TATEYAMA, Yuriko; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan. PMID:27733725

  11. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;

    2011-01-01

    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...

  12. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results.

  13. 精子优选方法对人工授精治疗结局的影响%Influence of sperm selection on the results of artificial insemination treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茜; 丘映; 许常龙; 史秋雯; 黄承强

    2013-01-01

    目的:回顾分析不同精子优选方法对人工授精治疗结局是否有影响.方法:选择2010年1月~ 2011年12月在本中心行AIH治疗的504对夫妇共732个周期为研究对象,按精子优选处理方法进行分组:上游法314个周期,密度梯度离心法418个周期,比较两种精子优选方法行人工授精在临床妊振率、流产率和子代性别的差异.结果:上游法和密度梯度离心法的周期妊娠率分别为8.6%、6.7%,流产率分别为25.9%、17.9%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两种方法处理后行人工授精的婴儿性别比例比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:上游法和密度梯度离心法应用在夫精人工授精中临床妊娠率、流产率无差异,精子优选方法对子代性别无预测意义.%Objectives:To study different pregnancy rates of intrauterine insemination (IUI) achieved by different optimized high-quality sperm selection.Methods:Data from Jan 2010 to Dec 2011,in which 504 infertile couples who underwent 732 IUI cycles in our reproductive medicine center,were retrospectively analyzed.These treatment cycles were divided into two groups:swim-up 314 cycles and pure sperm density gradient centrifugation 418 cycles.Clinical pregnancy and abortion rate and offspring gender differences were compared.Results:In two groups,the pregnancy rates were 8.6% and 6.7%,with no statistically significant difference (P >0.05),the abortion rates were 25.9% and 17.9%,with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05),and offspring gender differences were also no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusion:The clinical pregnancy and abortion rate had no difference between swim-up group and pure Sperm density gradient centrifugation group for separating high-quality sperm.It has also no predictive value for babies' gender.

  14. Evaluación de los cambios ocasionados en espermatozoides bovinos por variaciones en el manejo de las dosis durante su manipulación en inseminación artificial Evaluation of changes ocassioned by changes in bovine sperm in the management of dose during handling artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bernardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el disímil manejo al que las dosis son sometidas durante el descongelado y antes de la inseminación, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto que estos cambios producen sobre distintas características morfológicas y funcionales de los espermatozoides afectando la calidad del semen a inseminar. Se utilizaron muestras de un toro Holando Argentino, procesadas y congeladas en pajuelas de 0,5 cc utilizando un diluyente semidefinido. El análisis de la motilidad se realizó mediante el uso de Sperm Vision, la funcionalidad de la membrana plasmática mediante una prueba HOST y la integridad del acrosoma bajo microscopio de contraste de fases. Los cambios de protocolo que llevaron a una calidad no aceptable para inseminar (según normas ISO 9002 se refirieron a cambios bruscos de temperatura de descongelado y del tiempo de inmersión, así como demoras en efectivizar la inseminación una vez descongelada la dosis y en retirar la pajuela del termo de nitrógeno. Esta misma situación se evidenció al analizar la funcionalidad de la membrana plasmática. La integridad del acrosoma fue mayor al descongelar utilizando temperaturas altas (55, 75 y 95°C.The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the changes that doses undergo during thawing and before insemination due to a dissimilar handling of them. Focus was placed on the effects on various morphological and functional characteristics of spermatozoa which affect the quality of the semen to be inseminated. Samples from an Holando Argentine bull were employed, processed and frozen in 0.5cc straws using a semidefined diluent. Sperm motility was performed with Sperm Vision, plasmatic membrane functionality was tested with a HOST test and acrosome integrity under phase contrast microscope. Protocol changes that led to an unacceptable quality for insemination -according to ISO 9002- were related to abrupt thawing temperature changes and immersion time as well as to

  15. Written evidence submitted to the UK Parliamentary Select Committee on Science and Technology Inquiry on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Winfield, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper was submitted in response to question 4 of the Parliamentary Science and Technology Committee Inquiry on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence* on: 'The social, legal and ethical issues raised by developments in robotics and artificial intelligence technologies, and how they should be addressed'. The paper was drafted at the request of EPSRC and the UK Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) Network, and an abridged version is incorporated into the UK RAS response to the inquiry.\\ud \\...

  16. Avances en biotecnoloía reproductiva en bovinos: de la inseminación artificial a la clonación

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, Maecelo; Bertolini, L.R

    2010-01-01

    The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T) for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1) artificial insemination (AI) and gamete and embryo freezing, 2) multiple ovulation and embryo t...

  17. Effect of adding a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone treatment at the beginning and a second prostaglandin F2α treatment at the end of an estradiol-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows during cool or hot seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Barbosa, L F S P; Costa, W M; Carvalho, M A P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-02-01

    Our hypothesis was that fertility could be increased in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol based on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) by combining GnRH with E2-benzoate at the start of the protocol to increase circulating P4 during preovulatory follicle development and by using 2 prostaglandin F2α (PGF) treatments at the end to decrease P4 near TAI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=1,808) were randomly assigned during the cool or hot season of the year to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control: controlled internal drug-release insert + 2mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, PGF on d -4, controlled internal drug-release insert withdrawal + 1.0mg of E2-cypionate on d -2, and TAI on d 0; (2) 2PGF: identical to control protocol with addition of a second PGF treatment on d -2; (3) GnRH: identical to 2PGF protocol with addition of a 100-μg GnRH treatment on d -11. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. Season had major effects on many reproductive measures, with cool season greater than hot season in percentage of cows with corpus luteum (CL) at PGF (62.9 vs. 56.2%), ovulatory follicle diameter (15.7 vs. 14.8mm), expression of estrus (86.7 vs. 79.9%), ovulation following the protocol (89.7 vs. 84.3%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI; 45.4 vs. 21.4%). The GnRH protocol increased percentage of cows with CL (control=56.9%; 2PGF=55.8%; GnRH=70.5%) and P4 at PGF (control=3.28±0.22; 2PGF=3.35±0.22; GnRH=3.70±0.21ng/mL), compared with control and 2PGF protocols. The GnRH protocol increased P/AI at the pregnancy diagnosis at 32d [37.3% (219/595)] and 60d [31% (179/595)] after TAI, compared with control [30.0% (177/604); 25.1% (145/604)], with intermediate results with 2PGF protocol [33.2% (196/609); 28.0% (164/609)]. The positive effects of GnRH treatment on P/AI were only detected during the cool season (GnRH=50.9%; 2PGF=44.2%; control=41.0%) and not during the hot season. In addition, the effect of GnRH was only

  18. Applying artificial intelligence technology to support decision-making in nursing: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Hung; Hsu, Pei-Ti; Chu, William; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2015-06-01

    This study applied artificial intelligence to help nurses address problems and receive instructions through information technology. Nurses make diagnoses according to professional knowledge, clinical experience, and even instinct. Without comprehensive knowledge and thinking, diagnostic accuracy can be compromised and decisions may be delayed. We used a back-propagation neural network and other tools for data mining and statistical analysis. We further compared the prediction accuracy of the previous methods with an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system and the back-propagation neural network, identifying differences in the questions and in nurse satisfaction levels before and after using the nursing information system. This study investigated the use of artificial intelligence to generate nursing diagnoses. The percentage of agreement between diagnoses suggested by the information system and those made by nurses was as much as 87 percent. When patients are hospitalized, we can calculate the probability of various nursing diagnoses based on certain characteristics. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  20. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, V.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.; Betts, D.H.; Hyttel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to creat...

  1. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Carolien M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize

  2. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize t

  3. In vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in bull sperm and the relationship to field fertility using low-dose inseminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, A; Christensen, P; Labouriau, R

    2010-01-01

    . Furthermore, large-scale fertility trials using low-dose inseminations are pending. In the current study, the relationship between field fertility and the in vitro-induced AR was investigated using three ejaculates from each of 195 bulls, 156 Holstein and 39 Jersey bulls (Bos taurus), participating...... inseminations in 4721 herds and 208 artificial insemination (AI) technicians. Simultaneous detection of sperm viability and acrosomal status was achieved using a triple color flow cytometric technique. Sperm samples from the bulls displayed a wide range of ability to acrosome react in response to calcium...

  4. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied.

  5. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-10-01

    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols.

  6. Cervical insemination versus intra-uterine insemination of donor sperm for subfertility (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, D.E.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Marjoribanks, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insemination with donor sperm is an option for couples for whom in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been unsuccessful, couples with azoospermia and for single women or same sex couples.Insemination of sperm can be done via cervical (CI) or intra-u

  7. The ethical debate on donor insemination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Dessein, Bart; Pennings, Guido

    2010-06-01

    This article gives an overview of the ethical thinking about donor insemination among Chinese ethicists. We analysed the ethical arguments dedicated to the use of donor spermatozoa published in the important bioethics journals of China of the last 15 years. On the one hand, the general Confucian values strongly favour the genetic link as it fits with the traditional importance attached to the continuation of the family line. Therefore, artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial in China because the involvement of a third party (the donor) severs the genetic link between the husband and his family. On the other hand, procreation is regarded as an important aspect of Confucian filial piety and it is a basic right of every human being to enjoy a family life. AID should be thought of as a means to help infertile couples to overcome infertility. Nowadays, Chinese bioethicists are trying to reinterpret Confucianism in order to adapt it to modernity. One such reinterpretation focuses on the affectionate rather than the genetic tie between parents and child. As the application is still new in China, more discussion and open debate on ethical aspects is needed. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of artificial pancreas technology for continuous blood glucose monitoring in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Nozawa, Satoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Momota, Yutaka; Makino, Yuki; Matsubara, Takako; Osaka, Motohisa; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-06-01

    Artificial pancreas technology, involving "closed-loop" controls with real-time blood glucose monitoring, has been increasing in reliability as its potential for clinical use and application grows. One such device, based on this technology, is the STG-22 (Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) artificial pancreas apparatus. In order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the device for measuring blood glucose, it is important to compare its readings to those obtained using a 'gold standard' method, such as the hexokinase method. Therefore, in the present study, canine blood [glucose] measurements using the STG-22 were compared to those obtained using a previously established commercial reagent, Quickauto-Neo GLU-HK. Furthermore, two different sample types (whole blood versus plasma constituent) were compared to determine which sample type results in more accurate and optimal readings with the STG-22. Given that the STG-22 was not primarily designed for canine blood samples, results for canine blood samples were not accurate. Measurements performed by the STG-22 with whole blood were significantly lower than reference [glucose] counterparts. Alternatively, an opposite trend was observed with plasma measurements that were significantly higher. A conversion format using the following formula, Hexokinase [glucose] = STG-22 [glucose] × 1.407 + 1.532, was observed with canine samples in our study.

  9. Post-insemination sexual selection in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzari, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    In many avian species females obtain sperm from multiple males during a single reproductive event, setting the scene for post-insemination sexual selection through the competition of the ejaculates of different males over fertilisation (sperm competition) and female biased utilisation of sperm (cryptic female choice). The use of poultry techniques in combination with molecular tools is catalysing an interest in birds as vertebrate model systems to study the mechanisms of post-insemination sexual selection. This chapter: (i) outlines the main mechanisms of avian sperm competition, (ii) introduces methodological approaches to study post-insemination sexual selection in birds, (iii) reviews recent evidence of multiple mechanisms of strategic sperm allocation by males, and (iv) discusses mechanisms of cryptic female choice. Post-insemination variance in paternity in birds, appears to be determined by the interactions between complex male and female strategies of differential sperm utilisation. It is argued that a better understanding of the operation of post-insemination sexual selection in birds may be achieved through a two-pronged approach which, on the one hand, investigates behavioural and physiological mechanisms applying poultry techniques and molecular tools to domestic model species, and on the other, verifies these mechanisms and tests their adaptive significance in more natural populations.

  10. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of flunixin meglumine in Santa Inês ewes submitted to laparoscopic and transcervical insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of flunixim meglumine in Santa Ines ewes submitted to artificial insemination (AI. Forty-four Santa Inês ewes were synchronized and inseminated at fixed times, by the transcervical or laparoscopic route, between 52 and 58 hours after sponge removal. The ewes were split into two treatment groups, to receive intramuscular injections of 2 mL of saline (control treatment or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine (FM treatment, twice a day between days 9 and 19 after AI. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound 30 days after the AI. The chi-square test was used to compare the pregnancy rate between the control and flunixin meglumine treatment and between type of insemination, while the t-test, at 5% probability was used to compare the average weight and body condition, using the SAS statistical software. Flunixin meglumine was not effect in increasing the pregnancy rate in Santa Ines ewes undergoing laparoscopic and transcervical insemination.

  12. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  13. New horizons for orthotic and prosthetic technology: artificial muscle for ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Hugh M.; Kornbluh, Roy D.

    2004-07-01

    The rehabilitation community is at the threshold of a new age in which orthotic and prosthetic devices will no longer be separate, lifeless mechanisms, but intimate extensions of the human body-structurally, neurologically, and dynamically. In this paper we discuss scientific and technological advances that promise to accelerate the merging of body and machine, including the development of actuator technologies that behave like muscle and control methodologies that exploit principles of biological movement. We present a state-of-the-art device for leg rehabilitation: a powered ankle-foot orthosis for stroke, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis patients. The device employs a forcecontrollable actuator and a biomimetic control scheme that automatically modulates ankle impedance and motive torque to satisfy patient-specific gait requirements. Although the device has some clinical benefits, problems still remain. The force-controllable actuator comprises an electric motor and a mechanical transmission, resulting in a heavy, bulky, and noisy mechanism. As a resolution of this difficulty, we argue that electroactive polymer-based artificial muscle technologies may offer considerable advantages to the physically challenged, allowing for joint impedance and motive force controllability, noise-free operation, and anthropomorphic device morphologies.

  14. Human artificial insemination by donor and the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, G

    1985-03-01

    Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.

  15. The Potential use of Artificial Insemination in sustainable Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yrhe Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Kyrkjevegen 332/334, N-4325, Sandnes,. Norway. Abstract ... their. small size, slow growth rates and low ... In 1982, the Depaliment of Animal ... initially planned and the project depended on the.

  16. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  17. Intra-uterine insemination for unexplained subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S. M.; Cohlen, B. J.; Hughes, E.; Te Velde, E.; Heineman, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is a widely used fertility treatment for couples with unexplained subfertility. Although IUI is less invasive and less expensive than in vitro fertilisation (IVF), the safety of IUI in combination with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) is debated. The main con

  18. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  19. Elective Inactivation of Total Artificial Heart Technology in Non-Futile Situations: Inpatients, Outpatients and Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A.

    2004-01-01

    Total artificial heart technology as a potential clinical therapy raises the issue of elective device inactivation in both futile and non-futile situations. This article explores elective device inactivation in non-futile situations. In reply to such requests for inactivation, the medical team should reflect on the individual's decision-making…

  20. Developing de novo human artificial chromosomes in embryonic stem cells using HSV-1 amplicon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralli, Daniela; Monaco, Zoia L

    2015-02-01

    De novo artificial chromosomes expressing genes have been generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) and are maintained following differentiation into other cell types. Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small, functional, extrachromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes in human cells. De novo HAC are generated following delivery of alpha satellite DNA into target cells. HAC are characterized by high levels of mitotic stability and are used as models to study centromere formation and chromosome organisation. They are successful and effective as gene expression vectors since they remain autonomous and can accommodate larger genes and regulatory regions for long-term expression studies in cells unlike other viral gene delivery vectors currently used. Transferring the essential DNA sequences for HAC formation intact across the cell membrane has been challenging for a number of years. A highly efficient delivery system based on HSV-1 amplicons has been used to target DNA directly to the ES cell nucleus and HAC stably generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) at high frequency. HAC were detected using an improved protocol for hESc chromosome harvesting, which consistently produced high-quality metaphase spreads that could routinely detect HAC in hESc. In tumour cells, the input DNA often integrated in the host chromosomes, but in the host ES genome, it remained intact. The hESc containing the HAC formed embryoid bodies, generated teratoma in mice, and differentiated into neuronal cells where the HAC were maintained. The HAC structure and chromatin composition was similar to the endogenous hESc chromosomes. This review will discuss the technological advances in HAC vector delivery using HSV-1 amplicons and the improvements in the identification of de novo HAC in hESc.

  1. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  2. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, John F; DeJarnette, J M; Geary, Thomas W; Kennedy, Chelsey E; Suarez, Susan S; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant sperm phenotypes coincide with the expression of unique sperm surface determinants that can be probed by objective, biomarker-based semen analysis and targeted as ligands for semen purification. This study evaluated a nanoparticle-based magnetic purification method that removes defective spermatozoa (∼30% of sample) from bull semen and improves sperm sample viability and fertilizing ability in vitro and in vivo. Two types of nanoparticles were developed: a particle coated with antibody against ubiquitin, which is present on the surface of defective spermatozoa, and a particle coated with the lectin peanut agglutinin, which binds to glycans exposed by acrosomal damage. In a 2 yr artificial insemination field trial with 798 cows, a conception rate of 64.5% ± 3.7% was achieved with a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of peanut agglutinin-nanopurified spermatozoa, comparable to a control nonpurified full dose of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa per dose (63.3% ± 3.2%) and significantly higher than a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of nonpurified control semen (53.7% ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). A total of 466 healthy calves were delivered, and no negative side effects were observed in the inseminated animals or offspring. Because the method is inexpensive and can be fully integrated in current protocols for semen cryopreservation, it is feasible for use in the artificial insemination industry to improve fertility with reduced sperm dosage inseminations. Spermatology will benefit from nanopurification methodology by gaining new tools for the identification of candidate biomarkers of sperm quality such as binder of sperm protein 5 (BSP5), described in the present study.

  3. Influência de diferentes intervalos da inseminação artificial e do estresse do manejo da inseminação na produção e fertilidade de fêmeas avícolas Effect of intervals and stresses of artificial insemination on broiler breeder females production and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Pires Rosa; Fábio José Paganini; Neventon Santi Vieira; Jonivan Luiz Paloschi

    1995-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes intervalos da inseminação artificial (IA) sobre a fertilidade dos ovos e do manejo desta prática sobre a taxa de postura, peso médio dos ovos e peso corporal de fêmeas Plymouth Rock Barred, conduziram-se estes experimentos. A influência de diferentes intervalos de IA sobre a fertilidade (experimento I), foi avaliada utilizando-se 75 fêmeas com 50 semanas de idade, submetidas a três tratamentos. Sendo T1 = duas IA semanais, T2 = uma IA semanal e...

  4. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  5. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  6. Future artificial pancreas technology for type 1 diabetes: what do users want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Katharine D; Pinsker, Jordan E; Oliver, Nick; Astle, Annabel; Dassau, Eyal; Kerr, David

    2015-05-01

    The primary focus of artificial pancreas (AP) research has been on technical achievements, such as time in range for glucose levels or prevention of hypoglycemia. Few studies have attempted to ascertain the expectations of users of AP technology. Persons with type 1 diabetes and parents of children with type 1 diabetes were invited to take part in an online survey concerning future use and expectations of AP technology. The survey was advertised via Twitter, Facebook, and DiabetesMine, plus advocacy groups and charities including INPUT, Diabetes UK, and the Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation. Quantitative responses were categorized on a 5-point Likert scale. Free text responses were analyzed using content analysis. Two hundred sixty-six surveys were completed over a 1-month period. Two hundred forty participants indicated they were highly likely to use a fully automated 24-h AP. Approximately half of the respondents indicated they would be likely to use a device that only functioned overnight. Size, visibility, and lack of effectiveness were the top reasons for not wanting an AP. Despite perceived potential downsides, participants expressed a strong need for a device that will help minimize the burden of disease, help facilitate improved psychosocial functioning, and improve quality of life. The views of people who would use an AP are crucial in the development of such devices to ensure they are fit for use alongside biomedical and engineering excellence. Without this, it is unlikely that an AP will be sufficiently successful to meet the needs of users and to achieve their ultimate goals.

  7. A 4-fJ/Spike Artificial Neuron in 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourikopoulos, Ilias; Hedayat, Sara; Loyez, Christophe; Danneville, François; Hoel, Virginie; Mercier, Eric; Cappy, Alain

    2017-01-01

    As Moore's law reaches its end, traditional computing technology based on the Von Neumann architecture is facing fundamental limits. Among them is poor energy efficiency. This situation motivates the investigation of different processing information paradigms, such as the use of spiking neural networks (SNNs), which also introduce cognitive characteristics. As applications at very high scale are addressed, the energy dissipation needs to be minimized. This effort starts from the neuron cell. In this context, this paper presents the design of an original artificial neuron, in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with optimized energy efficiency. The neuron circuit response is designed as an approximation of the Morris-Lecar theoretical model. In order to implement the non-linear gating variables, which control the ionic channel currents, transistors operating in deep subthreshold are employed. Two different circuit variants describing the neuron model equations have been developed. The first one features spike characteristics, which correlate well with a biological neuron model. The second one is a simplification of the first, designed to exhibit higher spiking frequencies, targeting large scale bio-inspired information processing applications. The most important feature of the fabricated circuits is the energy efficiency of a few femtojoules per spike, which improves prior state-of-the-art by two to three orders of magnitude. This performance is achieved by minimizing two key parameters: the supply voltage and the related membrane capacitance. Meanwhile, the obtained standby power at a resting output does not exceed tens of picowatts. The two variants were sized to 200 and 35 μm2 with the latter reaching a spiking output frequency of 26 kHz. This performance level could address various contexts, such as highly integrated neuro-processors for robotics, neuroscience or medical applications. PMID:28360831

  8. 火龙果的人工辅助授粉技术%The Technology of Artificial Supplementary Pollination for Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷业理; 郁建强; 郜晨; 张扬

    2014-01-01

    Artificial supplementary pollination is one of the important and difficult technology for the Pitaya cultivation,and is also the base of high quality and quantity.In this paper,we discuss the reasons,time, method and the matters needing attention for the Pitaya artificial supplementary pollination. The presented artificial pollination technology has very strong practicability,pertinence and maneuverability. It is also very easy to master the technology for the fruit farmers. The technology also has a positive guiding role in the popularization and application of Pitaya Greenhouse cultivation.%人工辅助授粉是火龙果栽培的重点和难点技术之一,是取得优质丰产的基础。该文探讨了人工辅助授粉的时间、方法和注意事项,具有很强的实用性、针对性、可操作性,便于果农正确掌握,对火龙果棚室栽培技术的推广应用具有积极的指导作用。

  9. Effect of number of motile frozen-thawed boar sperm and number of fixed-time inseminations on fertility in estrous-synchronized gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are advantages for use of frozen-thawed boar sperm (FTS) as a tool for preservation and transfer of valuable genetic material, despite its practical limitations. We hypothesized that increasing the number of motile FTS and number of timed artificial inseminations (AI) would improve pregnancy r...

  10. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  11. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  13. 人工智能技术中计算机相关技术的运用解析%The use of artificial intelligence technology to resolve computer-related technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫

    2016-01-01

    随着我国科学技术的迅猛发展,人工智能技术也在许多领域得到了应用。而计算机相关技术作为人工智能技术的重要技术支撑,其在人工智能技术中的应用对于技术更新以及系统升级具有重要的作用。本文从人工智能技术中计算机相关技术的发展历程出发,对人工智能技术中计算机相关技术的发展方向进行了探究,并探讨了计算机人工智能技术的应用。%With therapid development of China's science and technology,Artificial intelligence technology also has been applied in many fields.And computer-related technology as artificial intelligence technology, an important technical support,Its application in artificial intelligence technology for technology updates and system upgrades an important role.From artificial intelligence technology in computer-related technology development process starting,Artificial intelligence technology in the development direction of computer-related technology has been explored,And explores the application of computer technology, artificial intelligence.

  14. Physiological responses of hens divergently selected on the number of chicks obtained from a single insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillard, J P; Beaumont, C; Scheller, M F

    1998-09-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in domestic fowl to investigate the consequences of five generations of divergent selection for increased (L+) or decreased (L-) numbers of hatched chicks. After artificial insemination with pooled ejaculates within the same line (L+ males x L+ hens or L- males x L- hens), significant differences were observed between L+ and L- hens for mean fertility rates (L+ 94.8%, L- 70.2%, P hens laid fewer eggs than L+ hens (P hens compared with L+ hens. Another series of experiments revealed the presence of larger initial populations of spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules as well as in the perivitelline layer of eggs from L+ hens. The populations of spermatozoa in the sperm storage tubules of commercial laying hens inseminated with pooled semen samples from L+ males was compared with those in hens inseminated with samples from L- males to determine whether the variations in oviductal sperm storage between the two lines were male dependent. No significant differences between the populations of spermatozoa present in the sperm storage tubules of either group of hens could be detected at any of the intervals examined after insemination (days 1, 3 and 10). Finally, an experiment conducted on hens originating from the two selected lines indicated that the utero-vaginal junction of L+ hens contained significantly more sperm storage tubules compared with L- hens (P < 0.01). It is concluded that selection based on overall reproductive performance modifies the number of eggs capable of developing viable embryos and also influences the efficacy of initial sperm storage by increasing or altering the population of sperm storage tubules located in the utero-vaginal junction. Such changes have major consequences on the duration of the fertile period, which in avian species is directly dependent on both the actual population of spermatozoa stored in the oviduct and on their rate of release from the storage sites.

  15. Climate factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination during the first months of the breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P.; Yániz, J.; Fantova, E.; Vicente-Fiel, S.; Palacín, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the impact of several climate variables on the pregnancy rate after cervical artificial insemination (AI) of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. Data were derived from 8,977 inseminations in 76 well-managed flocks performed during the first month of the breeding season (July to October). The following data were recorded for each animal: farm, year, month of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, inseminating ram, AI technician, and climatic variables such as mean, maximum and minimum temperature, mean and maximum relative humidity, rainfall, and mean and maximum temperature-humidity index (THI) for each day from day 12 before AI to day 14 post-AI. Means were furthermore calculated for the following periods around AI (day 0): -12 to 0, -2 to 0, AI day, 0 to 2, and 0 to 14. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased when maximum temperature in the 2 days prior to AI was higher than 30 °C (by a factor of 0.81). Fertility was also lower for primiparous ewes and in multiparous ewes with more than five previous parturitions. Other factors with significant impact on fertility were flock, technician, inseminating ram, and a lambing-AI interval longer than 240 days. It was concluded that the 2 days prior to AI seems to be the period when heat stress had the greatest impact on pregnancy rate in Rasa Aragonesa ewes.

  16. Lambing rate and prolificacy in inseminated hair sheep treated with bovine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Chávez, José Maria; Hernández-Cerón, Joel; Aréchiga-Flores, Carlos Fernando; López-Carlos, Marco Antonio; Lozano-Domínguez, Raúl Renato; Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Echavarría-Cháirez, Francisco Guadalupe

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated whether the administration of 50 and 100 mg bovine somatotropin (bST) at the start of estrous synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination improves lambing rate and prolificacy in hair sheep. Four hundred eighty adult hair ewes (Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper, Katahdin, and their crosses) were synchronized with intravaginal sponge containing 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate. On the day of sponge insertion, ewes were assigned to three treatments: the bST-100 treatment (n = 156) received 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization (d 0) and at the time of insemination (d 14), the bST-50 treatment (n = 159) received 50 mg bST in the same schedule as the previous group, and the control (n = 165) did not receive any bST. Lambing rate and percentage of multiple births were analyzed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS. Prolificacy data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were analyzed with ANOVA for repeated measures. The bST application did not affect the lambing rate (P = 0.06). The proportion of ewes with multiple births (P = 0.01) and prolificacy (P = 0.04) were higher in the bST-50 (54.3% and 1.57 ± 0.1) than the bST-100 (18.2% and 1.25 ± 0.1) and control (33.3% and 1.28 ± 0.1) groups. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were higher (P synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination does not increase lambing rate. However, the dose of 50 mg increased the proportion of multiple births and prolificacy.

  17. The invention of artificial fertilization in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Artificial insemination and other fertilization techniques are today considered central to the history of reproductive medicine. The medical treatment of infertile couples, however, constitutes just a small part of the whole story of artificial fertilization. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) in particular, said to have been the inventor of artificial insemination, did not develop this method for medical purposes. He belonged to a generation of naturalists to whom artificial insemination was part of a heterogeneous series of investigations that were undertaken to explore the natural history of animal generation. Questions concerning conception, the role of the gametes, the definition of species, the production of hybrids or livestock breeding were all included in these investigations. Thus, no one strain of thought, nor single set of ideas or interests, entirely shaped the development of artificial fertilization.

  18. [Fertility results after insemination of a moderate count of cock sperm, diluted in Blumberger cock sperm diluent and homologous seminal plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G P

    1989-11-01

    Incomplete studies into artificial insemination of White Leghorn hens appear to suggest that the generally common number of cock spermatozoa per insemination can be considerably reduced without adverse consequences for reproduction results. Fertilisation rates between 89.4 and 94.9% were recorded from inseminations of as little as 20 x 10(6) spermatozoa, based on tenfold dilution of ejaculate collections in Blumberg Cock Sperma Diluent (BCSD) or homologous seminal plasma or differentiated combinations of both. Addition of increasing amounts of seminal plasma, however, caused decline in hatching rates as a result of rising embryonic mortality. Best suitability was recorded from a diluent combination of 75% of BCSD with 25% of seminal plasma, with the hatching rate being 85.0%.

  19. Epigenetic Consequences of Artificial Reproductive Technologies to the Bovine Imprinted Genes SNRPN, H19/IGF2 and IGF2R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel’s laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and foetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.

  20. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  1. 卵胞浆内单精子注射失败后改行供精人工授精的时机和妊娠结局分析%Timing and pregnancy outcome of artificial insemination with donor semen after failure in intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰; 赵晓明; 孙赟; 洪燕; 叶梓; 高玉平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重度少弱精子症或梗阻性无精子症患者卵胞浆内单精子注射( ICSI)失败后改行供精人工授精(AID)治疗的时机及效果.方法 回顾性分析因男方重度少弱精子症或梗阻性无精子症实施ICSI治疗失败而改行AID治疗(93个治疗周期)的46例妇女的周期妊娠率,并与同期直接行AID的患者(AID对照组,n=74)的周期妊娠率比较.同时,选择同期接受ICSI助孕的1 007例患者(1 128个治疗周期),根据不同ICSI精子来源分为射出精子组和附睾睾丸精子组,再根据参数分为轻度少弱畸精子症组(A组,n=157)、重度少弱畸精子症组(B组,n=305)、附睾或睾丸穿刺偶见活精组(C组,n=110)及其余穿刺组(D组,n=435),比较四组的受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率和妊娠率;比较B组患者ICSI第1~4周期助孕的受精率、卵裂率、优质胚胎率和妊娠率.结果 46例患者经过多周期的ICSI治疗失败,再改行1~4周期的AID,可以实现52.2%的累积妊娠率和25.8%的周期妊娠率,与AID对照组27.6%的周期妊娠率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);根据精子来源及参数的分组中,C组的受精率(75.3%)和妊娠率(28.7%)显著低于其他三组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),B组的优质胚胎率(40.7%)低于其他三组,妊娠率(35.1%)也低于A和D组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01和P<0.05);进入第3和第4及以上周期的妊娠率分别为15.4%和0,显著低于第1和第2周期,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 经过3周期以上ICSI失败,或者重度少弱精子症及梗阻性无精子症穿刺后镜下偶见精子寻找精子困难者第2周期助孕时,可以在患者知情同意的情况下进行AID助孕,实现较高的妊娠率.%Objective To investigate the timing and outcome of artificial insemination with donor sperm( AID) after failure in intracytoplasmic sperm injection ( ICSI) in patients with severe oligoasthenospermia or obstructive

  2. Monitoring Artificial Pancreas Trials Through Agent-based Technologies: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzola, Giordano; Scarpellini, Stefania; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the availability and reliability of network connections lets envision systems supporting a continuous remote monitoring of clinical parameters useful either for overseeing chronic diseases or for following clinical trials involving outpatients. We report here the results achieved by a telemedicine infrastructure that has been linked to an artificial pancreas platform and used during a trial of the AP@home project, funded by the European Union. The telemedicine infrastructure i...

  3. [The Identification of the Origin of Chinese Wolfberry Based on Infrared Spectral Technology and the Artificial Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Liu, Ming-de; Ji, Shou-xiang

    2016-03-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is established to find the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry quickly. In the paper, the 45 samples of Chinese wolfberry from different places of Qinghai Province are to be surveyed by FTIR. The original data matrix of FTIR is pretreated with common preprocessing and wavelet transform. Compared with common windows shifting smoothing preprocessing, standard normal variation correction and multiplicative scatter correction, wavelet transform is an effective spectrum data preprocessing method. Before establishing model through the artificial neural networks, the spectra variables are compressed by means of the wavelet transformation so as to enhance the training speed of the artificial neural networks, and at the same time the related parameters of the artificial neural networks model are also discussed in detail. The survey shows even if the infrared spectroscopy data is compressed to 1/8 of its original data, the spectral information and analytical accuracy are not deteriorated. The compressed spectra variables are used for modeling parameters of the backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry are used for parameters of export. Three layers of neural network model are built to predict the 10 unknown samples by using the MATLAB neural network toolbox design error back propagation network. The number of hidden layer neurons is 5, and the number of output layer neuron is 1. The transfer function of hidden layer is tansig, while the transfer function of output layer is purelin. Network training function is trainl and the learning function of weights and thresholds is learngdm. net. trainParam. epochs=1 000, while net. trainParam. goal = 0.001. The recognition rate of 100% is to be achieved. It can be concluded that the method is quite suitable for the quick discrimination of producing areas of Chinese wolfberry. The infrared spectral analysis technology

  4. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  5. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in Brazil and defines, among other things, an act of donation and anonymity, in a way that addresses the question of autonomy. The need for the protection of subjects by way of terms of informed consent or informed refusal, ensuring that necessary information and clarification is made available both to the couple that decide to submit themselves to medically-assisted reproduction and to the donor, who should, in turn, give written assurance of his or her free consent and willingness to cede any rights regarding the gametes to the institution that has taken responsibility for them. All of this, in combination with veracity and confidentiality, are essential if anonymity between donor and recipient is to be upheld. This question of anonymity has been much discussed by scholars from various fields and various parts of the world.

  6. Pregnancy in the domestic cat after vaginal or transcervical insemination with fresh and frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Axnér, E; Manee-In, S; Thuwanut, P; Linde-Forsberg, C

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to compare pregnancy rates in domestic cats using fresh semen for intravaginal artificial insemination (IVI), either at the time of hCG treatment for induction of ovulation, or 28 h later, and to compare pregnancy rates following IVI or transcervical intrauterine insemination (IUI) of frozen-thawed semen. Eighteen queens were inseminated during 39 estrus cycles. Fresh semen with 13.5+/-5.4 x 10(6) sperm (range, 6.8-22 x 10(6)) collected by electroejaculation from four male cats was used in Experiment 1, and cryopreserved semen (20 x 10(6) sperm, with 70+/-5% post-thaw motility) from one male cat was used in Experiment 2. Serum concentrations of estradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined in most queens on the day of AI and again 30-40 days later. Treatment with 100 IU of hCG 3 days after the onset of estrus induced ovulation in 95% of treated queens. Pregnancy rates to IVI with fresh semen at the time of hCG administration versus 28 h later were not different (P=0.58); overall 33% (5/15) of the queens became pregnant. For frozen-thawed semen, AI was consistently done 28h after hCG administration; IUI and IVI resulted in pregnancy rates of 41.7% (5/12), whereas no queen (0/12) became pregnant by IVI (P=0.0083). In conclusion, an acceptable pregnancy rate was obtained with frozen-thawed semen in the domestic cat by non-surgical transcervical IUI; this method might also be useful in other small felids.

  7. Application of artificial intelligence technology in air traffic management%人工智能技术在空中交通管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新春

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology in our country,artificial intelligence technology because of its many advantages in many fields has been widely used,for the development of the aviation industry to a good role in promoting.This paper describes an overview of artificial intelligence technology,analyzed in the composition of artificial intelligence system of air traffic management, explore realization of artificial intelligence technology in air traffic management,to show the artificial intelligence technology in air traffic management using value,inspire people to constantly explore the application field of artificial intelligence technology,better service to economic development,improve people's life.%随着我国科学技术的发展,人工智能技术因其诸多优越性在多个领域得到了广泛的应用,也为航空业的发展起到很好的促进作用。本文阐述了人工智能的技术概况,分析了在空中交通管理人工智能系统的构成,探索人工智能技术在空中交通管理中实现的方式,旨在展现人工智能技术在空中交通管理方面运用价值,激发人们不断地探索人工智能技术的运用领域,更好的服务于经济的发展,改善人们的生活。

  8. Artificial heart pumps: bridging the gap between science, technology and personalized medicine by relational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Federica; Deng, Mario C

    2017-01-01

    In the US population of 300 million, 3 million have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and 300,000 have advanced heart failure. Long-term mechanical circulatory support will, within the next decade, be recommended to 30,000 patients annually in the USA, 3000 undergo heart transplantation annually. What do these advances mean for persons suffering from advanced heart failure and their loved ones/caregivers? In this perspective article, we discuss - by exemplifying a case report of a 27-year-old man receiving a Total Artificial Heart - a practice concept of modern medicine that fully incorporates the patient's personhood perspective which we have termed Relational Medicine™. From this case study, it becomes apparent that the successful practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires the person-person encounter as a core practice element.

  9. Potential of artificial neural network technology for predicting shelf life of processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    Full Text Available Radial basis (fewer neurons artificial neural network (ANN models were developed for predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o C. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient were applied in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models. Soluble nitrogen, pH; standard plate count, yeast & mouldcount, and spore count were the input parameters, while sensory score was output parameter for the developed model. The developed model showed very good correlation between actual data and predicted data with high coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient besides low root mean square error, suggesting that the developed model is quite efficient in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese.

  10. A field study of advanced municipal wastewater treatment technology for artificial groundwater recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Yun-zheng; WANG Jian-long

    2006-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to investigate the advanced treatment of the municipal secondary effluent and a subsequent artificial groundwater recharge at Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beijing. To improve the secondary effluent quality, the combined process of powdered activated carbon adsorption, flocculation and rapid sand filtration was applied, which could remove about 40% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 70% adsorbable organic halogens. The results of liquid size exclusion chromatography indicate that in the adsorption unit the removed organic fiaction was mainly low molecular weight compounds. The fiactions removed by the flocculation unit were polysaccharides and high molecular weight compounds. The retention of water in summer in the open recharge basins resulted in a growth of algae. Consequently, DOC increased in the polysaccharide and high molecular weight humic substances fiaction. The majority of the DOC removal during soil passage took place in the unsaturated area.A limited reduction of DOC was observed in the aquifer zone.

  11. Study of artificial propagation technology of Megalonibea fusca%褐毛鲿全人工繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朴贤; 曾志南

    2013-01-01

      In order to master reproductive biology of Megalonibea fusca, and break through its artificial propaga-tion technology, the paper introduced the researches on Megalonibea fusca during the project periods from 1998 to 2002, such as the research of sexual mature age, breeding seasons, spawning temperature, gonadic development and reproductive periods, spawning pattern and fecundity, induced spawning indoor pond, induced spawning in marine cage, spawning rate and fertilization rate of parent fish, hormones and dose, artificial propagation technology and so on. We discussed and summarized the methods and measures on intensive culture and induced spawning of parent fish.%  为了掌握褐毛鲿(Megalonibea fusca)繁殖生物学特性并突破全人工繁殖技术,作者介绍了1998~2002年项目实施期间,对褐毛鲿的性成熟年龄、生殖季节、产卵水温、性腺发育与性周期、产卵类型与产卵量、室内产卵池催产、海上网箱催产、亲鱼产卵率、受精率、催产激素与剂量、全人工繁殖技术等所做的研究,讨论和总结了褐毛鲿亲鱼的强化培育,人工催产的方法与措施。

  12. Influence of dietary protein during the pre-breeder period on subsequent reproductive performance of large white turkeys. 3. The effects of semen volume and frequency of insemination on fertility and hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G B; Props, C F; Leighton, A T; Van Krey, H P; Potter, L M

    1980-02-01

    Large White turkey breeders of a commercial variety were used to determine the effects of pre-breeder dietary protein, frequency of insemination, and semen volume on subsequent reproductive performance. Treatments included female dietary protein levels of 10, 12, 14, and 17% fed from 12 to 32 weeks of age and 10, 12, an 14% protein from 20 to 32 weeks of age; male dietary protein levels of 12 and 17% fed from 12 to 56 weeks of age; and artificial insemination (AI) treatments of a) .025 ml of semen at weekly intervals, b) .025 ml of semen at biweekly intervals, and c) .05 ml of semen at biweekly intervals in a factorial arrangement of treatments. Male dietary treatment had no significant effect on fertility or hatchability of fertile eggs. Female pre-breeder protein levels also had no significant effect on fertility but resulted in lower hatchability of fertile eggs during the latter part of the production period when females were fed either the 10 or 12% protein pre-breeder diets. Weekly inseminations with .025 ml of semen resulted in the highest average level of fertility during the production year (90%), followed by biweekly insemination with .05 ml (87%) and .025 ml (85%) of semen, respectively. Hatchability of fertile eggs was significantly higher for hens receiving .05 ml of semen biweekly than for the other two AI treatments during the latter half of the production year only. However, weekly inseminations caused a significant decline (6.7 eggs/hen) in egg production when compared to hens inseminated at biweekly intervals. The average number of fertile eggs was greatest for females inseminated with .05 ml semen biweekly (54.3) compared to those inseminated with .025 ml of semen biweekly (53.0) or .025 ml of semen weekly (50.2).

  13. Technology insight: artificial extracorporeal liver support--how does Prometheus compare with MARS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisper, Peter; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2007-05-01

    Artificial extracorporeal liver support or 'liver dialysis' has been used in patients with severe liver failure with increasing frequency since the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS), a variant of albumin dialysis, was introduced in 1999. Nevertheless, liver dialysis must still be thought of as experimental because its contribution to improved patient survival has not been proven in large randomized trials. Prometheus is a novel device for fractionated plasma separation via an albumin-permeable filter that was developed to improve removal of albumin-bound toxins. Initial studies have proven clinical use of Prometheus to be feasible and safe. Head-to-head comparisons of Prometheus and MARS have shown treatment with the former to be more efficient with respect to removal of most albumin-bound and water-solved markers. As controlled studies with clinical end points are lacking, it is not known whether the observed greater detoxification capacity of Prometheus will translate into clinical benefit; two small studies indicate that there might be a beneficial effect in hepatic encephalopathy and pruritus. In a recent randomized comparison of MARS and Prometheus, however, hemodynamic improvement was observed in response to MARS, but not Prometheus, treatment. A large randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Prometheus on survival--the HELIOS study--has been initiated. First results are expected in 2008 and will be crucial to establishing a role for Prometheus in the field of extracorporeal liver support.

  14. Reproductive performance of sows submitted to intrauterine insemination Desempenho reprodutivo de matrizes suínas inseminadas pela técnica intrauterina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Batalha Araújo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows artificially inseminated by the intrauterine (IAIU technique. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 300 sows being distributed in five insemination techniques: control, intra-cervical (IAIC with 3x10(9 spermatozoa/100 mL; intrauterine (IAIU with 1x10(9 spermatozoa/100 mL; intrauterine with com 1x10(9 spermatozoa/50 mL; intrauterine with 5x10(8 spermatozoa/100 mL; and intrauterine com 5x10(8 spermatozoa/50 mL. The sows submitted to intrauterine insemination presented a farrowing rate of 90.8% and return to estrus rate of 9.2%, which did not differ from the rates obtained by the intra-cervical technique (90.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Total litter size did not differ between the techniques, with the means being from 11.4 to 11.9 piglets at farrowing. Although 4.6% of the sows submitted to intrauterine artificial insemination had difficulty with pipette insertion into the cervix, 100% of them were inseminated. When evaluating semen backflow, no difference was found between the intra-cervical and intrauterine insemination techniques. However, total semen backflow was higher in sows submitted to inter-cervical insemination. No difference was found in the presence of blood between the two methods evaluated. Hence, any of the intrauterine insemination techniques can substitute inter-cervical artificial insemination without damaging the reproductive performance of the animals.Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de matrizes suínas inseminadas pela técnica intrauterina (IAIU. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 300 fêmeas foram distribuídas em cinco técnicas de inseminação: controle - intracervical (IAIC com 3x10(9 espermatozoides/100 mL; intrauterina (IAIU com 1x10(9 espermatozoides/100 mL; intrauterina com 1x10(9 espermatozoides/50 mL; intrauterina com 5x10(8 espermatozoides/100 m

  15. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  16. Three-D Artificial Neural Network (3DANN) technology. Blueprint for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    1994-01-01

    Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC), working closely with JPL under BMDO/ONR sponsorship, is developing a radically new neural computing technology. Primarily aimed at discrimination and target recognition for BMDO missile interceptor applications, it appears to have near term commercial applicability to such problems as handwriting and face recognition, just to name two. In its earliest form it will be able to perform inner product computation using 262 thousand 64x64 templates (weighted synapse arrays) where the 64(exp 5) weights can all be changed every millisecond. Internal switching provides an inherent capability to zoom, translate, or rotate the templates. The 3D silicon architecture is manufactured on a commercial, high volume DRAM production line at very low cost, enabling its commercialization. Two technology thrusts are beginning: in the first, the 64 layer capability of 3DANN-I will be extended to 1024 layers and beyond. In the second layer size will be shrunk to 2-3 millimeters to reduce layer costs. Our workshop goal is to expose this technology to the neural network community as an emerging tool for their use and to obtain their desire for its future development.

  17. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, A-M; Peippo, J

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a linear programming model was developed to maximize the gross margin of milk production by determining the optimal use of different reproductive technologies in a dairy herd. The model has the potential to vary the use of conventional artificial insemination, insemination with X-sorted sperm, and the use of unselected or sex-selected embryo recovery and transfer. Data from Finnish dairy herd recording systems were used to parameterize the model. This paper presents the results of 6 scenarios for a herd size of 60 dairy cows. In the basic scenario, the optimum economic combination for Finnish conditions was to inseminate 10 heifers and 22 cows with unsorted semen, 8 heifers with X-sorted sperm, and to use 20 cows as embryo donors which was the upper constraint for this technique. The embryo donors were inseminated with conventional semen for both embryo production and their subsequent pregnancy. Without restriction on embryo recovery, the optimum combination was to use all heifers as donors of sex-selected embryos and all cows as donors of unselected embryos. It was more profitable to produce female embryos with X-sorted sperm than by sorting embryos. Embryo recipients were not economically justified in any scenario. In practice, the optimal strategy is herd-specific depending on the input costs, output values and the technical success of each reproductive technology in that herd. This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  19. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  20. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting 'animal models'. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots.

  1. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  2. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  3. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kamimura

    Full Text Available During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females. This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus.

  4. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  5. Technology insight: Innovative options for end-stage renal disease--from kidney refurbishment to artificial kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Branko; Verhaar, Marianne C; Blankestijn, Peter; Boer, Walther H; Joles, Jaap A

    2007-10-01

    The steadily growing number of patients with chronic kidney disease who will eventually develop end-stage renal disease, together with the qualitative limitations of currently available renal replacement therapies, have triggered the exploration of innovative strategies for renal replacement therapy and for salvage of renal function. Currently, new hemodialysis modalities and membranes are being used with the aim of increasing clearance of uremic toxins to afford better metabolic control. In addition to these conventional approaches, there are four innovative potential solutions to the problem of replacing renal function when kidneys fail. The first is a small, implantable device with the potential to be supplemented with human cells ('artificial kidney'). The second involves restoration of the damaged kidney by harnessing recent advances in stem-cell technology and knowledge of developmental programing ('refurbished kidney'). The third is (partially) growing a kidney in vitro with the use of therapeutic cloning ('cultured kidney'). The fourth innovative solution involves the use of other organs to replace various renal functions ('distributed kidney'). In this article we review the efforts that have been made to improve renal replacement therapies, and explore innovative approaches. We will not cover all potential solutions in detail. Rather, we aim to indicate directions of future endeavor and arouse enthusiasm in clinicians and scientists for exploration of these exciting avenues.

  6. Fabrication of artificial arteriovenous fistula and analysis of flow field and shear stress by using μ-PIV technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Hyun Kyu [Div. of Vascular Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ryun Geun; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Jin Kee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is an operation performed to achieve vascular access for hemodialysis. Although RC-AVF is a reliable and well-known method, this technique presents high rates of early failure depending on the vessel condition. These failures are due to blood shear stress around the anastomosis site and the vascular access failure caused by thrombosis secondary to stenosis formation, as well as vascular access reocclusion after percutaneous interventions. In this work, we fabricate in vitro 3D RC-AVF by using polydimethylsiloxane and 3D printing technology to understand the underlying mechanism and predict AVF failure. Micro- Particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) focusing on the cardiac pulse cycle is used to measure the velocity field within the artificial blood vessel. Results are confirmed by numerical simulation. Accordingly, the in vitro AVF model agrees well with the simulations. Overall, this research would provide the future possibility of using the proposed method to reduce in vivo AVF failure for various conditions.

  7. Determination of Efficiency of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collectors Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Different PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to determine efficiency of semi transparent hybrid photovoltaic thermal double pass air collector for different PV technology and compare it with single pass air collector using artificial neural network (ANN technique for New Delhi weather station of India. The MATLAB 7.1 neural networks toolbox has been used for defining and training of ANN for determination of thermal, electrical, overall thermal and overall exergy efficiency of the system. The ANN model uses ambient air temperature, number of sunshine hours, number of clear days, temperature coefficient, cell efficiency, global and diffuse radiation as input parameters. The transfer function, neural network configuration and learning parameters have been selected based on highest convergence during training and testing of network. About 2000 sets of data from four weather stations (Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar and Jodhpur have been given as input for training and data of the fifth weather station (New Delhi has been used for testing purpose. It has been observed that the best transfer function for a given configuration is logsig. The feed forward back-propagation algorithm has been used in this analysis. Further the results of ANN model have been compared with analytical values on the basis of root mean square error.

  8. Influence of breed and age on morphometry and depth of inseminating catheter penetration in the ewe cervix: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabi, M; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Chamorro, C A; Boixo, J C; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2006-11-01

    A detailed examination of the cervical canal in the ewe was carried out. This analysis could be used to design new catheters for artificial insemination (AI) to achieve deeper cervical penetration and therefore better fertility results. Three hundred and sixty-five cervices from four sheep breeds (Churra, Assaf, Merino, Castellana) obtained postmortem were used. Cervix morphometry and depth of cervical penetration using two types of catheters were determined. A conventional straight catheter for ovine artificial insemination (IMV), and a bent catheter, ending in a stainless steel needle, 9 cm in length and with an 8 mm tip bent 45 degrees , were used. The results showed that the morphometry of the cervix depends on breed and age of the ewe. The cervices of Churra breed were shorter and narrower, and had a higher number of folds than those of other breeds. Postmortem cervical penetration was deeper when the cervices were longer and wider, and with fewer folds (Merino and Castellana breeds). In ageing ewes, the cervix tended to become longer and wider, with loose folds. This decreased structural complexity and significantly improved cervical penetration. The bent catheter allowed significantly greater cervical penetration than the straight IMV one.

  9. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States

  10. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Allersma, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the treatment of first choice for a subfertile couple when the infertility work up reveals an ovulatory cycle, at least one open Fallopian tube and sufficient spermatozoa. The final goal of this treatment is to achieve a pregnancy and d

  11. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) should logically be performed around the moment of ovulation. Since spermatozoa and oocytes have only limited survival times correct timing is essential. As it is not known which technique of timing for IUI results in the best treatment outcome, we compared

  12. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) should logically be performed around the moment of ovulation. Since spermatozoa and oocytes have only limited survival times correct timing is essential. As it is not known which technique of timing for IUI results in the best treatment outcome, we compared

  13. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States wer

  14. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  15. Efficacy of sperm mobility assessment in commercial flocks and the relationships of sperm mobility and insemination dose with fertility in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L M; Kirby, J D; Froman, D P; Sonstegard, T S; Harry, D E; Darden, J R; Marini, P J; Walker, R M; Rhoads, M L; Donoghue, A M

    2000-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate: 1) the efficacy of the Sperm Mobility Test on commercial turkey farms, and 2) the influence of sperm mobility phenotype on fertility when insemination parameters are varied. In research flocks, differences in sperm mobility among toms are predictive of fertility. We wanted to test the efficacy of this sire selection test in practical, real-world situations, evaluating its usefulness in terms of assessing large numbers of toms, different strains of turkeys, and variable management practices. Utilizing field study results, controlled studies were then conducted to improve test parameters. For the field trials, semen from each of 405 breeder toms (11 strains or lines) was evaluated either in duplicate (n = 285) or in triplicate (n = 120). Sperm mobility was normally distributed among all toms tested, except for one strain. Because the sperm mobility indices for toms evaluated in these field trials were higher than those observed in research flocks, the Sperm Mobility Test was modified to increase the separation between high and low sperm mobility phenotypes by increasing the concentration of Accudenz. To determine the effects of sperm mobility and insemination dose on sustained fertility through time, hens from a research flock were inseminated twice before the onset of lay with sperm from toms classified as high-, average-, or low-mobility in concentrations of 25 to 400 million sperm per artificial insemination dose, and egg fertility was evaluated over a 5-wk period. Toms with the high-mobility sperm phenotype maintained higher fertility (P insemination doses compared with toms with low-mobility sperm. Toms with high-mobility sperm sired equal numbers of poults in a sperm competition study in which numbers favored low-mobility toms by 3:1. These results demonstrate that the Sperm Mobility Test can be used for on-farm evaluation of semen quality of toms in commercial flocks and that sperm mobility influences fertility and sire fitness.

  16. Successful laparoscopic insemination with a very low number of flow cytometrically sorted boar sperm in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo, David; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Gomis, Jesus; Angel, Miguel A; Tarantini, Tatiana; Gil, Maria A; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Jose L; Roca, Jordi; Vaquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a useful procedure for laparoscopic insemination (LI) with sex-sorted boar spermatozoa that yields adequate fertility results in farm conditions. In experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of single (oviducts) and double (oviducts and tips of the uterine horns) LI with X-sorted sperm on the reproductive performance of sows. Sows (N = 109) were inseminated once as follows: (1) single LI with 0.5 × 10(6) unsorted sperm per oviduct; (2) single LI with 0.5 × 10(6) sex-sorted sperm per oviduct; or (3) double LI with 0.5 × 10(6) sex-sorted sperm per oviduct and 0.5 × 10(6) sex-sorted sperm per uterine horn. The farrowing rates were lower (P sperm (43.2% and 61.9% for the single and double insemination groups, respectively) than in sows from the unsorted group (91.3%). Within the sex-sorted groups, the farrowing rate tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in sows inseminated using double LI. There were no differences in the litter size among groups. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of the number of sex-sorted sperm on the reproductive performance of sows when using double LI. Sows (N = 109) were inseminated with sex-sorted sperm once using double LI with: (1) 0.5 × 10(6) sperm per oviduct and 1 × 10(6) sperm per uterine horn; or (2) 1 × 10(6) sperm per oviduct and 2 × 10(6) sperm per uterine horn. Similarly high pregnancy (90%) and farrowing (80%) rates were achieved in both groups. The sows inseminated with the highest number of sperm tended (P = 0.09) to have more piglets (10.8 ± 0.7 vs. 9.2 ± 0.6). A high female proportion (number of female births divided by the total of all births ≥0.92) was obtained in both experiments using X-sorted sperm. Our results indicate that the double LI procedure, using between 3 and 6 × 10(6) sex-sorted sperm per sow produces adequate fertility at the farm level, making sperm-sexing technology potentially applicable in elite breeding units.

  17. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensdorp, A J; Cohlen, B J; Heineman, M J; Vandekerckhove, P

    2007-10-17

    Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive than others, its efficacy has not been proven. Furthermore, the adverse effects of OH such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS ) and multiple pregnancy are a concern. The aim of this review was to determine whether for couples with male subfertility, IUI improves the live birth rates or ongoing pregnancy rates compared with timed intercourse (TI), with or without OH. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual and Disorders Subfertility Group Trials Special Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library, 2006, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2006), EMBASE (1980 to May 2006), SCIsearch and the reference lists of articles. We hand searched abstracts of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology. Authors of identified articles were contacted for unpublished data. Randomised controlled trials (RCT's) with at least one of the following comparisons were included: 1) IUI versus TI or expectant management both in natural cycles 2) IUI versus TI both in cycles with OH 3) IUI in natural cycles versus TI + OH 4) IUI + OH versus TI in natural cycles 5) IUI in natural cycles versus IUI + OH. Couples with abnormal sperm parameters only were included. Two co-reviewers independently performed quality assessment and data extraction. Where possible data were pooled, and a meta-analysis was performed. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were carried out where possible and appropriate. Three trials of parallel design, and five trials of cross-over design with pre-cross-over data were included in the meta-analysis. Three compared IUI with TI both in stimulated cycles. The remaining four of these studies

  18. Real-time virtual reference service based on applicable artificial intelligence technologies:The début of the robot Xiaotu at Tsinghua University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YAO; Lei; JI; Chengyu; ZHANG; Wu; CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of applicable artificial intelligence technologies to library real-time virtual reference services is an innovative experimentation in one of the key areas of library services.Based on the open source software Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity(A.L.I.C.E.)and a combined application of several other relevant supporting technologies for facilitating the use of the current existing library resources,Tsinghua University Library has recently developed a real-time smart talking robot,named Xiaotu,for the enhancement of its various service functions,such as reference services,book searching,Baidu Baike searching,self-directed learning,etc.The operation of Xiaotu is programmed into Renren website(a social networking website),which adds significantly an innovative feature to the modus operandi of the real-time virtual reference service at Tsinghua University Library.

  19. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  20. 关于人工湿地水质净化技术分析%Analysis on Artificial Wetland Water Purification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继凯; 陈玉涛

    2016-01-01

    The wetland is the humid area of land and water, artificial wetland sewage purification function, with its unique increasingly attention from all walks of life� Papers on the related concepts of artificial wetland and characteristics are analyzed, and water quality purification of artificial wetland system was analyzed, and the artificial wetland water purification technology in sewage treatment has a very broad application prospects.%湿地是陆地的潮湿地带和水体,人工湿地以其独有的污水净化功能,日益受到各界的关注。本文对人工湿地的相关概念和特点进行了分析,并对人工湿地系统水质净化技术进行了分析,人工湿地水质净化技术在污水深度处理中具有非常广阔的应用前景。

  1. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  2. Predictors of male insemination success in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Vega-Trejo, Regina; Jacomb, Frances; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Identifying targets of selection is key to understanding the evolution of sexually selected behavioral and morphological traits. Many animals have coercive mating, yet little is known about whether and how mate choice operates when these are the dominant mating tactic. Here, we use multivariate selection analysis to examine the direction and shape of selection on male insemination success in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). We found direct selection on only one of five measured traits, but correlational selection involving all five traits. Larger males with longer gonopodia and with intermediate sperm counts were more likely to inseminate females than smaller males with shorter gonopodia and extreme sperm counts. Our results highlight the need to investigate sexual selection using a multivariate framework even in species that lack complex sexual signals. Further, female choice appears to be important in driving the evolution of male sexual traits in this species where sexual coercion is the dominant mating tactic.

  3. Sexual coevolution in the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, G

    2010-06-01

    Sexual conflict has recently been proposed as a driving force behind the rapid diversification of genitalia among sexually reproducing organisms. In traumatically inseminating insects, males stab females in the side of the body with needle-like genitalia, ejaculating into their body cavity. Such mating is costly to females and has led to the evolution of cost-reducing 'paragenitalia' in some species. Whereas some consider this evidence of sexually antagonistic coevolution, others remain unconvinced. Variation in the reproductive morphology of both sexes - particularly males - is alleged to be negligible, contradicting the expectations of a coevolutionary arms race. Here, we use a phylogeny of the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius to show that external female paragenitalia have evolved multiply across the genus and are correlated with changes in male genital shape. This pattern is characteristic of an evolutionary arms race driven by sexual conflict.

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  5. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge. Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  6. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  7. Using a computer-based simulation with an artificial intelligence component and discovery learning to formulate training needs for a new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillis, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A computer-based simulation with an artificial intelligence component and discovery learning was investigated as a method to formulate training needs for new or unfamiliar technologies. Specifically, the study examined if this simulation method would provide for the recognition of applications and knowledge/skills which would be the basis for establishing training needs. The study also examined the effect of field-dependence/independence on recognition of applications and knowledge/skills. A pretest-posttest control group experimental design involving fifty-eight college students from an industrial technology program was used. The study concluded that the simulation was effective in developing recognition of applications and the knowledge/skills for a new or unfamiliar technology. And, the simulation's effectiveness for providing this recognition was not limited by an individual's field-dependence/independence.

  8. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  9. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  11. 毛竹疏残林人工改造技术试验初报%Artificial Reform Technologies of Phyllostachys pubescens Open-residual Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东阳

    2012-01-01

    采取对照、劈山清杂、全垦、施复合肥料、施饼肥5种技术措施,对毛竹疏残林进行人工改造。经过对毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标连续4 a的观测调查,结果表明不同人工改造措施总体上促进了毛竹林的生长;随着人工改造措施实施时间(次数)的延长,各年度间毛竹林分出笋、成竹、胸径3个指标均有极显著、显著性差异;各人工改造技术处理间出笋数差异极显著、胸径差异显著,而成竹数差异不显著。q检验结果表明,不同的人工改造措施对毛竹林生长的正效作用排列依次为施复合肥料〉施饼肥〉全垦〉劈山清杂〉对照。%5 technology measures of control, hilltops cleaning, reclamation, using compound fertilizer, using cake-fertilizer were made to take artificial reform of Phyllostachys pubescens open-residual stands. After the observation and investigation on 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands for 4 years, the results indicated that different artificial reform measures generally promoted the growth of Ph. pubescens forests; 3 indicators of shoots, bamboos, diameter at breast height of Ph. pubescens stands during the 4 years have very significantly or general remarkable differences with the artificial modification measures time ( frequency ) being extended; There were extremely significant differences for the number of shoots, and significant differences for the DBH between the processing of artificial reform technologies, and there was no significant difference between the number of bamboo. Q test results showed that the positive effect in the order of different artificial reform measures on the growth of Ph. pubescens forests was that applying compound N fertilizer 〉 applying cake- fertilizer 〉 reclamation〉 hilltops clearing 〉 control.

  12. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  13. Evaluation of timed insemination during summer heat stress in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sota, R L; Burke, J M; Risco, C A; Moreira, F; DeLorenzo, M A; Thatcher, W W

    1998-03-01

    We wished to compare the effect of summer heat stress on pregnancy rate in cows that were inseminated at a set interval associated with a synchronized ovulation vs those inseminated upon routine estrus detection. The study was carried out on a commercial dairy farm in Florida from May to September 1995. Lactating dairy cows were given PGF2 alpha (25 mg i.m.) at 30 + 3 d postpartum and randomly assigned to be inseminated at a set time (Timed group) or when estrus was detected (Control group). Cows in the Timed group were synchronized by sequential administration of Buserelin (8 micrograms i.m.) on Day 0 at 1600 h, PGF2 alpha (25 mg i.m.) on Day 7 at 1600 h and Buserelin (8 micrograms i.m.) on Day 9 at 1600 h. They were inseminated on Day 10 between 0800 and 0900 h (Day 9 + 16 h). Cows in the Control group were given PGF2 alpha at 57 + 3 d postpartum and inseminated when detected in estrus. Estrus detection or insemination rate for control insemination cows was 18.1 +/- 2.5% versus 100% for time inseminated cows (P cows (3 +/- 2.1 d cows (13.9 +/- 2.6 > 4.8 +/- 2.5%; P 16.5 +/- 3.5%; P cows conceiving by 120 d postpartum was less for time inseminated cows (77.6 +/- 3.8 cows (1.63 +/- 0.10 > 1.27 +/- 0.11; P heat stress on estrus detection are eliminated. An economical evaluation of the timed insemination program indicates an increase in net revenue per cow with implementation of timed insemination for first service during the summer months.

  14. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G; Betts, D H; Hyttel, P

    2013-08-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed.

  15. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  16. 人工智能技术在武器投放系统中的应用%Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology on Weapon Delivery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾云涛

    2013-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence on armament adapt to the requirement of warfare which is rapid, accurate and efficient. The system which is combined artificial intelligence technology with weapon system is able to autonomous or semiautonomous accomplish the reconnaissance, searching, identify, aiming and attack missions. The concept research of the intelligent weapon delivery system is presented, the system is designed by using artificial intelligence technology and its function is described. And then, based on the current state of art, the tradeoff research is done between automate weapon delivery and pilot, making using of each merits in order to achieve the optimal performance.%人工智能的军事应用适应了快速、精确、高效的作战需求。人工智能技术与武器系统结合能够自主或半自主完成侦察、搜索、识别、瞄准、攻击目标等任务。本文对智能武器投放系统进行了概念研究,用人工智能技术对系统进行了设计,对系统功能上进行了描述。另外,分析了当前技术水平,对自动武器投放应用和驾驶员之间权衡研究,发挥各自优点,使整体性能达到最优。

  17. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  18. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris

    2014-01-01

    , exploring the effect of ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: National cohort study, 2007-2012. SETTING: Danish national registries. PATIENT(S): Four thousand two hundred twenty-eight singletons born after insemination with partner semen (IUI-H) and 1,881 singletons born after insemination with donor semen...

  19. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  20. 丝尾鳠生物学特性及人工养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Artificial Breeding Technology of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正兴; 张正雄; 薛晨江; 王文玉

    2014-01-01

    Morphological characteristics,life habits and breeding habits of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang were expounded. Through the system discussion of aquarium construction,artificial reproduction technology,fish breeding technology,disease prevention and control technology of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang,biological characteristics of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang such as feeding habits,dissolved oxygen demand,temperature adaptability,salinity tolerance were verified,reproduction and fish cultivation measures of Mystus wyckioides Chaux et Fang were pointed out,pond farming required supporting technology and common disease control technology were also put forward.%阐述了丝尾鳠的形态特征、生活习性、繁殖习性。通过对丝尾鳠的养鱼池建造、人工繁殖技术、成鱼养殖技术、病害防治技术的系统论述,探明了丝尾鳠的食性、溶氧需求、温度适应性、盐度耐受性等生物学特性,指出了丝尾鳠繁殖与苗种培育措施,提出了池塘养殖所需配套技术及常见病害防治技术。

  1. Efeitos do local de deposição do sêmen e do intervalo inseminação/ ovulação sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen fresco diluído Effects of semen deposition site and the insemination/ovulation interval on fertility of mares inseminated with fresh diluted semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivis Luiz Gomes de Sena Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do intervalo da inseminação artificial à ovulação sobre a fertilidade de éguas, considerando principalmente o local de deposição do sêmen. Os intervalos foram de 48 horas e 24 horas antes da ovulação e de 48 horas e 72 horas entre as duas últimas inseminações. As inseminações foram realizadas no ápice do corno uterino, por via intravaginal profunda, com 1/5 da dose inseminante utilizada para o corpo do útero (15 mL-GI. As éguas foram rufiadas diariamente e inseminadas às segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, a partir de um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5 cm de diâmetro, com sêmen fresco diluído em diluidor de leite desnatado-glicose. Não houve diferença nas taxas de concepção/ciclo entre as inseminações realizadas no corpo (42,86% e no ápice (45,95% com concentrações médias de 489 e 102 milhões de espermatozoides móveis. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos experimentais no mesmo intervalo inseminação artificial/ovulação, no entanto, quando as taxas de concepção foram comparadas entre intervalos em mesmo local de deposição do sêmen, taxas de concepção inferiores estiveram relacionadas às inseminações realizadas antes da ovulação. Por outro lado, as inseminações realizadas antes e após a ovulação, independentemente dos intervalos inseminação/ovulação, resultaram em melhores taxas de concepção. As concentrações espermáticas/dose inseminante podem ser significativamente reduzidas, sem prejuízo à fertilidade, quando o sêmen é depositado próximo à papila tubárica. Entretanto, há necessidade de inseminações antes e depois da ovulação para que se obtenham melhores taxas de fertilidade quando se utiliza sêmen de baixa viabilidade no trato genital da égua, visando ao estabelecimento de um reservatório espermático adequado no momento da ovulação.The effect of the interval from artificial insemination to ovulation on mare fertility rates was studied

  2. Reproductive strategies in two inseminating species of Glandulocaudini, Mimagoniates microlepis and Mimagoniates rheocharis (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, M A; Fialho, C B; Malabarba, L R

    2016-07-01

    The reproductive biology of two inseminating Glandulocaudini species, Mimagoniates microlepis and Mimagoniates rheocharis, was investigated and compared with reproductive patterns described for other inseminating and non-inseminating characids, hypothesizing the evolutionary history of these reproductive traits. The long reproductive period, with higher activity in colder months, distinguishes the reproductive strategy of these species when compared with most characiforms. The M. rheocharis population was structured in two groups of males throughout the year, mature males with high gonado-somatic index (IG  = 2·0 and 4·4) and immature and maturing males with low IG values (0·0 and 1·2). Mimagoniates rheocharis and M. microlepis showed the lowest absolute mean fecundities known for characids, indicating that inseminating species allocate less energy to oocyte production and reinforcing the hypothesis that insemination has an adaptive advantage, which provides a higher chance of fertilization. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS OF INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION- A CASE COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyasree Jayasimhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND IUI is one of the simple techniques of assisted reproductive technique for treating infertility by artificial insemination. It has the advantage of positioning good quality sperm with increased count prepared by special semen washing technique into the uterine cavity, so that factors like decreased sperm count, poor sperm motility, impenetrable or absent cervical mucus or antisperm antibodies can be overcome. Sperm preparation method includes wash and swim-up technique using Percoll gradient. IUI is done by simple method and does not require the elaborate setup, investment and personnel like the other procedures of ART. The aims and objectives- 1. Factors associated with effectiveness of IUI among couples with primary infertility. 2. Factors studied include- Age of female partner, duration of infertility, menstrual regularity, menstrual flow, ovarian stimulation protocol, timing of IUI, endometrial thickness, number of cycles of IUI, luteal support, semen analysis findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case comparative study conducted in a tertiary hospital during three year period in which the forty women who conceived were considered as “study group” and another forty non-conceived women selected at random were taken as “control group.” RESULTS Factors like age of female showed statistical significance- when the age of female increased from 20-24 years to 30 years and above, the rate of conception reduced from 50% to 9%. Other factors like menstrual regularity, menstrual flow timing of IUI and number of cycles of IUI yielded no significant association with conception rates. Regarding the mode of ovarian induction, 90% of conceived group was given controlled superovulation using clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins and 39% had ovulation triggered by HCG, which were statistically significant. In the conceived group, the mean endometrial thickness was 9.3 mm contrary to 7.8 mm in the non-conceived group. Minimum duration of

  4. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  5. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  6. A survey of four years intrauterine insemination at Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseini M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine insemination (IUI has been practiced since the late 1800's primarily for idiopathic infertility, and in men with deficient semen parameters. The procedure is done by placing washed sperm in uterus a few hours before ovulation. The records of 427 couples receiving IUI for treatment of infertility at Shariati hospital in 1370-74 were reviewed retrospectively. These patients had IUI in 574 cycles. Eighty patients became pregnant and delivery rate was 14% per cycle. Pregnancy rate is impressive when ovulation induction is combined with insemination timed just before ovulation. The success rate in Shariati hospital is comparable to other infertility centers in the world and cost of a cycle of IUI with HMG superovulation is approximately one third the cost of IVF-ET or GIFT cycle and avoids invasive oocyte retrieval and extracorporeal fertilization. So we suggest that women with refractory infertility without anatomic distortion of pelvis can have at least 3-6 cycles of IUI before IVF or GIFT.

  7. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age.

  8. Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations during laparoscopic surgery for intra-uterine artificial insemination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Fabíola B; Malm, Christina; Andrade, Maria Elisa J; Oliveira, Humberto P; Melo, Eliane G; Caldeira, Fátima Maria C; Gheller, Valentim A; Palhares, Maristela S; Macedo, Sabrina P; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Silva, Marcos X

    2011-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations were evaluated in 6 healthy dogs that underwent a laparoscopic procedure using isoflurane anesthesia and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum for 30 min. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, venous blood pH, partial pressure of CO(2) and oxygen, oxygen saturation, total carbon dioxide (TCO(2)) and bicarbonate were monitored. Significant alterations were hypercapnia, hypoventilation, and respiratory acidosis.

  9. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive a...

  10. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fagiolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During an oestrus synchronization trial on heifer and mixed-parity Mediterranean Italian buffaloes, some analyses on health parameters were performed to correlate them to reproductive performances (pregnancy rate and birth rate. Serum sampling were performed every year for two years to be used in serological techniques for the diagnosis of Chlamydia spp. (ELISA, Neospora (ELISA, BHV1 (ELISA gE glycoprotein and BVDV (ELISA. On the total number of 465 observed buffaloes, the seroprevalence obtained for each disease has respectively been: 24 %, 25 %, 25 % and 22 %. Specific antibodies were not spread over the 13 farms in an homogeneous manner, farm prevalence differences are evidenced by high standard deviations in the mean farm seroprevalence: 42 ± 27.8, 26 ± 26.9, 20 ± 13.8, 9.8 ± 21.1. Among the buffaloes which resulted seropositive to Chlamydia, 33 % were pregnant, 32 % were those with Neospora, 32 % those with BHV1 and finally 29 % of the animals positive to BVDV resulted pregnant. Taking into account the animals that delivered normally, 41 % were positive to Chlamydia, 18 % to Neospora, 18 % to BHV1 and 19 % to BVDV.

  11. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  13. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O. P. Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A; Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  14. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  15. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Németh, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.nemeth@geology.sk [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO{sub 2} + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO{sub 2} emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO{sub 2} and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 3thermally} {sub modified} {sub chrysotile}+5CO{sub 2}+nH{sub 2}O→Mg{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}(OH){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O{sub hydromagnesite}+MgCO{sub 3magnesite}+4SiO{sub 2} · nH{sub 2}O{sub in} a{sub morphous} {sub phase};n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO{sub 2}, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of

  16. Problem-Solving Skills Among Precollege Students in Clinical Immunology and Microbiology: Classifying Strategies with a Rubric and Artificial Neural Network Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kanowith-Klein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators emphasize the importance of problem solving that enables students to apply current knowledge and understanding in new ways to previously unencountered situations. Yet few methods are available to visualize and then assess such skills in a rapid and efficient way. Using a software system that can generate a picture (i.e., map of students’ strategies in solving problems, we investigated methods to classify problem-solving strategies of high school students who were studying infectious and noninfectious diseases. Using maps that indicated items students accessed to solve a software simulation as well as the sequence in which items were accessed, we developed a rubric to score the quality of the student performances and also applied artificial neural network technology to cluster student performances into groups of related strategies. Furthermore, we established that a relationship existed between the rubric and neural network results, suggesting that the quality of a problem-solving strategy could be predicted from the cluster of performances in which it was assigned by the network. Using artificial neural networks to assess students’ problem-solving strategies has the potential to permit the investigation of the problem-solving performances of hundreds of students at a time and provide teachers with a valuable intervention tool capable of identifying content areas in which students have specific misunderstandings, gaps in learning, or misconceptions.

  17. Problem-solving skills among precollege students in clinical immunology and microbiology: classifying strategies with a rubric and artificial neural network technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowith-Klein, S; Stave, M; Stevens, R; Casillas, A M

    2001-05-01

    Educators emphasize the importance of problem solving that enables students to apply current knowledge and understanding in new ways to previously unencountered situations. Yet few methods are available to visualize and then assess such skills in a rapid and efficient way. Using a software system that can generate a picture (i.e., map) of students' strategies in solving problems, we investigated methods to classify problem-solving strategies of high school students who were studying infectious and noninfectious diseases. Using maps that indicated items students accessed to solve a software simulation as well as the sequence in which items were accessed, we developed a rubric to score the quality of the student performances and also applied artificial neural network technology to cluster student performances into groups of related strategies. Furthermore, we established that a relationship existed between the rubric and neural network results, suggesting that the quality of a problem-solving strategy could be predicted from the cluster of performances in which it was assigned by the network. Using artificial neural networks to assess students' problem-solving strategies has the potential to permit the investigation of the problem-solving performances of hundreds of students at a time and provide teachers with a valuable intervention tool capable of identifying content areas in which students have specific misunderstandings, gaps in learning, or misconceptions.

  18. Characterization and Coil Test Results for a Multifilamentary NbTi Conductor Utilizing Artificial Pinning Center Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.; Ghiorso, W.; McManaman, P.

    1992-08-01

    The introduction of pinning centers via the controlled addition of a second phase, with the correct size and spacing, has been proposed as a method for producing a material with optimum flux pinning and hence a higher critical current density in practical superconductors. The demonstration of such artificial pinning center (APC) materials has been the aim of recent collaborative efforts with several U.S. manufacturers. This paper reports the coil test results for a multifilamentary NbTi conductor fabricated using an APC technique. The conductor showed improved performance compared to earlier APC conductors, and its performance is comparable to that found in conventional multifilamentary NbTi conductors. In addition to coil test results, the paper will report on the low field magnetization, SEM, and TEM studies, and the results will be compared with similar results on conventional NbTi.

  19. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  1. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development