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Sample records for technologies artificial insemination

  1. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  2. Highlights on artificial insemination (AI technology in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Khalifa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the development of field AI services in the majority of countries concerned with pig production. The objective of this paper is to review: (a the current status of swine AI in the world, (b significance and limitation of AI with liquid and frozen semen, (c the biological traits of porcine semen in relation to in-vitro sperm storage, (d the criteria used for selection of a boar stud as a semen supplier, (e how to process boar semen for liquid and frozen storage in the commercial settings and (f how to improve fertility and prolificacy of boar semen. More than 99% of the inseminations conducted worldwide are made with liquid-stored semen. AI with frozen semen is used only for upgrading the genetic base in a particular country or herd. Determining the initial quality of semen ejaculates along with the selection of the optimum storage extender has a profound effect on the quality and fertility of AI doses. Different procedures have been used for improving the fertility of preserved spermatozoa including colloidal centrifugation of the semen, intrauterine insemination and modulation of the uterine defense mechanism after AI. Development of an efficient protocol for synchronizing the time of ovulation in sows and gilts coupled with improving uterine horn insemination technique will make a breakthrough in the commercial use of frozen boar semen.

  3. The socio-legal acceptance of new technologies: a close look at artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gaia

    2002-10-01

    Heated debates often surround the introduction of an important new technology into society, as exemplified by current controversies surrounding human cloning and privacy protection on the Internet. Underlying these controversies are disruptions to central socio-legal values caused by these new technologies. Whether new technologies will eventually be accepted by society is often contingent on the reaction of the legal system. This mandates the formulation of a conceptual framework for understanding and structuring the way the law should react in cases surrounding the adoption of new technologies. By using the case study of artificial insemination this Article develops the tools for structuring the legal role in the acceptance process of new technologies. The three-century controversy surrounding the innovation of artificial insemination results from the innovations' disruption of the socio-legal value of the family. Artificial Insemination--although invented in the eighteenth-century--was rarely used until the 1930s, and only legalized in the 1960s. Its application to surrogacy and its use by unmarried women extends the controversy into the twenty-first century. The case study demonstrates the nature of the relationship among the technological, social and legal acceptance processes of new technologies, and analyzes the legal acceptance debate. The conceptual framework produced is useful in understanding and structuring the legal role in current debates surrounding the introduction and acceptance of new technologies.

  4. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. JSAR Innovative Technology Award. Development of ovulation synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyoji

    2005-04-01

    Recently, reproductive management has become more difficult as a result of increased herd size. Problems with missing estrous signs and decrease in conception rate by artificial insemination (AI) performed at wrong timing have caused low AI conception rates. In 1995, ovulation synchronization and fixed-time AI (Ovsynch/TAI) was developed in the USA as a new reproductive technology, which was accepted as an useful reproductive management tool in many countries. However, no information on the use of Ovsynch/TAI was available in Japan. It was, therefore, warranted to show the ovulation rate and conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI using gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-A, fertirelin acetate) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-THAM, both were commercially available in this country. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI has been known to vary among different herds and individuals. Investigation and analysis of factors affecting the conception rate was also warranted to improve the conception rate. A series of experiments were carried out to establish Ovsynch/TAI using domestically produced GnRH-A and PGF2alpha and to study factors affecting conception rate after Ovsynch protocol. Ovsynch using 100 microg GnRH-A and 25 mg PGF2alpha were observed using ultrasonography. As a result, a high synchronization rate of ovulation at 16 to 20 h after the second GnRH injection was confirmed. The conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was compared in 87 cows with the conception rate after AI at estrus induced by PGF2alpha (139 cows). Conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI was higher than the figure after AI at induced estrus (59.1% vs 20.9%, Pbody condition score (BCS) was 3.75 at dry period and 3.0 at the day of Ovsynch. In conclusion, Ovsynch/TAI is an effective tool for the reproductive management of dairy cows. A steady and sufficient conception rate after Ovsynch/TAI could be expected by taking the factors affecting the conception rate into the consideration.

  6. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  7. Estrategies to improve fertility in cattle: artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruselli PS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is currently the major biotechnique used worldwide to disseminate superior genetics and to improve reproductive efficiency in bovine herds. Conversely, reports from different parts of the world indicate low pregnancy rates in cattle submitted to AI, due to both mistakes in heat detection or a high incidence of anestrous. In dairy cattle, the use of AI following visual detection of estrus is relatively easier to be used because their routine of management is intense (milking two to three times a day, allowing a frequent contact with cows for estrus observation. However, for beef cattle, the implementation of AI programs based on estrus detection is harder to be used because of several management conditions. Beef cows are frequently raised extensively, with great walking distances between their pasture to the corral where the AI is performed, the number of employers designated for cattle management is reduced and they have several activities besides reproduction. Because of the necessity of at least two periods of estrus observation per day and the conduction of cattle to the corral around 12 h following estrus detection to be inseminated, the AI is somehow unfeasible in beef farms. The development of timed AI (TAI enabled insemination of cows in commercial scale, because it allows the programmed AI of large number of cows in the same day without the need for estrus detection. Besides, the use of TAI in early postpartum dairy and beef females reduces the interval partum-conception and, consequently the interval between parturitions, which has a dramatic effect on farm economic return. For beef cattle, TAI also brings the advantages of concentrating around half of the conceptions at the first days of the breeding season and stimulating cyclicity and a synchronous estrus return in cows that did not become pregnant at TAI. Thus, the calving season is also concentrate in the best periods of the year to generate offspring

  8. Artificial insemination practice in Nigeria – review of the dangers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented cattle artificial insemination (AI) in Nigeria dated back to 1949. Other recorded cattle artificial insemination in the country could be traced to when the Federal Government of Nigeria under the auspices of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, established Artificial Insemination Unit at the National Animal ...

  9. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  10. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Important to the Efficiency of Artificial Insemination in Single-Ovulating and Superovulated Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    To identify factors important to the efficiency of artificial insemination in cattle, four studies were conducted. In the first study, the addition of cream to the inseminate was used in an attempt to increase accessory sperm number. On d 6 after insemination, 60 embryos were evaluated. The addition of cream to the inseminate had no effect on accessory sperm number. In the second study, cryopreserved semen of a marked bull (spermatozoa exhibiting a semi-flattened anterior head) was matched wi...

  12. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application. User manual. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Podesta, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA-Asia) is a computer application to store and analyze information from AI Services (farms, females, inseminated, semen, estrus characteristics, inseminator and pregnancy diagnosis data). The need for such an application arose during a consultancy undertaken by the author for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) under the framework of its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) which is implementing a project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency' (RAS/5/035). The detailed specifications for the application were determined through a Task Force Meeting of National Consultants from five RCA Member States, organized by the IAEA and held in Sri Lanka in April 2001. The application has been developed in MS Access 2000 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.0. However, it can run as a stand-alone application through its own executable files. It is based on screen forms for data entry or editing of information and command buttons. The structure of the data, the design of the application and VBA codes cannot be seen and cannot be modified by users. However, the designated administrator of AIDA-Asia in each country can customize it

  13. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  14. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  15. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  16. ADVANCES IN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN CATTLE: FROM ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO CLONING AVANCES EN BIOTECNOLOÍA REPRODUCTIVA EN BOVINOS: DE LA INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL A LA CLONACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolini, L.R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The urge for the control of reproductive processes in animals has propelled a great gain in knowledge, also setting off the development of four generations of assisted reproductive technologies (AR T for humans and animals. The use of assisted reproductive techniques has been of great importance in livestock production. In general terms, the main first three generations of ARTs, including 1 artificial insemination (AI and gamete and embryo freezing, 2 multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET and 3 in vitro fertilization (IV F procedures, have matured into successful commercial applications, facilitating the increase in production through genetics, the reduction in generation intervals, the control of diseases, and the cutback in production costs. The fourth generation of AR T encompasses processes that are still more experimental, comprising cloning by nuclear transfer (NT of embryonic or somatic cells, transgenesis, and stem cell biology. Such technologies are intertwined with one another and with currently available molecular tools, being completely dependent upon the previous generations of technologies. However, many reproductive challenges still hinder maximal livestock reproductive performance, affecting productivity and profitability. It is clear that the application of such technologies as lucrative activities will remain questionable if not associated with other components of animal production, such as animal health, nutrition and adequate animal husbandry practices.El afán por controlar los procesos reproductivos en animales ha llevado a una gran ganancia en conocimiento, impulsando el desarrollo de cuatro tecnologías reproductivas asistidas (AR Ts para animales y humanos. El uso de AR Ts ha sido de gran importancia en la producción ganadera. En términos generales, las tres principales generaciones de AR T, incluyendo 1 inseminación artificial (AI y congelación de gametos y embriones, 2 superovulación y transferencia de

  17. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field

  19. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentr...

  1. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mellado; Laura Maricela Lara; Francisco Gerardo Veliz; María Ángeles de Santiago; Leonel Avendaño-Reyes; Cesar Meza-Herrera; José Eduardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services), raised under intense heat (mea...

  2. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: III. Comparing fixed-time artificial insemination to split-time artificial insemination with delayed administration of GnRH in postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows following split-time (STAI) or fixed-time (FTAI) artificial insemination. Estrus was synchronized for 671 cows at seven locations following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg prostaglandin F 2α [PG] at CIDR removal on d 7). Cows were assigned to treatments that were balanced across locations based on age, body condition score, and days postpartum at the time treatments were initiated. All cows in treatment 1 (n = 333; FTAI) were inseminated at 66 h after PG and GnRH was administered concurrent with insemination regardless of estrus expression. For cows in treatment 2 (n = 338; STAI), inseminations were performed at 66 or 90 h after PG, and estrous status was recorded at these times. Cows in the STAI treatment that exhibited estrus by 66 h were inseminated at that time and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 h until 90 h after PG for cows that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 h. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 h only to cows failing to exhibit estrus. Estrus expression that occurred during the 24 h delay period among cows assigned to the STAI treatment increased the total proportion of cows that expressed estrus prior to insemination (1 = 60%; 2 = 86%; P cows inseminated at 66 h that exhibited estrus did not differ between treatments (1 = 58%; 2 = 58%; P = 0.93); however, pregnancy rates among non-estrous cows at 66 h were improved (1 = 35%; 2 = 51%; P = 0.01) among cows assigned to the STAI treatment when insemination was postponed by 24 h. Consequently, total AI pregnancy rate tended to be higher for cows that received STAI (1 = 49%; 2 = 56%; P = 0.06). In summary, following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, total estrous response increased and pregnancy rates resulting from AI

  3. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-17

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  5. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  6. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  7. A retrospective study of artificial insemination of 251 mares using chilled and fixed time frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, C A M; Ravenhill, P J; Hepburn, R J; Shepherd, C H

    2008-09-01

    Historically, artificial insemination (AI) using frozen semen has been perceived to have poorer success rates and be more labour intensive than using chilled semen. A retrospective study was therefore conducted to compare the conception rate achieved by AI between chilled and frozen semen, using fixed time insemination protocols over 2 breeding seasons. Artificial insemination using chilled semen produces a higher conception rate than that achieved with frozen semen. Mares (n = 251) were inseminated with either chilled (n = 112) or frozen (n = 139) semen in the 2006 and 2007 northern hemisphere breeding season. Per rectum ultrasonography of the mare's reproductive tract determined the timing of insemination, and deslorelin acetate was used to induce ovulation. Chilled semen insemination was performed using a single preovulatory dose delivered into the uterine body. Frozen semen was administered as 2 doses (pre- and post ovulation) using a deep uterine insemination technique. Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically at 15 days post insemination. Conception rates were compared using a Chi-squared test. Insemination with frozen semen produced a significantly (P = 0.022) higher seasonal conception rate (82.0%) than that achieved with chilled semen (69.6%). Insemination with frozen semen can achieve conception rates equal to those with chilled semen, enabling the mare owner a greater selection of stallions.

  8. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  9. Biostimulation and reproductive performance of artificially inseminated rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. EL-Azzazi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulation is a non-hormonal and practical technique that has not yet been widely utilised when applied immediately before insemination to improve reproductive efficiency in livestock species. This study was conducted to determine the influence of short-term male biostimulation on behavioural and reproductive performance of inseminated rabbit does. A total of 142 female New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Females were either exposed to male odour (Odour group or an adult aproned male (Male group, while the remaining does that were neither exposed to the male odour nor the adult male are considered the control group. All females were inseminated after the 2 h exposure session. Conception rates were determined by abdominal palpation 12 d after insemination. The results showed that conception rate of the male odour group (79.59% was greater than that of male presence group (76.09% and that of the control group (68.09%. Moreover, biostimulated does showed significant behavioural activities during the 2 h exposure session compared to the control group. Although no significant differences were recognised, litter size at birth and at weaning was slightly increased in biostimulated compared to control females. Nor were there any significant difference in serum oestradiol concentrations between treated groups. Conclusively, short-term 2 h biostimulation of rabbit does resulted in the appearance of various behavioural responses followed by differences in conception rates between groups after routine artificial insemination.

  10. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

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    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  11. XY sperm separation and use in artificial insemination and other ARTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran, David G

    2007-01-01

    Many tens of thousands of calves resulting from artificial insemination (AI) have been born worldwide after XY sperm separation and commercial production is underway in several countries. Accuracy of sex selection is some 90% and can be achieved both in research facilities and at AI studs in rural locations. Most facilities sort X- sperm which have also be utilised for superovulation and embryo transfer projects and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as well as AI. Sort rates of some 15 x 10(6) sperm/h are currently achievable and are used for low dose insemination, generally at 2 x 10(6) frozen sperm per dose, at a minimum of 35% post thaw motility. Pregnancy rates are some 70% to 80% of normal "high" dose unsexed inseminates. Good herd management is essential for high pregnancy rates with sexed sperm. In addition to cattle, offspring of predetermined sex have been born in the human, sheep, pig, horse, rabbit, elk, buffalo, cat and dolphin. Each species has its own challenge with regard to sperm handling and insemination procedure. In pigs, horses and sheep, the available dose of sexed sperm is very considerably lower than that which is used for conventional AI and special approaches have been devised for each species. In the pig a flexible catheter has been used to deliver a small dose of semen as close to the site of ovulation as possible. In the horse, hysteroscopic insemination at the utero tubal junction has resulted in fertilisation and, in the sheep, laparoscopic insemination into the uterus is the standard procedure for both sexed and unsexed sperm. Further advances in the efficiency of sorting together with improvements in sperm handling should result in acceptable pregnancy rates in these species.

  12. Artificial insemination by donor (AID) and the use of surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J H; Brown, D W

    1984-07-01

    Today families are being created by such procedures as test tube fertilization, artificial insemination and surrogate parenting. In addition to traditional couples, moreover, single persons, gay couples and others are seeking to form family units. In the eagerness to produce an offspring there is often little thought given to the needs or the feelings of the child so produced. There is a need for sociomedical data as well as a more open approach in these situations.

  13. Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID) and the Use of Surrogate Mothers—Social and Psychological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Joseph H.; Brown, Dirck W.

    1984-01-01

    Today families are being created by such procedures as test tube fertilization, artificial insemination and surrogate parenting. In addition to traditional couples, moreover, single persons, gay couples and others are seeking to form family units. In the eagerness to produce an offspring there is often little thought given to the needs or the feelings of the child so produced. There is a need for sociomedical data as well as a more open approach in these situations.

  14. Probing the germline-dependence of epigenetic inheritance using artificial insemination in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, Johannes; von Werdt, Sarah; Mansuy, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a simple, noninvasive artificial insemination technique to study epigenetic germline inheritance in mice. This technique avoids interfering factors introduced by superovulation, surgery, in vitro culture or mating that can confound the transmission of acquired epigenetic information through the germline. Using a stress model, we demonstrate that our method is suited to test the causal involvement of the male germline in transmitting acquired information from father to offspring. PMID:29492284

  15. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  16. [Factors influencing conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B A

    2005-04-01

    This review describes factors that affect conception rate after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Intervals of 7 days between GnRH and PGF2alpha, 48 hours to the second GnRH treatment and a further 16 to 20 hours to the timed insemination have been proven to be most effective. Conception rates (CR) increase as lactation progresses up to 100 days in milk. Primiparous cows have higher CR than older cows. Anovular cows at the start of the synchronization protocols have poor CR. These are highest for cows started in early dioestrus. While poor body condition and some post partum and post insemination health disorders have negative effects on the CR, a significant effect of postpartum chronic endometritis could not be demonstrated. High milk yield was also not shown to have a negative effect on CR in almost all studies, while the negative effect of heat stress on fertility is also found in Ovsynch cows. However, the negative effects of high milk yields and heat stress on AI submission rates are overcome by the timed insemination protocol.

  17. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  18. Use of industrial wireless endoscope in intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez EF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an industrial wireless endoscope on the pregnancy rate of Hampshire Down sheep with intrauterine insemination. The work was carried out in a farm of the community Sullkataca Baja of the municipality of Laja, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The conditioning of an endoscopy equipment (Wifi Endoscope®, Teslong which had a portable and multifunctional Wi-Fi camera with fiber optic 8.5mm diameter, LED light and real-time video transmission at 720P. Also, 2 metal trocars (used in cattle were adapted to facilitate the entrance of the endoscopy and the insemination pipette. The estrus synchronization was performed in 10 nulliparas and 10 multiparas by means of intravaginal sponges with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Progespon®, Lab. Syntex Argentina for 14 days. A dose of 500 IU of eCG (Sergon®, Lab. Bioveta Czech Republic is applied to the removal of the sponges. At 52.31 ± 0.31 hours post removal of the sponges, artificial insemination fixed time (FTAI was performed with frozen semen in straws of 0.25cc with 40 million spermatozoa. During insemination, the values of 80% and 100% of uterine horn turgor were determined for the group of pluriparas and nulliparas respectively. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 50 days post insemination using ultrasound transrectal (EMP 820 vet plus®, Emperor China. Gestation rates were 60% for lambs and 70% for ewes (P≥0.05. In conclusion, the industrial wireless endoscope is an economical, versatile equipment and can be used efficiently to perform intrauterine IATF with frozen semen in sheep.

  19. Studies on the causes of inefficiency in artificial insemination systems in dairy cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Rodriguez de Vinals, L.

    2001-01-01

    Information was obtained on reproductive efficiency and management from 17 dairy farms which use artificial insemination (AI) in Argentina. The methods included use of questionnaires, body condition scoring at calving and AI, measurement of progesterone in milk samples on day of AI (day 0), day 10-12 and day 22-24 by radioimmunoassay, and measurement of milk urea on day 0. The overall conception rate (OCR) from 504 inseminations was 41.5%. There was non-fertilization or early embryo death in 27.8% of cases and late embryo death in 10.4%. Three percent of inseminations were performed on pregnant animals, 8.2% with intermediate progesterone values (1.25-3.18 nmol/L) and more than 2% during anoestrus or with ovarian cysts. Calving season did not affect OCR, but first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher for cows calved during winter and bred in spring. Cows fed pastures and hay (P+H) had lower body condition at the time of AI than those fed pastures plus concentrates with or without hay. The P+H group showed delayed interval to first AI and conception, but higher FSCR. Both groups fed concentrates had higher milk urea that was related to lower OCR. Mean milk urea on the day of AI for cows that conceived was 43.81 ± 1.42 mg/100mL, statistically different from the 48.87 ± 1.58 mg/100mL for those that did not conceive (P<0.05). Inseminators formally trained for more than a month, employed on government farms and paid fixed salaries had better performances than those trained less than a month, employed on commercial farms and paid on the basis of inseminations or conceptions, respectively. OCR was also higher when cows were inseminated into the uterus, when uterine tone was slight, and mucus was clear, compared with those inseminated in the cervix, with marked uterine tone and without the presence of mucus, respectively. Semen of known good quality resulted in higher OCR than semen which was unexamined or without good information on its quality. However, 12

  20. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  1. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  2. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gallardo, Horacio; Kjelland, Michael E; Moreno, Juan F; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Lammoglia, Miguel A; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Lara-Sagahón, Alma V; Esperón-Sumano, A Enrique; Romo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs), specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA) and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2), act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA) and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2) to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI) program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS), of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal) measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB), Celosil® (PGF2α) (Shering-Plough) and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL) and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL). In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037). Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  3. Gamete therapeutics: recombinant protein adsorption by sperm for increasing fertility via artificial insemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alvarez-Gallardo

    Full Text Available A decrease in fertility can have a negative economic impact, both locally and over a broader geographical scope, and this is especially the case with regard to the cattle industry. Therefore, much interest exists in evaluating proteins that might be able to increase the fertility of sperm. Heparin binding proteins (HBPs, specifically the fertility associated antigen (FAA and the Type-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, act to favor the capacitation and acrosome reaction and perhaps even modulate the immune system's response toward the sperm. The objective of this research was to determine the effect on fertility of adding recombinant FAA (rFAA and recombinant TIMP-2 (rTIMP-2 to bovine semen before cryopreservation for use in an artificial insemination (AI program in a tropical environment. For this experiment, 100 crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers were selected based on their estrus cycle, body condition score (BCS, of 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9, and adequate anatomical conformation evaluated by pelvic and genital (normal measurements. Heifers were synchronized using estradiol benzoate (EB, Celosil® (PGF2α (Shering-Plough and a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device was inserted that contained progesterone. Inseminations were performed in two groups at random, 50 animals per group. The control group was inseminated with conventional semen. The treatment group was inseminated with semen containing rFAA (25 µg/mL and rTIMP-2 (25 µg/mL. In the control group a 16% pregnancy rate was obtained versus a 40% pregnancy rate for the HBP treatment group, resulting in a significant difference (P = 0.0037. Given the results herein, one may conclude that the HBPs can increase fertility and could be an option for cattle in tropical conditions; however, one needs to consider the environment, nutrition, and the genetic interaction affecting the final result in whatever reproductive program that is implemented.

  4. Occurrence of Sperm Abnormality of Beef Cattle at Several Artificial Insemination Centers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purwantara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the most species studied sperm abnormalities have long been associated with male infertility and sterility. This study evaluated the sperm morphology (normality and abnormality of beef cattle at several Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 142 bulls were used in this study; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. A drop of semen was placed on 3-4 glass slides, and smears were prepared and air-dried. The smears were stained with carbolfluchsin-eosin (Williams stain. Types of morphological abnormalities were recorded from 500 cells on each sample. It was recorded that 77.46% samples had low primary sperm abnormalities (10% was found in 5.63% samples. Pear shaped was the most frequently type of abnormality found on examined samples (2.24 ± 2.94%; while double head was the lowest (0.01 ± 0.04%. (Animal Production 12(1: 44-49 (2010 Key words : sperm abnormality, beef catlle, artificial insemination center

  5. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  6. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate.

  7. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubara, A S [University of Khartoum, Faculty of Animal Production, Department of Animal Husbandry and Genetics (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 {mu} g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P{<=} 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P{<=}0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P{<=}0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed

  8. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubara, A. S.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  9. Fertility response of artificial insemination methods in sheep with fresh and frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Towhidi, Armin; Kohram, Hamid; Akbarisharif, Abbas; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility response of artificial insemination (AI) methods with fresh and frozen sperm in sheep. In experiment 1, one hundred and fifty fat tailed Zandi ewes were assigned into 3 equal groups and inseminated with three AI methods consisting of vaginal, laparoscopic and trans-cervical AI with fresh semen. In experiment 2, a factorial study (3 AI methods × 2 extenders) was used to analyze the effects of three AI methods and two freezing extenders containing soybean lecithin (SL) or Egg yolk (EY) on reproductive performance of 300 fat tailed Zandi ewes. Also, total motility, progressive motility, viability and lipid peroxidation of semen were evaluated after freeze-thawing in two extenders. In result, there was no significant difference among three AI methods when fresh semen was used. In experiment 2, the highest percentage of pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were obtained in laparoscopic AI group (P semen, trans-cervical AI was more efficient than vaginal method when frozen-thawed semen was used, but its efficiency was not as high as laparoscopic method. Also, SL extender can be an efficient alternative extender to preserve ram sperm during cryopreservation procedure without adverse effects of EY. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Analysis of the cost and benefit of bovine artificial insemination in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawadogo, G.J.; Ouedraogo, G.A.; Diakhoumpa, M.; Yameog, N.

    2007-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to determine the rate of success of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle in Senegal and the benefit obtained by raising the resulting F1 crossbred heifers. The area selected was the first one in which a public AI programme was implemented. A questionnaire was administered to farmers regarding the management of cattle and the costs and benefits of the AI service. Out of 207 inseminations, 80 were successful, resulting in a calving rate of 38.6%. The F1 crossbreds produced 8.9 litres of milk per day, compared with 2 litres per day for the local breeds, and had a lactation length of 13 months. The death rate for crossbred calves during the first year of life was 22.5%. The total cost for an AI was FCFA 48 143 per cow, and was mostly subsidized by the Senegal State. The net profit for the producer was FCFA 35 (Euro 1 = approx. FCFA 660) per litre of milk produced by a crossbred. The proportional costs of the different components of the AI service were 12.5% for the purchase and conservation of semen, 21.9% for the synchronization of heats and 53% for provision of the AI service. The study identified weaknesses and limitations in the dairy production system. Future actions are recommended to improve the results of AI, to reduce the costs and to increase the benefits to producers. (author)

  11. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

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    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  12. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

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    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  13. Profitability of a dairy sheep genetic improvement program using artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Gelasakis, A I; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Banos, G

    2010-10-01

    This simulation study investigated the farm-level economic benefits of a genetic improvement scheme using artificial insemination (AI) with fresh ram semen in dairy sheep of the Chios breed in Greece. Data were collected from 67 farms associated with the Chios Sheep Breeders' Cooperative 'Macedonia', describing the percentage of ewes that would be artificially inseminated in the flock, pregnancy rate, annual ram costs that could be saved using AI rather than natural mating, expected improvement in milk production, annual costs of semen and feed, milk price and number of years of AI usage. The study considered 77 760 possible scenarios in a 3 × 4 × 4 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 15 factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the effect of each factor on farm profitability. All factors considered were statistically significant (P profitability and farmers should become aware that using AI is a long-term investment. Semen price, pregnancy rate and improvement in milk production also had substantial effects. The price of milk and feed had a considerably lower effect on profitability, as did the annual cost of maintaining rams that would be replaced by AI. A positive annual and cumulative return was achieved in the model within the first 6 years. The cost of semen was estimated at 8€ to 10€ per dose for the first 5 years. Where the annual improvement in milk production was 1% of annual phenotypic mean (e.g. 3.0 kg) profitability of the scheme was improved greatly.

  14. Birth of puppies of predetermined sex after artificial insemination with a low number of sex-sorted, frozen-thawed spermatozoa in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun-Fang; Chen, Fang-Liang; Tang, Shu-Sheng; Mao, Ai-Guo; Li, Li-Guang; Cheng, Lu-Guang; Chen, Chao; Li, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Bin; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Jing; Wan, Jiu-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 10 6 unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 10 6 sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25.0%) and Y (4/20; 20.0%) group (P > 0.05), but lower than controls (11/20; 55.0%) (P dog spermatozoa at a farm level, making sperm-sexing technology potentially applicable for elite breeding units. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

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    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  16. Extended semen for artificial insemination in swine as a potential transmission mechanism for infectious Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonic, G; Pasternak, J A; Käser, T; Meurens, F; Wilson, H L

    2016-09-01

    Although typically unnoticed, Chlamydia infections in swine have been shown to be both widespread and may impact production characteristics and reproductive performance in swine. Serum titers suggest Chlamydia infection within boar studs is common, and infected boars are known to shed chlamydia in their ejaculates. Although the transmission of viruses in chilled extended semen (ES) is well established, the inclusion of antibiotics in commercially available extender is generally believed to limit or preclude the transmission of infectious bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ES used in artificial insemination to support transmission of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia suis (C suis) under standard industry conditions. First, the effect of C suis on sperm quality during storage was assessed by flow cytometry. Only concentrations above 5 × 10(5) viable C suis/mL caused significant spermicidal effects which only became evident after 7 days of storage at 17 °C. No significant effect on acrosome reaction was observed using any chlamydial concentration. Next, an in vitro infection model of swine testicular fibroblast cells was established and used to evaluate the effect of chilled storage on C suis viability under variable conditions. Storage in Androhep ES reduced viability by 34.4% at a multiplicity of infection of 1.25, an effect which increased to 53.3% when the multiplicity of infection decreased to 0.1. Interestingly, storage in semen extender alone (SE) or ES with additional antibiotics had no effect on bacterial viability. To rule out a secondary effect on extender resulting from metabolically active sperm, C suis was stored in fresh and expended SE and again no significant effect on bacterial viability was observed. Fluorescent microscopy of C suis in ES shows an association between bacteria and the remaining gel fraction after storage suggesting that the apparent reduction of bacterial viability in the presence

  17. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

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    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  18. Use of milk progesterone RIA for the monitoring of artificial insemination in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhenghua; Lu Yangping; Shang Zhaorong; Cheng Jinhua; Xian Baihua; Wang Yunheng

    2001-01-01

    Milk samples were collected on day 0, day 10-12 and day 22-24 after artificial insemination (AI) from 2349 dairy cows in 5 dairy farms. Progesterone concentration was measured by RIA. Based on the progesterone concentration in the three milk samples, the reproductive status of the cows could be identified and they were classified as pregnant (50.9%), non-fertilisation (25.8%), inactive ovary (6.1%), persistent corpus luteum (3.5%), AI at inappropriate time (during luteal phase or luteal cyst, 6.2%) and abnormal oestrous cycles (7.5%). The results and interpretation were sent back to AI technician and veterinarians in the dairy farms as soon as possible. They in turn used this information, together with their findings from rectal palpation, to arrive at a reliable diagnosis of the reproductive status in each cow and, where necessary, to adopt appropriate remedial measures in order to ensure pregnancy at subsequent service. So far, 3477 oestrus cycles have been monitored. For establishing a routine system of milk progesterone monitoring in these dairy farms, an ELISA method would be more practical. (author)

  19. Use of Carazolol at Pre-Synchronized Timed Artificial Insemination in Cows

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    Ş. M. Pancarci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of the β-adrenergic receptor blocker (carazolol at Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI was investigated. Cows (n = 73 were pre-synchronized with two PGF2α injections given 14 d apart to initiate the Ovsynch protocol at early and middle luteal stages 14 d later, and received injections of GnRH and PGF2α seven d apart followed by GnRH 48 h later, and TAI 16 - 18 h later. Corpus luteum (CL was detected via rectal palpation at the beginning of the Ovsynch protocol. Carazolol (Treatment I; n = 41 or physiologic saline (Treatment II; n = 32 were administered via jugular vein five min before TAI. Uterine tone was determined prior to infusion and at TAI via rectal palpation. Pregnancies were diagnosed with transrectal ultrasonography 40 ± 7 d after TAI. Uterine tone was 2.8 (1.4 - 5.3 times higher (P P < 0.05, and 66.7%, 75%, 52.6%, 100% and 16.7%, 33.3%, 25%, 28.6% in primiparous cows with CL and without CL, and in multiparous cows with CL and without CL in Treatments I and II, respectively. Pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments I (34.2% and II (40.6%. In conclusion, no beneficial effect of carazolol administration prior to TAI was found except for the increased uterine tone.

  20. Effect of time of artificial insemination on embryo sex ratio in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h

  1. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  2. Transcriptome data of peripheral white blood cells from beef heifers collected at the time of artificial insemination

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    Sarah E. Dickinson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of heifers within their first breeding season influences the success of beef cattle operations. Therefore, a means to identify infertile and late breeding heifers before the start of the breeding season holds great promise for the future of the beef industry. Pubertal beef heifers were subjected to estrous synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. We collected peripheral blood from the heifers at the time of artificial insemination (AI and generated RNA sequencing data to characterize the transcriptome of peripheral white blood cells (PWBC. Following insemination, heifers were exposed to natural service for a defined breeding season, and pregnancy was evaluated to classify heifers into one of three groups: AI-pregnant, natural-bred (NB pregnant, and non-pregnant. The raw transcriptome data of PWBC is available on the NCBI GEO repository (GSE103628 where the reader can also find raw read counts and normalized gene expression data. The normalized data on transcript coverage can be visualized as a genome browser at HeiferFertilityRNAseq.org. Keywords: Biomarkers, Infertility, Pregnancy

  3. Use of nuclear techniques for evaluation of first service conception rate in dairy herds with artificial insemination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, N.G.; Risopatron, J.; Rodriguez, F.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify causes of inefficiency in Artificial Insemination (AI) services in 12 dairy farms located in southern Chile. Milk progesterone concentration was determined on the day of breeding and then 10-12 and 21-22 days after AI. Data for semen and cow inseminated, including physical signs of oestrus, were recorded in a computer database (AIDA). Information from 713 cows with first services was analysed. The mean interval from calving to first service was 88.7 days and the mean interval from calving to conception was 107.9 days. The conception rate at first service was 61.9%. Incidence of incorrect AI, most likely due to erroneous heat detection, was 8.9%. Herd related problems affected efficiency of AI in 15.2%. The results show that important factors affecting reproductive performance include nutritional management, oestrus detection and AI technique. (author)

  4. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  5. Evaluation of ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination in water buffaloes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, M.N.; Talukder, A.K.; Akter, M.; Shamsuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A total of 65 water buffaloes (groups A, B, and C) at =>60 days postpartum with a body condition score (BCS) of =>2.5 were selected to evaluate ovsynch protocols for timed artificial insemination (TAI). The group A buffaloes (n = 25) were treated with a simple ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF alpha - Day 2 - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). The group B buffaloes (n = 22) received PGF2 alpha treatment 12 days before the initiation of simple ovsynch (PGF2 alpha at Day -12 + simple ovsynch; modified ovsynch). The group C buffaloes (n = 18) were treated with a double ovsynch protocol (GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - Day 3 - GnRH - Day 7 - GnRH - Day 7 - PGF2 alpha - 48 h - GnRH - 16 h - TAI). Milk P4 ELISA was used for tracking ovulation and conception rates. Ovulation rates were higher in buffaloes that received the double ovsynch treatment (group C; 83.3%) than those with simple ovsynch (group A; 72.0%; P < 0.05). The group C cows (44.4%) achieved a higher concentration rate than the cows of groups A (28.0%) and B (36.4%) (P < 0.05) and multiparous buffaloes having BCS of =>3.5 responded better to the ovsynch treatments than the primiparous ones (P < 0.05). The double ovsynch protocol increases both ovulation and conception rates in comparison to the simple and modified ovsynch protocols and is more effective in multiparous cows than in primiparous ones. (author)

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ESTABLISHING AN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI CENTER FOR CARABAOS IN SAN ILDEFONSO, BULACAN, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Arrienda II

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the carabao subsector is influenced by several constraints such as social,technical, economic and policy factors. The need to enhance the local production of carabaos will helplocal farmers to increase their income. Thus, producing thorough breeds of carabaos and improving itgenetically is the best response to these constraints. This study was conducted to present the feasibilitystudy of establishing an Artificial Insemination (AI Center and its planned area of operation in Brgy.San Juan, Ildefonso, Bulacan. The market, production, organizational and financial viability of operatingthe business would also be evaluated. This particular study will provide insights in establishing an AICenter. Included in this study is the identification of anticipated problems that could affect the businessand recommendation of specific courses of action to counteract these possible problems. Primary datawere obtained through interviews with key informants from the Philippine. Carabao Center (PCC. Togain insights about the present status of an AI Center, interviews with the technicians of PCC and privatefarm were done to get additional information. Secondary data were acquired from various literatures andfrom San Ildefonso Municipal Office. The proposed area would be 1,500 square meters that would beallotted for the laboratory and bullpen. The AI Center will operate six days a week and will be openedfrom 8 AM until 5 PM. However, customers or farmers can call the technicians beyond the office hoursin case of emergency. The total initial investment of Php 3,825,417.39 is needed in establishing the AICenter. The whole amount will be sourced from the owner’s equity. Financial projection showed an IRRof 30% with a computed NPV of Php 2,415,597.00 and a payback period of 3.97 years. Based on all themarket, technical, organizational, financial factors, projections and data analysis, it is said that thisbusiness endeavor is viable and feasible.

  7. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Kolb

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  8. Constraints limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination of cattle in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, M.; Bhuiyan, M.M.U.; Sikder, T.K.; Sugulle, A.H.; Chanda, P.K.; Alam, M.G.S.; Galloway, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the factors that influence postpartum intervals to first detected luteal activity, first service and to conception, and the conception rates of cows in the artificial insemination (AI) programme in Bangladesh. A baseline survey (investigations 1, 2 and 3) was made on 444 milking cows of various breeds presented for the first postpartum insemination by 413 farmers living at 182 villages/regions in Mymensingh District to 6 AI centres and sub-centres. Each cow was then examined three times after each AI until she stopped returning to oestrus. Sixty to 120 days after the last AI, the cows were examined per rectum to confirm the pregnancy. Milk progesterone data on Day 0 and Day 21-24 contributed to a clear diagnosis with respect to pregnancy in 82.5% cows indicating a possible use of this progesterone assay schedule for pregnancy diagnosis in AI programmes. The intervals to first service and to conception varied from 31 to 427 days (median = 184; n=444) and 40 to 426 days (median 184; n=232) respectively, and conception rate from 32-58% (average 46.2%; n=444). Prolongation of weaning age of calves resulted in long intervals to first service and to conception (P<0.001); weaning age varied from 6 to 19 months (median = 10). Cows with body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) of 3 or more and cows calved during July to September had shorter intervals to first service and conception than those with BCS less than 3 and those calved during March. The conception rate was influenced by cattle rearing systems (intensive vs. extensive), purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs. dairy + draught), BCS and milk production (P<0.05). The degrees of vulvar swelling, nature of genital discharge, tonicity of uterus, and interval between oestrus and AI had significant effects on the conception rate. Bulls classified as good and poor on the basis of semen evaluation data differed with respect to the conception rate in AI (P<0.001); this indicates a way of

  9. Intravaginal artificial insemination in bitches using frozen/thawed semen after dilution in powdered coconut water (ACP-106c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, D C; Silva, T F P; Mota Filho, A C; Silva, L D M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ACP-106c, 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, cooled and frozen. In the first phase of the study, straws with frozen semen were thawed and immediately subjected to the same analysis as the fresh semen and, in addition, to Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). In phase 2, 10 bitches that had been subjected to natural breeding during a preceding oestrous cycle were vaginally inseminated with thawed semen that had been re-diluted in ACP-106c. After thawing, a mean of 77% sperm motility was obtained through subjective analysis and 77.3% through CASA. Following artificial insemination, a 60% pregnancy rate was observed, resulting in a 50% parturition rate and a mean litter size of 3.4 (SEM 0.6), with 47.1% males and 52.9% females. ACP-106c can be successfully used for freezing canine semen, and vaginal deposition of such semen yields similar pregnancy rates to those reported in other studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effects of 1 or 2 treatments with prostaglandin F₂α on subclinical endometritis and fertility in lactating dairy cows inseminated by timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Greco, L F; Ayres, H; Favoreto, M G; Carvalho, M R; Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of PGF₂α as a therapy to reduce the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows subjected to a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. A total of 1,342 lactating Holstein dairy cows were allocated randomly at 25 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to remain as untreated controls (control, n=454) or to receive a single PGF₂α treatment at 39 ± 3 DIM (1PGF, n=474) or 2 treatments with PGF(α at 25 ± 3 and 39 ± 3 DIM (2PGF, n=414). All cows were enrolled in the double Ovsynch program at 48 ± 3 DIM and were inseminated at 75 ± 3 DIM. A subset of 357 cows had uterine samples collected for cytological examination at 25 ± 3, 32 ± 3, and 46 ± 3 DIM to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Subclinical endometritis was defined by the presence of ≥ 5% PMNL. Vaginal discharge score was evaluated at 25 ± 3 DIM and used to define the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge. Body condition score was assessed at 25 ± 3 DIM. Pregnancy was diagnosed 32 d after AI and reconfirmed 28 d later. At 32 ± 3 DIM, the prevalence of subclinical endometritis was reduced by treatment with PGF₂α at 25 ± 3 DIM in 2PGF (control=23.5% vs. 1PGF=28.3% vs. 2PGF=16.7%); however, this benefit disappeared at 46 ± 3 DIM, and 14% of the cows remained with subclinical endometritis. One or 2 treatments with PGF₂α did not influence P/AI on d 32 or 60 after timed AI, which averaged 39.9 and 35.2%. Similarly, treatment with PGF₂α had no effect on pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d of gestation (11.9%). Cows diagnosed with both purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis had the lowest P/AI and the highest pregnancy loss compared with those diagnosed with only 1 of the 2 diseases or compared with cows having no diagnosis of uterine diseases. Interestingly, subclinical endometritis depressed P/AI and increased pregnancy loss only

  11. Use of frozen-thawed semen in equine artificial insemination programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of equine frozen semen has variable results. Pregnancy rates per cycle may be between 10 to 70%. Although an inseminating dose of 280 a 320 millones progressive motile sperm (PMS has been recommended, under experimental conditions it is posible to obtain acceptable results with doses of 50 to 100 millones PMS. Deep intrauterine insemination is prefered when using frozen thawed semen, which consists in depositing the dose at the tip of the horn, ipsiltateral to ovulation. Young mares usually have better uterine condition and that increase their chance of become pregnant. It is important to make a correct follicular monitoring, in order to determine the right time to induce ovulation. Ovulation may be induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG or deslorelin. It posible to perform a fixed time insemination or to choose an ultrasound follicular following protocol, inseminating within 6 h of ovulation. This option offers the best prenancy rates. Our laboratory manages a protocol which includes ultrasound monitoring every 6 hours, beginning 24 hous after induction of ovulation; this protocol had a first insemination pregnancy rate of 73%. If we consider that one of the main disadvantages of frozen-thawed semen is decreased fertility, these results are encouraging, since they are similar to those obtained with fresh or cooled semen, so it may represent an advantage when having stored semen of stallions that are dead, or have been sold or even castrated.

  12. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before TCAI in ewes, mainly in the breeding season. The specific reason(s) for impaired fertility after the TCAI using

  13. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  14. The dangers of disease transmission by artificial insemination and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, M

    1993-01-01

    This review summarizes the major infectious diseases of the three major agricultural species (cattle, sheep and pigs) and horses, and presents the evidence for and against the possibility of infectious agents being transmitted between animals via the venereal route or by the use of semen or early embryos in commercial artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET). Cattle feature most prominently in the widespread distribution of frozen semen, and national and international organizations have set out guidelines to work towards disease-free bull studs with semen free from potential pathogens. With the control of major epizootic diseases, attention has been focused on such diseases as IBR, BVD and blue tongue, where clinical signs are rarely evident but the detection of virus in semen is of great importance. New information on the relevance of bacterial disease such as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, campylobacteriosis and leptospirosis is reviewed, along with details of the mycoplasma and ureaplasma species of the bull's genital tract. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has attracted much research and semen is not regarded as a source of infection. New work on the pathogenesis of a number of diseases and the use of new biotechnology in diagnosis is included. The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has encouraged a great deal of experimental work--much originating in Canada--on the risk of transmission of disease from donors to recipients via a 7-day-old blastocyst. There has been much success in demonstrating that with an approved protocol of handling the embryos, to date there is very little danger in disease transmission with both viruses and bacteria. The mycoplasma group appear more intractable and the role of BSE is still being evaluated. In sheep, scrapie, Brucella ovis infection and blue tongue feature in current work. In the pig there is a surge in international movement of pig semen, and Aujeszky's disease and the new so-called Blue Ear

  15. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  16. Artificial insemination of cattle in Sri Lanka: Status, performance and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeygunawardena, H.; Alexander, P.A.B.D.; Abeygunawardena, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) has been accepted as the primary breeding tool in genetic upgrading programmes of cattle in Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted, to determine the coverage and performance of AI at national, provincial and district levels (Study 1), the success rate and factors affecting success rate of AI in wet zone mid-country smallholder farms (Study 2) and in wet zone up-country large multiplier farms (Study 3). The objective was to design, implement remedial measures and/or determine future studies necessary to improve the efficiency of AI services. Study 1 revealed that at national level the AI service reached less than 15% of the breedable cattle and accounted for less than 6% of estimated annual calvings. The coverage reached above 50% of the breedable cattle only in the wet zone while in the intermediate and dry zone areas it was negligible. Study 2 revealed that the mean calving to first service interval (CFSI) in cattle of the wet zone mid-country small holdings was 183 ± 87.1 days (n=211) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) was 194 ± 93.9 days (n=143). The first service conception rate (FSCR) was 45% and the overall conception rate (OCR) was 50.2%, with an average of 1.99 services per conception (S/C). Study 3 showed that the mean CFSI and CCI in wet zone upcountry multiplier farmers were 111.2 ± 74.2 days (n=133) and 156 ± 92.7 days (n=170) respectively. The average FSCR and OCR were 50.4% and 53.6% respectively and the average S/C was 1.9. Study 1 showed that the AI coverage of the island is very low and the proportion of calvings from AI is too low to have a significant impact on genetic composition of the national cow population. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the success rate of the AI service in the more favourable and extensively covered wet zone areas was also low. These studies revealed that factors associated with the chain of events from farmer, cow, semen to the technician contributed to poor fertility. (author)

  17. Conception rates to fixed-time artificial insemination of two oestrus synchronisation programmes in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Parkinson, T J; Laven, R A

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the conception rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) of two oestrus synchronisation programmes in dairy heifers on eight farms over 2 years. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2010 on eight farms near Palmerston North, New Zealand. Nulliparous Friesian and Friesian×Jersey heifers (13-15 months of age) were randomly allocated to one of two oestrus synchronisation programmes. Group 1 (GPG+P4; n=330), received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I/M on Day 0, a progesterone (P4)-releasing intravaginal device from Days 0-7, prostaglandin F2α (PGF) I/M on Day 7 and a second dose of GnRH at the time of FTAI on Day 9. The second group (P4+PGF; n=343) received a P4-releasing intravaginal device from Days 0-7, PGF on Day 6 and FTAI on Day 9. Pregnancy was diagnosed from Days 42-52 by transrectal ultrasonography. The overall conception rate was 52.4% and 54.8% for the GPG+P4 and P4+PGF groups, respectively. The odds of conception for the two treatments were not different (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.67-1.23), nor was there any difference between groups in different years (p=0.58). Farm affected conception rate (p=0.002), but there was no interaction with treatment (p=0.92) . This study has shown that an alternative synchronisation programme can produce similar results in terms of conception rate to the GPG+P4 treatment, currently commonly used in heifers. More research is required to establish whether other modifications to the GPG+P4 programme can produce similar results at lower costs, and to identify and quantify farm factors which affect the economic benefit of heifer synchronisation. This study indicated that synchronising heifers with P4 and PGF resulted in conception rates equivalent to those resulting from a GPG+P4 treatment, but with reduced drug costs. However, because heifers in the GPG+P4 group received the second GnRH injection at the time of AI, they needed only three yardings as opposed to the four required for the heifers treated with P4

  18. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP: hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA. Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF, which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P0.05. The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required.

  19. Effect of Number of Spermatozoa, Oviduct Condition and Timing of Artificial Insemination on Fertility and Fertile Period of Kampung Rooster Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study was carried out to determine the optimum fertility and fertile period using the number of spermatozoa, oviduct condition and timing of insemination of native rooster spermatozoa. Ninety six commercial Isa brown pullets and nine kampung roosters were used in this study in a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement with one bird in a cage constituting a unit. The factor levels were the number of spermatozoa (50, 100 and 150 million/0.1 ml, oviduct condition (hard-shelled eggs and free hard-shelled eggs, and timing of artificial insemination (in the morning, at 7 AM and in the afternoon, at 4 PM.  The results showed that among the treatments there was no significant interaction to fertility and fertile period. Insemination with 50 million sperm number seemed to be the same result with the other 2 treatments. Oviduct condition had a highly significant difference on fertility and fertile period percentage, and timing of insemination did not differ between morning and afternoon.  In conclusion, the only oviduct condition (free hard-shelled eggs was the best results for insemination in terms of fertility and fertile period of native roosters.  It is recommended that for the maximum fertility and fertile period, hens should be inseminated with 50 million spermatozoa, free of hard-shelled eggs and insemination performed in the morning or in the afternoon.   Keywords: timing of artificial insemination, fertility, fertile period, semen dose, oviduct condition Animal Production 14(1:32-36, January 2012

  20. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  1. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  2. Evaluation of a seasonal-breeding artificial insemination programme in Uruguay using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Juanbeltz, R.; Canclini, E.; ElHordoy, D.; Lanzzeri, S.; Gama, S.; Martinez, E.; Galina, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate artificial insemination (AI) services and reproductive efficiency in dairy herds in Uruguay two surveys were conducted in 1995 and 1996. The 1995 survey was done in 10 dairy farms of 3 regions on 696 lactating Holstein cows. The 1996 survey was done in 5 dairy farms in one region and included 768 cows. Precision of oestrus detection and efficiency of AI services were determined by milk progesterone samples taken at days 0, 10 and 23 after breeding and by analysis of the records. In 1995 and 1996, the intervals from calving to first service were 123 and 101 days, and to conception were 158 and 134 days, respectively. Parity, body weight and body condition at calving influenced these parameters, but not body weight or body condition at breeding nor milk production. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by milk progesterone was 70.4%. Heat detection rate was 37.5% and pregnancy rate was 15.6%. In 1997 a second study was done to determine the factors affecting reproductive efficiency in a seasonal breeding AI programme in 328 lactating cows on 3 dairy farms. Milk progesterone measurement revealed that 12.5% of the cows were anoestrous at the beginning of the season and remained so during the trial. The category mostly affected were first-calf heifers (82%). Also, 8.5% of the cows cycling were never reported in heat and this was influenced by farm. Oestrus detection efficiency for cows determined to be cycling by progesterone profiles was evaluated in three periods of 21 days and overall efficiency was 46.9%. Main factor affecting it was farm, with an effect of parity (67.8% in mature cows and 33.2% in first-calf heifers) but no effect of days postpartum. Mean interval from the beginning of the breeding season to first service was 27.4 days, again with a strong farm variation but no effect of parity or days postpartum. In an attempt to improve reproductive efficiency in lactating dairy cows, a treatment protocol was designed, where 414 cows in two herds were

  3. Presynchronization with Double-Ovsynch improves fertility at first postpartum artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, M M; Giordano, J O; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Keskin, A; Nascimento, A B; Guenther, J N; Gaska, J M; Kacuba, S J; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T; Wiltbank, M C

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) following Ovsynch-56 after 2 different presynchronization protocols: Double-Ovsynch (DO) or Presynch-Ovsynch (PS). Our main hypothesis was that DO would increase fertility in primiparous cows, but not in multiparous cows. Within each herd (n=3), lactating dairy cows (n=1,687; 778 primiparous, 909 multiparous) were randomly assigned to DO [n=837; GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-3d-GnRH-7d-Ovsynch-56 (GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-56h-GnRH-16hTAI)] or PS (n=850; PGF(2α)-14d-PGF(2α)-12d-Ovsynch-56). In 1 herd, concentrations of P4 were determined at the first GnRH (GnRH1) of Ovsynch-56 and at d 11 after TAI (n=739). In all herds, pregnancy was diagnosed by palpation per rectum at 39 d. In 1 herd, the incidence of late embryo loss was determined at 74d, and data were available on P/AI at the subsequent second service. Presynchronization with DO reduced the percentage of animals with low P4 concentrations (cows treated with DO had low P4 concentrations at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 (3.3 vs. 19.7%, DO vs. PS primiparous; and 8.8 vs. 31.9%, DO vs. PS multiparous). Presynchronization with DO improved P/AI at the first postpartum service (46.3 vs. 38.2%, DO vs. PS). Statistically, a fertility improvement could be detected for primiparous cows treated with DO (52.5 vs. 42.3%, DO vs. PS, primiparous), but only a tendency could be detected in multiparous cows (40.3 vs. 34.3%, DO vs. PS, multiparous), consistent with our original hypothesis. Presynchronization treatment had no effect on the incidence of late embryo loss after first service (8.5 vs. 5.5%, DO vs. PS). A lower body condition score increased the percentage of cows with low P4 at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 and reduced fertility to the TAI. In addition, P4 concentration at d 11 after TAI was reduced by DO. The method of presynchronization at first service had no effect on P/AI at

  4. Estrous cycle characterisation and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Yoshioka, M; Jensen, E; O'Brien, J K; Katsumata, E; Gili, C; McBain, J F; Sweeney, J; Monfort, S L

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were: (i) to determine the excretory dynamics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog (altrenogest) on reproductive hormone excretion; (iii) to correlate follicular growth and ovulation (as determined by transabdominal ultrasound) to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; (iv) examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and (v) to develop an intrauterine insemination technique. Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous cycles (2 consecutive cycles) and nine post altrenogest cycles in ten females, estrous cycles were found to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal phase, respectively. Peak estrogen conjugates (EC; 5.4+/-3.8 ng/mg creatinine (Cr)) occurred 8 h prior to the LH surge (70.9+/-115.7 ng/mg Cr). The time of ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, occurred 32.1+/-8.9 h and 24.3+/-7.0 h after the onset of the LH surge and LH peak, respectively. Mean preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference were 2.1+/-0.5 cm and 6.5+/-1.5 cm, respectively. Of the 27 estrous synchronisation attempts, 13 resulted in an ovulatory cycle, with ovulation occurring 21 days post-altrenogest treatment. Intrauterine (4 of 5) and intracornual (1 of 3) inseminations conducted across eight estrous cycles resulted in five pregnancies (63%), one pregnancy resulted from the use of liquid stored semen, whereas four were achieved using cryopreserved semen. These data provide new information on female bottlenose dolphin reproductive physiology, and demonstrate that the combination of endocrine monitoring and serial ultrasonography contributed to successful AI

  5. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPARIAN, Shahram; ABDULAHNEJAD, Ahad; RASHIDI, Farzad; TOGHYANI, Majid; GHEISARI, Abbasali; EGHBALSAIED, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 109 sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks. PMID:26935324

  6. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  8. Impact of the quality of life of inseminators on the results of artificial insemination programs in beef cattle Impacto da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nos resultados de programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of factors of personal life and work conditions on the results obtained by inseminators in conventional and fixed-timed artificial insemination programs in beef cattle. Inseminators from three farms (21 in the total were interviewed and evaluated according to the general obtained pregnancy rates. The differences among the pregnancy rates obtained in the farms, motivation and its association with the obtained pregnancy rate and the effect of each variable of the groups of needs on the pregnancy rate at first insemination were evaluated. The open questions were grouped by similarity and then analyzed by frequency of the answers. Pregnancy rates obtained by the inseminators ranged from 12 to 57%, with a mean service index of 3.10 ± 1.62 doses/pregnancy. It was also observed that the satisfaction of biological, financial, and training needs was more intimately related to the pregnancy rate than the satisfaction of the other needs, although none had shown an antagonistic relationship with it. Factors concerned to life quality and to the work can be important in determining the performance of these professionals.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho sobre os resultados obtidos por inseminadores em programas de inseminação artificial convencional e em tempo fixo em bovinos de corte. Inseminadores de três propriedades rurais (21 no total foram entrevistados e avaliados quanto à taxa de gestação geral obtida. Foram avaliadas as diferenças entre as taxas de gestação obtidas nas fazendas, a motivação e sua associação com a taxa de gestação obtida e o efeito de cada variável dos grupos de necessidades sobre a taxa de gestação à primeira inseminação. As questões abertas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade, foram analisadas por frequência de respostas. A taxa de gestação obtida pelos inseminadores variou entre 12 e 57%, com

  9. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  10. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, R.; Roller, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Felipe, N.; Bravo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  11. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species.

  12. The number of service per conception of Indonesian Friesian Holstein with artificial insemination in Selo, Boyolali, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, A. M.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Boyolali is an area in Central Java Indonesia, it has large number of Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH; dairy cattle). To improve its population as well as genetic quality of milk production, artificial insemination (AI) is widely applied as mating program. The success of AI can be evaluated from the number of service per conception (S/C), represent a number of service using AI to achieve one pregnancy. Its mirroring mating management and reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle, estimated in herd during specific time and location. For that, this study aims to estimate S/C in Selo, Boyolali during October 2016 to January 2017. Data were gathered with 95% confidence level. Sample size were 367 IFH, visited and selected purposively based on criteria one-time partus, 3 y.o and have complete AI record. Animal data were collected in reproduction and mating management. In addition, 124 dairy farmer who have minimum 5 years experiences in rearing IFH cow were interviewed as respondent in estrus detection, followed with 2 skilled inseminators for AI performing time data. Result shows that S/C is 1.71, this mean one pregnancy need 1.71 times AI services. In the estrus detection, most of dairy farmers were able to observe estrus sign in vulva color, size and the present of mucus by visual. Moreover, AI was performed in 9 to 12 hours after the sign of estrus observed. It is concluded that AI of IFH in Selo, Boyolali has been successfully applied, however there are still rooms to improve the reproduction efficiency through mating management in regard to lower S/C.

  13. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  14. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows II: strategies and factors affecting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, O G; Meneghetti, M; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, we evaluated the effects of temporary weaning (TW), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments on results of a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows. In Experiment 1, treatment with 400 IU eCG or with TW for 48 h consistently improved pregnancy rates (PRs) at TAI, but, in Experiment 2, FSH treatment was less effective than eCG or TW. In Experiment 3, the inclusion of eCG treatment in cows subjected to TW did not improve PRs. We concluded that TW or 400 IU eCG should be included in the TAI protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows to enhance fertility. In Experiment 4, we used records from heifers and cows treated with the proposed protocol during the 2006-2007 (n=27,195) and 2007-2008 (n=36,838) breeding seasons from multiple locations in Brazil to evaluate factors potentially affecting PRs. Overall PR at TAI was 49.6% (31,786 of 64,033). Pregnancy rate differed (Pcow group within farm, by breed (Bos indicus, 48.3% [26,123 of 54,145]; Bos taurus, 61.7% [3652 of 5922]; and crossbred Bos indicus x Bos taurus, 50.7% [2011 of 3966]), category (nulliparous, 39.6% [2095 of 5290]; suckled primiparous, 45.2% [3924 of 8677]; suckled multiparous, 51.8% [24,245 of 46,767]; and nonsuckled multiparous, 46.1% [1522 of 3299]), body condition score at TAI ( or =3.5, 52.7% [9419 of 17,881]). Days postpartum at beginning of protocol did not affect PR (30 to 60 d, 47.6% [4228 of 8881]; 61 to 90 d, 51.7% [16,325 to 31,572]; and 91 to 150 d, 50.8% [7616 to 14,991]; P>0.1). Pregnancy rate was also consistently affected (P<0.01) by sire (results ranging from 7.2% to 77.3%) and artificial insemination technician (results ranging from 15.1% to 81.8%).

  15. Preference for anonymity in sperm donation for artificial insemination: an experience from low-resource settings in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezugwu EC

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1,2 George U Eleje,3,4 Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,1,2 Sunday G Mba,5 Henry C Nnaji,2 Chukwunonso I Enechukwu,4 Peter O Nkwo1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ittuku Ozalla Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria Objective: Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples’ opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences.Methods: A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months.Results: A total of 450 infertile couples were recruited consecutively from the three study centers. However, 450 females and 352 males (total=802 participated in the study. The level of awareness of artificial insemination using donor sperm for the management of male infertility among the respondents was 69.2%, while its acceptability rate was 62.7%. The majority of the respondents indicated their preference for secrecy and anonymity in sperm donation. Approximately 84% of the respondents indicated that the mode of conception should never be disclosed to the donor-conceived child, and ~92% of them indicated that the identity of the sperm donor should never be revealed to the donor

  16. Fertilized eggs obtained from transplantation of frozen ovaries and parthenogenesis in combination with artificial insemination of frozen semen of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yuji; Takemura, Yoko; Kanda, Toshio; Horie, Yasuhiro

    2003-04-01

    A reliable method is reported for the long-term preservation of ovaries and spermatozoa of the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Three studies are presented. In the first, ovaries were removed from larvae at either 3rd, 4th, or 5th instar, cryopreserved, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Thawed ovaries were transplanted to surgically castrated female larvae at the same or a different developmental stage. The highest percentage of recipient females producing eggs resulted into either 3rd or 4th instar larvae (respectively, 22.1 and 8.7%). Similarly, the highest levels of other measurements of successful cryopreservation and transplanted ovary, and number of eggs laid, occurred with the same combination of donor and recipient developmental stages. Other combinations of ovary/recipient developmental stages yielded lower results. In the second experiment, semen was collected from male moths, cryopreserved, and then thawed semen was diluted with trypsin solution and artificially inseminated into females obtained from the best conditions of first experiment. A small percentage of inseminated moths laid eggs (8-10.3%) compared to that of controls (100%). In addition, the fertility of eggs from experimental moths was lower than that of control females (respectively, 40.3-88% and 97.5%). In the third experiment, eggs were surgically removed from ovarian tubules of moth following transplantation of thawed ovaries and subjected to parthenogenetic activation and artificial hatching. As expected, all resulting moths were female and, following natural mating or artificial insemination with thawed semen, yielded normal offspring at high rates.

  17. Serum profile of cytokines interferon gamma and interleukin-10 in ewes subjected to artificial insemination by cervical retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, C T G; Cruz, J F; Romano, C C; Brandão, F Z

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluated the influence of artificial insemination (AI) by cervical retraction (CRI) on serum levels of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ewes. Synchronized pluriparous Santa Inês ewes were subjected to natural mating (NM, n = 8) and AI, which was performed for a fixed time (55 ± 1 hour) by CRI (n = 8) or laparoscopy (n = 8). Ewes were classified as pregnant, with return to estrus (RE) or with embryonic loss (EL). Blood samples were collected on Day 0, Day 3, Day 5, Day 12, and Day 17 (Day 0 = AI/NM) for progesterone dosage and cytokines were quantified from Day 0 to Day 12. Progesterone levels were constant, except for a decrease in ewes with RE at Day 17 (P ewes with EL had lower serum levels of IFNγ and IL-10 than pregnant ewes and ewes with RE, regardless of the reproductive method used, with averages of 769.1, 714.9, and 555.7 pg/mL for IFNγ and 713.8, 699.3, and 578.7 pg/mL for IL-10 in pregnant ewes, ewes with RE and EL, respectively (P ewes does not alter the profile of serum cytokines IFNγ and IL-10 and does not induce an inflammatory reaction that can compromise pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) to analyze data collected from artificial insemination programmes for cattle in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Clayton, M.; Bennett, T.; Eisele, C.; Garcia, M.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) and its companion GAIDA (Guide to AI Data Analysis) are to address two major problems in on-farm research on livestock production. The first is the quality of the data collected and the second is the intellectual rigor of the analyses and their associated results when statistically testing causal hypotheses. The solution is to develop a data management system such as AIDA and an analysis system such as GAIDA to estimate parameters that explain biological mechanisms for on-farm application. The system uses epidemiological study designs in the uncontrolled research environment of the farm, uses a database manager (Microsoft Access) to handle data management issues encountered in preparing data for analysis, and then uses a statistical program (SYSTAT) to do preliminary analyses. These analyses enable the researcher to have better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in the data contained within the AIDA database. Using GAIDA as a guide, this preliminary analysis helps to determine the strategy for further in-depth analyses. (author)

  19. Additional value of computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) compared to conventional motility assessments in pig artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Soštarić, E; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2011-11-01

    In order to obtain a more standardised semen motility evaluation, Varkens KI Nederland has introduced a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) system in all their pig AI laboratories. The repeatability of CASA was enhanced by standardising for: 1) an optimal sample temperature (39 °C); 2) an optimal dilution factor; 3) optimal mixing of semen and dilution buffer by using mechanical mixing; 4) the slide chamber depth, and together with the previous points; 5) the optimal training of technicians working with the CASA system; and 6) the use of a standard operating procedure (SOP). Once laboratory technicians were trained in using this SOP, they achieved a coefficient of variation of CASA. CASA results are preferable as accurate continuous motility dates are generated rather than discrimination motility percentage increments of 10% motility as with motility estimation by laboratory technicians. The higher variability of sperm motility found with CASA and the continuous motility values allow better analysis of the relationship between semen motility characteristics and fertilising capacity. The benefits of standardised CASA for AI is discussed both with respect to estimate the correct dilution factor of the ejaculate for the production of artificial insemination (AI) doses (critical for reducing the number of sperm per AI doses) and thus to get more reliable fertility data from these AI doses in return. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  1. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Y.; Zaini, N.; Wan Zahari, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  2. Hormonal treatment before and after artificial insemination differentially improves fertility in subpopulations of dairy cows during the summer and autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Voet, H; Reznikov, D; Wolfenson, D; Roth, Z

    2014-12-01

    Reduced conception rate (CR) during the hot summer and subsequent autumn is a well-documented phenomenon. Intensive use of cooling systems can improve summer and autumn reproductive performance, but is unable to increase CR to winter and spring levels. We examined whether combined hormonal treatments--to increase follicular turnover before artificial insemination (AI) and progesterone supplementation post-AI--might improve fertility of cooled cows during the summer and autumn. The experiment was conducted from July to November in 3 commercial herds in Israel and included 707 Holstein cows at 50 to 60 d in milk (DIM). Cows were hormonally treated to induce 2 consecutive 9-d cycles, with GnRH administration followed by PGF2α injection 7 d later, followed by an intravaginal insert containing progesterone on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 14 d. Both untreated controls (n=376) and treated cows (n=331) were inseminated following estrus, and pregnancy was determined by palpation 42 to 50 d post-AI. First-AI CR data revealed a positive interaction between treatment and cows previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease [odds ratio (OR) 2.24]. Interaction between treatment and low body condition score tended to increase the probability of first-AI CR (OR 1.95) and increased pregnancy rate at 90 DIM (OR 2.50) and at 120 DIM (OR 1.77). Low milk production increased the probability of being detected in estrus at the end of synchronization within treated cows (OR 1.67), and interacted with treatment to increase probability of pregnancy at 90 DIM (OR 2.39) relative to control counterparts. It is suggested that when administered with efficient cooling, combined hormonal treatment in specific subgroups of cows, that is, those previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease or those with low body condition score or low milk yield might improve fertility during the summer and autumn. Integration of such an approach into reproductive management during the hot seasons might improve

  3. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  4. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  5. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and body temperature in Australian merino ewes (Ovis aries) during summer artificial insemination (AI) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Gregory; Parisella, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive wastage is a key issue for sheep producers, both regionally and globally. The reproductive output of farm animals can be influenced by physiological and environmental factors. Rapid and reliable quantification of physiological stress can provide a useful tool for designing and testing on-farm management interventions to improve farm animal welfare and productivity. In this study, we quantified physiological stress non-invasively using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites-FGMs analysis and body temperature measurements of 15 superovulated donor merino ewes (Ovis aries) during participation in artificial insemination (AI) program conducted during 2015/2016 Australian summer. We hypothesized that low percentage transferable embryos in donor merino ewes will be associated positively with higher body temperature and/or higher FGMs in these ewes. Temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated and found within high thermal stress range during the two AI trials. Overall, results showed none of the factors (ewe ID, AI trial no., THI or FGMs) were significant for reduced percentage transferrable embryos, except ewe body temperature was highly significant (p = 0.014). Within AI trial comparisons showed significant positive associations between higher FGMs and body temperature with reduced transferrable embryos. These results suggest that Australian merino ewes participating in summer AI trials can experience physiological stress. Prolonged activation of the stress endocrine response and high body temperature (e.g. ensued from heat stress) could impact on ewe reproductive output. Therefore, future research should apply minimally invasive physiological tools to gather baseline information on physiological stress in merino sheep to enable the development of new farm-friendly methods of managing stress. PMID:29381759

  6. Implementation of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Program (GBIB in West Waringin Kota District, Central Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiana Tresia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The government has launched a program of self-sufficiency in meat as an effort to overcome the shortage of beef supply to meet the needs of the community, especially when the day of religious festivities. GBIB program Implementation is expected to meet the needs of the community will be beef, as demand for beef is always soaring demand every year, especially ahead of religious festivals. To discuss and review the implementation of the program stretcher author uses the theory EDWARDS III to determine the success or failure of the implementation of the program in the district of Kota Waringin Barat. Issues to be examined are 1 the quality and quantity of resources, 2 communication and dissemination program, 3 Attitude 4 Bureaucracy. This will be the focus to see the successful implementation of the program of snapping / sync Lust and optimize of GBIB in the district of Kota Waringin. This study uses the concept of a qualitative descriptive approach with the aim of providing an overview of how the implementation of the field program and then analyzed using the theory of Edwards III. The results of this study show that: 1 Aspects of Resource (HR, Information, Privileges and amenities, some support as the support means the production of drugs / vitamins and breeding stock (straw superior adequate and well as the authority and the information available is quite good, while some aspects that do not support such as: HR, execution time, geographical conditions, transport facilities support, 2 aspect Communications (Transmission, Clarity, Consistency and Coordination strongly supports the implementation of the program GBIB is 3 aspects of attitude (attitude implementer, Support Leader, Incentives for implementing and Transparency, relatively supportive in this program, and 4 Structural Aspects of Bureaucracy (SOP and Fragmentation still do not support the implementation of the Program snapping Sexual arousal and this Artificial Insemination.

  7. Preference for anonymity in sperm donation for artificial insemination: an experience from low-resource settings in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Eleje, George U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Mba, Sunday G; Nnaji, Henry C; Enechukwu, Chukwunonso I; Nkwo, Peter O

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples’ opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences. Methods A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months. Results A total of 450 infertile couples were recruited consecutively from the three study centers. However, 450 females and 352 males (total=802) participated in the study. The level of awareness of artificial insemination using donor sperm for the management of male infertility among the respondents was 69.2%, while its acceptability rate was 62.7%. The majority of the respondents indicated their preference for secrecy and anonymity in sperm donation. Approximately 84% of the respondents indicated that the mode of conception should never be disclosed to the donor-conceived child, and ~92% of them indicated that the identity of the sperm donor should never be revealed to the donor-conceived child. Fear of adverse effect of such disclosure on the child and the possible of rejection of the father in order to seek for the donor were the major reasons for their preference for anonymity. Conclusion Although it has been argued that every child has a right to know their genetic parents, the reasons proffered by the respondents for their preference for anonymity cannot be totally ignored. Establishing a regulatory body and enacting laws that will address both the ethical and legal issues associated with gamete donation in the developing world will go a long way in promoting openness and honest communication with donor-conceived children. PMID:29670338

  8. European accomplishments in regulation of the family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by

  9. The potential transmission of infectious agents by semen packaging during storage for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P H; Lyaruu, V H; Millar, J D; Curry, M R; Watson, P F

    1997-07-01

    Plastic straws, of a type widely used for semen cryopreservation, sealed using three different methods, (PVA powder, plastic spheres and plasticine modelling clay) were tested for leakage of low molecular weight dye (methylene blue), bacteria (Escherichia coli) and virus (Newcastle disease virus). Leakage was found to be dependent on the method used to fill the straws. Straws filled using a traditional 'dip and wipe' method and sealed with PVA powder demonstrated a significant degree of methylene blue leakage (0.0269% of the total straw contents) probably associated with contamination of the powder sealing plug. Straws filled using an aseptic filling technique showed no detectable leakage of any agent with any of the sealing methods. This study highlights the need to establish good-practice guidelines for the packaging of semen collected for freezing and future AI from non-domestic livestock where disease-free status cannot be guaranteed and unsophisticated technology is used.

  10. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  11. Integrating an automated activity monitor into an artificial insemination program and the associated risk factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Fernandes, A C C; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF 2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (BCS; scale 1 to 5), hock score (scale: 1 to 4), gait score (scale: 1 to 4), and corpus luteum presence detected by ovarian ultrasonography were recorded twice during the presynchronization. On the ACT treatment, 50.5% of cows were inseminated based on detected estrus, whereas 83.2% of the cows on the TAI treatment were inseminated appropriately after the timed AI protocol. Pregnancy per AI did not differ by treatment (30.8 vs. 33.5% for ACT and TAI, respectively). Success of pregnancy was affected by parity, cyclicity, BCS, milk production, and a tendency for leg health. In addition, treatment × cyclicity and treatment × parity interactions were found to affect pregnancy success, where anovulatory cows and older cows had compromised pregnancy outcomes on the ACT treatment but not on the TAI treatment. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes varied among farms. Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was affected by farm, parity, BCS, a treatment × cyclicity interaction, and a tendency for an interaction between leg health and farm. Detection of estrus was affected by farm, parity, cyclicity, and leg health, but not BCS or milk production. Expression of estrus was compromised in anovular and older

  12. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non

  13. EFFECTS OF FEED SUPPLEMENT ON THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY OF BEEF COWS UNDER SMALL FARMS CONDITION AT A TROPICAL AREA OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Toleng, Abdul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Low artificial insemination (AI) efficiency in beef cattle has been reported in some tropical regions, such in Indonesia. Factors related to this problem are not yet well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that might affect the AI efficiency and to evaluate the effects of feed supplement on the AI efficiency in beef cows at a tropical area of Indonesia. Two steps of study were conducted. Study 1 was to identify factors that might affect the efficiency of AI. T...

  14. Case of pregnancy in two cows with unicorn horn of the uterus either by artificial insemination at ipsilateral or embryo transfer at contralateral corpus luteum in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, C; Kobayashi, I; Tani, M; Oishi, T; Kajisa, M; Horii, Y; Kamimura, S

    2008-06-01

    Two Holstein heifers and a cow were diagnosed with White Heifer Disease by ultrasonography. Case 1 was a 14 month-old heifer with aplasia of both sides of the uterine horn. In case 2, a primiparous cow and case 3, an 18 month-old heifer, both showed aplasia of the right uterine horn. Case 2 became pregnant by artificial insemination at ipsilateral ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum in the left ovary, while case 3 became pregnant by embryo transfer at 7 days after oestrus with contralateral corpus luteum in the right ovary.

  15. Factors associated with fertility of nulliparous dairy heifers following a 10-day fixed-time artificial insemination program with sex-sorted and conventional semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, E J; Kelly, J C; Beggs, D S

    2016-05-01

    To examine factors associated with fertility on dairy farms that used a common fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) program in yearling heifers. Records were analysed from 954 yearling heifers on 10 south-west Victorian dairy farms that used a common FTAI program, involving the insertion of a 1.9-g progesterone-releasing device for 10 days; 2 mg oestradiol benzoate at insertion; 500 µg cloprostenol on day 7; and FTAI 48 h after device removal. Weight, age, expression of oestrus, sire, semen type (frozen sex-sorted or frozen conventional) and timing of insemination were examined for their relationship with first-service conception rates. Heifers over 300 kg body weight were 1.18-fold more likely to express oestrus during the FTAI program. For every extra 1 kg, there was a 1.5% increase in the likelihood of expressing oestrus. First-service conception rates were 40.3% and 56.0% for sex-sorted and conventional semen, respectively, and were significantly higher when oestrus was expressed. The difference was greater for sex-sorted semen (3.4-fold) compared with conventional semen (1.5-fold). The interval from device removal to insemination varied between 47 and 51.4 h and had no significant effect on conception rates. However, there was a trend towards a higher conception rate for sex-sorted semen when inseminations were performed >50 h after device removal. Increased fertility was associated with larger heifers and heifers that expressed oestrus, particularly when sexed-sorted semen was used. Variation in the timing of AI with respect to device removal between 47 and 51.4 h did not adversely affect conception rates. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  17. The use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services of beef cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toleng, L.; Sonjaya, H.; Yusuf, M.; Hamid, A.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been used in Indonesia for several years. The fertility rate resulting from this technique, however, is still lower than that for natural mating. Therefore, two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors that might cause lower efficiency of AI in beef cattle. The first was a survey to evaluate reproductive performance and factors that affect the inefficiency of AI. A total of 652 beef cows inseminated on one large and several small farms were used. Data for farm, cow, inseminator and each insemination were recorded. Serum samples were taken at the day of insemination (day 0), and days 10-12 and 20-22 after AI, and at time of manual pregnancy diagnosis. The second study was conducted to evaluate whether the induction of first postpartum oestrus in suckling cows could be done by hormonal treatments. Two groups of suckling Brahman cows were used, with and without treatment using Controlled Intra-vaginal Drug Release devices (CIDR). CIDR were inserted into the vagina, oestradiol benzoate (OB) was injected, the CIDR were removed after 12 days and two Als were performed at 24 and 72 hr later. The studies were conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mean overall conception rate (CR) for the large and small farms were 23 and 38%, respectively. Season of the year, housing system, type of heat, time of AI, and characteristics of AI technicians (level of education and non-AI work) affected the CR. Oestrus behaviour was detected in 95 and 100% of cows respectively for the first and the second period. However, the proportions of animals showing ovulatory oestrus during the first and second periods were 22 and 48% (P<0.01), and pregnancy rates were 12 and 24%, respectively. These findings show that reproductive rate of cows served by AI in this area is low and that factors related to the cow, farm management and AI technician affect this problem. CIDR treatment can induce oestrus behaviour in suckling cows, but only few of

  18. Constraints on efficiency of artificial insemination and effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Anh Dzung; Le Xuan Cuong; Vuong Ngoc Long; Dinh Van Cai; Dang Phuoc Chung; Pham Ho Hai

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey on 564 cows subjected to artificial insemination (AI) from March 1995 to March 1996 in 4 districts around Ho Chi Minh City. Four inseminators filled in questionnaires relating to farms, semen batches, cows and inseminations done. Milk samples were collected and analysed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA). All raw data were stored and analysed by the computer program AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application). Conception rate at first service (FSCR) was 61.7% and overall conception rate (OCR) was 68.4%. The intervals from calving to first service (CSI) and calving to conception (CCI) were 108 days 119 days respectively. Cows with lower percentage of Holstein-Friesian (HF) blood had shorter CSI and CCI than those with higher percentage of HF blood. Other factors which influenced OCR, CSI and CCI were parity, high milk yield (>20 L/cow/day), inappropriate heat signs, slight degree of uterine tone, feeding without green grass, too early or too late intervals from heat signs to AI, time of AI and difficulty in passage of AI pipette. Progesterone measurement in 796 sets of milk samples indicated that AI in 546 cows (68.6%) resulted in conception and they were subsequently diagnosed pregnant, while 24 animals (3%) conceived but underwent late embryo mortality. In 146 cows (18.3%) AI was done in the follicular phase but conception did not occur. There were 73 cows (9.1%) where progesterone values were intermediate (1-3 nmol/L). Ninety-four Holstein crossbred cows (F1 and F2) were assigned into three groups by different metabolisable energy (ME) ratios between demand and supply in order to determine effect of nutritive value of rations on reproduction. The cows in ME-balanced group were also divided into two sub-groups by different quantity of green grass in the ration to evaluate influence of the latter on fertility. Results showed that only cows fed with balanced rations in ME achieved good fertility (calving to first

  19. The Performance of Entik as Result Crossbreed of (Muscovy>Artificial Insemination that Keep Intensively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roesdiyanto Roesdiyanto

    2001-01-01

    percentage of meat carcass weight (P<0.01, feed form factor had a high significant effect (P<0.01 on the carcass weight and the meat carcass weight, whereas the slaughtering age factor has a high significant effect linearly (P<0.05 on  the  percentage of carcass weight. This may concluded that the female entik  give the percentage of meat carcass weight more high then the male, feeding by mash form for entik which slaughtering eight weeks old increase the percentage of carcass weight and meat carcass weight. (Animal Production 3(1: 31-39 (2001 Key Words: Entik, crossbreed, muscovy, duck, artificial insemination (AI

  20. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  1. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  2. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of boar spermatozoa for artificial insemination. III. Fecundity of boar spermatozoa stored in Beltsville liquid and Kiev extenders for three days at 18 C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L A; Aalbers, J G; Willems, C M; Rademaker, J H; Rexroad, C E

    1982-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on several hundred farms in The Netherlands to compare the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa stored for 1, 2, or 3 d at 18 C in either Kiev or Beltsville liquid extender (BL-1). Two storage volumes (25 and 100 ml) were used. Twelve Dutch Landrace boars, all in routine commercial artificial insemination service, provided the semen in twice-a-week collections. Over an 8-wk period in March and April, 1979, 2,849 sows and gilts were inseminated. Farrowing rates were higher (P less than .0001) with Kiev extender than with BL-1 extender (69.3 vs 60.5%) when semen was used over a 3 d period. The volume at which the semen was extended and stored had no effect on any parameter. Farrowing rate declined significantly when semen stored at 18 C for more than 2 d was used (74.5% vs 64.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 in Kiev extender; 65.9% vs 52.7% with semen stored for 1 and 3 d in BL-1 extender). The farrowing rate, total number of pigs/litter and live pigs/litter were significantly higher for sows than for gilts inseminated with similar extended semen. On the basis of the results of this trial, Kiev extender appears to be more suitable as a diluent for liquid semen than does BL-1. AI with semen extended and stored for 3 d at 18 C can be expected to result in a lower farrowing rate than AI with semen stored for 1 or 2 d.

  4. The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P body condition score (P cows in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group had greater AI pregnancy rate compared with cows in the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group (58.1% vs. 55.1%; P = 0.04). More cows that exhibited estrus at or before AI became pregnant compared with cows that did not [65.7% (681/1037) vs. 44.5% (347/780); P cows with body condition ≤4 [≤4 - 49.3% (101/219), 5-6 - 57.9%; >6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inseminação artificial em tempo fixo e diagnóstico precoce de gestação em vacas leiteiras mestiças Timed artificial insemination and early pregnancy diagnosis in crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio França Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, durante um ano, o desempenho reprodutivo de 94 vacas leiteiras mestiças Bos taurus x Bos indicus submetidas a um programa de reprodução assistida. Um protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi executado por meio de dispositivo intravaginal contendo progesterona e das injeções de prostaglandina F2α e de cipionato de estradiol. Por meio de ultrassonografia, entre 7 e 14 dias após as inseminações ou montas controladas, realizou-se a detecção de corpo lúteo nos ovários a fim de determinar a taxa de ovulação e, no 28º dia, fez-se o diagnóstico de gestação para cálculo da taxa de concepção. Respeitou-se um período mínimo de 34 dias após o parto antes do tratamento. Não houve influência do escore de condição corporal e da presença de corpo lúteo no início do protocolo, nem da reutilização do dispositivo intravaginal e da monta controlada ou inseminação artificial, sobre as taxas de ovulação, concepção e concepção das vacas ovuladas. As taxas de concepção e de concepção das vacas ovuladas foram afetadas negativamente pelo elevado número de dias pós-parto (DPP, ou dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano, primavera/verão. A resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo baseado no uso de progesterona, PGF2α e cipionato de estradiol é prejudicada pelo aumento dos dias em lactação e pela época quente do ano. A condição corporal não afeta a resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial, desde que as vacas tratadas apresentem escore acima de 2,25 pontos.It was evaluated, during a period of one year, the reproductive performance of 94 Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred dairy cows submitted to an assisted reproduction program. A timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol was carried out by using an intra-vaginal progesterone device containing progesterone and through injections with Prostaglandin F2α and estradiol cypionate. By using ultrasound

  7. Dose inseminante para fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado Insemination dose for artificial fertilization of dourado oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a dose inseminante adequada para uso na fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis. Os ovócitos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, e fertilizados com uma das relações espermatozoides/ovócito 6,0×10³; 6,0×10(4; 6,0×10(5; 6,0×10(6 ou 3,0×10(7, cada uma com quatro repetições. Considerou-se unidade experimental uma incubadora de volume útil de 2,5 L, contendo 2,0 mL de ovócitos não-hidratados. As taxas de fertilização foram mensuradas 8 horas após o início da fertilização. Com intuito de verificar possíveis efeitos da diluição seminal na movimentação dos espermatozoides, realizou-se a mensuração do tempo de duração da motilidade espermática dos espermatozoides de dourado, ativados por meio de diferentes relações de diluição: 6,8×10-5; 6,8×10-4; 6,8×10-3; 6,8×10-2; 3,4×10-1 e 1,0 mL de sêmen por mL de água. O tempo de duração da motilidade foi avaliado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado composto de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As taxas de fertilização apresentaram relação quadrática com o número de espermatozoides por ovócito. As relações de diluição do sêmen tiveram efeito inversamente proporcional sobre a duração da motilidade espermática. A relação que proporcionou melhores taxas de fertilização artificial de ovócitos de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis foi de 30.722 espermatozoides por ovócio.The objective of the present study was to determine the proper insemination dose of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis oocytes. The oocytes were placed in a randomized complete design and fertilized with one of the spermatozoa.oocytes-1 ratio, 6.0×10³, 6.0×10(4, 6.0×10(5, 6.0×10(6, 3.0×10(7 SPZ:OOC, each one with four replications. An experimental unit was considered to be an incubator with a 2.5L useful volume containing 2.0 mL non-hydrated oocytes. The fertilization rates were measured eight hours

  8. Threshold-linear analysis of measures of fertility in artificial insemination data and days to calving in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, K A; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I

    2004-04-01

    Mating and calving records for 47,533 first-calf heifers in Australian Angus herds were used to examine the relationship between days to calving (DC) and two measures of fertility in AI data: 1) calving to first insemination (CFI) and 2) calving success (CS). Calving to first insemination and calving success were defined as binary traits. A threshold-linear Bayesian model was employed for both analyses: 1) DC and CFI and 2) DC and CS. Posterior means (SD) of additive covariance and corresponding genetic correlation between the DC and CFI were -0.62 d (0.19 d) and -0.66 (0.12), respectively. The corresponding point estimates between the DC and CS were -0.70 d (0.14 d) and -0.73 (0.06), respectively. These genetic correlations indicate a strong, negative relationship between DC and both measures of fertility in AI data. Selecting for animals with shorter DC intervals genetically will lead to correlated increases in both CS and CFI. Posterior means (SD) for additive and residual variance and heritability for DC for the DC-CFI analysis were 23.5 d2 (4.1 d2), 363.2 d2 (4.8 d2), and 0.06 (0.01), respectively. The corresponding parameter estimates for the DC-CS analysis were very similar. Posterior means (SD) for additive, herd-year and service sire variance and heritability for CFI were 0.04 (0.01), 0.06 (0.06), 0.14 (0.16), and 0.03 (0.01), respectively. Posterior means (SD) for additive, herd-year, and service sire variance and heritability for CS were 0.04 (0.01), 0.07 (0.07), 0.14 (0.16), and 0.03 (0.01), respectively. The similarity of the parameter estimates for CFI and CS suggest that either trait could be used as a measure of fertility in AI data. However, the definition of CFI allows the identification of animals that not only record a calving event, but calve to their first insemination, and the value of this trait would be even greater in a more complete dataset than that used in this study. The magnitude of the correlations between DC and CS-CFI suggest that

  9. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A daily herd Markov-chain model to study the reproductive and economic impact of reproductive programs combining timed artificial insemination and estrus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Kalantari, A S; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Cabrera, V E

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the economic and reproductive performance of programs combining timed artificial insemination (TAI) and different levels of AI after estrus detection (ED) using a daily Markov-chain model. A dairy herd was modeled with every cow following daily probabilistic events of aging, replacement, mortality, pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and calving. The probability of pregnancy depended on the combination of probability of insemination and conception rate (CR). All nonpregnant cows had a probability of pregnancy between the end of the voluntary waiting period and days in milk cutoff for AI. After the cutoff, cows were labeled as do not breed and replaced when milk production was below a minimum milk threshold. A similar model was created to represent a replacement heifer herd to simulate and adjust the supply and demand of replacements. The net value (NV) of a program was the sum of milk income over feed cost, replacement and mortality cost, income from newborns, and reproductive costs. The model was used to compare the NV of 19 programs. One program used 100% TAI (42% CR for first TAI and 30% for second-and-later services), whereas the other programs combined TAI with ED. The proportion of cows receiving AI after ED for the combined programs ranged from 30 to 80%, with levels of CR of 25, 30, and 35%. As the proportion of cows receiving AI after ED increased, the CR of cows receiving TAI decreased. The combined programs with CR of 35% for cows receiving AI after ED had the greatest NV and reproductive performance at all levels of ED. The program using 100% TAI had greater NV and better reproductive performance than all programs with 25% CR after ED inseminations, whereas it had very similar performance to combined programs with up to 60% of cows receiving AI after ED and 30% CR. The factor with the greatest relative contribution to the differences among programs was income over feed cost, followed by replacement and reproductive costs. Adjusting

  11. Improvement of cattle production in Myanmar through the use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Hla, U.; Aung Myatt, U.; Daw Su Su Kyi; Ye Htun Win, U.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of Artificial Insemination (AI) status in Myanmar was carried out in the Mandalay region. Most farms are smallholdings with 1-12 breedable cattle per farm. During the survey a total 435 first inseminations carried out by 5 AI technicians were recorded. The conception rate (CR) at first service was 60.7% and the overall CR was 63.3%. Interval from calving to first service was 103.6 ± 40.0 days. Progesterone measurement on the samples collected on the day of AI (day 0) showed that 6.3% of the services were done when progesterone was high (>3nmol/L), indicating that the cows could not have been in oestrus. Most of the farmers detected oestrus based on signs such as mucus discharge, bellowing and mounting. After the preliminary survey a study was conducted to test two intervention measures: to reduce the interval from calving to first service by nutritional supplementation with urea molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB); and to reduce the number of AI done during the luteal phase. In this study 245 first AI were recorded. Interval from calving to first oestrus was 95.8 ± 24.8 days. Incidence of AI at luteal phase declined to 4%. In spite of better heat detection, the conception rate was 55.9%, which is lower than during the survey phase. This could be attributed to lower fertility of semen from certain bulls used in the second phase. Assessment of progesterone values in the samples showed that 3.8% of AI were done during anovulatory oestrous cycles, 7.8% in anoestrous cows and 5.9% in cows with irregular or short oestrous cycles. (author)

  12. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic performance of lactating dairy cows submitted for first service timed artificial insemination after a voluntary waiting period of 60 or 88 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Masello, M; Thomas, Mark J; Giordano, J O

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic performance of dairy cows managed with a voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 60 or 88 d. A secondary objective was estimating variation in cash flow under different input pricing scenarios through stochastic Monte Carlo simulations. Lactating Holstein cows from 3 commercial farms were blocked by parity group and total milk yield in their previous lactation and then randomly assigned to a VWP of 60 (VWP60; n = 1,352) or 88 d (VWP88; n = 1,359). All cows received timed-artificial insemination (TAI) for first service after synchronization of ovulation with the Double-Ovsynch protocol. For second and greater services, cows received artificial insemination (AI) after detection of estrus or the Ovsynch protocol initiated 32 ± 3 d after AI. Two analyses were performed: (1) cash flow per cow for the calving interval of the experimental lactation and (2) cash flow per slot occupied by each cow enrolled in the experiment for an 18-mo period after calving in the experimental lactation. Extending the VWP from 60 to 88 d delayed time to pregnancy during lactation (~20 d) and increased the risk of leaving the herd for multiparous cows (hazard ratio = 1.21). As a result, a smaller proportion of multiparous cows calved again and had a subsequent lactation (-6%). The shift in time to pregnancy combined with the herd exit dynamics resulted in longer lactation length for primiparous (22 d) but not multiparous cows. Longer lactations led to greater milk income over feed cost and a tendency for greater cash flow during the experimental lactation for primiparous but not multiparous cows in the VWP88 group. On the other hand, profitability per slot for the 18-mo period was numerically greater ($68 slot/18 mo) for primiparous cows but numerically reduced (-$85 slot/18 mo) for multiparous cows in the VWP88 treatment. For primiparous cows most of the difference in cash flow was explained by replacement cost, whereas for multiparous

  14. Fertility after implementation of long- and short-term progesterone-based ovulation synchronization protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2015-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term (LT; a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR]-PGF2α [PGF]-GnRH) and short-term (ST; 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR) progesterone-based protocols on pregnancy rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In experiment 1, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 1887) at nine locations received a body condition score and a reproductive tract score (RTS). Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-56 protocol groups. Heifers in the LT-72 group received a CIDR from Days 0 to 14, followed by 25 mg of PGF 16 days later (Day 30). Heifers in the ST-56 group received a CIDR and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 25 followed by 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 30 and a second dose of PGF 6 hours later (Day 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 56 hours (Day 32) after CIDR removal for the ST-56 group and at 72 hours (Day 33) after CIDR removal for the LT-72 group, and all heifers were given GnRH (100 μg, intramuscular) at the time of AI. In experiment 2, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 718) at four locations received a body condition score and an RTS. Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-72 protocol groups. The protocol was similar to experiment 1 except that AI was performed at 72 hours after CIDR removal for both LT-72 and ST-72 groups. In experiment 1, no difference in AI pregnancy rates between the LT-72 and ST-56 groups was observed (54.5% [489 of 897] and 55.5% [549 of 990], respectively; P = 0.92) after accounting for the RTS. The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 52.6%, 53.6%, and 59.9%, respectively (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, controlling for the RTS, no difference in AI pregnancy rates was observed between the LT-72 and ST-72 groups, 56.9% (198 of 347) and 57.8% (214 of 371), respectively (P = 0.87). The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 49.3%, 58

  15. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  16. Effect of body condition score and reuse of progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices on conception rate following timed artificial insemination in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L L; Ferreira, A P; Vale, W G; Serique, L R; Neves, Kal; Morini, A C; Monteiro, B M; Minervino, Ahh

    2018-06-01

    This study had the aim of investigating the efficiency of timed artificial insemination (TAI) through the progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID), used in new condition and for the second and third times in Nelore cows. The effects of device reuse and body condition score (BCS) on the conception rate (CR) were evaluated in 1,122 multiparous Nelore cows (mean BCS of 2.7 ± 0.4), which were randomly distributed into three groups that received new (n = 330), once (n = 439) and twice used (n = 353) PRID. Among the 1,122 females that underwent TAI, 573 became pregnant, thus representing an overall CR of 51.06%. Cows with BCS between 2.75 and 4.0 had greater (p conditions, animals with BCS greater than 2.5 had a higher CR, and the CR decreased proportionally with the number of times that the PRID had been used. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of 131 I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma. (author)

  18. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  19. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic and genetic performance of various combinations of in vitro-produced embryo transfers and artificial insemination in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, Karun; Block, Jeremy; Hansen, Peter J; De Vries, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to find the optimal proportions of pregnancies from an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system and artificial insemination (AI) so that profitability is maximized over a range of prices for embryos and surplus dairy heifer calves. An existing stochastic, dynamic dairy model with genetic merits of 12 traits was adapted for scenarios where 0 to 100% of the eligible females in the herd were impregnated, in increments of 10%, using IVP-ET (ET0 to ET100, 11 scenarios). Oocytes were collected from the top donors selected for the trait lifetime net merit (NM$) and fertilized with sexed semen to produce IVP embryos. Due to their greater conception rates, first ranked were eligible heifer recipients based on lowest number of unsuccessful inseminations or embryo transfers, and then on age. Next, eligible cow recipients were ranked based on the greatest average estimated breeding values (EBV) of the traits cow conception rate and daughter pregnancy rate. Animals that were not recipients of IVP embryos received conventional semen through AI, except that the top 50% of heifers ranked for EBV of NM$ were inseminated with sexed semen for the first 2 AI. The economically optimal proportions of IVP-ET were determined using sensitivity analysis performed for 24 price sets involving 6 different selling prices of surplus dairy heifer calves at approximately 105 d of age and 4 different prices of IVP embryos. The model was run for 15 yr after the start of the IVP-ET program for each scenario. The mean ± standard error of true breeding values of NM$ of all cows in the herd in yr 15 was greater by $603 ± 2 per cow per year for ET100 when compared with ET0. The optimal proportion of IVP-ET ranged from ET100 (for surplus dairy heifer calves sold for ≥$300 along with an additional premium based on their EBV of NM$ and a ≤$100 embryo price) to as low as ET0 (surplus dairy heifer calves sold at $300 with a $200 embryo price). For the default

  1. Artificial Intelligence Applications to Videodisc Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, John K.; Banks, Gordon; McLinden, Sean; Moossy, John; Brown, Melanie

    1985-01-01

    Much of medical information is visual in nature. Since it is not easy to describe pictorial information in linguistic terms, it has been difficult to store and retrieve this type of information. Coupling videodisc technology with artificial intelligence programming techniques may provide a means for solving this problem.

  2. [Assisted reproduction and artificial insemination and genetic manipulation in the Criminal Code of the Federal District, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena Sesma, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The article that one presents has for purpose outline and comment on the recent modifications to the Penal Code for the Federal District of México which establish, for the first time, crimes related to the artificial procreation and to the genetic manipulation. Also one refers to the interaction of the new legal texts with the sanitary legislation of the country. Since it will be stated in some cases they present confrontations between the penal and the sanitary reglamentation and some points related to the legality or unlawfulness of a conduct that stayed without the enough development. These lacks will complicate the application of the new rules of the Penal Code of the Federal District.

  3. Comparação entre diferentes métodos de inseminação artificial em suínos Comparison between different methods of artificial insemination in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Auri dos Santos Flores

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três métodos de inseminação artificial(IA no suíno em relação ao tempo de infusão e perdas por refluxo da DI durante a IA e aos 120 minutos após a IA, bem como dados de operacionalidade medido pelo grau de dificuldade verificado para execução da IA e dados de desempenho reprodutivo. Foram utilizadas 604 matrizes até a parição 7 e IDE 0,05. As taxas de retorno ao estro foram 10,3, 7,4 e 8,5 %, a taxa de parto ajustada foi de 90,8, 94,0 e 91,7% com 10,9, 11,1 e 11,1 leitões nascidos totais em T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. O método auto IA e o método intermediário proporcionam IAs mais rápidas e podem substituir o método tradicional sem prejuízos ao desempenho reprodutivo.This study was performed to compare the Hands-free insemination method, i.e., the high degree automation procedure, with an intermediate method, which allows less participation of the inseminator during the application of the inseminating dose (ID, and the conventional method, which is widely used in Brazil. The comparison was based on infusion time and losses due to semen backflow during AI and 120 minutes after AI, degree of difficulty experienced during AI procedure, and reproductive performance data. A number of 604 sows on the parity up to 7 and a weaning to estrus interval 0.05 in return to estrus rate, adjusted farrowing rate and number of born piglets. The return to estrus rates were 10.3, 7.4 and 8.5%, adjusted farrowing rates were 90.8, 94.0 and 91.7%, with 10.9, 11.1 e 11.1 total born piglets in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The Hands free method and the intermediate method allowed faster AI and can replace the traditional method without influence on the reproductive performance.

  4. Evaluation of thermal comfort, physiological, hematological, and seminal features of buffalo bulls in an artificial insemination station in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Daniel Vale; Silva, Lilian Kátia Ximenes; de Brito Lourenço, José; da Silva, Aluizio Otávio Almeida; E Silva, André Guimarães Maciel; Franco, Irving Montanar; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Tholon, Patrícia; Martorano, Lucieta Guerreiro; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation over time in thermal comfort indices and the behavior of physiological parameters related to thermolysis, blood parameters, and semen in natura of buffalo bulls reared in tropical climate. The study was carried out in an artificial insemination station under a humid tropical climate (Afi according to Köppen). Ten water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used during the 5 months (April to August) of study. The environmental Temperature Humidity Index (THId) and the pen microclimate Temperature Humidity Index (THIp) were calculated. Every 25 days, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT), and Benezra's thermal comfort index (BTCI) were assessed in the morning and in the afternoon. A blood assay was performed every month, while semen was collected weekly. THIp did not vary over the months (P > 0.05) and was higher in the afternoon than in the morning (77.7 ± 2.6 versus 81.8 ± 2.1, P  0.05) but within the physiological limits. RT varied between the periods of the day and decreased over the months, being the lowest in August (37.8 ± 0.7 °C), time-impacted hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin levels, and spermatic gross motility and vigor (P thermal comfort during the hotter periods but are able to efficiently activate thermoregulatory mechanisms and maintain homeothermy, hence preserving their physiological and seminal parameters at normal levels.

  5. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    After billions of years of evolution, nature developed inventions that work, which are appropriate for the intended tasks and that last. The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms that are scalable from micron to many meters in size. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement where it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Some of the biomimetic technologies that have emerged include artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision to which significant advances in materials science, mechanics, electronics, and computer science have contributed greatly. One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their operation mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the state-of-the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  6. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  7. Inseminação artificial intra-uterina em leitoas com sêmen criopreservado com dimetilacetamida e glicerol Intrauterine artificial insemination of gilts using cryopreserved boar semen with dimetilacetamide and glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bianchi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso da dimetilacetamida (DMA e de glicerol na criopreservação de sêmen suíno sobre as taxas de concepção e fertilização in vivo, utilizando o método de inseminação artificial pós-cervical. Foram sincronizadas 60 leitoas pré-púberes e inseminadas com o uso de sêmen congelado com glicerol 3% (30 fêmeas e DMA 5% (30 fêmeas. O método de inseminação utilizado foi o pós-cervical, com concentração de 1 x 10(9 espermatozóides vivos por dose. Após 36 a 40h da inseminação, as fêmeas foram abatidas, sendo realizada a contagem de corpos hemorrágicos (CH nos ovários. Foi realizada a lavagem dos ovidutos das fêmeas, verificando o número de estruturas recuperadas (oócitos e embriões, calculando-se as taxas de concepção e fertilização. A média de CH nas fêmeas do grupo glicerol 3% não diferiu (P>0,05 daquelas do grupo DMA 5% (10,4 x 10,2, respectivamente. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas taxas de recuperação de estruturas entre os grupos glicerol 3% (68,9% e DMA 5% (66,9%. Os resultados obtidos nos grupos glicerol 3% e DMA 5% para as taxas de concepção (73,3 x 76,6% e fertilização (48,6 x 59,4% não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. Conclui-se que não há diferenças nas taxas de concepção e fertilização in vivo utilizando-se sêmen congelado com o uso de dimetilacetamida ou de glicerol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA and glycerol in boar semen cryopreservation on the conception and fertility rates.Sixty pre-pubertal gilts were synchronized and inseminated with semen including either glycerol 3% or DMA 5% as cryoprotectants (n=30 for both groups. Artificial insemination was conducted with the intrauterine method using doses with 1 x 10(9 viable spermatozoa. The gilts were slaughtered 36-40h after the insemination and the hemorrhagic bodies (CH in the ovaries were counted. The oviducts were washed, so oocytes and embryos could

  8. 131I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    The method of 131 I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma. (author)

  9. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P profit. The highest gross return was obtained under S13 with IUI0.75 and IUI0.5. The net profit of S13 was 34.37% higher than the traditional S9 (P profit favored IUI0.5 with relative differences of 4.13%, 2.41%, 1.72%, and 0.43% compared to CAI3, CAI2, IUI1.5, and IUI0

  10. Selection responses for the number of fertile eggs of the Brown Tsaiya duck (Anas platyrhynchos after a single artificial insemination with pooled Muscovy (Cairina moschata semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Jui

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-generation selection experiment comprising a selected (S and a control (C line was conducted with the objective of increasing the number of fertile eggs (F of the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Both lines consisted of about 20 males and 60 females since parents in each generation and each female duck was tested 3 times, at 26, 29 and 32 weeks of age. The fertile eggs were measured by candling at day 7 of incubation. The selection criterion in the S line was the BLUP animal model value for F. On average, 24.7% of the females and 15% of the males were selected. The direct responses to the selection for F, and correlated responses for the number of eggs set (Ie, the number of total dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H were measured by studying the differences across the generations of selection between the phenotypic value averages in the S and C lines. The predicted genetic responses were calculated by studying the differences between the S and C lines in averaged values of five traits of the BLUP animal model. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. There was no genetic change for Ie. After seven generations of selection, the average selection responses per generation were 0.40, 0.33, 0.42, 0.41 genetic standard deviation units for F, M, Dm, and H respectively. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. For days 2–8 after AI, the fertility rates (F/Ie were 89.2% and 63.8%, the hatchability rates (H/F were 72.5% and 70.6%, and (H/Ie were 64.7% and 45.1% in the S and C lines respectively. It was concluded that upward selection on the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen may be effective in ducks to increase the duration of the fertile period and the fertility and hatchability rates with AI once a week instead of twice a week.

  11. A comparison of the effects of carbon dioxide and medical air for abdominal insufflation on respiratory parameters in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, J D; Hay Kraus, B L; Sathe, S R

    2018-07-01

    To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO 2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO 2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation, and 10 minutes after being returned to a standing position. Blood samples were collected in heparinised syringes, stored on ice, and analysed for arterial pH, partial pressure of arterial O 2 (PaO 2 ), and CO 2 (PaCO 2 ). The number of ewes conceiving to AI was also determined. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated temporal effects on RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 and arterial pH during the laparoscopic AI procedure (p0.01). No sheep experienced hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >50 mmHg) or acidaemia (pH<7.35). Hypoxaemia (PaO 2 <70 mmHg) was diagnosed during the procedure in 14/22 (64%) ewes in the CO 2 group compared with 8/23 (35%) ewes in the medical air group (p=0.053). Overall, 15/20 (75%) ewes in the CO 2 group conceived to AI compared with 16/22 (72.7%) in the medical air group (p=0.867). There were no statistical or clinical differences in RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, or conception to AI when comparing the effects of CO 2 and medical air as abdominal insufflation gases. None of the sheep experienced hypercapnia or acidaemic, yet 42% (19/45) of sheep developed clinical hypoxaemia, with a higher percentage of ewes in the CO 2 group developing hypoxaemia than in the medical air group. Based on the overall analysis, medical air could be utilised as a comparable alternative for

  12. Reproductive performance of cows after fixed-time artificial insemination with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony in southern Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, M M; Humphris, M; Pryor, L; Perry, A; Morton, J M

    2018-04-01

    To describe reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony in Australian dairy herds, and to compare reproductive outcomes with those of conventional mating programs. The study was conducted in two seasonally calving dairy herds in which lactating dairy cows (n = 675) were enrolled into three treatment groups: group 1, oestrus detection and AI for 34 days followed by a natural service period; group 2, FTAI on day 1 followed by re-synchrony of all cows prior to ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis at day 31 and FTAI of cows diagnosed not pregnant at day 34, then a natural service period; group 3, FTAI on day 1 followed by oestrus detection and AI for 34 days, then a natural service period. First-service conception rate (FSCR), 6-week in-calf (6WIC) rate and proportions pregnant at the end of mating were compared using logistic regression with farm fitted as a fixed effect. Times from mating start date to conception were described using survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier failure functions. FSCRs (45.3%, 49.1% and 45.6% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and proportions pregnant at the end of mating (77.6%, 76.0% and 76.8% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively) were similar for all groups. The 6WIC rate in group 2 was similar to that in group 3 (70.4% vs. 67.2%; P = 0.486), but tended to be higher than in group 1 (70.4% vs. 62.0%, P = 0.066). The median days to pregnancy for cows that conceived was 1 day in groups 2 and 3 and 10 days in group 1. Mating plans that use FTAI with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony during the AI period can achieve comparable reproductive performance to conventional mating programs in seasonally calving dairy herds. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Viabilidade financeira da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo de bezerros cruzados Nelore e Aberdeen Angus = Economic feasibility of timed artificial insemination of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zuchi Neto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O cruzamento entre taurinos e zebuínos através de Inseminação Artificial em Tempo Fixo [IATF] é uma realidade presente em várias propriedades rurais no Brasil. Visando as vantagens da IATF em conjunto com as vantagens do cruzamento industrial o objetivo foi verificar a viabilidade financeira desta atividade em uma propriedade no município de Nova Lacerda, MT. Para tal, utilizou-se as ferramentas de matemática financeira Valor Presente Líquido [VPL], Taxa Interna de Retorno [TIR] e Payback. O projeto se mostrou viável com um VPL acima de R$ 300 mil, TIR de 23,03% e Payback descontado de aproximadamente oito anos. A venda de descartes e a suplementação dos bezerros em sistema de “creep feeding” se mostraram importantes para a viabilidade deste projeto. = Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbred through Timed Artificial Insemination [TAI] is present in several farms in Brazil. Aiming the advantages of the TAI together with industrial crossing, the objective was to verify the economic feasibility of this activity on a farm in the city of Nova Lacerda, MT. Financial mathematics tools like Net Present Value [NPV], Internal Rate of Return [IRR] and Payback were used. The project was feasible with a NPV above R$ 300 thousand, an IRR of 23.03% and a Discounted Payback of approximately eight years. The sale of discards matrix and the supplementation of calves in a creep feeding system showed to be important for the viability of this project.

  14. The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Somchai Chantsavang,; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after

  15. Influence of cornual insemination on conception in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Becker, W C; Davidge, S T; Hillers, J K; Reeves, J J

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conception to artificial insemination (AI) services in dairy cattle when semen was deposited into the uterine body or into both uterine horns (cornual insemination). Nine herdsman inseminators (HI) in four commercial dairy herds in Washington constituted the experimental units. Herds ranged in size from 393 cows to 964 cows. The duration of the experiment was 12 mo in three herds and 18 mo in the fourth herd. At the beginning of the experiment all inseminators were trained to deposit semen in the body of the uterus. Inseminators were instructed to use this method for 6 mo. Following employment of body deposition, the same inseminators were retrained to deposit one-half of the semen into the right uterine horn and one-half into the left uterine horn. Cornual inseminations were performed for 6 mo. A total of 4,178 services constituted the data set. Milk samples were collected from cows on the day of insemination and later were assayed for progesterone (P4). There was variation (P less than .01) in conception associated with month of insemination and insemination method (P less than .001). The monthly variation was not associated with season of the year. Least squares means for conception when semen was deposited in the uterine body was 44.7%, compared with 64.6% when cornual insemination was employed. The insemination treatment X inseminator interaction was not significant. Results suggest that cornual insemination provides an alternative to deposition of semen in the uterine body.

  16. Rentabilidade da monta natural e inseminação artificial em tempo fixo na pecuária de corte = Profitability of natural mating and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available O futuro da pecuária de corte e consequentemente sua rentabilidade estão atrelados a otimização do uso da terra, visto que em muitos estados sua área vem sendo ocupada pela agricultura. Uma das alternativas é o uso de biotecnologias da reprodução, como a inseminação artificial em tempo fixo [IATF] que permite a inseminação de animais sem a detecção do estro. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o custo por prenhez da monta natural [MN] e da IATF em fêmeas pluríparas em um rebanho de corte. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: MN (n = 150 e IATF (n = 150. O custo por prenhez incluiu itens como vida útil do touro, depreciação, remuneração do capital e remuneração de funcionários, entre outros. O custo na MN foi calculado a partir de um valor de compra de R$ 9.000,00, taxa de prenhez de 75% e proporção de um touro para 30 vacas. Na IATF foi baseado na taxa de prenhez de 87% e valor do serviço por animal de R$ 60,00. O custo por prenhez foi de R$ 117,62 e R$ 217,66 para a MN e a IATF, respectivamente. As vantagens da utilização da IATF foram, maior taxa de prenhez no início da estação de monta, antecipação de partos, formação de lotes de bezerros mais pesados a desmama e diminuição do descarte involuntário. Desta forma, apesar de um investimento inicial maior, a IATF teve um bom custo/benefício e rentabilidade. = The future of beef cattle and consequently its profitability are tied to the optimization of land use, since in many states its area has been occupied by agriculture. One of the alternatives is the use of breeding biotechnologies, such as fixed-time artificial insemination [FTAI], which allows the insemination of animals without the detection of estrus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pregnancy cost of natural mating [NM] and FTAI in pluriparous females in a beef herd. The animals were divided into two groups: NM (n = 150 and FTAI (n = 150. The cost per pregnancy included

  17. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120 Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Rodrigues Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 ± 1.1h vs. 13.8 ± 2.6h vs. 13.3 ± 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 ± 7.3h vs. 29.6 ± 3.2h vs. 32.8 ± 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times was effective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset

  18. Wombat reproduction (Marsupialia; Vombatidae): an update and future directions for the development of artificial breeding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Lindsay A; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    This review provides an update on what is currently known about wombat reproductive biology and reports on attempts made to manipulate and/or enhance wombat reproduction as part of the development of artificial reproductive technology (ART) in this taxon. Over the last decade, the logistical difficulties associated with monitoring a nocturnal and semi-fossorial species have largely been overcome, enabling new features of wombat physiology and behaviour to be elucidated. Despite this progress, captive propagation rates are still poor and there are areas of wombat reproductive biology that still require attention, e.g. further characterisation of the oestrous cycle and oestrus. Numerous advances in the use of ART have also been recently developed in the Vombatidae but despite this research, practical methods of manipulating wombat reproduction for the purposes of obtaining research material or for artificial breeding are not yet available. Improvement of the propagation, genetic diversity and management of wombat populations requires a thorough understanding of Vombatidae reproduction. While semen collection and cryopreservation in wombats is fairly straightforward there is currently an inability to detect, induce or synchronise oestrus/ovulation and this is an impeding progress in the development of artificial insemination in this taxon.

  19. Comparison between an exclusive in vitro-produced embryo transfer system and artificial insemination for genetic, technical, and financial herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, K; Block, J; Hansen, P J; De Vries, A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest. Each donor was assumed to yield on average 4.25 transferable embryos per collection. The remaining animals in the herd were used as recipients and received either a fresh embryo or a frozen embryo when fresh embryos were not available. Selection of donors was random or based on the greatest estimated breeding value (EBV) of lifetime net merit (NM$), milk yield, or daughter pregnancy rate. For both the IVP-ET and AI systems, culling of surplus heifer calves not needed to replace culled cows was based on the lowest EBV for the same traits. A herd of 1,000 milking cows was simulated 15 yr over time after the start of the IVP-ET system. The default cost to produce and transfer 1 embryo was set at $165. Prices of fresh embryos at which an exclusive IVP-ET system financially breaks even with the comparable AI system in yr 15 and for an investment period of 15 yr were also estimated. More surplus heifer calves were sold from the IVP-ET systems than from the comparable AI systems. The surplus calves from the IVP-ET systems were also genetically superior to the surplus calves from the comparable AI systems, which might be reflected in their market value as a premium price. The most profitable scenario among the 4 IVP-ET scenarios in yr 15 was the one in which NM$ was maximized in the herd. This scenario had an additional profit of $8/cow compared with a

  20. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  1. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS cows in experiment 1 initiated on Day -18, and on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of eCG or no treatment. Ovarian structures were determined in a subset of cows (n = 31) on Days -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, and on Day 10. Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. The results indicated that in experiment 1, plasma progesterone was higher in treated than nontreated (control cows) during the first 14 days (P = 0.0001). The extended progesterone treatment increased the size of the largest follicle between Days -23 and Day -5 (Group by Day, P = 0.04) and tended to increase the size of the dominant follicle from Day -5 to Day -1 (Group by Day, P = 0.06). There was no effect of metabolic status or interaction between metabolic status and day on follicular growth. In experiment 2, extended progesterone treatment tended to increase the

  2. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Guida, T G; Lopes, F R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-01

    Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF 2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α ) on d -2, and TAI on d 0; or (2) 2CIDR: 2 CIDR + 2 mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, 1 CIDR withdrawn + PGF 2α on d -4, second CIDR withdrawn + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α on d -2, and TAI on d 0. Milk yield was measured daily between d 0 and d 7. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at d 0 and 7, and elevated body temperature was defined as an average rectal temperature ≥39.1°C. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. We detected no effect of treatments on pregnancy per AI or pregnancy loss regardless of elevated body temperature, body condition score, parity, milk yield, or presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) on d -11 or d -4. Pregnancy per AI at 60 d was reduced [elevated body temperature = 22.8% (162/709), no elevated body temperature 34.1% (279/817)] and pregnancy loss tended to increase [elevated body temperature = 20.2% (41/203), no elevated body temperature 14.4% (47/326)] in cows with elevated body temperature. Various physiological measurements associated with greater fertility were also reduced in cows with elevated body temperature, such as percentage of cows with a CL at PGF 2α (decreased 7.9%), ovulatory follicle diameter (decreased 0.51 mm), expression of estrus (decreased 5.1%), and ovulation near TAI (decreased 2.8%) compared with cows without elevated body temperature. A

  3. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  4. The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaisri, Chaidate; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Noordhuizen, Jos; Hogeveen, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3-6 weeks after parturition, blood samples and ruminal fluid were collected. Body condition scores (BCS) of cows were scored 1 week before expected calving date and at blood sampling date. Ruminal pH was measured at 2-4 h after morning feeding in ruminal fluid collected by ruminocentesis. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and serum urea nitrogen were measured by kinetic enzyme method. Cows with first insemination (AI) between 41 and 114 days postpartum were identified after pregnancy diagnosis for FCR. Breed, parity, interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, BCS after calving, loss in BCS after calving, SBHB, SUN, ruminal pH, and postpartum problems were selected as independent variables for a model with FCR as a dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used with farm as a random effect. Overall FCR was 27.2 %. The FCR depended on interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, and ruminal pH. The FCR between 69 and 91 days postpartum was significantly highest (45 %). Before calving, a cow with high BCS (≥ 3.5) had significantly greater FCR than a cow with low BCS (≤ 3.25; P<0.01). An increased ruminal pH raised significantly FCR (OR=2.53; P=0.03).

  5. Demonstration of artificial intelligence technology for transit railcar diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report will be of interest to railcar maintenance professionals concerned with improving railcar maintenance fault-diagnostic capabilities through the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. It documents the results of a demonstration ...

  6. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this parameter (355-395 days) has implications for peri-parturient management procedures for the species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial intelligence applications in information and communication technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguila, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    This book presents various recent applications of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication Technologies such as Search and Optimization methods, Machine Learning, Data Representation and Ontologies, and Multi-agent Systems. The main aim of this book is to help Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) practitioners in managing efficiently their platforms using AI tools and methods and to provide them with sufficient Artificial Intelligence background to deal with real-life problems.  .

  8. The Role of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Crisis Response

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    2008-01-01

    Crisis response poses many of the most difficult information technology in crisis management. It requires information and communication-intensive efforts, utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In this paper, we explore the benefits of artificial intelligence technologies in crisis response. This paper discusses the role of artificial intelligence technolo...

  9. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their response mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the current state of- the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  10. Identification of constraints and implementation of corrective measures for improving the efficiency of artificial insemination services in dairy cattle through the use of progesterone RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echevarria, L.; Huanca, W.; Delgado, A.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive parameters were determined in seven dairy farms with intensive system of management in Lima, Peru. Calving to first service interval (CSI) was determined in 552 dairy cows and calving to conception interval (CCI) in 249 cows, in relation to the effects of parity (uniparous and multiparous), breed (Holstein and Brown Swiss), farm and calving season (G1: summer, December to April; G2: winter, May to August; G3: spring, September to November). Data was analyzed by General Linear Model (GLM), and Survival Analysis. The overall CSI (Mean ± SD) was 81.1 ± 35 days (n=552) and CCI was 113 ± 61 days (n=249). Parity and calving season significantly influenced CSI. CSI was 89.9 ± 3.80 days (LS ± SE) in uniparous cows (n=148) and 81.3 ± 2.65 days in multiparous cows (n=404; P<0.01), while it was 87.3 ± 2.72, 68.8 ± 2.87 and 100.9 ± 5.72 days for G1 (n=271); G2 (n=215) and G3 (n=66), respectively (P<0.01). CCI for the same groups were 117.4 ± 4.6, 95.0 ± 6 and 154.6 ± 12 days, respectively, with significant differences between G2 and the other groups (P<0.01). Parity had no significant influence on CCI. Calving to ovulation interval (COI) was 45 ± 19.9 days (n=65) and there were significant effects of body condition score at calving, season of calving and farm. The COI was 42.8 ± 2.6 days for cows calving during spring, while it was 23.2 ± 6.1 days for those calving during summer. Cows inseminated during spring had 3.0 more risk probability of wrong insemination. Overall conception rate and first service conception rate were influenced by study period, calving season, service number and origin of semen. Cows calving from September to April had the poorest reproductive indices and should be included in a special breeding management program to improve their performance. (author)

  11. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  12. Endometrial IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, mRNA expression in mares resistant or susceptible to post-breeding endometritis. Effects of estrous cycle, artificial insemination and immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumuso, Elida; Giguère, Steeve; Wade, José; Rogan, Dragan; Videla-Dorna, Ignacio; Bowden, Raúl A

    2003-11-15

    Endometrial mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was assessed in mares resistant (RM) or susceptible (SM) to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBE). Eight RM and eight SM, were selected based on reproductive records and functional tests out of a herd of 2,000 light cross-type mares. Three experiments were done to study transcription patterns in (i) basal conditions; (ii) after artificial insemination (AI); and (iii) after administration of an immunomodulator at time of artificial insemination. Endometrial biopsies were taken during consecutive cycles: (i) at estrus, when follicles reached 35 mm and at diestrus (7 +/- 1 days after ovulation); (ii) at 24 h post-AI, with dead semen (estrus) and in diestrus; (iii) at 24 h after treatment with a Mycobacterium phlei cell-wall extract (MCWE) preparation and AI (with dead semen), and at diestrus. mRNA expression was quantitated by real time PCR. Under basal conditions, SM had significantly higher mRNA expression of all cytokines in estrus and of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in diestrus, compared to RM. After AI, there were no differences between RM and SM in estrus; however, mRNA expression for all three pro-inflammatory cytokines was higher than under basal conditions. In diestrus, RM showed significantly lower IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression than SM. When MCWE was administered at time of AI, no differences between cytokine induction from RM and SM were found. Globally, mRNA expression for all three cytokines correlated well among themselves when expression was high. The present study showed that (i) in basal conditions RM had lower mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines than SM with no effect of estrous cycle; (ii) AI upregulated mRNA expression for all three cytokines in both RM and SM, with persistance in diestrus in the latter; (iii) treatment with MCWE at time of AI down-regulated mRNA expression

  13. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZAÇÃO DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORÁRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three groups according to the AI or FTAI protocol. A group of cows was artificial inseminated according estrous detection after 10 days of definitive weaning during a period of 30 days (EW-AI, n= 53. Estrous synchronization programs to FTAI were carried out in two groups in different moments after EW. In the group EW-FTAI (n= 50, cows were treated at the moment calves were removed while in EW-FTAI 10 (n= 50 the hormonal treatment began 10 days later.  The hormonal treatment consisted of an intravaginal implant containing 1,9g of Progesterone, for 8 days, and an injection of  Estradiol benzoate (EB, 2mg, im. When the dispositives were removed, 75mcg of Cloprostenol were injected, im, and after 24 hours, 1mg of EB, im. Cows were fixed-time artificial inseminated 52 to 56 hours after implants removal. In TW-FTAI group (n= 52, cows were treated with the same hormonal therapy, but a temporary weaning of 60 hours was done after the implant removal and the FTAI moment. The breeding season was 60 days in EW-FTAI and TW-FTAI groups, 50 days in EW-FTAI10 group and 30 days in EW-AI group. In a sample of 20% of cows ovaries were scanned by ultrasound and it was determined that 55% of the cows were in anestrous. Follicular diameters were determined at beginning of hormonal treatment and at FTAI moment in cows submitted to estrous synchronization (EW-FTAI= 10, EW-FTAI10= 10 and TW-FTAI= 10 by ultrasound. The means of follicular diameters were not different (P>0.05 between groups

  14. Artificial Intelligence Applications to High-Technology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence to improve occupational instruction in complex subjects with high performance goals, such as those required for high-technology jobs. Highlights include intelligent computer assisted instruction, examples in space technology training, intelligent simulation environments, and the need for adult training…

  15. Intrauterine Insemination: Fundamentals Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2017-12-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an assisted conception technique that involves the deposition of a processed semen sample in the upper uterine cavity, overcoming natural barriers to sperm ascent in the female reproductive tract. It is a cost-effective, noninvasive first-line therapy for selected patients with functionally normal tubes, and infertility due to a cervical factor, anovulation, moderate male factor, unexplained factors, immunological factor, and ejaculatory disorders with clinical pregnancy rates per cycle ranging from 10 to 20%. It, however, has limited use in patients with endometriosis, severe male factor infertility, tubal factor infertility, and advanced maternal age ≥ 35 years. IUI may be performed with or without ovarian stimulation. Controlled ovarian stimulation, particularly with low-dose gonadotropins, with IUI offers significant benefit in terms of pregnancy outcomes compared with natural cycle or timed intercourse, while reducing associated COH complications such as multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Important prognostic indicators of success with IUI include age of patient, duration of infertility, stimulation protocol, infertility etiology, number of cycles, timing of insemination, number of preovulatory follicles on the day of hCG, processed total motile sperm > 10 million, and insemination count > 1 × 106 with > 4% normal spermatozoa. Alternative insemination techniques, such as Fallopian tube sperm perfusion, intracervical insemination, and intratubal insemination, provide no additional benefit compared to IUI. A complete couple workup that includes patient history, physical examination, and clinical and laboratory investigations is mandatory to justify the choice in favor of IUI and guide alternative patient management, while individualizing the treatment protocol according to the patient characteristics with a strict cancelation policy to limit multi-follicular development may help optimize IUI

  16. Artificial Intelligence In Automatic Target Recognizers: Technology And Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-12-01

    The recognition of targets in thermal imagery has been a problem exhaustively analyzed in its current localized dimension. This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to automatic target recognition, a concept capable of expanding current ATR efforts into a new globalized dimension. Deficiencies of current automatic target recognition systems are reviewed in terms of system shortcomings. Areas of artificial intelligence which show the most promise in improving ATR performance are analyzed, and a timeline is formed in light of how near (as well as far) term artificial intelligence applications may exist. Current research in the area of high level expert vision systems is reviewed and the possible utilization of artificial intelligence architectures to improve low level image processing functions is also discussed. Additional application areas of relevance to solving the problem of automatic target recognition utilizing both high and low level processing are also explored.

  17. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  18. The Potential Role of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education has traditionally a technology-based focus, looking at the ways in which AI can be used in building intelligent educational software. In addition AI can also provide an excellent methodology for learning and reasoning from the human experiences. This paper presents the potential role of AI in…

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Educational Technology: A Natural Synergy. Extended Abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Gordon I.

    Educational technology and artificial intelligence (AI) are natural partners in the development of environments to support human learning. Designing systems with the characteristics of a rich learning environment is the long term goal of research in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). Building these characteristics into a system is extremely…

  20. EFFECT OF TIMING OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ON THE FERTILITY AND SEX RATIO IN NELORE HEIFERS INFLUÊNCIA DO MOMENTO DA INSEMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL SOBRE A FERTILIDADE E O SEXO DA CRIA DE NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Almeida de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of artificial insemination on the fertility and calf sex ratio in Nelore heifers (n = 200 submitted a protocol of timed artificial insemination (TAI.  The heifers, distributed into five groups (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 and GT24, presented a mean of 2.5 years old and 342 Kg of body weight. The inseminations were performed in the moments 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 and 24 (GT24 hours after the injection of GnRH. The conception rates were 87.5% (GC, 82.5% (GT6, 77.5% (GT12, 85.0% (GT18 and 77.5% (GT24. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 in the conception rates between the five treatments. The percentage of calved males was 38.2% (GC, 48.5% (GT6, 45.2% (GT12, 55.9% (GT18 and 58.6% (GT24. The male/female ratio was 0.62 (GC, 0.94 (GT6, 0.82 (GT12, 1.27 (GT18 and 1.42 (GT24. Statistical difference was found (p<0.05 in the male/female ratio between the five treatments. The timing of artificial insemination has influence on the sex ratio, showing an increase in the proportion of calved males when the insemination is progressively delayed. Within of the measured interval of time (0-24h after GnRH, the fertility of Nelore heifers is not influenced by the moment of the artificial insemination.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, management, pregnancy test, ultrasound, sexing. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do momento da inseminação artificial (IA sobre a fertilidade e a proporção do sexo da cria de novilhas da raça Nelore (n = 200 submetidas a protocolo de IATF. As novilhas, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 e GT24, apresentavam idade média de 2,5 anos e peso médio de 342 kg. Realizaram-se as inseminações nos momentos 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 e 24 (GT24 horas após a aplicação do GnRH. As taxas de concepção foram de 87,5% (GC, 82,5% (GT6, 77,5% (GT12, 85,0% (GT18 e de 77,5% (GT24. Não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05 entre as taxas de

  1. Mês de parição, condição corporal e resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte primíparas Calving date, body condition score, and response to a timed artificial insemination protocol in first-calving beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meneghetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No experimento I, foi avaliada a alteração da condição corporal (CC pré e pós-parto em 155 novilhas inseminadas para parir de setembro a dezembro. A CC foi avaliada mensalmente no pré e pós-parto, de junho a fevereiro. No experimento II, 538 vacas primíparas foram sincronizadas com o protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF que usou estradiol junto ao dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona (CIDR®. As taxas de ciclicidade, sincronização e concepção foram avaliadas por ultra-som. No experimento I, os animais que pariram primeiro tiveram maior (PIn experiment I, it was evaluated the body condition score (BCS change during pre and post-partum in 155 heifers, inseminated to calve from September to December. The BCS was monthly evaluated from June to February, during the pre and post-partum periods. In experiment II, 538 primiparous cows were synchronized with a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol which used estradiol associated with an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR®. The cyclicity, synchronization, and conception rates were evaluated by ultrasound. In experiment I, the animals that calved earlier had higher (P<0.001 reduction on BCS. In experiment II, it was observed higher BCS (P<0.0001 in cows with lower days in post-partum, higher (P<0.05 synchronization rate in cows with a better BCS, and also an increase (P<0.0001 in conception rate as BCS got better (increase in six percentual points in conception for each increase of 0.25 in BCS. Beef heifers should not calve earlier when is planned to submitt these animals to TAI at the beginning of the next breeding season.

  2. Donor insemination: eugenic and feminist implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, F A

    2001-09-01

    One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction.

  3. History of artificial cold, scientific, technological and cultural issues

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The history of artificial cold has been a rather intriguing interdisciplinary subject (physics, chemistry, technology, sociology, economics, anthropology, consumer studies) which despite some excellent monographs and research papers, has not been systematically exploited. It is a subject with all kinds of scientific, technological as well as cultural dimensions. For example, the common home refrigerator has brought about unimaginably deep changes to our everyday lives changing drastically eating habits and shopping mentalities. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st, issues related to the production and exploitation of artificial cold have never stopped to provide us with an incredibly interesting set of phenomena, novel theoretical explanations, amazing possibilities concerning technological applications and all encompassing cultural repercussions. The discovery of the unexpected and “bizarre” phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity, the necessity to incorporate macroscopi...

  4. COMPARISON BETWEEN ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE AND GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE AS OVULATION SYNCHRONIZATION TREATMENTS FOR FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION PROGRAMS IN BRAHMAN-CROSS HEIFERS IN A SUBTROPICAL REGION OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dominguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization protocols with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices (CIDR and PGF2α were evaluated, with GnRH or estradiol cypionate (ECP added for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI in five counties in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Brahman-cross heifers (≥15 months old were selected based on body condition (≥3 on a 5-point scale and confirmed ovarian activity. The six treatments (n = 320 each were: T1 (9-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 9, ECP on day 10, FTAI 54 h after removal; T2 (7-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, ECP on day 8, FTAI 54 h after removal; T3 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T4 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 6, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T5 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 60 h after removal; and T6 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI alone 48 h after removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed ultrasonically 45 days after FTAI. Analyses included pregnancy rates and treatment costs (hormones and handling. Pregnancy rates ranged from 31.6 ± 3.9 to 48.0 ± 10.6%; neither treatment nor county affected these rates (p > 0.05. In conclusion, the inclusion of treatment costs showed two more economical treatments (T2 using estradiol or T3 using GnRH under the nutritional, weather and handling conditions present in the tropical region of southeastern Tamaulipas.

  5. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  6. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  7. Artificial intelligence and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Artificial Intelligence Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Task Team was organized to review the status of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, identify guidelines for AI work, and to identify work required to allow the nuclear industry to realize maximum benefit from this technology. The state of the nuclear industry was analyzed to determine where the application of AI technology could be of greatest benefit. Guidelines and criteria were established to focus on those particular problem areas where AI could provide the highest possible payoff to the industry. Information was collected from government, academic, and private organizations. Very little AI work is now being done to specifically support the nuclear industry. The AI Task Team determined that the establishment of a Strategic Automation Initiative (SAI) and the expansion of the DOE Technology Transfer program would ensure that AI technology could be used to develop software for the nuclear industry that would have substantial financial payoff to the industry. The SAI includes both long and short term phases. The short-term phase includes projects which would demonstrate that AI can be applied to the nuclear industry safely, and with substantial financial benefit. The long term phase includes projects which would develop AI technologies with specific applicability to the nuclear industry that would not be developed by people working in any other industry

  8. Inseminação artificial de éguas Percheron e Bretão com sêmen fresco diluído em água de côco e leite em pó desnatado Artificial insemination of Percheron and Breton breed mares with fresh semen diluted in extenders with skimmed powder milk and coconut water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Reprodução Animal e no Setor de Eqüideocultura da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período de setembro/97 a março/98, com o objetivo de testar os efeitos de dois diluidores na inseminação artificial de éguas das raças Percheron e Bretão. Foi utilizado um garanhão da raça Percheron e dezesseis éguas, as quais foram inseminadas com sêmen fresco, diluído em meios formulados à base de leite de vaca em pó desnatado (LD e à base de água de côco (AC. As inseminações foram realizadas quando se observaram folículos ovarianos com 3,5 cm de diâmetro. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito éguas em cada tratamento. Para as análises utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e análise de variância. A análise dos dados mostrou que não houve diferença (P > 0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o índice de prenhez das éguas no primeiro, segundo e terceiro ciclos estrais, no número de inseminações artificiais fecundas e não-fecundas, na prenhez/inseminação artificial (IA, no índice de prenhez total, na IA/prenhez e entre a motilidade progressiva e o vigor dos espermatozóides após diluição. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que os dois meios foram eficientes na inseminação artificial dessas raças de éguas, utilizando-se o sêmen fresco.This experiment was carried out at Animal Reproduction Laboratory and Equine Section of the Experimental Farm of Universidade Estadual de Maringá, in the period of September 97 trough March 98. The objective was to study the effects of two extenders on artificial insemination (AI of Percheron and Breton breeding mares. One Percheron stallion and sixteen mares were used. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen diluted in two extenders formulated with skimmed powder cow milk (LS and coconut water (AW on the day ovarian follicles with 3.5 cm of diameter were observed. They. were alloted in a

  9. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  10. Effect of season, late embryonic mortality and progesterone production on pregnancy rates in pluriparous buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) after artificial insemination with sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domenico; Neglia, Gianluca; Bella, Antonino; Prandi, Alberto; Senatore, Elena M; Gasparrini, Bianca; Presicce, Giorgio A

    2013-03-01

    The use of sexed semen technology in buffaloes is nowadays becoming more and more accepted by farmers, to overcome the burden of unwanted male calves with related costs and to more efficiently improve production and genetic gain. The aim of this study was to verify the coupling of some variables on the efficiency of pregnancy outcome after deposition of sexed semen through AI. Pluriparous buffaloes from two different farms (N = 152) were screened, selected, and subjected to Ovsynch protocol for AI using nonsexed and sexed semen from four tested bulls. AI was performed in two distinct periods of the year: September to October and January to February. Neither farms nor bulls had a significant effect on pregnancy rates pooled from the two periods. The process for sexing sperm cells did not affect pregnancy rates at 28 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 44/73 (60.2%) and 50/79 (63.2%), P = 0.70, and at 45 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 33/73 (45.2%) and 33/79 (49.3%), P = 0.60. Pregnancy rate at 28 days after AI during the transitional period of January to February was higher when compared with September to October, respectively 47/67 (70.1%) versus 47/85 (55.2%), P = 0.06. When the same pregnant animals were checked at Day 45 after AI, the difference disappeared between the two periods, because of a higher embryonic mortality, respectively 32/67 (47.7%) versus 40/85 (47.0%), P = 0.93. Hematic progesterone concentration at Day 10 after AI did not distinguish animals pregnant at Day 28 that would or would not maintain pregnancy until Day 45 (P = 0.21). On the contrary, when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI, the difference in progesterone concentration between pregnant animals that would maintain their pregnancy until Day 45 was significant for both pooled (P = 0.00) and nonsexed (P = 0.00) and sexed semen (P = 0.09). A similar trend was reported when blood samples were taken at Day 25, being highly significant

  11. Effect of resynchronization with GnRH or progesterone (P4) intravaginal device (CIDR) on Day 23 after timed artificial insemination on cumulative pregnancy and embryonic losses in CIDR-GnRH synchronized Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Usman; Qayyum, Arslan; Hassan, Mubbashar; Husnain, Ali; Sattar, Abdul; Ahmad, Nasim

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of resynchronization on Day 23 with either GnRH or P4 (controlled internal drug release device containing progesterone; CIDR) on pregnancy rate, cumulative pregnancy, and embryonic and fetal losses in CIDR-GnRH synchronized Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Buffaloes (n = 181) of mixed parity, lactating, 181 ± 73 days postpartum, a body condition score (BCS) of 3.2 ± 0.5 (scale of 1-5), and 450-600 kg weight were subjected to synchronization and resynchronization. All buffaloes received CIDR on Day -9.5. In addition, GnRH was injected 36 h after CIDR removal, and timed artificial insemination (TAI) was performed 18 h later (Day 0). On Day 23, buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: 1) CON (n = 63), 2) P4 (n = 55), and 3) GnRH (n = 63) for resynchronization (2nd AI). Pregnancy rate, and embryonic and fetal losses were monitored by serial ultrasonography on Days 30, 45, 60, and 90 after synchronization (1st TAI), respectively. The pregnancy rate in GnRH-treated buffaloes remained significantly and consistently higher (P  0.05) between the OVS and CIDR groups; whereas the, cumulative pregnancy rate in GnRH + OVS buffaloes (81%) after 1st and 2 nd AI when determined on Day 64 was higher (P losses were significantly lower (P losses were fewer and did not differ (P > 0.05) due to treatments on Day 60 or 90 post 1st AI. In conclusion, 1) the pregnancy rate and cumulative pregnancy rate in GnRH-treated buffaloes were higher than in CON buffaloes on Day 64 after synchronization and resynchronization, and 2) embryonic and fetal losses were lower in GnRH-treated buffaloes than in CON buffaloes when determined from Day 31-90 post 1st TAI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Belloso, E.; Portillo Martinez, G.; De Ondiz, A.; Rojas, N.; Soto Castillo, G.; Aranguren, J.; Ramirez Iglesia, L.; Perera, F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  13. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to generate a reliable field data set and analyze it to determine reproductive parameters/indices. A total of 280 and 400 households keeping 158 and 709 cows and heifers in Rwanda and Tanzania respectively were studied. Reproductive events: dates of heat, AI or NS, service number, sire ...

  14. Assessment on problems associated with artificial insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cedures, and poor management of AI bulls associated with poor motivations and skills of ..... edition. Mississippi State University. Pearson, Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, ... In: proceedings of the 13th annual conference of the Ethio-.

  15. Artificial insemination of Argora goat does with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with fresh or deep-frozen semen. The results achieved were. 76,7o/o;90oh and 34,804 respectively. Although a signif icanily lower kidding percentage was obtained when frozen semen was used, these results warrant further investigation of techni- ques for freezing goat semen. S. Af r. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, 13: 134 - 135.

  16. Human technology after cardiac epigenesis. Artificial heart versus cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losman, J G

    1977-09-24

    Cardiovascular disease is the chief cause of death in technologically advanced countries and accounts for more than 50% of all deaths in the USA. For a patient with end-stage cardiac failure the only treatment presently available is organ replacement, either by transplantation or by the use of a mechanical heart. Transplantation has demonstrated its value: survival of more than 8 years and restoration of a normal quality of life to patients who were in end-stage cardiac decompensation. However, the prospect of routine clinical application of an artificial heart remains distant. The development of a totally implantable artificial heart still presents a series of challenging engineering problems with regard to strict constraints of size, weight, blood-material compatibility, adaptability of output to demand, efficiency and reliability of the power supply, and safety if nuclear fuel is used. The totally artificial heart is presently not an alternative to the cardiac allograft, but could provide short-term support for patients awaiting cardiac transplantation.

  17. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  18. An artificial ecosystem model used in the study of social, economic and technological dynamics: An artificial electrical energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will present the artificial ecosystem as a tool, in the development of multi agent models for the simulation of economic and technological dynamics (as well as other possible applications). This tool is based on the mechanics of an artificial society and consists of autonomous artificial agents that interact with individuals that have different characteristics and behavior and other that have a similar conduct to their own. Initial conditions are assumed not to be controllable, however they can be influenced. The importance of the concept of the ecosystem is in understanding great units in the light of their own components which are relevant for the analysis and become interdependent among themselves and with other essential components that hold the total operation of the system. Ideas for the development of a simulation model based on autonomous intelligent agents are presented. These agents will have a brain that is based on artificial intelligence technologies. The Sand Kings Simulation Model, an artificial ecosystem model developed by the author, is described as well as the application of artificial intelligence to this artificial life model. An application to a real life problem is also offered as an artificial energy market that is currently being developed by the author is described

  19. Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biondi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”.

  20. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  1. Randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of different timing and number of fixed timed artificial inseminations, following a seven-day progesterone-based protocol, on pregnancy outcomes in UK dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John Paul; Coates, Amy; Lima, Fabio; Smith, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect on pregnancy outcome of either inseminating heifers twice (at 48 and 72 hours after withdrawal of a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing progesterone) or once (56 hours after CIDR withdrawal) following a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol. Dairy heifers (n=267) from five farms, with an age range of 388-736 days, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (group A heifers were inseminated twice; group B heifers were inseminated once). Both groups received a CIDR on day (D) 0 and an intramuscular injection of d-cloprostenol on D6; the CIDR was withdrawn on D7. Measurements of withers height, body condition score and hearth girth (used to estimate weight) were taken on D0. The diameter of the largest follicles and corpora lutea was recorded on both D0 and D6. Data were analysed with the use of multivariable logistic regression modelling. Treatment group and farm were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy per treatment (P/T). Age and dominant follicle size on D6 were significantly associated with P/T. Heifers with the largest dominant follicle sizes (16-22 mm) were 5.54 times less likely to be pregnant than those heifers with the smallest dominant follicles (8-10 mm) on D6. It was shown that the cost associated with inseminating heifers twice after a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol is not justified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Analysis of Computer-Aided and Artificial Intelligence Technologies and Solutions in Service Industries in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rezanov, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this research study was to investigate the relationship between Computer-Aided and Artificial Intelligence Technologies and customer satisfaction in the context of businesses in Russia. The research focuses on methods of Artificial Intelligence technology application in business and its effect on customer satisfaction. The researcher introduces Artificial Intelligence and studies the forecasting approaches in relation to business operations. The rese...

  3. Feeling the ovaries prior to insemination. Clinical implications for improving the fertility of the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2011-07-01

    During the periovulatory period in dairy cattle, the largest ovarian follicle can be felt by palpation per rectum as a firm/soft follicle (young preovulatory follicle), a very soft follicle separating it from the remainder of the ovary (mature preovulatory follicle), or an evacuated follicle (follicle associated with ovulation). Because any one of these three follicle types may be present at the time of artificial insemination, the objective of this study was to identify possible differences between the effects of a firm/soft, very soft, or evacuated ovarian follicle on fertility. Out of a study sample of 2365 inseminations, very soft, firm/soft, and evacuated follicles were recorded in 1689 (71%), 593 (25%), and 83 (3.5%) inseminations, respectively. Logistic regression analysis indicated no significant effects of largest follicle type, vaginal discharge, season, days in milk, parity, synchronized or natural estrus, and semen-providing bull on the pregnancy rate. The only variable included in the final logistic regression model was the interaction season-follicle type. This interaction determined that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased significantly by factors of 0.86 or 0.82 in cows with a firm/soft follicle inseminated during the cool or warm period, respectively, and by a factor of 0.09 in cows with evacuated follicles inseminated during the warm period, using as reference cows with a very soft follicle inseminated during the cool period (yielding the highest pregnancy rate). As an overall conclusion, the state of the periovulatory follicle at insemination was clearly related to fertility and masked the effects of factors commonly affecting fertility such as parity, days in milk at AI and inseminating bull. More importantly they suggest that by including ovarian follicle checks in artificial insemination routines, the success of this procedure could be improved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Making Artificial Heart Components – Selected Aspects Of Casting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczak J.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shown possibilities of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RP and metal casting simulation software (MCSS, including non inertial reference systems. RP and MCSS have been used in order to design and produce essential elements for artificial heart. Additionally it has been shown possibilities of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and DodJet technology using prototyped elements of rotodynamic pump. MAGMASOFT® software allowed to verify the cast kit heart valves model. Optical scanner Atos III enabled size verification of experimental elements supplied by rapid prototyping together with metal casting elements. Due to the selection of ceramic materials and assessment of molten metal – ceramic reactivity at high temperatures together with pattern materials selection model it was possible to design, manufacture a ceramic mould for titanium based alloys. The casting structure modification has been carried out by means of high isostatic pressure technique (HIP. The quality assessment of the casting materials has been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, ARL 4460 Optical Emission Spectrometer, metallographic techniques and X-ray computed tomography.

  5. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Qu, Ruowei; Baranowski, Thomas; Burke, Lora E; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Yicheng; Mancino, Juliet M; Xu, Guizhi; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-03-26

    To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable device, called eButton, from free-living individuals. Three thousand nine hundred images containing real-world activities, which formed eButton data set 1, were manually selected from thirty subjects. eButton data set 2 contained 29 515 images acquired from a research participant in a week-long unrestricted recording. They included both food- and non-food-related real-life activities, such as dining at both home and restaurants, cooking, shopping, gardening, housekeeping chores, taking classes, gym exercise, etc. All images in these data sets were classified as food/non-food images based on their tags generated by a convolutional neural network. A cross data-set test was conducted on eButton data set 1. The overall accuracy of food detection was 91·5 and 86·4 %, respectively, when one-half of data set 1 was used for training and the other half for testing. For eButton data set 2, 74·0 % sensitivity and 87·0 % specificity were obtained if both 'food' and 'drink' were considered as food images. Alternatively, if only 'food' items were considered, the sensitivity and specificity reached 85·0 and 85·8 %, respectively. The AI technology can automatically detect foods from low-quality, wearable camera-acquired real-world egocentric images with reasonable accuracy, reducing both the burden of data processing and privacy concerns.

  6. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  7. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CAPABILITIES FOR INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL RELIABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Alexander Vital`evich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The technology of artificial intelligence is actively being mastered in the world but there is not much talk about the capabilities of artificial intelligence in construction industry and this issue requires additional elaboration. As a rule, the decision to invest in a particular construction project is made on the basis of an assessment of the organizational and technological reliability of the construction process. Artificial intelligence can be a convenient quality tool for identifying, analyzing and subsequent control of the “pure” risks of the construction project, which not only will significantly reduce the financial and time expenditures for the investor’s decision-making process but also improve the organizational-technological reliability of the construction process as a whole. Subject: the algorithm of creation of artificial intelligence in the field of identification and analysis of potential risk events is presented, which will facilitate the creation of an independent analytical system for different stages of construction production: from the sketch to the working documentation and conduction of works directly on the construction site. Research objectives: the study of the possibility, methods and planning of the algorithm of works for creation of artificial intelligence technology in order to improve the organizational-technological reliability of the construction process. Materials and methods: the developments in the field of improving the organizational and technological reliability of construction were studied through the analysis and control of potential “pure” risks of the construction project, and the work was also carried out to integrate the technology of artificial intelligence into the area being studied. Results: An algorithm for creating artificial intelligence in the field of identification of potential “pure” risks of construction projects was presented. Conclusions: the obtained results are useful

  8. Artificial Intelligence Research at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Patrick H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary goal of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory is to understand how computers can be made to exhibit intelligence. Two corollary goals are to make computers more useful and to understand certain aspects of human intelligence. Current research includes work on computer robotics and vision, expert systems, learning and commonsense reasoning, natural language understanding, and computer architecture.

  9. Imagining the thinking machine: technological myths and the rise of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Simone; Ballatore, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the role of technological myths in the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies from 1950s to the early 1970s. It shows how the rise of AI was accompanied by the construction of a powerful cultural myth: the creation of a thinking machine, which would be able to perfectly simulate the cognitive faculties of the human mind. Based on a content analysis of articles on Artificial Intelligence published in two magazines, the Scientific American and the New Sc...

  10. Microorganisms applying for artificial soil regeneration technology in space greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivobok, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    increased up to 30 % from initial roots dry weight. When the bacterial association derived from organic compost was used, the roots dry weight reduction was not exceeded 20 % in liquid state fermentation after 21 days. But the total cellulose was quietly steady, only the readily accessible soluble fractions were consumed. It was found that the most promising microorganisms for pointed task are anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum F9 and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725. It has been shown that its' in the liquid medium with the roots residuals during 10 days provides root biomass degradation up to 45 % and double decrease of crystalline cellulose. It's known that one of the possible ways to improve biodegradation process efficiency is applying of physical-chemical pretreatment for plant biomass. We used the pretreatment of BIONA substrate in microwave irradiation in 0,7 % sodium hydroxide water solution with addition of 0,5 % of hydrogen peroxide. It has allowed hydrolyzing the roots biomass partially and making the cellulose portion accessible to subsequent biodegradation. The alkaline pretreatment and the subsequent degradation by anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, had lead to root biomass decrease up to 85% during 10 days. The examined procedure has allowed to restore the initial pore space volume of BIONA substrate and its' hydro-physical properties. It has made used-up BIONA suitable for the subsequent plant cultivation. The obtained results are the basis for future development of fibrous artificial soils regeneration technologies particularly for space greenhouses

  11. Using an artificial agent as a behavior model to promote assistive technology acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukidou, Sofia; Ham, Jaap; Matzat, Uwe; Midden, Cees

    2018-01-01

    Despite technological advancements in assistive technologies, studies show high rates of non-use. Because of the rising numbers of people with disabilities, it is important to develop strategies to increase assistive technology acceptance. The current research investigated the use of an artificial

  12. Nascimento de bezerros normais após inseminação artificial utilizando espermatozóides criopreservados obtidos de epidídimos refrigerados de bovinos após a morte Birth of normal calves after artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from refrigerated epididymides of death bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Melo Costa

    2011-05-01

    epidydimides for long periods and cryopreserved. Bovine testicles were collected in abattoir, transported to the laboratory and stored at 5°C for 0, 24, 48h e 72 hours (n=10 for each storage time treatment group. The spermatozoa were retrieved from each epidydimides, evaluated and diluted in tris-egg yolk-glycerol 7% medium and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The morphological and functional characteristics of the spermatozoa were analyzed in vitro, by microscopic evaluation and in vivo, using artificial insemination. Morphological alterations as sperm immaturity and motility reduction decreased after 72h of epididymides refrigeration and after thaw sperm were observed. The membrane and acrosome integrity were only affected in G48 and G72 groups after cryopreservation. However, the sperm capacity of fertilization post-cryopreservation was sufficient to promote two pregnancies and birth of healthy calves from G24 h and G72h groups. These results indicated that recovery and cryopreservation of chilled epididymal sperm until 72h from dead animals is a viable option to preserve male gametes to compose a germplasm bank.

  13. Impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of cows nellore under pasture in fixed time artificial insemination (tai programImpacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas da raça nelore sob regime de pasto em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (iatf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Christine Nascimento Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of body condition on pregnancy rate of Nellore cows, commercial herd undergoing artificial insemination programs in fixed time (TAI. 181 cows were used multiparous Nellore, the coastal plains region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with more than one hundred days after birth, kept on pasture and divided into two groups subjected to the same synchronization protocol for TAI (D0-2 , 0 mg of estradiol benzoate + device with 1.0 g bovine intravaginal progesterone implant removal D8-250?g of cloprostenol + + 300 IU of eCG, D9-Bz 1.0 mg. Estradiol, D10-TAI. The groups were divided according to body condition score (BCS with scale of 1-5 in Group I, n=96: BCS ? 3,0, Group II, n=85: BCS ? 2.5 ? 2.0. All females were exposed to bulls, from 24 hours to pass after TAI, remaining with them until the end of the breeding season. The overall pregnancy rate was 86.5% (83:96 and 65.9% (56:85 for group I and group II, respectively. Data were evaluated by chi-square analysis and the results show a statistically significant difference (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da condição corporal sobre a taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore, rebanho comercial, submetidas a programas de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 181 vacas multíparas da raça Nelore, na região das baixadas litorâneas do estado do RJ, com mais de cem dias decorridos do parto, mantidas em regime de pasto e divididas em dois grupos submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de sincronização para IATF (D0- 2,0mg de benzoato de estradiol + dispositivo intravaginal bovino com 1,0g de progesterona, D8- retirada do implante + 250?g de cloprostenol sódico+ 300 UI de eCG, D9- 1,0mg Bz. Estradiol, D10- IATF. Os grupos foram divididos segundo escore de condição corporal (ECC com escala de 1-5 em: grupo I, n=96: vacas com ECC ? 3,0 e grupo II, n=85: vacas com ECC ? 2,5 ? 2,0. Todas as fêmeas foram expostas aos touros, a partir

  14. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats = Uso do mesmo CIDR por até três vezes para sincronização do estro e inseminação artificial de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 ƒÝg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, thesame hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 „b 1.1h vs. 13.8 „b 2.6h vs. 13.3 „b 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 „b 7.3h vs. 29.6 „b 3.2h vs. 32.8 „b 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times waseffective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilizacao do mesmo dispositivo de liberacao controlada de drogas (CIDR por ate tres vezes sobre odesempenho reprodutivo de cabras leiterias exploradas no semiarido do Nordeste Brasileiro. Foram utilizadas 45 cabras divididas em tres tratamentos de sincronizacao do estro, sendo: CIDR1x, tratadas com CIDR novo durante nove dias. Dois dias antes da retirada do dispositivo, foram aplicados 75 ƒÝg de d-cloprostenol e 300 UI de gonadotrofina corionica equina (eCG. Para os demais tratamentos, foi utilizado o mesmo protocolo hormonal, diferindo apenas pelo uso do mesmo CIDR pela segunda vez no grupo CIDR2x e uso pela terceira vez no grupo CIDR3x. O intervalo entre

  15. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment. To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable devic...

  16. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  17. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  18. Efficacy of a combined protocol for re-insemination of open cows after early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography and its effect on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Gaja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present field study was to establish the beneficial effects of re-insemination of non-pregnant cows using ultrasonography 20 to 23 days after the artificial insemination. A total of 245 Japanese Black cows were artificially inseminated and early pregnancy diagnosis (EPD was performed on 92 cows 20 days after insemination, using ultrasonography. The remaining 153 cows were considered as negative controls in which routine rectal palpation was performed for pregnancy diagnosis 45-50 days post-insemination. EPD revealed that eleven of the 92 cows (12% were infertile due to ovarian abnormalities and were thus excluded from the rest of the study. Forty-eight (59% of the remaining 81 cows were diagnosed as pregnant, while the other 33 (41% were diagnosed as non-pregnant. Of these non-pregnant cows, 17 of them received a dose of an analogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue and were then timed-inseminated, while the other 16 were observed for estrus signs, and 13 of them (81% were artificially inseminated. Rates of conception were 35% and 38% in the GnRH and the artificially inseminated groups, respectively (P>0.05. Total pregnancy rate for the EPD group increased significantly (74% (P<0.01 when compared to the control cows (54% within the same period. In conclusion, our field study demonstrated that re-insemination of non-pregnant cows following EPD is highly efficacious not only in improving the rate of fertility via reducing inter-insemination and inter-calving intervals, but also aids in the early detection of ovarian disorders.

  19. 75 FR 62844 - Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the challenges in...] Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an... a public workshop entitled ``Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical...

  20. Using Computer-Based Artificial Intelligence Technology to Help ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis M.

    This paper discusses ways in which artificial intelligence (AI) technologies may be used to aid students for whom English is a second language in the development of language and reading skills, and asserts that the coupling of technology with close adult-teacher contacts within a context of cultural precedents and social rewards is an important…

  1. The 1995 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Emerging Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Carl F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication comprises the papers presented at the 1995 Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Emerging Information Technologies held at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, on May 9-11, 1995. The purpose of this annual conference is to provide a forum in which current research and development directed at space applications of artificial intelligence can be presented and discussed.

  2. Applying artificial intelligence to astronomical databases - a surveyof applicable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D. A.

    This paper surveys several emerging technologies which are relevant to astronomical database issues such as interface technology, internal database representation, and intelligent data reduction aids. Among the technologies discussed are natural language understanding, frame and object representations, planning, pattern analysis, machine learning and the nascent study of simulated neural nets. These techniques will become increasingly important for astronomical research, and in particular, for applications with large databases.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  4. Effect of the anticipation of the of application of prostaglandin on the reproductive performance of beef cattle cows submitted to artificial insemination in fixed time Antecipação da aplicação de prostaglandina, em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Macedo Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anticipation of the application of prostaglandin F2alfa (PGF2a was evaluated for the use of fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. Three hundred and six Aberdeen Angus cows, aged between 3 and 6 years old, with calves at side had been used. The animals were randomly distributed in 4 groups. All animals were synchronized through intravaginal device with progesterone for 8 days (CIDR®, estradiol and PGF2a. The treatments was designed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (CIDR® 1º x 2º use and the day of the PGF2a application (6.5th x 8 th day. Seven days after the FTAI clean up bulls were joined until the ending of the breeding season. The conception rate to the FTAI and final pregnancy rate were evaluated. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a (6.5th day had significant effect (P<0.05 on the conception rate at the FTAI and final pregnancy rate, respectively of 60.9% and 89.1% when compared with the animals that had received PGF2a in the 8 th day, respectively of 49.3% and 76.7%. The 1th or 2th use of the intravaginal device had presented differences (P<0.05 in the conception rate (61.1% and 49.7%, however without effect in the final pregnancy (P>0.05, respectively of 82.6 and 83.4%. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a increased the pregnancy rate significantly at the FTAI and the final pregnancy. The previous use of the CIDR® affected the percentage of pregnancy at the FTAI, but it did not affect the final pregnancy. The cow’s age and the body condition score had not effect on the conception rate to the FTAI and the final pregnancy.Avaliou-se o efeito da antecipação da aplicação da prostaglandina F2alfa (PGF2a em programa de sincronização do estro com progesterona para o uso de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 306 vacas Aberdeen Angus, com cria ao pé e idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 4 grupos sincronizados através de

  5. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron beam lithographic modeling assisted by artificial intelligence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayamada, Noriaki; Nishimura, Rieko; Miura, Satoru; Nomura, Haruyuki; Kamikubo, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new concept of tuning a point-spread function (a "kernel" function) in the modeling of electron beam lithography using the machine learning scheme. Normally in the work of artificial intelligence, the researchers focus on the output results from a neural network, such as success ratio in image recognition or improved production yield, etc. In this work, we put more focus on the weights connecting the nodes in a convolutional neural network, which are naturally the fractions of a point-spread function, and take out those weighted fractions after learning to be utilized as a tuned kernel. Proof-of-concept of the kernel tuning has been demonstrated using the examples of proximity effect correction with 2-layer network, and charging effect correction with 3-layer network. This type of new tuning method can be beneficial to give researchers more insights to come up with a better model, yet it might be too early to be deployed to production to give better critical dimension (CD) and positional accuracy almost instantly.

  7. Pregnancy outcome of home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR with intravaginal insemination (IVI by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s: Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s: Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage.

  8. Pregnancy Outcome of Home Intravaginal Insemination in Couples with Unconsummated Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaberi; Singla, Bhavana

    2017-01-01

    Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR) with intravaginal insemination (IVI) by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s): Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s): Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage. PMID:29430157

  9. Prediction of shipboard electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems using artificial intelligence (AI) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David J.

    1990-08-01

    The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.

  10. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V ampersand V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility

  11. Keeping Pace with New Technology: An Introduction to Robotics, FORTH, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Gene

    A course was developed to introduce students at a community college to four major areas of emphasis in emerging technologies: FORTH programming language, elementary electronic theory, robotics, and artificial intelligence. After a needs assessment indicated the importance of such a course, a pretest focusing on the four areas was given to students…

  12. Artificial intelligence to maximise contributions of nondestructive evaluation to materials science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Rajagopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E), in relation to materials science and technology. It suggests a path of growth for Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, taking into account the increase in data and knowledge. We recommend Artificial Intelligence (AI) concepts for maximising the contributions of and benefits from, Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. (author)

  13. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  14. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    quite simple intrauterine insemination technique which may be performed in developing countries, without the need of sophisticated ... Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), are quite ... were administered only once by intramuscular injection ...

  15. Cryopreservation of artificial gut microbiota produced with in vitro fermentation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bircher, Lea; Schwab, Clarissa; Geirnaert, Annelies; Lacroix, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Summary Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active ‘artificial’ colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v)...

  16. Protein subcellular localization prediction using artificial intelligence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajesh; Rost, Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    Proteins perform many important tasks in living organisms, such as catalysis of biochemical reactions, transport of nutrients, and recognition and transmission of signals. The plethora of aspects of the role of any particular protein is referred to as its "function." One aspect of protein function that has been the target of intensive research by computational biologists is its subcellular localization. Proteins must be localized in the same subcellular compartment to cooperate toward a common physiological function. Aberrant subcellular localization of proteins can result in several diseases, including kidney stones, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. To date, sequence homology remains the most widely used method for inferring the function of a protein. However, the application of advanced artificial intelligence (AI)-based techniques in recent years has resulted in significant improvements in our ability to predict the subcellular localization of a protein. The prediction accuracy has risen steadily over the years, in large part due to the application of AI-based methods such as hidden Markov models (HMMs), neural networks (NNs), and support vector machines (SVMs), although the availability of larger experimental datasets has also played a role. Automatic methods that mine textual information from the biological literature and molecular biology databases have considerably sped up the process of annotation for proteins for which some information regarding function is available in the literature. State-of-the-art methods based on NNs and HMMs can predict the presence of N-terminal sorting signals extremely accurately. Ab initio methods that predict subcellular localization for any protein sequence using only the native amino acid sequence and features predicted from the native sequence have shown the most remarkable improvements. The prediction accuracy of these methods has increased by over 30% in the past decade. The accuracy of these methods is now on par with

  17. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  18. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied.

  19. Application of Artificial Intelligence technology to the analysis and synthesis of reliable software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Christian; Eckhardt, Dave

    1987-01-01

    The development of a methodology for the production of highly reliable software is one of the greatest challenges facing the computer industry. Meeting this challenge will undoubtably involve the integration of many technologies. This paper describes the use of Artificial Intelligence technologies in the automated analysis of the formal algebraic specifications of abstract data types. These technologies include symbolic execution of specifications using techniques of automated deduction and machine learning through the use of examples. On-going research into the role of knowledge representation and problem solving in the process of developing software is also discussed.

  20. Cryopreservation of artificial gut microbiota produced with in vitro fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Schwab, Clarissa; Geirnaert, Annelies; Lacroix, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active 'artificial' colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v) and inulin (5% w/v) alone and in combination, in preserving short-chain fatty acid formation and recovery of major butyrate-producing bacteria in three artificial microbiota during cryopreservation for 3 months at -80°C. After 24 h anaerobic fermentation of the preserved microbiota, butyrate and propionate production were maintained when glycerol was used as cryoprotectant, while acetate and butyrate were formed more rapidly with glycerol in combination with inulin. Glycerol supported cryopreservation of the Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale group, while inulin improved the recovery of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Eubacterium hallii growth was affected minimally by cryopreservation. Our data indicate that butyrate producers, which are key organisms for gut health, can be well preserved with glycerol and inulin during frozen storage. This is of high importance if artificially produced colonic microbiota is considered for therapeutic purposes. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Artificial intelligence and exponential technologies business models evolution and new investment opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a huge breakthrough technology that is changing our world. It requires some degrees of technical skills to be developed and understood, so in this book we are going to first of all define AI and categorize it with a non-technical language. We will explain how we reached this phase and what historically happened to artificial intelligence in the last century. Recent advancements in machine learning, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence technology will be addressed, and new business models introduced for and by artificial intelligence research will be analyzed. Finally, we will describe the investment landscape, through the quite comprehensive study of almost 14,000 AI companies and we will discuss important features and characteristics of both AI investors as well as investments. This is the “Internet of Thinks” era. AI is revolutionizing the world we live in. It is augmenting the human experiences, and it targets to amplify human intelligence in a future not so distant from...

  2. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. METHODS: From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074...... insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. RESULTS: In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical...... pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 26.9% and 30.3%, respectively. For ICSI, the corresponding rates were 28.5% and 30.9%. After IUI-H, the clinical pregnancy rate was 12.6% per insemination in women IVF and ICSI, the distribution of transfer of one, two, three and four or more...

  3. Sustainable Technology Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Using Bayesian and Social Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI have led to a significant increase in the use of AI technologies. Many experts are researching and developing AI technologies in their respective fields, often submitting papers and patent applications as a result. In particular, owing to the characteristics of the patent system that is used to protect the exclusive rights to registered technology, patent documents contain detailed information on the developed technology. Therefore, in this study, we propose a statistical method for analyzing patent data on AI technology to improve our understanding of sustainable technology in the field of AI. We collect patent documents that are related to AI technology, and then analyze the patent data to identify sustainable AI technology. In our analysis, we develop a statistical method that combines social network analysis and Bayesian modeling. Based on the results of the proposed method, we provide a technological structure that can be applied to understand the sustainability of AI technology. To show how the proposed method can be applied to a practical problem, we apply the technological structure to a case study in order to analyze sustainable AI technology.

  4. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  5. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  6. Economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination of a cowhhhh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Most dairy farmers are not certain whether immediate insemination or delaying the insemination is the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus. A model was developed for determining, based on herd and cow characteristics, the economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination. The model

  7. Applying artificial intelligence technology to support decision-making in nursing: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Hung; Hsu, Pei-Ti; Chu, William; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2015-06-01

    This study applied artificial intelligence to help nurses address problems and receive instructions through information technology. Nurses make diagnoses according to professional knowledge, clinical experience, and even instinct. Without comprehensive knowledge and thinking, diagnostic accuracy can be compromised and decisions may be delayed. We used a back-propagation neural network and other tools for data mining and statistical analysis. We further compared the prediction accuracy of the previous methods with an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system and the back-propagation neural network, identifying differences in the questions and in nurse satisfaction levels before and after using the nursing information system. This study investigated the use of artificial intelligence to generate nursing diagnoses. The percentage of agreement between diagnoses suggested by the information system and those made by nurses was as much as 87 percent. When patients are hospitalized, we can calculate the probability of various nursing diagnoses based on certain characteristics. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  9. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for a rational use of the procedure so that couples do not waste time and money on ineffective therapy if it is not indicated. Objective: ... of intrauterine insemination procedures at a fertility center in Ondo, ... significant reduction in the side effects associated with the .... HMG alone or in combination with other drugs for ovarian.

  10. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  11. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  12. Acceptability of artificial insemination by donor among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenges, and about 2 million new couples are affected annually. One method ... guilt, anger, loss of self-esteem, and withdrawal,[8] the cost-effectiveness cannot be ... Forty-six (43.4%) respondents attributed their decision to religious bias.

  13. The Potential use of Artificial Insemination in sustainable Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable Breeding of Dairy Goats in Developing countries: A Case Study of Norwegian Dairy Goats' in Tanzania ... With this 55% conception rate, a total of 13 kids were born, out of which three died shortly after birth. Norwegian bucks born ...

  14. factors related to the use of artificial insemination by subsistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve dairy production, service providers should make AI more accessible; educate farmers on breeding to enhance their appreciation of AI; encourage record keeping, and help improve milk marketing, disease control, and communication infrastructure. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  15. Oestrus synchronization with fixed-time artificial insemination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2017, 47 (No. 2) .... situated at 1010 m above sea level and receives annual rainfall of ..... The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest for this study ... smallholder pig production systems in a mountainous region of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China.

  16. GnRH injection before artificial insemination (AI) alters follicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... releasing hormone (GnRH) injection on day 6 of the estrous cycle. The estrous cycles ... follicle at the time of GnRH injection (Silcox et al., 1993;. Twagiramungu .... Waves and their Effect on pregnancy rate in the Cow. Reprod.

  17. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  18. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  19. How People Interact with Technology based on Natural and Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the different forms of intelligence within organizations in a systemic and inclusive vision, in order to design an integrated environment based on Artificial Intelligence (AI and Collective Intelligence (CI. This way we effectively shift the classical approaches of connecting people with people using collaboration tools (which allow people to work together, such as videoconferencing or email, groupware in virtual space, forums, workflow, of connecting people with a series of content management knowledge (taxonomies and documents classification, ontologies or thesauri, search engines, portals, to the current approaches of connecting people on the use (automatic of operational knowledge to solve problems and make decisions based on intellectual cooperation. Few technologies have the big potential to review how we live, move, and work. Artificial intelligence (AI is nowdays equivalent of electricity and the Internet. AI is expected to bring massive shifts in how people perceive and interact with technology, with machines performing a wider range of tasks, in many cases doing a better job than humans.

  20. Artificial pinning center technology to enhance vortex pinning in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Mele, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Crystalline defects on the nano-scale, which are called artificial pinning centers (APCs), were successfully introduced into high-temperature superconductors (HTS) by nanotechnology, in order to strongly pin the quantized vortices. The critical current densities, J c , of the HTS films were dramatically improved by APCs. It is possible to form APCs in high-quality epitaxial films, keeping the desired dimensionality, volume fraction, spatial distribution and so on. The in-field J c of HTS films at 77 K was improved by one order of magnitude compared with previous values using APCs. This technology can be applied to the coated conductor technology in progress, and a high J c has already been reported. A current outline of the research is described in this review.

  1. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 'From the moment of conception...': the Vatican instruction on artificial procreation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Michael J

    1988-10-01

    An analysis is presented of Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origins and on the Dignity of Procreation, the official response of the Catholic Church to moral questions raised by the new reproductive technologies which sets down ethical guidelines for the treatment to be accorded human embryos and for procreative techniques from artificial insemination to surrogate motherhood. The document is viewed in the perspective of earlier Church pronouncements, such as The Declaration on Procured Abortion , and its definition of a person as an individual animated by a rational soul is explored in detail for its implications for discussions on the personhood of the human embryo.

  3. NOVEL APPROACH TO IMPROVE GEOCENTRIC TRANSLATION MODEL PERFORMANCE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yevenyo Ziggah

    Full Text Available Abstract: Geocentric translation model (GTM in recent times has not gained much popularity in coordinate transformation research due to its attainable accuracy. Accurate transformation of coordinate is a major goal and essential procedure for the solution of a number of important geodetic problems. Therefore, motivated by the successful application of Artificial Intelligence techniques in geodesy, this study developed, tested and compared a novel technique capable of improving the accuracy of GTM. First, GTM based on official parameters (OP and new parameters determined using the arithmetic mean (AM were applied to transform coordinate from global WGS84 datum to local Accra datum. On the basis of the results, the new parameters (AM attained a maximum horizontal position error of 1.99 m compared to the 2.75 m attained by OP. In line with this, artificial neural network technology of backpropagation neural network (BPNN, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and generalized regression neural network (GRNN were then used to compensate for the GTM generated errors based on AM parameters to obtain a new coordinate transformation model. The new implemented models offered significant improvement in the horizontal position error from 1.99 m to 0.93 m.

  4. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  5. Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) applications in Turkey as viewed by feminists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinoglu-Pelin, S

    2002-01-01

    Since 1979, a lot of couples have benefited, in terms of having babies, from Artificial Reproductive Technologies (ART). In Turkey, there are presently about 20 centres in existence for this purpose where two approved sets of regulations are in operation; the second being an improved form of the former. In this paper, ART applications in Turkey, as viewed by feminists, will be discussed. During ART, the body of the woman concerned is directly involved. And after every application, the possibility of not having a living baby can adversely affect the physical and psychological state of the woman in question with the trauma being sometimes beyond endurance. In the two sets of approved regulations mentioned above, this application has been questioned in terms of ethics.

  6. Artificial Walking Technologies to Improve Gait in Cerebral Palsy: Multichannel Neuromuscular Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Butler, Erin E

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP. NMES may also be applied to specific lumbar-sacral sensory roots to reduce spasticity. Development of tablet computer-based multichannel NMES can leverage lightweight, wearable wireless stimulators, advanced control design, and surface electrodes to activate lower-limb muscles. Musculoskeletal models have been used to characterize muscle contributions to unimpaired gait and identify high muscle demands, which can help guide multichannel NMES-assisted gait protocols. In addition, patient-specific NMES-assisted gait protocols based on 3D gait analysis can facilitate the appropriate activation of lower-limb muscles to achieve a more functional gait: stance-phase hip and knee extension and swing-phase sequence of hip and knee flexion followed by rapid knee extension. NMES-assisted gait treatment can be conducted as either clinic-based or home-based programs. Rigorous testing of multichannel NMES-assisted gait training protocols will determine optimal treatment dosage for future clinical trials. Evidence-based outcome evaluation using 3D kinematics or temporal-spatial gait parameters will help determine immediate neuroprosthetic effects and longer term neurotherapeutic effects of step-initiated, multichannel NMES-assisted gait in children with spastic CP. Multichannel NMES is a promising assistive technology to help children with spastic CP achieve a more upright, functional gait. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and

  7. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyboe Andersen, A; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S; Ferraretti, A P; Kupka, M S; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G

    2009-06-01

    Results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2005 are presented in this ninth report. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers. From 30 countries, 923 clinics reported 418 111 treatment cycles including: IVF (118 074), ICSI (203 329), frozen embryo replacement (79 140), oocyte donation (ED, 11 475), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (5846) and in vitro maturation (247). Overall, this represents a 13.6% increase since 2004, partly due to inclusion of 28 417 cycles from Turkey. European data on intrauterine insemination using husband/partner's semen (IUI-H) and donor semen (IUI-D) were reported from 21 countries and included 128 908 IUI-H and 20 568 IUI-D cycles. In 16 countries where all clinics reported to the IVF register, 1115 cycles were performed per million inhabitants. For IVF, the clinical pregnancy rates per aspiration and per transfer were 26.9% and 30.3%, respectively. For ICSI, the corresponding rates were 28.5% and 30.9%. After IUI-H, the clinical pregnancy rate was 12.6% per insemination in women IVF and ICSI, the distribution of transfer of one, two, three and four or more embryos was 20.0%, 56.1%, 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively. Huge differences exist between countries. The distribution of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries after IVF and ICSI was 78.2%, 21.0% and 0.8%, respectively. This gives a total multiple delivery rate of 21.8% compared with 22.7% in 2004 and 23.1% in 2003. In women <40 years of age, IUI-H was associated with a twin and triplet pregnancy rate of 11.0% and 1.1%, respectively. Compared with earlier years, there was an increase in the reported number of ART cycles in Europe. Although fewer embryos were transferred per treatment, there was a marginal increase in pregnancy rates and a reduction in multiple deliveries.

  8. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  9. Elective Inactivation of Total Artificial Heart Technology in Non-Futile Situations: Inpatients, Outpatients and Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A.

    2004-01-01

    Total artificial heart technology as a potential clinical therapy raises the issue of elective device inactivation in both futile and non-futile situations. This article explores elective device inactivation in non-futile situations. In reply to such requests for inactivation, the medical team should reflect on the individual's decision-making…

  10. Artificial Metalloenzymes Based on the Biotin-Streptavidin Technology: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, Tillmann; Ward, Thomas R

    2016-09-20

    The biotin-streptavidin technology offers an attractive means to engineer artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs). Initiated over 50 years ago by Bayer and Wilchek, the biotin-(strept)avidin techonology relies on the exquisite supramolecular affinity of either avidin or streptavidin for biotin. This versatile tool, commonly referred to as "molecular velcro", allows nearly irreversible anchoring of biotinylated probes within a (strept)avidin host protein. Building upon a visionary publication by Whitesides from 1978, several groups have been exploiting this technology to create artificial metalloenzymes. For this purpose, a biotinylated organometallic catalyst is introduced within (strept)avidin to afford a hybrid catalyst that combines features reminiscent of both enzymes and organometallic catalysts. Importantly, ArMs can be optimized by chemogenetic means. Combining a small collection of biotinylated organometallic catalysts with streptavidin mutants allows generation of significant diversity, thus allowing optimization of the catalytic performance of ArMs. Pursuing this strategy, the following reactions have been implemented: hydrogenation, alcohol oxidation, sulfoxidation, dihydroxylation, allylic alkylation, transfer hydrogenation, Suzuki cross-coupling, C-H activation, and metathesis. In this Account, we summarize our efforts in the latter four reactions. X-ray analysis of various ArMs based on the biotin-streptavidin technology reveals the versatility and commensurability of the biotin-binding vestibule to accommodate and interact with transition states of the scrutinized organometallic transformations. In particular, streptavidin residues at positions 112 and 121 recurrently lie in close proximity to the biotinylated metal cofactor. This observation led us to develop a streamlined 24-well plate streptavidin production and screening platform to optimize the performance of ArMs. To date, most of the efforts in the field of ArMs have focused on the use of purified

  11. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  12. Developing de novo human artificial chromosomes in embryonic stem cells using HSV-1 amplicon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralli, Daniela; Monaco, Zoia L

    2015-02-01

    De novo artificial chromosomes expressing genes have been generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) and are maintained following differentiation into other cell types. Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small, functional, extrachromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes in human cells. De novo HAC are generated following delivery of alpha satellite DNA into target cells. HAC are characterized by high levels of mitotic stability and are used as models to study centromere formation and chromosome organisation. They are successful and effective as gene expression vectors since they remain autonomous and can accommodate larger genes and regulatory regions for long-term expression studies in cells unlike other viral gene delivery vectors currently used. Transferring the essential DNA sequences for HAC formation intact across the cell membrane has been challenging for a number of years. A highly efficient delivery system based on HSV-1 amplicons has been used to target DNA directly to the ES cell nucleus and HAC stably generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) at high frequency. HAC were detected using an improved protocol for hESc chromosome harvesting, which consistently produced high-quality metaphase spreads that could routinely detect HAC in hESc. In tumour cells, the input DNA often integrated in the host chromosomes, but in the host ES genome, it remained intact. The hESc containing the HAC formed embryoid bodies, generated teratoma in mice, and differentiated into neuronal cells where the HAC were maintained. The HAC structure and chromatin composition was similar to the endogenous hESc chromosomes. This review will discuss the technological advances in HAC vector delivery using HSV-1 amplicons and the improvements in the identification of de novo HAC in hESc.

  13. Climate factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination during the first months of the breeding season in Rasa Aragonesa ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, P.; Yániz, J.; Fantova, E.; Vicente-Fiel, S.; Palacín, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the impact of several climate variables on the pregnancy rate after cervical artificial insemination (AI) of Rasa Aragonesa ewes. Data were derived from 8,977 inseminations in 76 well-managed flocks performed during the first month of the breeding season (July to October). The following data were recorded for each animal: farm, year, month of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, inseminating ram, AI technician, and climatic variables such as mean, maximum and minimum temperature, mean and maximum relative humidity, rainfall, and mean and maximum temperature-humidity index (THI) for each day from day 12 before AI to day 14 post-AI. Means were furthermore calculated for the following periods around AI (day 0): -12 to 0, -2 to 0, AI day, 0 to 2, and 0 to 14. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the likelihood of pregnancy decreased when maximum temperature in the 2 days prior to AI was higher than 30 °C (by a factor of 0.81). Fertility was also lower for primiparous ewes and in multiparous ewes with more than five previous parturitions. Other factors with significant impact on fertility were flock, technician, inseminating ram, and a lambing-AI interval longer than 240 days. It was concluded that the 2 days prior to AI seems to be the period when heat stress had the greatest impact on pregnancy rate in Rasa Aragonesa ewes.

  14. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  15. Methodologic Guide for Evaluating Clinical Performance and Effect of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Medical Diagnosis and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ho; Han, Kyunghwa

    2018-03-01

    The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is currently an issue of great interest, especially with regard to the diagnostic or predictive analysis of medical images. Adoption of an artificial intelligence tool in clinical practice requires careful confirmation of its clinical utility. Herein, the authors explain key methodology points involved in a clinical evaluation of artificial intelligence technology for use in medicine, especially high-dimensional or overparameterized diagnostic or predictive models in which artificial deep neural networks are used, mainly from the standpoints of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. First, statistical methods for assessing the discrimination and calibration performances of a diagnostic or predictive model are summarized. Next, the effects of disease manifestation spectrum and disease prevalence on the performance results are explained, followed by a discussion of the difference between evaluating the performance with use of internal and external datasets, the importance of using an adequate external dataset obtained from a well-defined clinical cohort to avoid overestimating the clinical performance as a result of overfitting in high-dimensional or overparameterized classification model and spectrum bias, and the essentials for achieving a more robust clinical evaluation. Finally, the authors review the role of clinical trials and observational outcome studies for ultimate clinical verification of diagnostic or predictive artificial intelligence tools through patient outcomes, beyond performance metrics, and how to design such studies. © RSNA, 2018.

  16. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  17. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    , especially 14, 28, and 42 days pp, were associated with lower probability to inseminate a cow. Regarding the cows that were inseminated, no influence of BCS, BFT, or NEFA levels on pregnancy per artificial insemination was found. In conclusion, cows with higher loss of body condition and elevated NEFA concentrations had higher P4 concentrations during estrus, a reduced estrous activity and insemination rate, but no depression in pregnancy per artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional and medicinal characteristics of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus for applications in healthcare industry by artificial cultivation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrias davidianus, i. e. Chinese giant salamander (CGS, is one of the largest and oldest amphibians existing in the world and is also one of the valuable biological resources of China. Wild CGS has been threatened with extinction in the past decades due to over capturing, deterioration of natural environment, the slow breeding and growth of the wild species in nature. However, in the past twenty years, with the breakthrough and progress of artificial breeding technology by artificial insemination, the number of artificially cultivated CGS has increased rapidly. Artificially cultivated CGS can either be released to the CGS living environment to increase the population in nature or legally applied in food and medicinal industry as a feedstock due to the unique nutritional and medicinal values of CGS as recorded historically. In this review, the nutritional components, bioactive components and medicinal activities of the artificially cultivated CGS will be summarized. The mucus, skin, meat and bone of CGS contain many different bioactive substances thereby having various medicinal activities including anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, therapy of burn and anti-infection and other physiological functions. This paper will further discuss the potential applications of the artificially cultivated CGS in healthcare industry and prospects of future technological development. Keywords: Andrias davidianus, Artificial breeding, Chinese giant salamander, Functional foods, Medicinal activity, Natural resource protection, Nutrition

  19. Investigation of an artificial intelligence technology--Model trees. Novel applications for an immediate release tablet formulation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Q; Rowe, R C; York, P

    2007-06-01

    This study has investigated an artificial intelligence technology - model trees - as a modelling tool applied to an immediate release tablet formulation database. The modelling performance was compared with artificial neural networks that have been well established and widely applied in the pharmaceutical product formulation fields. The predictability of generated models was validated on unseen data and judged by correlation coefficient R(2). Output from the model tree analyses produced multivariate linear equations which predicted tablet tensile strength, disintegration time, and drug dissolution profiles of similar quality to neural network models. However, additional and valuable knowledge hidden in the formulation database was extracted from these equations. It is concluded that, as a transparent technology, model trees are useful tools to formulators.

  20. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in Brazil and defines, among other things, an act of donation and anonymity, in a way that addresses the question of autonomy. The need for the protection of subjects by way of terms of informed consent or informed refusal, ensuring that necessary information and clarification is made available both to the couple that decide to submit themselves to medically-assisted reproduction and to the donor, who should, in turn, give written assurance of his or her free consent and willingness to cede any rights regarding the gametes to the institution that has taken responsibility for them. All of this, in combination with veracity and confidentiality, are essential if anonymity between donor and recipient is to be upheld. This question of anonymity has been much discussed by scholars from various fields and various parts of the world.

  1. Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumar Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.

  2. Engineering Technology Of Fish Farming Floating Nets Cages On Polka Dot Grouper (Cromileptes Altivelis) Used Artificial Feed Enriched Phytase Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, Istiyanto; Rachmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    One solution is to utilize engineering technology cultivation floating cage net polka dot grouper (ducker grouper), which is given artificial feed enriched with phytase enzymes. The objectives of this study was to examine the use of technology engineering floating net on ducker grouper on artificial feed that is enriched with different dose phytase enzymes to accelerate growth and survival. The research method used ducker grouper fish size 15,5 ± 0,5 cm in the net cages unit (1 m x 1 m x 1 m), 250 fish per cage, using 12 cages. Each net-cages was made of polyethylens netting, mesh size 12.5 mm. with complete randomized design (CRD) 4 treatment and 3 replication were feed Artificial enriched of phytase enzyme with the doses of A (0 FTU · kg-1 diet), B (200 FTU · kg-1 diet), C (500 FTU · kg-1 diet), and D (800 FTU · kg-1 diet) phytase enzyme. Feed was given 2 times a day in the morning and afternoon with 5% biomass per day. Data includes the growth of absolute weight polka dot grouper, FCR, and survival rate analyzed variety and Test Tukey.The result of the research showed that the difference of artificial feeding enriched phytase enzyme significantly (P <0,05) to growth, food conversion ratio (FCR), survival rete of polka dot grouper. The best treatment at C (500 mg / kg of feed) increase growth of absolute weight of 128.75 g, 1.75 (FCR), and a survival rate of 93.5%.

  3. Endometrial Injury May Increase the Pregnancy Rate in Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: An Interventional Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Abdelmaabud, Karim H; Laban, Mohamed; Hassanin, Alaa S; Tharwat, Ahmed A; Aly, Tarek R; Elbohoty, Ahmed E; Elsayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Mohammed E; Sabaa, Haitham M; Abdelrazik, Azza A; Abdelhady, Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of endometrial injury using Pipelle catheter in the follicular phase (cycle day 5, 6, or 7) of the stimulation cycle on pregnancy rates in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in the Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from July 1, 2013 to August 31, 2015. Three hundred sixty women, 20 to 35 years of age, with patent fallopian tubes, mild male factor infertility, or unexplained infertility were recruited. Participants were allocated randomly into 2 groups: experimental arm and control arm. Women in the experimental arm underwent endometrial biopsy using a Pipelle catheter on day 5, 6, or 7 of the stimulation cycle combined with intrauterine insemination. Women in the control group underwent intrauterine insemination with no endometrial biopsy done. The primary outcomes were the clinical and chemical pregnancy rates. Data of 344 participants were statistically analyzed. The chemical pregnancy rate was 23.66% in the experimental arm and 10.85% in the control arm (P = .002). The clinical pregnancy rate was 18.93% in the experimental arm and 7.42% in the control arm (P = .003). Endometrial injury using a Pipelle catheter in the stimulation cycle may improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The Use of Video Technology for the Fast-Prototyping of Artificially Intelligent Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gary L.

    This paper describes the use of video to provide a screenplay depiction of a proposed artificial intelligence software system. Advantages of such use are identified: (1) the video can be used to provide a clear conceptualization of the proposed system; (2) it can illustrate abstract technical concepts; (3) it can simulate the functions of the…

  5. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained 1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  6. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  7. Epigenetic Consequences of Artificial Reproductive Technologies to the Bovine Imprinted Genes SNRPN, H19/IGF2 and IGF2R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel’s laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and foetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.

  8. A hurricane modification process, applying a new technology tested for warm cloud seeding to produce artificial rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T.; Martin, I.; Iha, K.

    A Hurricane Modification Process with application of a new clean technology attested for seeding warm clouds with collector pure water droplets of controlled size to produce artificial rains in warm clouds is proposed to modify the hurricanes in order to avoid their formation or to modify the trajectory or to weaken hurricanes in action The Process is based on the time-dependent effects of cloud droplets microphysical processes for the formation and growth of the natural water droplets inside the clouds releasing large volumes of Aeolian energy to form the strong rotative upside air movements A new Paradigm proposed explain the strong and rotative winds created with the water droplets formation and grow process releasing the rotative Aeolian Energy in Tornados and Hurricanes This theory receive the Gold Medal Award of the Water Science in the 7th International Water Symposium 2005 in France Artificial seeding in the Process studies condensing a specified percentage of the water vapor to liquid water droplets where we observe the release of larges intensity of the Aeolian energy creates the hurricanes producing appreciable perturbations With they rotating strong wind created by the water droplets releasing Aeolian energy The Amplitudes of these winds are comparable to natural disasters Once this natural thermal process is completely understood artificial process to modify the hurricanes become scientifically possible to avoid them to happen or to deviate their trajectory or to weaken the already formed hurricanes In this work

  9. Producing progeny from endangered birds of prey: Treatment of urine-contaminated semen and a novel intramagnal insemination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.M.; Gee, G.F.; Wildt, D.E.; Donoghue, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Wild raptors brought into an ex situ environment often have poor semen quality that is further compromised by urine contamination. Generally, it is believed that in birds, artificial insemination into the cloaca or caudal vagina of females requires large doses of high-quality spermatozoa to maximize fertility. In an effort to define and overcome some of the challenges associated with reproduction in wild raptors, the objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the frequency, impact, and remediation of urine contamination in fresh ejaculates for the purpose of maintaining sperm motility and viability in vitro, and 2) develop a deep insemination method that allows low numbers of washed sperm to be placed directly into the magnum to increase the probability of producing fertilized eggs. The species evaluated include golden eagle (Aquila chrysoetos), imperial eagle (A. adalberti), Bonelli's eagle (Hiernaetus fasciatus), and peregrine, falcon (Falco peregrinus). Semen samples were collected and pooled by species, and a minimum of 25 pooled ejaculates per species were evaluated for urine contamination, pH, sperm viability, and sperm motility; the samples were either unwashed or washed in neutral (pH 7.0) or alkaline (pH 8.0) modified Lake's diluent. Female golden eagles and peregrine falcons were inseminated via transjunctional, intramagnal insemination with washed spermatozoa from urine-contaminated samples. Urine contamination occurred in 36.8 +/- 12.8% (mean +/- SEM) golden eagle, 43.1 +/- 9.1% imperial eagle, 28.7 +/- 16.1% Bonelli's eagle, and 48.2 +/- 17.3% peregrine falcon ejaculates. The pH in urine-contaminated semen samples ranged from 6.48 +/- 0.3 to 6.86 +/- 0.2, and in noncontaminated samples it ranged from from 7.17 +/- 0.1 to 7.56 +/- 0.1. Sperm viability and motility were reduced (P golden eagle chick hatched after intramagnal insemination. This study demonstrates that urine contamination, a common and lethal acidifier in manually collected raptor

  10. The effect of intrauterine cephapirin treatment after insemination on conception rate in repeat breeder dairy cows subjected to the progesterone-based Ovsynch protocol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜMEN, Ahmet; MECİTOĞLU, Gülnaz YILMAZBAŞ; KESKİN, Abdulkadir; KARAKAYA, Ebru; ALKAN, Ali; TAŞDEMİR, Umut; OKUT, Hayrettin

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical endometritis contributes to repeat breeder syndrome in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of intrauterine cephapirin benzathine administration after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the conception rate (CR) in repeat breeder dairy cows. To determine the antibiotic effects, all cows (n = 335) that had more than 3 services with no clinical abnormalities of the reproductive tract received the same combined synchronisation protocol: an ear implant containing progestagen...

  11. How People Interact with Technology based on Natural and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the different forms of intelligence within organizations in a systemic and inclusive vision, in order to design an integrated environment based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Collective Intelligence (CI). This way we effectively shift the classical approaches of connecting people with people using collaboration tools (which allow people to work together, such as videoconferencing or email, groupware in virtual space, forums, workflow), of connecting people with...

  12. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  13. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  14. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  15. Breeding Responses of New Zealand White Does to Artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of artificial insemination on the reproductive performance of rabbits in the humid tropical conditions of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Eighteen post pubertal New Zealand White does aged 7-8 months and four matured bucks (8 months old) of the same New Zealand White ...

  16. Converging blockchain and next-generation artificial intelligence technologies to decentralize and accelerate biomedical research and healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Ojomoko, Lucy; Yanovich, Yury; Ostrovski, Alex; Botezatu, Alex; Prikhodko, Pavel; Izumchenko, Eugene; Aliper, Alexander; Romantsov, Konstantin; Zhebrak, Alexander; Ogu, Iraneus Obioma; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of data and recent advancements in artificial intelligence present the unprecedented opportunities in healthcare and major challenges for the patients, developers, providers and regulators. The novel deep learning and transfer learning techniques are turning any data about the person into medical data transforming simple facial pictures and videos into powerful sources of data for predictive analytics. Presently, the patients do not have control over the access privileges to their medical records and remain unaware of the true value of the data they have. In this paper, we provide an overview of the next-generation artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies and present innovative solutions that may be used to accelerate the biomedical research and enable patients with new tools to control and profit from their personal data as well with the incentives to undergo constant health monitoring. We introduce new concepts to appraise and evaluate personal records, including the combination-, time- and relationship-value of the data. We also present a roadmap for a blockchain-enabled decentralized personal health data ecosystem to enable novel approaches for drug discovery, biomarker development, and preventative healthcare. A secure and transparent distributed personal data marketplace utilizing blockchain and deep learning technologies may be able to resolve the challenges faced by the regulators and return the control over personal data including medical records back to the individuals. PMID:29464026

  17. Converging blockchain and next-generation artificial intelligence technologies to decentralize and accelerate biomedical research and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Ojomoko, Lucy; Yanovich, Yury; Ostrovski, Alex; Botezatu, Alex; Prikhodko, Pavel; Izumchenko, Eugene; Aliper, Alexander; Romantsov, Konstantin; Zhebrak, Alexander; Ogu, Iraneus Obioma; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-19

    The increased availability of data and recent advancements in artificial intelligence present the unprecedented opportunities in healthcare and major challenges for the patients, developers, providers and regulators. The novel deep learning and transfer learning techniques are turning any data about the person into medical data transforming simple facial pictures and videos into powerful sources of data for predictive analytics. Presently, the patients do not have control over the access privileges to their medical records and remain unaware of the true value of the data they have. In this paper, we provide an overview of the next-generation artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies and present innovative solutions that may be used to accelerate the biomedical research and enable patients with new tools to control and profit from their personal data as well with the incentives to undergo constant health monitoring. We introduce new concepts to appraise and evaluate personal records, including the combination-, time- and relationship-value of the data. We also present a roadmap for a blockchain-enabled decentralized personal health data ecosystem to enable novel approaches for drug discovery, biomarker development, and preventative healthcare. A secure and transparent distributed personal data marketplace utilizing blockchain and deep learning technologies may be able to resolve the challenges faced by the regulators and return the control over personal data including medical records back to the individuals.

  18. [The Identification of the Origin of Chinese Wolfberry Based on Infrared Spectral Technology and the Artificial Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Liu, Ming-de; Ji, Shou-xiang

    2016-03-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is established to find the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry quickly. In the paper, the 45 samples of Chinese wolfberry from different places of Qinghai Province are to be surveyed by FTIR. The original data matrix of FTIR is pretreated with common preprocessing and wavelet transform. Compared with common windows shifting smoothing preprocessing, standard normal variation correction and multiplicative scatter correction, wavelet transform is an effective spectrum data preprocessing method. Before establishing model through the artificial neural networks, the spectra variables are compressed by means of the wavelet transformation so as to enhance the training speed of the artificial neural networks, and at the same time the related parameters of the artificial neural networks model are also discussed in detail. The survey shows even if the infrared spectroscopy data is compressed to 1/8 of its original data, the spectral information and analytical accuracy are not deteriorated. The compressed spectra variables are used for modeling parameters of the backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the geographic origins of Chinese wolfberry are used for parameters of export. Three layers of neural network model are built to predict the 10 unknown samples by using the MATLAB neural network toolbox design error back propagation network. The number of hidden layer neurons is 5, and the number of output layer neuron is 1. The transfer function of hidden layer is tansig, while the transfer function of output layer is purelin. Network training function is trainl and the learning function of weights and thresholds is learngdm. net. trainParam. epochs=1 000, while net. trainParam. goal = 0.001. The recognition rate of 100% is to be achieved. It can be concluded that the method is quite suitable for the quick discrimination of producing areas of Chinese wolfberry. The infrared spectral analysis technology

  19. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  20. TECHNOLOGIES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AS THE FACTOR OF DIGITALIZATION OF ECONOMY IN RUSSIA AND IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of the market for high-tech goods and services based on deep learning technologies are estimated. Key investors and beneficiaries in the development of deep learning technologies were identified. The patent activity in the world is analyzed and the place of Russia in the patent landscape in the field of deep learning is determined. It is shown that most of the patent documents are concentrated in the portfolios of major US corporations, which are headed by Microsoft, IBM, Google, Yahoo. Among the leaders of the rating of patent holders are also the corporations of Japan and the Republic of Korea. High rates of growth of patent activity in China are noted. The prospects of the development of artificial intelligence technologies and deep learning in Russia are estimated. Special attention is paid to the fact that most of the research and development in this area is carried out in public research institutes and universities, while in the countries – technological leaders the driver of development of the direction is the business sector.

  1. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States

  2. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  3. Heart failure analysis dashboard for patient's remote monitoring combining multiple artificial intelligence technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G; Pettenati, M C; Miniati, R; Iadanza, E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an Heart Failure analysis Dashboard that, combined with a handy device for the automatic acquisition of a set of patient's clinical parameters, allows to support telemonitoring functions. The Dashboard's intelligent core is a Computer Decision Support System designed to assist the clinical decision of non-specialist caring personnel, and it is based on three functional parts: Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Follow-up management. Four Artificial Intelligence-based techniques are compared for providing diagnosis function: a Neural Network, a Support Vector Machine, a Classification Tree and a Fuzzy Expert System whose rules are produced by a Genetic Algorithm. State of the art algorithms are used to support a score-based prognosis function. The patient's Follow-up is used to refine the diagnosis.

  4. Research on reactor power controller based on artificial immune P and PID cascade control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai

    2014-01-01

    The Reactor Power control system usually adopts the traditional PID controller, the traditional PID controller can meet the operating requirements, but the control effect is not very good. In order to improve this condition, the paper proposes an immune P and PID cascade controller which based the immune mechanism of B-cell co-operating with T-cell, the nuclear power controller based on artificial immune is less reported. In order to verify and validate the control strategy, the designed controller debugs with the full-scope real-time simulation system of nuclear power plants. The simulation results shows that the immune controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the reactor system, and the immune controller is superior to the traditional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  5. Artificial heart pumps: bridging the gap between science, technology and personalized medicine by relational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Federica; Deng, Mario C

    2017-01-01

    In the US population of 300 million, 3 million have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and 300,000 have advanced heart failure. Long-term mechanical circulatory support will, within the next decade, be recommended to 30,000 patients annually in the USA, 3000 undergo heart transplantation annually. What do these advances mean for persons suffering from advanced heart failure and their loved ones/caregivers? In this perspective article, we discuss - by exemplifying a case report of a 27-year-old man receiving a Total Artificial Heart - a practice concept of modern medicine that fully incorporates the patient's personhood perspective which we have termed Relational Medicine™. From this case study, it becomes apparent that the successful practice of modern cardiovascular medicine requires the person-person encounter as a core practice element.

  6. Assistive Technology as an artificial intelligence opportunity: Case study of letter-based, head movement driven communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksztai-Réthey, Brigitta; Faragó, Kinga Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We studied an artificial intelligent assisted interaction between a computer and a human with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI). In order to speed up AAC, we extended a former study of typing performance optimization using a framework that included head movement controlled assistive technology and an onscreen writing device. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed with mathematical methods, manual interpretation and semi-supervised machine video annotation. As the result of our research, in contrast to the former experiment's conclusions, we found that our participant had at least two different typing strategies. To maximize his communication efficiency, a more complex assistive tool is suggested, which takes the different methods into consideration.

  7. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  8. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant Operator Advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Group in the Nuclear Engineering Program has designed and built an Operator Advisor (OA), an AI system to monitor nuclear power plant parameters, detect component and system malfunctions, dispose their causes, and provide the plant operators with the correct procedures for mitigating the consequences of the malfunctions. It then monitors performance of the procedures, and provides backup steps when specific operator actions fail. The OA has been implemented on Sun 4 workstations in Common Lisp, and has been interfaced to run in real time on the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-function simulator in the plant training department. The eventual goal for a fully functioning Operator Advisor would be to have reactor operators receive direction for all plant operations. Such a goal requires considerable testing of the system within limited malfunction boundaries, an extensive Verification ampersand Validation (V ampersand V) effort, a large knowledge base development effort, and development of tools as part of the system to automate its maintenance. Clearly, these efforts are beyond the scope of the feasibility effort expended during this project period. However, as a result of this project, we have an AI based platform upon which a complete system can be built

  9. Greywater as a sustainable water source: A photocatalytic treatment technology under artificial and solar illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumachidou, Sophia; Velegraki, Theodora; Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    Greywater considers being a highly reclaimable water source particularly important for water-stressed nations. In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial and solar illumination has been applied for the mineralization of simulated light greywater (effluents from dishwashers and kitchen sinks were excluded from the study). The effects on the process' efficiency of TiO 2 P25 catalyst's concentration, initial concentration of H 2 O 2 and Fe 3+ , pH of the solution, as well as the type of radiation, were evaluated in a bench-scale Pyrex reactor and a pilot-scale slurry fountain photoreactor. The treatment efficiency has been followed through the evolution of the organic matter content expresses as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Best results were obtained with the photo-Fenton-assisted TiO 2 photocatalytic process with 72% DOC removal after 210 min of bench scale treatment, while under the same photocatalytic conditions in the pilot reactor the DOC removal reached almost 64%. Moreover, the decrease in toxicity, phytotoxicity and biodegradability of the simulated wastewater has been observed after solar-induced photocatalytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advancing Predictive Hepatotoxicity at the Intersection of Experimental, in Silico, and Artificial Intelligence Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Keith; Bruckner, Dylan M; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2018-06-18

    Adverse drug reactions, particularly those that result in drug-induced liver injury (DILI), are a major cause of drug failure in clinical trials and drug withdrawals. Hepatotoxicity-mediated drug attrition occurs despite substantial investments of time and money in developing cellular assays, animal models, and computational models to predict its occurrence in humans. Underperformance in predicting hepatotoxicity associated with drugs and drug candidates has been attributed to existing gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in driving hepatic injury after these compounds perfuse and are metabolized by the liver. Herein we assess in vitro, in vivo (animal), and in silico strategies used to develop predictive DILI models. We address the effectiveness of several two- and three-dimensional in vitro cellular methods that are frequently employed in hepatotoxicity screens and how they can be used to predict DILI in humans. We also explore how humanized animal models can recapitulate human drug metabolic profiles and associated liver injury. Finally, we highlight the maturation of computational methods for predicting hepatotoxicity, the untapped potential of artificial intelligence for improving in silico DILI screens, and how knowledge acquired from these predictions can shape the refinement of experimental methods.

  11. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  12. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  13. Effects of piroxicam administration on pregnancy outcome in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, A; Mahboubi, M; Parsanezhad, M E; Alborzi, S; Younesi, M; Madadi, G

    2016-01-01

    Uterus contractibility is considered a powerful prognostic factor in predicting the embryo transfer outcome. Moreover, uterine contractions are known to be stimulated by prostaglandins which are produced by cyclooxygenase from arachidonic acid. As such, suppressing the inflammatory response and contractions using anti-inflammatory and relaxant agents is expected to result in increased success rate of embryo transfer and artificial insemination. To investigate the effect of piroxicam administration on the success rate in intrauterine insemination (IU) cycles in patients presenting with unexplained infertility. This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 260 women with unexplained infertility undergoing IUI cycles. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either piroxicam ten mg/day on days 4-6 after IUI or placebo (control group). The main outcome measures were number of IUI cycles, pregnancy, abortion, and multiple pregnancy rates. The pregnancy rate was found to be 25 (19.2%) and 16 (12.3%) in piroxicam and control groups, respectively (p = 0.039). Five patients (3.8%) in piroxicam group experienced twin pregnancy whereas only three patients (2.3%) in control group had twin pregnancy (p = 0.361). The pregnancy rate per cycle was also significantly higher in those who received piroxicam as compared to controls (11.16 vs. 6.66; p = 0.021). Administration of piroxicam after IUI is associated with decreased number of cycles, as well as increased pregnancy rate and pregnancy rate per cycle in IUI cycles. However, piroxicam did not have any effect on abortion, multiple pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates.

  14. Successful Intracervical Insemination and Characteristics of Anoa (Bubalus sp. Parturation Behavior in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anoa, which is the endemic animal in Indonesia, its population is unevitably decreasing, therefore anoa included in the list of endangered species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The experiment was aimed to apply the artificial insemination (AI technique for anoa and to examine their parturition behavior. The experiment involved 2 males and 5 females anoa at Taman Safari Indonesia Bogor. Semen was collected by electroejaculator, then evaluated and diluted in Tris-egg yolk extender. The anesthetized estrous females were inseminated intracervically with extended semen (100x106 sperm/1.0 mL. Females which did not show estrous signs during 2-3 cycles after AI were predicted pregnant, and therefore confirmed by ultrasonography. As a comparison, another predicted-pregnant female after natural mating was scanned. The results showed that intracervical AI resulted pregnancy in one female, and the gestation period of anoa was ranged from 313 d (AI to 324 d (natural mating. There were three stages of parturition process was observed: Stage 1 was characterized by the abdominal contraction and amniotic membrane rupture, Stage 2 was characterized by the fetal expulsions, and Stage 3 was characterized by the placental expulsions and ingestion of placenta by the dam. The duration of each stage of parturition was 6-8 h (stage 1, 30-60 min (stage 2, and 15-180 min (stage 3. It is concluded that AI technique was applicable to anoa in captivity, and the parturation behavior of anoa was comparable to buffalo and cattle. However, the fetal delivery occurred when the dam was in standing position and the dam ingested the placenta.

  15. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  16. Artificial intelligence in a technological production system of the set quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Karpov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This  article considers the expert system (ES as a subsystem of management information system technology of sausage products of a given quality. Given the typical structure of an automated expert system, upgraded under a set of interrelated operations of the technological process of production of cooked sausages. Describes the development of two main blocks of this expert system – a database and knowledge base, creating an information space. The work of ES is a sequence of steps, each of which is selected from the database for a rule that applies to the current contents of the working set. The cycle ends when withdrawn or denied the target claim. In our case, the system is designed as a system with direct output, in which the known facts is found the conclusion which from these facts follows. If such a conclusion is found, it is entered into working memory. The knowledge base of an expert system is created as a set of separate entities. The set of these entities allows you to generate objects of study, rules that they can conform, and recommendations for meeting these rules. A set of such entities with their attributes and relationships can be represented as a set of tuples. For the implementation of this approach developed an automated expert system of control of technological process of production of meat and sausage products – the program complex (PC “MulTimit Expert”. The effectiveness of using the developed expert system to control the technology of sausage products of a given quality are considered in one of the examples of the identification of technology defects in the formulation of cooked sausages "Capital", containing large amounts of fatty raw materials. The results of the research as a whole showed that the recommendations of the developed expert system make it possible to improve the quality of the ready-to-eat meat product, increase the water retention coefficient characterizing the moisture retention capacity of the

  17. A novel framework for intelligent signal detection via artificial neural networks for cyclic voltammetry in pyroprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhshan Pouri, Samaneh; Manic, Milos; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •First time ANN implementation toward pyroprocessing safeguards. •Real time monitoring in terms of intelligent materials detection and accountability. •CV simulation via ANN showing a high accuracy of prediction for the unseen situation. •Elimination of trial and error approach to avoid overfitting in learning. -- Abstract: Electrorefiner (ER) is the heart of pyroprocessing technology which contains different fission, rare-earth, and transuranic chloride compositions during the operation. This is still a developing technology that needs to be advanced for the commercial reprocessing design of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in terms of intelligent materials detection and accountability towards safeguards. A novel signal detection, artificial neural network (ANN), has been proposed in this study to apply on massive ER systemic parameters to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV) graphs for the unseen situation. ANN could be trained to mimic the system by driving the data sets interrelation between variables to provide current and potential simulated data sets with a high accuracy of prediction. For this purpose, over 230,000 experimental data points reported in literature have been explored—0.5–5 wt% of zirconium chloride (ZrCl 4 ) in LiCl-KCl molten salt with different scan rates at 773 K. This study has illustrated a new framework of ANN implementation to eliminate trial and error approach by comparing the average error of one to three hidden layers with different number of neurons. In addition, this framework results in finding a preferable balance between underfitting and overfitting in deep learning. Furthermore, simulated CV graphs were compared with the experimental data and illustrated a reasonable prediction. The results reveal two structures with three hidden layers providing a good prediction with a low average error. The outcomes indicate that ANN has a strong potential in applying toward safeguards for pyroprocessing technology.

  18. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-01-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting ‘animal models’. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots. (paper)

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  20. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  1. Fabrication of artificial arteriovenous fistula and analysis of flow field and shear stress by using μ-PIV technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Hyun Kyu [Div. of Vascular Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ryun Geun; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Jin Kee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is an operation performed to achieve vascular access for hemodialysis. Although RC-AVF is a reliable and well-known method, this technique presents high rates of early failure depending on the vessel condition. These failures are due to blood shear stress around the anastomosis site and the vascular access failure caused by thrombosis secondary to stenosis formation, as well as vascular access reocclusion after percutaneous interventions. In this work, we fabricate in vitro 3D RC-AVF by using polydimethylsiloxane and 3D printing technology to understand the underlying mechanism and predict AVF failure. Micro- Particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) focusing on the cardiac pulse cycle is used to measure the velocity field within the artificial blood vessel. Results are confirmed by numerical simulation. Accordingly, the in vitro AVF model agrees well with the simulations. Overall, this research would provide the future possibility of using the proposed method to reduce in vivo AVF failure for various conditions.

  2. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momongan, V.G.; Palad, O.A.; Singh, M.; Sarabia, A.S.; Chiong, R.D.; Nava, Z.M.; Obsioma, A.R.; Del Barrio, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  3. Effects of a single administration of different gonadotropins on day 7 post-insemination on pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; Aboul-Ezz, Z R

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P 4 ) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group). Does of each group were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of one of physiological saline (placebo; control), GnRH (0.8  μg buserelin), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 25 IU) or eCG (25 IU). Concentration of serum P 4 was determined on Days 6, 9, 11 and 18 post-insemination. On Day 14 post-insemination, the ovaries and reproductive tracts of pregnant does were removed and weighed. Also, numbers of visible follicles, hemorrhagic follicles, corpora lutea of pregnancy (pCLs), new CLs (nCLs; formed after Day 7 post-insemination) and implantation sites were recorded. Conception rate, parturition rate, abortion rate, litter size/weight and litter viability were recorded. The highest (P reproductive tract and ovary weights were for eCG. The highest (P rate of fetal loss was in does treated with GnRH. The concentration of serum P 4 decreased (P conception and parturition rates by 24 and 22%; respectively, while GnRH and hCG treatments decreased (P < 0.05) them by 57 and 47.6%; respectively. Litter size and litter weight at birth were improved by eCG, but were adversely affectd by GnRH and hCG. In conclusion, a single administration of eCG 7 Days post-insemination could be recommended for improving pregnancy outcomes in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  5. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Effects of month of breeding on reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows and heifers inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Miguel; Sepulveda, Edgar; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño, Leonel; Garcia, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; Rodríguez, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of month of breeding on reproduction performance of Holstein heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted or conventional semen in a hot environment. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI; 64,666 services over an 8-year period) both in heifers (n = 22,313) and cows (n = 42,353) from a large dairy herd in northern Mexico (26°N) were evaluated with the GENMOD procedure of SAS, with respect to month of AI. Overall, P/AI with sex-sorted semen was greater (P sex-sorted semen. While there was no difference in P/AI between the sex-sorted sperm and conventional semen in cows inseminated in July (16 and 18 %, respectively), P/AI plummeted for both groups of cows during the summer and fall (more severe heat stress). P/AI was not different between heifers serviced with sex-sorted or conventional semen during the hottest months of the year (July to October). However, during the coldest month of the year (January and February), P/AI was 10 percentage points greater (P sex-sorted semen. It was concluded that in this hot climate cow and heifer fertility declined in the summer and fall when inseminated with conventional semen. However, the use of sex-sorted semen during summer and fall did not compromise the breeding success in heifers. Thus, this data suggest that sex-sorted semen promotes some embryonic thermoprotective mechanism, which leads to a marginal summer and fall fertility depression with this type of semen in this particular hot environment.

  7. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  8. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  9. Inseminación artificial de abejas reinas

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Serrano, J.M.; Padilla-Alvarez, F.; Ruiz, J.A.; Ruz, J.M.; Puerta Puerta, F.; Bustos Ruiz, M.; Campano Cabanes, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    The race commonly used by spanish beekeepers is Apis mellifera iberica. Up to date, any selection process has been carried out with this race, and a lot of characteristics in the colony can be improved. Artificial insemination is a technique used in order to control genetic origin, and open a way to control those tasks usefull for beekeepers, both productive (honey, pollen or royal jelly production...) o linked with behaviour (agresiveless, short tendency to swarming, natural resistance to di...

  10. A survey of four years intrauterine insemination at Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseini M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine insemination (IUI has been practiced since the late 1800's primarily for idiopathic infertility, and in men with deficient semen parameters. The procedure is done by placing washed sperm in uterus a few hours before ovulation. The records of 427 couples receiving IUI for treatment of infertility at Shariati hospital in 1370-74 were reviewed retrospectively. These patients had IUI in 574 cycles. Eighty patients became pregnant and delivery rate was 14% per cycle. Pregnancy rate is impressive when ovulation induction is combined with insemination timed just before ovulation. The success rate in Shariati hospital is comparable to other infertility centers in the world and cost of a cycle of IUI with HMG superovulation is approximately one third the cost of IVF-ET or GIFT cycle and avoids invasive oocyte retrieval and extracorporeal fertilization. So we suggest that women with refractory infertility without anatomic distortion of pelvis can have at least 3-6 cycles of IUI before IVF or GIFT.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS OF INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION- A CASE COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyasree Jayasimhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND IUI is one of the simple techniques of assisted reproductive technique for treating infertility by artificial insemination. It has the advantage of positioning good quality sperm with increased count prepared by special semen washing technique into the uterine cavity, so that factors like decreased sperm count, poor sperm motility, impenetrable or absent cervical mucus or antisperm antibodies can be overcome. Sperm preparation method includes wash and swim-up technique using Percoll gradient. IUI is done by simple method and does not require the elaborate setup, investment and personnel like the other procedures of ART. The aims and objectives- 1. Factors associated with effectiveness of IUI among couples with primary infertility. 2. Factors studied include- Age of female partner, duration of infertility, menstrual regularity, menstrual flow, ovarian stimulation protocol, timing of IUI, endometrial thickness, number of cycles of IUI, luteal support, semen analysis findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case comparative study conducted in a tertiary hospital during three year period in which the forty women who conceived were considered as “study group” and another forty non-conceived women selected at random were taken as “control group.” RESULTS Factors like age of female showed statistical significance- when the age of female increased from 20-24 years to 30 years and above, the rate of conception reduced from 50% to 9%. Other factors like menstrual regularity, menstrual flow timing of IUI and number of cycles of IUI yielded no significant association with conception rates. Regarding the mode of ovarian induction, 90% of conceived group was given controlled superovulation using clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins and 39% had ovulation triggered by HCG, which were statistically significant. In the conceived group, the mean endometrial thickness was 9.3 mm contrary to 7.8 mm in the non-conceived group. Minimum duration of

  12. Intra-uterine insemination: pregnancy rate in relation to number, size of pre-ovulatory follicles and day of insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaswamy, J; Smedley, Mamin; Carter, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the pregnancy rate in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in relation to pre-ovulatory follicular number, size and day of insemination. A retrospective analysis of 216 completed IUI cycles was used in an attempt to identify significant variables predictive of treatment success. Couples with unexplained infertility and male factor infertility underwent IUI with or without ovarian stimulation. The mean number of IUI cycles per patient was 4.1, the overall pregnancy rate was 27.3% per patient, and the pregnancy rate per cycle was 6.9%. The pregnancy rate was 4.4% when one follicle was produced, whereas with more than two follicles, the rate increased to 21.2%. Hormonal stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin/follicle stimulating hormone yielded a significant higher pregnancy rate compared to IUI in natural cycles (10.3% versus 3.3%). Although not statistically significant, the pregnancy rate decreased with advancing age of woman. The results suggest that IUI is a useful method of assisted conception in unexplained infertility and higher pregnancy rates can be achieved with good patient selection and ovarian stimulation.

  13. Enhance of the estrus and ovulation sychronism in ewes using protocols with progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrous synchronization in combination with artificial insemination is an important biotechnology that enables greater and more efficient use of cryopreserved germplasm. However, when using this technology fertility rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) still exist because of variati...

  14. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  15. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fagiolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During an oestrus synchronization trial on heifer and mixed-parity Mediterranean Italian buffaloes, some analyses on health parameters were performed to correlate them to reproductive performances (pregnancy rate and birth rate. Serum sampling were performed every year for two years to be used in serological techniques for the diagnosis of Chlamydia spp. (ELISA, Neospora (ELISA, BHV1 (ELISA gE glycoprotein and BVDV (ELISA. On the total number of 465 observed buffaloes, the seroprevalence obtained for each disease has respectively been: 24 %, 25 %, 25 % and 22 %. Specific antibodies were not spread over the 13 farms in an homogeneous manner, farm prevalence differences are evidenced by high standard deviations in the mean farm seroprevalence: 42 ± 27.8, 26 ± 26.9, 20 ± 13.8, 9.8 ± 21.1. Among the buffaloes which resulted seropositive to Chlamydia, 33 % were pregnant, 32 % were those with Neospora, 32 % those with BHV1 and finally 29 % of the animals positive to BVDV resulted pregnant. Taking into account the animals that delivered normally, 41 % were positive to Chlamydia, 18 % to Neospora, 18 % to BHV1 and 19 % to BVDV.

  16. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yusuf; T. Nakao; S. T. Long; S. Fujita

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  17. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-05-09

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  18. Genetic aspects of artificial insemination with donor semen: the French CECOS Federation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, P; Leonard, C; Selva, J; David, G

    1989-06-01

    The genetic problems raised by assisted reproduction using donor gametes (AID) are numerous and often complex. They concern the legitimacy and the appropriate forms of genetic screening for both gamete donors and recipients; the identification of genetic indications justifying the use of this method of reproduction; and ascertainment of the state of health of the conceptus at birth. The experience and guidelines of the French CECOS Federation, which comprises 20 AID treatment centers, are described. The discussion emphasizes the need for an international exchange of view on this subject.

  19. Reproductive technology: in Britain, the debate after the Warnock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Raanan

    1987-06-01

    Gillon contributes an article on Great Britain to the Hastings Center Report series on reproductive technologies outside the United States. In 1984 the Warnock Committee's report represented the first attempt by a national government to formulate a policy on reproductive issues such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and research on human embryos. Reaction to the Warnock report has focused on its recommendations to ban commercial surrogacy and to allow experimentation on embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Legislation on surrogacy was passed in 1985, while bills banning embryo research failed in 1986. A 1986 government consultation paper called for discussion of other aspects of the Warnock report, including its recommendation that a statutory licensing authority to regulate reproductive technologies be established. Gillon predicts that no new legislation will be enacted under the present government.

  20. Public policies and reproductive technology: a feminist critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, T

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive technology comprises abortion, contraception, amniocentesis (more than 40 genetic disorders can be diagnosed), chorionic villus sampling, genetic screening (to reduce the risk of chromosomal defects such as Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis), in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination by spouse or donor, the development of sperm banks, storage of frozen sperm (cryopreservation), the development of artificial wombs, techniques for predetermining the sex of a fetus, and nursery environments to maintain a fetus removed from the womb in the 1st trimester. In recent years, the demand for these services has increased because of higher infertility and the drop in the number of babies available for adoption. Surrogacy is especially controversial: it has become a symbol of the dehumanization of modern life and the exploitation of women. The feminist perspective discloses how patriarchal values about the subordinate status of women, about the nature of motherhood, infertility, and the family are both implicit and explicit in prevailing thinking about reproduction. The new technology offers women who wish to remain unmarried the opportunity to have a family, and it enables lesbian women to bear children. The research literature favors a Eurocentric nuclear family without any awareness that in Canada, and in the Western world, new forms of family life have been evolving as couples marry, divorce, and remarry. There is no awareness either that in other cultures this Eurocentric nuclear model is dysfunctional. Because of the rigid notion of the 2-parent nuclear family, the 3rd parties who are involved in either surrogate relationships or artificial insemination are deprecated. The feminist literature is more critical of the nuclear family, but it has been sometimes inconsistent on the relevant issues.

  1. Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of the Technology for Training. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Fourteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Scott Alan

    The ultimate goal of the science of artificial intelligence (AI) is to establish programs that will use algorithmic computer techniques to imitate the heuristic thought processes of humans. Most AI programs, especially expert systems, organize their knowledge into three specific areas: data storage, a rule set, and a control structure. Limitations…

  2. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  3. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  4. Innovative 'Artificial Mussels' technology for assessing spatial and temporal distribution of metals in Goulburn-Murray catchments waterways, Victoria, Australia: effects of climate variability (dry vs. wet years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The "Artificial mussel" (AM), a novel passive sampling technology, was used for the first time in Australia in freshwater to monitor and assess the risk of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn). AMs were deployed at 10 sites within the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments, Victoria, Australia during a dry year (2009-2010) and a wet year (2010-2011). Our results showed that the AMs accumulated all the five metals. Cd, Pb, Hg were detected during the wet year but below detection limits during the dry year. At some sites close to orchards, vine yards and farming areas, elevated levels of Cu were clearly evident during the dry year, while elevated levels of Zn were found during the wet year; the Cu indicates localized inputs from the agricultural application of copper fungicide. The impacts from old mines were significantly less compared 'hot spots'. Our study demonstrated that climate variability (dry, wet years) can influence the metal inputs to waterways via different transport pathways. Using the AMs, we were able to identify various 'hot spots' of heavy metals, which may pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (sub-lethal effects to fish) and public (via food chain metal bioaccumulation and biomagnification) in the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments. The State Protection Policy exempted artificial channels and drains from protection of beneficial use (including protection of aquatic ecosystems) and majority of sites ('hot spots') were located within artificial irrigation channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  6. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  7. Converging blockchain and next-generation artificial intelligence technologies to decentralize and accelerate biomedical research and healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoshina, Polina; Ojomoko, Lucy; Yanovich, Yury; Ostrovski, Alex; Botezatu, Alex; Prikhodko, Pavel; Izumchenko, Eugene; Aliper, Alexander; Romantsov, Konstantin; Zhebrak, Alexander; Ogu, Iraneus Obioma; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The increased availability of data and recent advancements in artificial intelligence present the unprecedented opportunities in healthcare and major challenges for the patients, developers, providers and regulators. The novel deep learning and transfer learning techniques are turning any data about the person into medical data transforming simple facial pictures and videos into powerful sources of data for predictive analytics. Presently, the patients do not have control over the access priv...

  8. Low-dose natural prostaglandin F2α (dinoprost) at timed insemination improves conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Gobikrushanth, Mohanathas; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Kastelic, John P

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine if low doses of PGF2α (dinoprost) given intramuscularly (im) concurrent with timed artificial insemination (TAI) would improve conception rates in dairy cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if body condition score (BCS) and parity would influence conception rates, either independently or in interaction with PGF2α treatment. In experiment I, 307 lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 5-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 154) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 153) at TAI (Day 0). Blood samples were obtained on Days -10, -3, 0, and 7 to determine plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. Pregnancy was confirmed 30 to 32 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment II, 451 cows were randomly assigned to receive either 10-mg PGF2α im (PGF2α treated, n = 226) or 0-mg PGF2α (control, n = 225) at TAI, and pregnancy was confirmed 45 to 50 days after TAI by palpation per rectum. Pregnancy data were analyzed by CATMOD (SAS). In experiment I, PGF2α treatment, BCS, and parity did not affect conception rate (35.7% vs. 37.0% for PGF2α treated vs. control; P > 0.05). However, in experiment II, conception rates were higher in cows given 10-mg PGF2α than those in control cows (45.8% vs. 36.0%; P conception rates. In summary, 5 mg of PGF2α given im concurrent with TAI failed to enhance conception rate in lactating dairy cows, whereas 10 mg of PGF2α significantly increased conception rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.; Kos, S.; Beijer, C.; Brinkman, J.W.; Horst, F.A. van der; Hoven, L. van den; Kieslinger, D.C.; Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, N.J.; Wolthuis, A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. SETTING: University

  10. Fed-batch bioreactor performance and cell line stability evaluation of the artificial chromosome expression technology expressing an IgG1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Rodney G; Yu, Erwin; Roe, Susanna; Piatchek, Michele Bailey; Jones, Heather L; Mott, John; Kennard, Malcolm L; Goosney, Danika L; Monteith, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The artificial chromosome expression (ACE) technology system uses an engineered artificial chromosome containing multiple site-specific recombination acceptor sites for the rapid and efficient construction of stable cell lines. The construction of Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cell lines expressing an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) using the ACE system has been previously described (Kennard et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:540-553). To further demonstrate the manufacturing feasibility of the ACE system, four CHO cell lines expressing the human IgG1 MAb 4A1 were evaluated in batch and fed-batch shake flasks and in a 2-L fed-batch bioreactor. The batch shake flasks achieved titers between 0.7 and 1.1 g/L, whereas the fed-batch shake flask process improved titers to 2.5–3.0 g/L. The lead 4A1 ACE cell line achieved titers of 4.0 g/L with an average specific productivity of 40 pg/(cell day) when cultured in a non optimized 2-L fed-batch bioreactor using a completely chemically defined process. Generational stability characterization of the lead 4A1-expressing cell line demonstrated that the cell line was stable for up to 75 days in culture. Product quality attributes of the 4A1 MAb produced by the ACE system during the stability evaluation period were unchanged and also comparable to existing expression technologies such as the CHO-dhfr system. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that a clonal, stable MAb-expressing CHO cell line can be produced using ACE technology that performs competitively using a chemically defined fed-batch bioreactor process with comparable product quality attributes to cell lines generated by existing technologies.

  11. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  12. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cozgarea; Gabriel Cozgarea; Andrei Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    The present paper exposes some of artificial intelligence specific technologies regarding financial sector. Through non-deterministic solutions and simple algorithms, artificial intelligence could become a base alternative for solving financial problems which require complex mathematic calculations or complex optimization.

  13. Connecting Technological Innovation in Artificial Intelligence to Real-world Medical Practice through Rigorous Clinical Validation: What Peer-reviewed Medical Journals Could Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is projected to substantially influence clinical practice in the foreseeable future. However, despite the excitement around the technologies, it is yet rare to see examples of robust clinical validation of the technologies and, as a result, very few are currently in clinical use. A thorough, systematic validation of AI technologies using adequately designed clinical research studies before their integration into clinical practice is critical to ensure patient benefit and safety while avoiding any inadvertent harms. We would like to suggest several specific points regarding the role that peer-reviewed medical journals can play, in terms of study design, registration, and reporting, to help achieve proper and meaningful clinical validation of AI technologies designed to make medical diagnosis and prediction, focusing on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy efficacy. Peer-reviewed medical journals can encourage investigators who wish to validate the performance of AI systems for medical diagnosis and prediction to pay closer attention to the factors listed in this article by emphasizing their importance. Thereby, peer-reviewed medical journals can ultimately facilitate translating the technological innovations into real-world practice while securing patient safety and benefit.

  14. Connecting Technological Innovation in Artificial Intelligence to Real-world Medical Practice through Rigorous Clinical Validation: What Peer-reviewed Medical Journals Could Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ho; Kressel, Herbert Y

    2018-05-28

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is projected to substantially influence clinical practice in the foreseeable future. However, despite the excitement around the technologies, it is yet rare to see examples of robust clinical validation of the technologies and, as a result, very few are currently in clinical use. A thorough, systematic validation of AI technologies using adequately designed clinical research studies before their integration into clinical practice is critical to ensure patient benefit and safety while avoiding any inadvertent harms. We would like to suggest several specific points regarding the role that peer-reviewed medical journals can play, in terms of study design, registration, and reporting, to help achieve proper and meaningful clinical validation of AI technologies designed to make medical diagnosis and prediction, focusing on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy efficacy. Peer-reviewed medical journals can encourage investigators who wish to validate the performance of AI systems for medical diagnosis and prediction to pay closer attention to the factors listed in this article by emphasizing their importance. Thereby, peer-reviewed medical journals can ultimately facilitate translating the technological innovations into real-world practice while securing patient safety and benefit.

  15. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  16. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  17. Nova pipeta para inseminação intra-uterina em suínos New pipette for intrauterine insemination in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nogueira Diehl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de 423 fêmeas suínas de ordem de parto 1 a 9 submetidas à inseminação intra-uterina (IAU, com um novo modelo de pipeta (T1 cuja extremidade não é fixada na cérvix ou uma pipeta de IAU modelo Verona® e que permite a fixação da sua extremidade em espiral na cérvix (T2. Para comparar as duas pipetas, foi considerado o grau de dificuldade para realização das inseminações, o tempo necessário para realizá-las, a presença de sangramento após a inseminação, a presença de refluxo no momento da inseminação, as taxas de retorno ao estro (TR, de prenhez (TPR e de parto ajustada (TPA, além do número de leitões nascidos (NT. As fêmeas de ambos os grupos foram inseminadas com doses de 1 bilhão de espermatozóides, em intervalos de 24 horas. A passagem do cateter de IAU através da cérvix foi possível em 95,9% das fêmeas, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em pelo menos uma das inseminações, foi observado sangue no cateter, após a realização da IAU, em 20,6% das fêmeas do T1 e 15,2% das fêmeas do T2 (P=0,14. O tempo médio necessário para realizar a inseminação foi de 2,1 minutos para o T1 e 2,3 minutos para o T2 (P=0,26. O percentual de fêmeas com refluxo de sêmen no momento da inseminação foi maior (P=0,01 no T1 (8,4% em comparação ao T2 (2,9%. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 nas variáveis TR (8,0 e 4,8%, TPR (93,4 e 96,2% e NT (12,4 e 12,7 leitões entre T1 e T2, respectivamente. A TPA do T1 (90,6% apresentou tendência (P=0,07 de ser inferior à do T2 (95,1%. No T1, as fêmeas primíparas apresentaram maior TR e menor TPA em comparação às pluríparas (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the reproductive performance of 423 sows of 1 to 9 farrowings inseminated with two different intrauterine artificial insemination (IAU pipettes. The first group (T1 was formed by sows inseminated with a new pipette whose extremity was not fixed in the

  18. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  19. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  1. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Németh, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.nemeth@geology.sk [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO{sub 2} + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO{sub 2} emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO{sub 2} and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 3thermally} {sub modified} {sub chrysotile}+5CO{sub 2}+nH{sub 2}O→Mg{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}(OH){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O{sub hydromagnesite}+MgCO{sub 3magnesite}+4SiO{sub 2} · nH{sub 2}O{sub in} a{sub morphous} {sub phase};n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO{sub 2}, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of

  2. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína; Németh, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO 2 + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO 2 emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO 2 and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 3thermally modified chrysotile +5CO 2 +nH 2 O→Mg 5 (CO 3 ) 4 (OH) 2 ⋅4H 2 O hydromagnesite +MgCO 3magnesite +4SiO 2 · nH 2 O in a morphous phase ;n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO 2 , offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of industrial CO 2 emissions, contributing to multiple benefit of this methodology

  3. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Hasler, J F

    2017-12-01

    Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks. Improved semen extenders and the replacement of glass ampules with plastic semen straws followed. Some of the most noteworthy developments in the 1970s included the initial successes with in vitro culture of embryos, calves born after chromosomal sexing as embryos, embryo splitting resulting in the birth of twins, and development of computer-assisted semen analysis. The 1980s brought flow cytometric separation of X- and Y-bearing sperm, in vitro fertilization leading to the birth of live calves, clones produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic cells, and ovum pick-up via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. The 20th century ended with the birth of calves produced from AI with sexed semen, sheep and cattle clones produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cell nuclei, and the birth of transgenic cloned calves. The 21st century has seen the introduction of perhaps the most powerful biotechnology since the development of artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Quick, inexpensive genomic analysis via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping chips is revolutionizing the cattle breeding industry. Now, with the introduction of genome editing technology, the

  4. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  6. Outcomes after intrauterine insemination are independent of provider type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H.; Batsis, Maria; Hacker, Michele R.; Souter, Irene; Petrozza, John C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) varies based on the type of health care provider performing the procedure. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study set at an infertility clinic at an academic institution. The patients who comprised this study were 1575 women who underwent 3475 IUI cycles from late 2003 through early 2012. Cycles were stratified into 3 groups according to the type of provider who performed the procedure: attending physician, fellow physician, or registered nurse (RN). The primary outcome was live birth. Additional outcomes of interest included positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. Repeated measures log binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes and to evaluate the effect of potential confounders. All tests were 2-sided, and P values < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 3475 IUI cycles, 2030 (58.4%) were gonadotropin stimulated, 929 (26.7%) were clomiphene citrate stimulated, and 516 (14.9%) were natural. The incidences of clinical pregnancy and live birth among all cycles were 11.8% and 8.8%, respectively. After adjusting for female age, male partner age, and cycle type, the incidence of live birth was similar for RNs compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58–1.1) and fellow physicians compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.2). Similar results were seen for positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in live birth following IUI cycles in which the procedure was performed by a fellow physician or RN compared with an attending physician. PMID:24881820

  7. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  8. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  9. Predictive factors for pregnancy outcome following controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildrim, G.; Turkgeldi, L.S.; Koroglu, N.; Mervetalmac, A.

    2017-01-01

    To establish predictive factors for positive pregnancy outcome in cases of controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital and comprised subjects having undergone ovulation induction cycles and intrauterine insemination between June 2010 and June 2015. Data was analysed in terms of various parameters affecting clinical pregnancy rates. SPSS 23 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 475 patients having undergone a total of 923 cycles. Pregnancy was established in 133(28%) patients. Univariate analysis of biological/clinical variables revealed the presence of secondary infertility, high endometrial thickness, antral follicle number, post wash total motile sperm count and midluteal progesterone levels following intrauterine insemination to be associated with positive pregnancy outcomes (p<0.05 each). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to establish factors that affected the pregnancy rate. The aetiology and type of infertility and high midluteal progesterone levels following intrauterine insemination were found to be statistically significant predictors of pregnancy (p<0.05 each). Conclusion: The best chance of pregnancy was found in cases with anovulatory infertility, a history of prior pregnancy, and high midluteal progesterone levels following treatment with gonadotrophins and intrauterine insemination. (author)

  10. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  11. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  12. Modeling the effects of light and sucrose on in vitro propagated plants: a multiscale system analysis using artificial intelligence technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Jorge; Martínez-Núñez, Lourdes; Landín, Mariana; Flexas, Jaume; Gallego, Pedro P

    2014-01-01

    Plant acclimation is a highly complex process, which cannot be fully understood by analysis at any one specific level (i.e. subcellular, cellular or whole plant scale). Various soft-computing techniques, such as neural networks or fuzzy logic, were designed to analyze complex multivariate data sets and might be used to model large such multiscale data sets in plant biology. In this study we assessed the effectiveness of applying neuro-fuzzy logic to modeling the effects of light intensities and sucrose content/concentration in the in vitro culture of kiwifruit on plant acclimation, by modeling multivariate data from 14 parameters at different biological scales of organization. The model provides insights through application of 14 sets of straightforward rules and indicates that plants with lower stomatal aperture areas and higher photoinhibition and photoprotective status score best for acclimation. The model suggests the best condition for obtaining higher quality acclimatized plantlets is the combination of 2.3% sucrose and photonflux of 122-130 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Our results demonstrate that artificial intelligence models are not only successful in identifying complex non-linear interactions among variables, by integrating large-scale data sets from different levels of biological organization in a holistic plant systems-biology approach, but can also be used successfully for inferring new results without further experimental work.

  13. Fertility of Angus cross beef heifers after GnRH treatment on day 23 and timing of insemination in 14-day CIDR protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2017-02-01

    This study compared artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) between 14-day CIDR-GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH and CIDR-PGF2α-GnRH synchronization protocol with two fixed AI times (56 or 72 hr after PGF2α). On day 0, heifers (n = 1311) from nine locations assigned body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese), reproductive tract score (RTS: 1, immature, acyclic; 5, mature, cyclic) and temperament score (0, calm; and 1, excited) and fitted with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert for 14 days. Within herd, heifers were randomly assigned either to no-GnRH group (n = 635) or to GnRH group (n = 676), and heifers in GnRH group received 100 μg of GnRH (gonadorelin hydrochloride, IM) on day 23. All heifers received 25 mg of PGF2α (dinoprost, IM) on day 30 and oestrous detection aids at the same time. Heifers were observed for oestrus thrice daily until AI. Within GnRH groups, heifers were randomly assigned to either AI-56 or AI-72 groups. Heifers in AI-56 group (n = 667) were inseminated at 56 hr (day 32 PM), and heifers in AI-72 group (n = 644) were inseminated at 72 hr (day 33 AM) after PGF2α administration. All heifers were given 100 μg of GnRH concurrently at the time AI. Controlling for BCS (p < .05), RTS (p < .05), oestrous expression (p < .001), temperament (p < .001) and GnRH treatment by time of insemination (p < .001), the AI-PR differed between GnRH treatment [GnRH (Yes - 60.9% (412/676) vs. No - 55.1% (350/635); p < .05)] and insemination time [AI-56 - 54.6% (364/667) vs. AI-72 - 61.8% (398/644); (p < .01)] groups. The GnRH treatment by AI time interaction influenced AI-PR (GnRH56 - 61.0% (208/341); GnRH72 - 60.9% (204/335); No-GnRH56 - 47.9% (156/326); No-GnRH72 - 62.8% (194/309); p < .001). In conclusion, 14-day CIDR synchronization protocol for FTAI required inclusion of GnRH on day 23 if inseminations were to be performed at 56 hr after PGF2α in order to achieve greater AI-PR.

  14. THE IMPACT OF HEPARIN IMPLEMENTER (GAG IN THE RABBIT INSEMINATION DOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of implementer heparin in insemination dose in rabbits selected on reproductive parameters.The experiment was monitored reproductive parameters (conceptual relationship, the number of live-born pups per litter, the number of dead-born pups per litter, the number of live-born pups per inseminated does 156 does in the experimental group and 165 does in the control group. We used the ejaculate of synthetic broiler rabbit population with concentration of sperm 25-50 mil. / 0.5 ml / 1 ID. Heparin was added at a dose - 0.06 ml = 10 mg per 0.5 ml semen / 1 ID. Assessing selected reproductive parameters in does inseminated with insemination dose with the addition of heparin, we observed a higher conceptual proportion of 14.12 % in the experimental group compared to the control group. These differences did not show a statistically significant difference (χ 2 3.56-. The number of live-born pups per litter was 8.69 ± 4.10 pc in the experimental group and 8.41 ± 3.62 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of dead-born pups was recorded 0.74 pc in the experimental group and 0.76 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of live-born pups per litter per inseminated does we have seen improvement in favor of experimental group by 1.39 pc. This parameter was within each of experiments ranged from 0.91 to 1.66 pc live-born pups to inseminated does.

  15. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  16. Evaluations for service-sire conception rate for heifer and cow inseminations with conventional and sexed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service-sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic fertility evaluation based on conventional (nonsexed) inseminations from parities 1 through 5, was implemented by USDA in August 2008. Using insemination data from 2005 through 2009, the SCR procedure was applied separately for nulliparous heifer inse...

  17. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Advanced Applications of Neural Networks and Artificial Intelligence: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar; Gour Sundar Mitra Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network is a branch of Artificial intelligence and has been accepted as a new computing technology in computer science fields. This paper reviews the field of Artificial intelligence and focusing on recent applications which uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN’s) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). It also considers the integration of neural networks with other computing methods Such as fuzzy logic to enhance the interpretation ability of data. Artificial Neural Networks is c...

  19. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  20. A Case Study of the Link between Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Creation in Emerging Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    in much knowledge creation research, the empirical insights come from a case study in a Chinese startup SME (small and medium-sized enterprise) within the emerging industry of visual intelligence/surveillance systems. The findings, extracted from semi-structured interviews as well as observations, suggest...... of consent requirements when collecting information and a willing population makes China an ideal test bed for visual intelligence technologies. The chapter exposes the shortcomings of the existing knowledge creation theory and bridges these with insights on how to overcome them in different contexts...

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  2. Sex ratio of lambs born from assisted reproductive technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate sex ratio of offspring resulting from superstimulated donors from two different breeds and artificially inseminated ewes from three different breeds. Romanov (n = 5) and Charollais (n = 6) (2 - 7 years of age) donors were superovulated using FSH-p with 400 mg ...

  3. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  4. Birth of Industry 5.0: Making Sense of Big Data with Artificial Intelligence, "The Internet of Things" and Next-Generation Technology Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Hekim, Nezih

    2018-01-01

    Driverless cars with artificial intelligence (AI) and automated supermarkets run by collaborative robots (cobots) working without human supervision have sparked off new debates: what will be the impacts of extreme automation, turbocharged by the Internet of Things (IoT), AI, and the Industry 4.0, on Big Data and omics implementation science? The IoT builds on (1) broadband wireless internet connectivity, (2) miniaturized sensors embedded in animate and inanimate objects ranging from the house cat to the milk carton in your smart fridge, and (3) AI and cobots making sense of Big Data collected by sensors. Industry 4.0 is a high-tech strategy for manufacturing automation that employs the IoT, thus creating the Smart Factory. Extreme automation until "everything is connected to everything else" poses, however, vulnerabilities that have been little considered to date. First, highly integrated systems are vulnerable to systemic risks such as total network collapse in the event of failure of one of its parts, for example, by hacking or Internet viruses that can fully invade integrated systems. Second, extreme connectivity creates new social and political power structures. If left unchecked, they might lead to authoritarian governance by one person in total control of network power, directly or through her/his connected surrogates. We propose Industry 5.0 that can democratize knowledge coproduction from Big Data, building on the new concept of symmetrical innovation. Industry 5.0 utilizes IoT, but differs from predecessor automation systems by having three-dimensional (3D) symmetry in innovation ecosystem design: (1) a built-in safe exit strategy in case of demise of hyperconnected entrenched digital knowledge networks. Importantly, such safe exists are orthogonal-in that they allow "digital detox" by employing pathways unrelated/unaffected by automated networks, for example, electronic patient records versus material/article trails on vital medical information; (2) equal

  5. Intrauterine insemination versus fallopian tube sperm perfusion for non-tubal infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a common treatment for couples with subfertility that does not involve the fallopian tubes. It is used to bring the sperm close to the released oocyte. Another method of introducing sperm is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). Fallopian tube sperm

  6. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  7. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  8. Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    collect light energy and separate charge for developing new types of nanobiodevices to construct ”artificial leaf” from solar to fuel. or Concept of...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0054 Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production Mamoru Nango NAGOYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      30-06-2017 2

  9. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  10. Chemogenomics: a discipline at the crossroad of high throughput technologies, biomarker research, combinatorial chemistry, genomics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Chemogenomics is the study of the interaction of functional biological systems with exogenous small molecules, or in broader sense the study of the intersection of biological and chemical spaces. Chemogenomics requires expertises in biology, chemistry and computational sciences (bioinformatics, cheminformatics, large scale statistics and machine learning methods) but it is more than the simple apposition of each of these disciplines. Biological entities interacting with small molecules can be isolated proteins or more elaborate systems, from single cells to complete organisms. The biological space is therefore analyzed at various postgenomic levels (genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or any phenotypic level). The space of small molecules is partially real, corresponding to commercial and academic collections of compounds, and partially virtual, corresponding to the chemical space possibly synthesizable. Synthetic chemistry has developed novel strategies allowing a physical exploration of this universe of possibilities. A major challenge of cheminformatics is to charter the virtual space of small molecules using realistic biological constraints (bioavailability, druggability, structural biological information). Chemogenomics is a descendent of conventional pharmaceutical approaches, since it involves the screening of chemolibraries for their effect on biological targets, and benefits from the advances in the corresponding enabling technologies and the introduction of new biological markers. Screening was originally motivated by the rigorous discovery of new drugs, neglecting and throwing away any molecule that would fail to meet the standards required for a therapeutic treatment. It is now the basis for the discovery of small molecules that might or might not be directly used as drugs, but which have an immense potential for basic research, as probes to explore an increasing number of biological phenomena. Concerns about the environmental impact of chemical industry

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  12. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  13. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  14. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  15. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Jalvingh, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  16. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  17. Distribution pattern and migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the uterine cervix of sheep, following insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution pattern of ram sperma in the uterine cervix of inseminated sheep were determined using 131 I for labelling. Emphasis in these studies was laid on comparison between diluted native sperma and deep-frozen sperma. All results so far obtained suggested that the migration capacity of most of the ram sperms had been impaired by the freezing-melting process. The amount of deep-frozen sperms present in the cranial region of the uterine cervix, a few hours after insemination, was significantly below that of native sperms. The difference was equally high and significant between native and deep-frozen sperma regarding the presence of labelled sperma between caudal and cranial regions. Evidence was produced to unambiguous nest formation of inseminated sperma in the uterine cervix. These findings are followed by a discussion of the role played by the uterine cervix as a site of sperma selection and as sperma reservoir following insemination. (author)

  18. The shift from biological to social fatherhood--counselling men and their partners considering donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Men and women are likely to suffer from infertility in similar ways, but gender differences account for different ways in revealing--and not revealing--this emotional pain. The following article is based on this understanding. It seeks to describe counselling tasks and interventions that support men and their partners considering donor insemination. This pre-treatment counselling comprises a range of issues, including the provision of medical and legal information, supporting the grieving process, managing the taboo and stigma surrounding donor insemination, supporting disclosure, and last but not least raising awareness of the needs of the future child. The aim of counselling is to explore the short- and long-term implications and thus facilitate the shift from biological to social fatherhood for men and their partners.

  19. Maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, P; Tzouma, C; Creatsa, M; Boutas, I; Hassiakos, D

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of maternal hyperthyroidism after intrauterine insemination due to hypertrophic action of hCG. A 36-year-old woman after successful intrauterine insemination and triplet pregnancy, developed hyperthyroidism with resistance to medical treatment. All signs of hyperthyroidism resolved and the results of thyroid function tests returned to normal without any medication after embryo meiosis. De novo maternal hyperthyroidism may develop during pregnancy as a result of pathological stimulation of the thyroid gland from the high levels of hCG hormone that can be seen in multiple pregnancies. The risk of hyperthyroidism is related to the number of fetuses. Reversibility of symptomatology can be seen after fetal reduction of multiple pregnancies.

  20. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  1. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case–control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasoun...

  2. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the ferti...

  3. The initial fertilizing capacity of longerm-stored liquid boar semen following pre- and postovulatory insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Lietmann, C; Lübbert Zur Lage, W; Bortolozzo, F P; Willmen, T; Petzoldt, R

    1994-01-01

    In pigs, high variation is seen in the duration of estrus and in the time of ovulation. This is one of a wide range of factors not related to semen quality, which possibly influences the results of field insemination trials. Experiment 1 (n=81 gilts) was performed to determine the influence of the time of ovulation on the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen stored up to 118 h. The objective of Experiment 2 (n=102 gilts) was to study the fertilizing potential of semen stored up to 120 h in 2 different extenders, Androhep and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), by means of postovulatory AI. Inseminations were performed 0 to 4 h after ovulation in order to standardize the trial conditions. Fertilization rates based on Day-2 to Day-4 embryos, and the number of accessory spermatozoa per zona pellucida did not differ between semen stored for 0 to 48 and 48 to 87 h in gilts ovulating within 12 after insemination (Experiment 1). Gilts with an interval of 12 to 24 h between AI and ovulation had lower fertility results using semen stored for more than 48 h. A further decrease was observed when semen storage exceeded 87 h in those gilts ovulating later than 24 h after insemination. The time of ovulation has to be considered as being a major factor of variation in the fertility results of AI trials. In Experiment 2, fertilization rates and numbers of accessory spermatozoa decreased between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 24 to 48 h in BTS, and between semen stored for 0 to 24 and 48 to 72 h in Androhep. Significant differences in fertility between diluents were seen only when using semen stored for more than 96 h, with semen extended with Androhep giving the higher results. The results indicate that the decrease in fertilizing capacity due to in vitro aging of spermatozoa cannot be prevented even during the first days of storage.

  4. Predictive value of sperm morphology and progressively motile sperm count for pregnancy outcomes in intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Louise; Kos, Snjezana; Beijer, Cornelis; Brinkman, Jacoline W; van der Horst, Frans A L; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kieslinger, Dorit C; van Trooyen-van Vrouwerff, Netty J; Wolthuis, Albert; Hendriks, Jan C M; Wetzels, Alex M M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of sperm parameters to predict an ongoing pregnancy outcome in couples treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI), during a methodologically stable period of time. Retrospective, observational study with logistic regression analyses. University hospital. A total of 1,166 couples visiting the fertility laboratory for their first IUI episode, including 4,251 IUI cycles. None. Sperm morphology, total progressively motile sperm count (TPMSC), and number of inseminated progressively motile spermatozoa (NIPMS); odds ratios (ORs) of the sperm parameters after the first IUI cycle and the first finished IUI episode; discriminatory accuracy of the multivariable model. None of the sperm parameters was of predictive value for pregnancy after the first IUI cycle. In the first finished IUI episode, a positive relationship was found for ≤4% of morphologically normal spermatozoa (OR 1.39) and a moderate NIPMS (5-10 million; OR 1.73). Low NIPMS showed a negative relation (≤1 million; OR 0.42). The TPMSC had no predictive value. The multivariable model (i.e., sperm morphology, NIPMS, female age, male age, and the number of cycles in the episode) had a moderate discriminatory accuracy (area under the curve 0.73). Intrauterine insemination is especially relevant for couples with moderate male factor infertility (sperm morphology ≤4%, NIPMS 5-10 million). In the multivariable model, however, the predictive power of these sperm parameters is rather low. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. N-acetyl cysteine in ovulation induction of PCOS women underwent intrauterine insemination: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Behrouzi Lak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was proposed as an adjuvant to clomiphene citratefor ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS without clomiphene citrate resistance. Objective: To evaluate the effect of NAC on pregnancy rate in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 97 PCOS women aged 18-38 years were enrolled in two groups, randomly. For the case group (n=49, NAC (1.2 gr+ clomiphene citrate (100 mg + letrozole (5mg were prescribed Daily from the third day of menstruation cycle for five days. The control group (n=48 had the same drug regimen without NAC. In order to follicular development, GONALF was injected on days of 7-11 menstrual cycles in all participants. When the follicle size was 18mm or more, HCG (10000 IU was injected intramuscular and the intrauterine insemination was performed after 34-36 hr. Results: There were not significant differences between study groups regarding mean endometrial thickness (p=0.14, mean number of mature follicles (p=0.20 and the pregnancy rate (p=0.09. Conclusion: NAC is ineffective in inducing or augmenting ovulation in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination and cannot be recommended as an adjuvant to CC in such patients.

  6. Comparison of pregnancy rates between patients with and without local endometrial scratching before intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, G C; Yapca, O E; Borekci, B

    2017-11-01

    To determine the implantation success of local endometrial injury in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination following ovulation induction with gonadotropins as an infertility treatment. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, ovulation induction was performed with gonadotropins in 80 patients following intrauterine insemination. In 40 patients, local endometrial injury (scratch) was performed in the midluteal phase of the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation with a Novak curette to the posterior side of the endometrial cavity. Fifteen pregnancies (37.5%) and 11 clinical pregnancies (27.5%) occurred in the intervention group, whereas eight pregnancies (20%) and five clinical pregnancies (12.5%) occurred in the control group. Although the pregnancy rates and clinical pregnancy rates were increased in the intervention group, no statistically significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups (pregnancy rates: P=0.084; clinical pregnancy rates: P=0.094). Performing local endometrial injury (scratch) in the cycle preceding ovulation induction in patients with a diagnosis of infertility and indication for intrauterine insemination increased the pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates. This increase was not, however, statistically significant. More randomized, controlled, prospective studies with larger patient numbers are required before the use of iatrogenic induction of local endometrial injury can be recommended in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN QUALITY IMPROVING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    KALİTE İYİLEŞTİRME SÜRECİNDE YAPAY ZEKÃ KAYA; Orhan ENGİN

    2005-01-01

    Today, changing of competition conditions and customer preferences caused to happen many differences in the viewpoint of firms' quality studies. At the same time, improvements in computer technologies accelerated use of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence technologies are being used to solve many industry problems. In this paper, we investigated the use of artificial intelligence techniques to solve quality problems. The artificial intelligence techniques, which are used in quali...

  8. A look at the insemination use in bovine cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, John Jairo

    2007-01-01

    We aim to analyze the influence that this biotechnology has had from its introduction into our country, Colombia, in fundamental aspects for the bovine exploitation as the reproductive efficiency, the genetic improvement, the technology transfer to the country and the training of the producer, everything finally reflected in the productivity and the profitability of the cattle exploitations. Se pretende analizar la influencia que esta biotecnología ha tenido desde su i...

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  10. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  11. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  12. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short proestrous interval reduced pregnancy rate after fixed-time AI in beef cattle. A low progesterone environment during growth of the ovulatory follicle increased the preovulatory follicle size and subsequent CL size and function, and compensated for the effect of a short proestrus on pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and evaluation of deep intra-uterine artificial insemination using cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Montano, G A; Steinman, K J; Smolensky, P; Sweeney, J; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2013-06-01

    Since its development in bottlenose dolphins, widespread application of AI with sex-selected, frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa has been limited by the significant expense of the sorting process. Reducing the total number of progressively motile sperm (PMS) required for an AI would reduce the sorting cost. As such, this research compared the efficacy of small-dose deep uterine AI with sexed FT spermatozoa (SEXED-SMALL; ~50×10(6)PMS, n=20), to a moderate dose deposited mid-horn (SEXED-STD, ~200×10(6)PMS; n=20), and a large dose of FT non-sexed spermatozoa deposited in the uterine body (NONSEXED-LARGE, 660×10(6)PMS, n=9). Ten of the 11 calves resulting from use of sexed spermatozoa were of the predetermined sex. Similar rates of conception (NONSEXED-LARGE: 78%, SEXED-STD: 60%, SEXED-SMALL: 57%) and total pregnancy loss (TPL: NONSEXED-LARGE: 28.6%; SEXED-STD: 41.0%; SEXED-SMALL: 63.6%) were observed across groups, but early pregnancy loss (EPL,

  14. Evaluation of changes ocassioned by changes in bovine sperm in the management of dose during handling artificial insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, S.F.; Allende, R.; Mazzeo, R.; Monti, J; Marini, P.R

    2011-01-01

    Considerando el disímil manejo al que las dosis son sometidas durante el descongelado y antes de la inseminación, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto que estos cambios producen sobre distintas características morfológicas y funcionales de los espermatozoides afectando la calidad del semen a inseminar. Se utilizaron muestras de un toro Holando Argentino, procesadas y congeladas en pajuelas de 0,5 cc utilizando un diluyente semidefinido. El análisis de la motilidad se real...

  15. Genetic Polymorphism of the Lactoferrin Gene in Dairy and Beef Cattles at National Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LTF adalah gen pengontrol komponen protein susu dan memiliki karakteristik sebagai antimikrobial. LTF pada susu berfungsi untuk mencegah diare, sedangkan pada sapi laktasi untuk mencegah mastitis pada ambing. Mempertimbangkan peran penting dari gen LTF, maka perlu dilakukan peningkatan kadar LTF dalam susu melalui seleksi pada taraf DNA. Polymorfisme genetik dari gen LTF diidentifikasi pada sapi perah dan potong dengan metoda Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restricsion Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, dengan enzim restriksi EcoRI. Genotyping dilakukan pada sapi perah Friesian Holstein (FH total sejumlah 89 ekor, meliputi dari Balai Inseminasi Buatan Lembang (BIB Lembang untuk 17 pejantan, Balai Besar IB Singosari (BBIB Singosari untuk 32 pejantan, dan Balai embrio Transfer Cipelang (BET Cipelang pada 40 dara. Genotyping dilakukan pula pada sapi potong dara berasal dari empat bangsa, meliputi Limousin (14 ekor, Angus (5 ekor, Simmental (13 ekor dan Brahman (5 ekor dari BET Cipelang. Gen LTF|EcoRI pada sapi perah dan potong pengamatan menghasilkan dua tipe alel, yaitu alel A dan B. Kedua jenis sapi tersebut menghasilkan hanya dua genotipe, yaitu genotipe AA dan AB, tanpa genotipe BB. Ini dapat menjadi hal yang baik karena genotipe AA dan AB dipertimbangkan berasosiasi dengan ketahan pada mastitis. Nilai-nilai dari heterozygositas observasi (Ho dari gen ini lebih tinggi dibandingkan heterozigositas ekspektasi (He. Disimpulkan bahwa gen LTF|EcoRI memiliki variasi yang baik pada sapi perah dan sapi potong dari ketiga balai bibit nasional tersebut.

  16. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of the estrous cycle to improve fertility for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Larson, J E; Marquezini, G; Stevenson, J S

    2010-04-01

    Early estrus-synchronization protocols focused on regressing the corpus luteum (CL) with an injection of PGF(2alpha) followed by detection of estrus or involved the use of exogenous progestins that prevent estrus from occurring. Later, protocols combining the use of PGF(2alpha) and exogenous progestins were developed. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was utilized to control follicular waves, synchronize ovulation, or to luteinize large dominant follicles. Our research aimed to develop reliable protocols that 1) relied solely on fixed-timed AI (TAI); 2) required a maximum of 3 animal handlings, and 3) were successful in estrous-cycling and noncycling females. In cows, insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert during the 7-d interval between the initial GnRH and PGF(2alpha) injections enhanced pregnancy rates by 9 to 10%. In a multi-location study, a TAI protocol yielded pregnancy rates similar to a protocol involving detection of estrus plus a fixed-time clean-up AI for females not detected in estrus (54 vs. 58%, respectively, for cows and 53 vs. 57%, respectively, for heifers). Initiation of estrous cycles in noncycling cows is likely the primary manner in which beef producers may improve fertility in response to estrus synchronization and TAI protocols. Treatment of noncycling females with progesterone and GnRH increases the percentage of cycling females and improves fertility to a TAI, but inducing cyclicity with hCG failed to enhance fertility in TAI protocols. Supplementing progesterone after TAI failed to increase pregnancy rates in beef cattle. In contrast, administration of hCG 7 d after TAI induced an accessory CL, increased progesterone, and tended to enhance pregnancy rates. Development of TAI protocols that reduce the hassle factors associated with ovulation synchronization and AI provide cattle producers efficient and effective tools for capturing selective genetic traits of economic consequences. Location variables, however, which may include differences in pasture and diet, breed composition, body condition, postpartum interval, climate, and geographic location, affect the success of TAI protocols.

  18. The Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Noel

    1992-01-01

    Explains the Artificial Intelligence Applications to Learning Programme, which was developed in the United Kingdom to explore and accelerate the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in learning in both the educational and industrial sectors. Highlights include program evaluation, marketing, ownership of information, consortia, and cost…

  19. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  20. Refining Asian elephant semen technologies: The need for improved quality analysis and preservation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattananit, P.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate aim of a breeding management programme for captive Asian elephants is to establish a self-sustaining population, while maintaining maximal genetic diversity. In this respect, artificial insemination (AI) is considered a crucial tool for facilitating the exchange of genetic material

  1. Reproductive performances of the Borgou cow inseminated on natural or induced estrus with semen from Gir and Girolando at the Okpara Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foukpe Zhairath Adambi Boukari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aims to evaluate the reproductive performances of the Borgou cow inseminated on natural or induced estrus with semen from Gir and Girolando at the Okpara Breeding Farm. Materials and Methods: Semen from exotic breeds was used to inseminate 70 Borgou cows on induced estrus with the norgestomet implant and 285 others on natural estrous. Data on the reproductive performances of inseminated cows were collected. Results: In inseminated cows on induced estrus, the pregnancy rate was 30% and that of abortion was 9.52%. The fertility rate was 28.57% and those of live births and mortality were, respectively, 105.26% and 5% in these cows. As for inseminated cows on natural estrus, the pregnancy rate was 75.79% and the one of calving was 88.89%. The fertility rate recorded with natural estrous was 66.67% and was significantly higher than the one recorded with insemination on induced estrus. The live births and the birth-weaning mortality rates were, respectively, 98.96% and 11.58% in inseminated cows on natural estrus. Conclusion: Reproductive performances are better in Borgou cows inseminated on natural estrus than in those inseminated on induced estrus.

  2. Progress and Challenge of Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Zhi Shi; Nan-Ning Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally considered to be a subfield of computer science, that is concerned to attempt simulation, extension and expansion of human intelligence. Artificial intelligence has enjoyed tremendous success over the last fifty years. In this paper we only focus on visual perception, granular computing, agent computing, semantic grid. Human-level intelligence is the long-term goal of artificial intelligence. We should do joint research on basic theory and technology of intelligence by brain science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and others. A new cross discipline intelligence science is undergoing a rapid development. Future challenges are given in final section.

  3. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  4. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  5. Artificial Intelligence and Public Healthcare Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tara Qian; Medaglia, Rony

    Public healthcare ecosystems are complex networks of diverse actors that are subject to pressures to innovate, also a result of technological advancements. Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular, has the potential to transform the way hospitals, doctors, patients, government agencies...

  6. Effect of Dimethylsulfoxide (Dmso on Selected Quality Indicators of Insemination Dose of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An ejaculate was collected from male of synthetic broiler line and was diluted to concentration of 25 to 50 million./0.5 ml/1 ID. Dimethylsulfoxid was added to the ID (insemination dose in two concentrations –  0.5 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml and 1.75 M DMSO in ID (0.5 ml. Control insemination dose was without DMSO. ID was evaluated by CASA system Sperm Vision with a microscope Olympus BX 51st. Motility and progressive mobility was monitored. Qualitative indicators of the insemination doses were evaluated on CASA in the time of the 1st hour and 6 hours after dilution. In a sample of DMSO 1.75 was recorded an increase of motility of the 1st hour after dilution in the level 60.21% and after 6 hours only 3.91%. In the sample of DMSO 0.5 was the level of motility after 1st hour 36.84% and after the 6 hours 39.33%. In the control group the level of motility was observed after 1st hour 47.30% and after 6 hours 64.65%. In evaluation of progressive motility we recorded in the sample of DMSO 1.75 after 1st hour 33.32% and 6th hours 0%. In the sample of 0.5 DMSO we observed progressive motility after 1st hour 18.06% and after 6 hours 31.61%. In the control group was observed progressive sperm mobility after 1st hour 30.50% and after 6 hours 31.61%.

  7. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8% patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8% had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3% miscarried and 10(12.7% had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8% pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1% had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3% miscarried and 20(19.8% resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05. There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959.

  8. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W H

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind's oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  9. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl Hans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8 had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8. In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8 showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  10. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating. PMID:18053237

  11. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2alpha metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-12-05

    The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace x Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  12. Inteligência artificial, tecnologias informacionais e seus possíveis impactos sobre as Ciências Sociais Artificial intelligence, informational technologies and their potential impacts on Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Dwyer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa algumas possibilidades de transformação das Ciências Sociais e, de maneira mais específica, na Sociologia, levantadas a partir do desenvolvimento e uso, nessas ciências, de tecnologias informacionais. Nas sociedades contemporâneas o aprofundamento do uso destas novas tecnologias pode trazer importantes conseqüências para as Ciências Sociais afetando, potencialmente, o ensino, a pesquisa e a construção de teoria. No Brasil podemos ver que um número crescente de informações é disponível em formato eletrônico, e estas podem ser analisadas para aumentar nossos conhecimentos sobre a sociedade. De fundamental importância é que o crescente recurso a tecnologias informacionais seja acompanhado por avanços na capacidade de teorização.This article examines some possibilities for change in Social Sciences and more specifically, on Sociology derived from development and use of informational technologies within that field. In contemporary societies, the growing use of those technologies may bring about important consequences for social sciences, potentially affecting teaching, research and theory building. In Brazil, there is more and more information available in electronic format, which could be analyzed to enlarge our knowledge about society. It is extremely important that the growing resorting to informational technologies is followed by advances in theorization abilities.

  13. Comparison of IVF and ICSI when only few oocytes are available for insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borini, Andrea; Gambardella, Alessia; Bonu, Maria Antonietta; Dal Prato, Luca; Sciajno, Raffaella; Bianchi, Liana; Cattoli, Monica

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) when few eggs available for insemination. A total of 601 women (group A, mean age 31.2 +/- 2.8 years) who were undergoing a total of 671 assisted reproduction cycles donated their excess oocytes to 694 patients (group B, mean age 41.0 +/- 0.2) for 1606 replacement cycles. Each recipient received three to five eggs. The recipients were divided into two groups depending on the insemination method used (IVF, group B1; or ICSI, group B2); ICSI patients were then subdivided into two further groups based on the semen parameters: B2A adequate for IVF and B2B only suitable for ICSI. The results showed that, when comparing A versus B and B1 versus B2, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (28.0 versus 24.1% and 25.5 versus 21.4%), implantation (15.6 versus 14.9% and 15.9 versus 13.1%) and miscarriage (15.4 versus 20.5% and 17.9 versus 26.3) rates respectively. Comparing subgroups B2A and B2B, no significant differences were found in terms of pregnancy (20.0 versus 21.9%), implantation (14.4 versus 12.7%) and miscarriage rates (18.2 versus 28.6%) respectively. In conclusion, ICSI does not seem to yield better outcomes.

  14. THE USE OF GnRH ANTAGONISTS IN OVARIAN STIMULATION FOR INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Işıkoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first paper entitled intrauterine insemination (IUI was published in 1962. By time, several methods involving the technique and the ovulation induction schedules have evolved in order to improve the success rates. Although gonadotrophin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRHa is a crucial part of assisted reproductive treatments now, concerns also arouse regarding the need for the use of it in IUI cycles. These drugs may be considered in IUI programs basically in order to prevent premature LH surges and related cycle cancellations. Although administration of a GnRH antagonist almost completely abolishes premature luteinization, it does not substantially improve the pregnancy rate. The decision of using GnRH antagonists in IUI cycles should be based primarily on the local cost/benefit analysis of individual centers. It will be prudent to limit the involvement of the antagonists in ovulation induction protocols to: patients who frequently exhibit premature LH discharges and therefore either fail to complete treatment or result in unsuccessful outcome; initiated cycles intented for IUI but converted to ART; if it is not possible for logistic reasons (weekend to perform the insemination or for medical centers in which a gynecologist on call is not available and in order to decrease clinical task burden resulting from strict cycle monitoring such as serial transvaginal sonography and/or frequent urine tests.

  15. The effect of endometrial scratch injury on pregnancy outcome in women with previous intrauterine insemination failure: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Tehraninejad, Ensieh Shahrokh; Haghiri, Mansooreh; Masomi, Masoumeh; Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Arabipoor, Arezoo

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial scratch injury (ESI) has been recently proposed to enhance the implantation rate in assisted reproductive technology cycles. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ESI on pregnancy rate in women with intrauterine insemination (IUI) failure. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in Imam-Khomeini Hospital and Royan Institute, Tehran, during a 12-month period from January 2013 to January 2014. After assessment, 169 patients who had IUI failure twice or more (no chemical or clinical pregnancy) with normal uterine anatomy and hysterosalpingography, were enrolled. They were randomly assigned into two groups. In the experimental group, all patients underwent ESI at day 8 or 9 of stimulation phase in the present IUI cycle, whereas no intervention was performed on the control group. IUI outcome was then compared between the two groups. A total of 150 patients completed the IUI cycle during the study. The chemical pregnancy rate was 10.7% and 2.7% in the experimental and control groups, respectively, without significant difference (P = 0.09). Also no significant differences were detected in terms of clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates between the two groups (P > 0.05). No significant beneficial effect of ESI on fertility outcome in patients with repeated IUI failure was detected when it was carried out on day 8 or 9 of the same IUI stimulation cycle. Also, however, no negative impact secondary to ESI was observed. Therefore, confirmation or refutation of this hypothesis requires further studies with a larger sample size. IRCT201507271141N19. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation regional AFRA project on increasing and improving milk and meat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA), with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a technical cooperation project entitled Improving and Increasing Milk and Meat Production. The objectives of this project were to be achieved by (a) assessing the performance of existing artificial insemination (AI) programmes for small-scale dairy farmers and identifying constraints; (b) formulating and assisting in the implementation of remedial measures including appropriate strategies; (c) establishing sustainable routine non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services to farmers; and (d) harmonizing managerial and field practices and sharing of expertise within the region. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and blood of cattle and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) are important components of an integrated approach to these activities. The project commenced in 1999 and, in addition to other national and regional activities, two meetings were held specifically to address objective (d) above: - Task Force Meeting on Training of Artificial Insemination (AI) Technicians, Field Assessment of Fertility and Database Management, November 1999 in Pretoria, South Africa. - Task Force Meeting to Harmonize Procedures for Selection and Management of AI Bulls and Use of Semen Technology in African Countries, May 2001 in Arusha, Tanzania. The meeting in Tanzania provided a comprehensive overview of the current practices being adopted for selection and management of AI bulls and use of semen technology in five African countries, and compared these with international practices. It also provided an opportunity for participants to discuss technical issues related to provision of improved breeding services to

  17. A programmable artificial retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented

  18. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution. Mirror neurons are an important paradigm in neuroscience research. Moreover, the paradigm shift proposed here - 'hall of mirror neurons' - is a potentially further productive research tactic. These concepts further expand AI and brain research.

  20. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  1. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date.

  2. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley H. Weitzman

    Full Text Available A new inseminating fish species of the family Characidae, Bryconadenos tanaothoros, from tributaries of the upper rio Xingu and upper rio Tapajós basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil is described as the type species of a new genus. This new species and the genus are characterized by a glandular organ on the anterior region of the anal fin of sexually mature males, curved lower jaw teeth, and an inseminating reproductive mode. This new genus is hypothesized as most closely related to Attonitus, a genus with three inseminating species from Peru. Bryconadenos and Attonitus are suggested as related to certain inseminating, but undescribed characid species of uncertain relationships that are similar in certain respects to species of the glandulocaudine Planaltina and to the inseminating species of Knodus. These and a few other inseminating characids are included in a previous tentative characid subgroup designated as Clade A. No species among a relatively small sample of the many species of the Clade A genus Bryconamericus were found inseminating, except Bryconamericus pectinatus. However, newly collected specimens of B. pectinatus were found to have caudal-fin squamation like that of the species of Knodus and this species is here tentatively referred to Knodus. Our investigations indicate that at least several species of Knodus, including the type species, Knodus meridae, are not inseminating, but we found two inseminating apparently new characid species that currently would be referred to Knodus. These species lack the derived anal-fin rays present in the males of K. pectinatus. Other Clade A taxa known to be inseminating, such as two species of the large genus Creagrutus, three species of Monotocheirodon (two undescribed, and the species and genera of the characid subfamily Glandulocaudinae are briefly discussed regarding possible relationships to Attonitus and Bryconadenos. The anatomical aspects of the primary and secondary sexual characteristics of

  3. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  4. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  5. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  6. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a case study in the development of reproductive technology in a marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    The successful development and application of an assisted breeding program in any animal relies primarily on a thorough understanding of the fundamental reproductive biology (anatomy, physiology and behaviour) of the species in question. Surely, the ultimate goal and greatest hallmark of such a program is the efficacious establishment of a series of reliable techniques that facilitate the reproductive and genetic management of fragmented populations, both in captivity and in the wild. Such an achievement is all the more challenging when the reproductive biology of that species is essentially rudimentary and without adequate reproductive models to compare to. Using the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, this chapter provides some personal insights into the evolution of a concept that began as a small undergraduate student project but that subsequently evolved into the first-ever successful artificial insemination of a marsupial. Apart from this historical perspective, we also provide a brief review of the current reproductive biology of the koala, discuss technical elements of current assisted breeding technology of this species, its potential application to the wombat, and the future role it might play in helping to conserve wild koala populations. There is little doubt that the unique reproductive biology and tractability of the koala has in this case been a benefit rather than a hindrance to the success of artificial breeding in this species.

  7. Viewpoint: Artificial Intelligence and Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Samothrakis, Spyridon

    2018-01-01

    The welfare of modern societies has been intrinsically linked to wage labour. With some exceptions, the modern human has to sell her labour-power to be able reproduce biologically and socially. Thus, a lingering fear of technological unemployment features predominately as a theme among Artificial Intelligence researchers. In this short paper we show that, if past trends are anything to go by, this fear is irrational. On the contrary, we argue that the main problem humanity will be facing is t...

  8. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  9. Effects of pre- and post-insemination maternal plane of nutrition on peripheral and uterine luminal fluid metabolites [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can affect embryonic survival, but the mechanisms that cause embryonic mortality are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on peripheral and uterine lumina...

  10. Effects of pre- and post-insemination maternal plane of nutrition on estrus and embryo development [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional changes immediately after insemination can result in differential embryonic development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional change immediately before or after AI on estrus expression, interval to estrus, and day 6 embryo recovery, developme...

  11. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2010-01-01

    cycle before intrauterine insemination. Mean age of the patients was 33 years. Serum AMH significantly correlated to age (r=-0.38), antral follicle count (AFC) (r=0.68), ovarian volume (r=0.40), FSH (r=-0.31), (P2-3 mature follicles or dose reduction). There was a significant trend over response groups...

  13. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Jorritsma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of a successful first insemination (SFI). The investigation was performed with 51,791 lactations from 1,396 herds obtained from the Dutch dairy cow database of the Cattle Improvement Co-operative (CRV).

  14. Reproduction in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 seropositive gilts inseminated with PCV2b spiked semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarli Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1999, field evidence of transplacental infection by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and reproductive failure has been reported in pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological consequences of PCV2 infection in conventional PCV2-seropositive gilts by insemination with PCV2b-spiked semen. Results Six PCV2 seropositive gilts were inseminated with PCV2b-supplemented semen (infected and three animals with semen and cell culture medium (controls. Only three out of the six infected animals were pregnant by ultrasonography on day 29 after insemination, while two out of the three controls were pregnant. One control gilt aborted on day 23 after insemination but not due to PVC2. Viraemia was demonstrated in four out of six infected and in one control gilt that became infected with PCV2a. Anti-PCV2 antibody titres showed dynamic variations in the infected group throughout the study. Among infected gilts, the animal with the lowest anti-PCV2 titre (1/100 at the beginning of the experiment and another that reached a similar low value during the experiment showed evident seroconversion over time and had also PCV2 positive foetuses. One placenta displayed mild focal necrosis of the chorionic epithelium positively stained by immunohistochemistry for PCV2 antigen. Conclusions PCV2-seropositive gilts can be infected with PCV2 after intrauterine exposure and low maternal antibody titre may increase the probability of a foetal infection.

  15. COMPUTER MODELING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL VENTRICLES OF HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Belyaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article modern researches of processes of development of artificial ventricles of heart are described. Advanta- ges of application computer (CAD/CAE technologies are shown by development of artificial ventricles of heart. The systems developed with application of the given technologies are submitted. 

  16. The National Artificial Intelligence Research And Development Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Executive Summary: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a transformative technology that holds promise for tremendous societal and economic benefit. AI has the potential...

  17. Künstliche Menschen? Körpergeschichte zwischen Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte Artificial Humans? The History of the Body between the History of Science and of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Eitler

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende von Barbara Orland herausgegebene Sammelband steht in einer Reihe von Untersuchungen, in denen seit rund zehn Jahren der menschliche Körper in seiner Historizität als Ergebnis wissenschaftlicher und technischer Konstruktionsprozesse betrachtet wird. In dreizehn Beiträgen wird mittels unterschiedlicher Zugriffe und auf durchweg hohem Niveau ein denkbar breites Feld der artifiziellen Gestaltung menschlicher Körper seit dem 18. Jahrhundert erschlossen.The collected volume at hand, edited by Barbara Orland, is one of a series of studies on the human body in the past ten years that examines its historicity on the basis of scientific and technical processes of construction. In its thirteen contributions, which use various approaches and which display consistently high standards, the collection opens up the considerably wide field of the artificial construction of the human body since the eighteenth century.

  18. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  19. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. Exploring Artificial Intelligence Utilizing BioArt

    OpenAIRE

    Simou , Panagiota; Tiligadis , Konstantinos; Alexiou , Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Part 15: First Workshop on Ethics and Philosophy in Artificial Intelligence (EPAI 2013); International audience; While artificial intelligence combined with Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology offers a variety of improvements and a technological and healthcare revolution, Bioartists attempt to replace the traditional artistic medium with biological materials, bio-imaging techniques, bioreactors and several times to treat their own body as an alive canvas. BioArt seems to play the role of a new ...

  1. Brain Intelligence: Go Beyond Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Chen, Min; Kim, Hyoungseop; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is an important technology that supports daily social life and economic activities. It contributes greatly to the sustainable growth of Japan's economy and solves various social problems. In recent years, AI has attracted attention as a key for growth in developed countries such as Europe and the United States and developing countries such as China and India. The attention has been focused mainly on developing new artificial intelligence information communication ...

  2. Surgical intrauterine insemination with cat semen cryopreserved with Orvus ES paste or sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tatsuji; Matsubara, Yuka; Toyonaga, Mari; Oba, Hiromichi; Hori, Tatsuya

    2011-02-01

    The mean post-thaw sperm motilities of feline frozen semen prepared with 1% OEP or 3 g/ml SLS as a cryoprotective agent, in addition to 7% glycerin, were 35.0 ± 2.4 and 37.0 ± 2.5%, respectively, showing no significant difference. On unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) using these semen samples at a sperm number of 40 × 10(6), the conception rate was 70.0% (7/10) in the OEP group and 30% (3/10) in the SLS group, showing that the rate was higher in the OEP group, but the difference was not significant. It was suggested that sperm in frozen semen showing the above qualities were transferred to the contralateral uterine horn on UIUI.

  3. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  4. Conception rate and litter size in multiparous sows after intrauterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 10(9) sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus.

  5. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  6. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  7. Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P

    1990-07-01

    Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.

  8. Artificial organs 2010: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2011-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2011, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Artificial organs 2011: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2012-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2012, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Artificial Organs 2012: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    In this editor's review, articles published in 2012 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. As the official journal of the International Federation for Artificial Organs, the International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected, and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2013, Copyright the Author. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Children of the new reproductive technologies: social and genetic parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; van Balen, Frank

    2010-12-01

    To review empirical studies on families created by new reproductive technologies (NRT) in which only one parent has a genetic link to the child. Literature search was conducted among computerized databases. Inclusion criteria were that studies should focus on childrearing or parenting, as well as on the psychological adjustment of children in: heterosexual families formed through artificial insemination with donated semen (AID), single-mother AID families, oocyte-donation families, planned lesbian-mother families, planned gay-father families, and partial surrogacy families. Compared to natural-conception parents, parents in these NRT families have better relationships with their children, and their children are functioning well. Although several studies show that parents in NRT families are more emotionally involved in their parenting than are parents in naturally conceived families, no empirical evidence was found that the psychological adjustment of children in NRT families differs from that of their counterparts in natural-conception families. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: The results inform counselors and infertile couples that concerns regarding the use of NRT in relation to negative consequences for the parent-child relationship or the psychological adjustment of the child are till now unfounded. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Acupuncture in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hong Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to provide reliable evidence by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture, including manual, electrical, and laser acupuncture (LA techniques, on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR and live birth rate (LBR of in vitro fertilization (IVF or artificial insemination were included. The controlled groups consisted of no acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. The sham acupuncture included sham acupuncture at acupoints, sham acupuncture at non- or inappropriate points, sham LA, and adhesive tapes. Twenty-three trials (a total of 5598 participants were included in this paper. The pooled CPR from all acupuncture groups was significantly higher than that from all controlled groups, whereas the LBR was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the results were quite distinct when the type of control and/or different acupuncture times were examined in a sensitivity analysis. The results mainly indicate that acupuncture, especially around the time of the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, improves pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF. More positive effects from acupuncture in IVF can be expected if a more individualized acupuncture programs are used.

  13. Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: Technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2015-12-15

    In this work, an extensive study on the recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by means of cold bonding pelletization is presented. The ash comes from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces, in which municipal, hospital and industrial wastes are treated. Fly ash from waste incineration is classified as hazardous and cannot be utilized or even landfilled without prior treatment. The pelletization process uses cement, lime and coal fly ash as components of the binding systems. This process has been applied to several mixes in which the ash content has been varied from 50% (wt.%) up to a maximum of 70%. An innovative additional pelletization step with only cementitious binder has been performed in order to achieve satisfactory immobilization levels. The obtained lightweight porous aggregates are mostly suitable for recovery in the field of building materials with enhanced sustainability properties. Density, water absorption and crushing strength ranged from 1000 to 1600 kg/m(3), 7 to 16% and 1.3 to 6.2 MPa, respectively, and the second pelletization step increased stabilization efficiency. The feasibility of the process has been analyzed by testing also concrete specimens containing the artificial aggregates, resulting in lightweight concrete of average performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural, kinetic, and docking studies of artificial imine reductases based on biotin-streptavidin technology: an induced lock-and-key hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Victor Muñoz; Dürrenberger, Marc; Heinisch, Tillmann; Lledós, Agustí; Schirmer, Tilman; Ward, Thomas R; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2014-11-05

    An artificial imine reductase results upon incorporation of a biotinylated Cp*Ir moiety (Cp* = C5Me5(-)) within homotetrameric streptavidin (Sav) (referred to as Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ Sav). Mutation of S112 reveals a marked effect of the Ir/streptavidin ratio on both the saturation kinetics as well as the enantioselectivity for the production of salsolidine. For [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112A Sav, both the reaction rate and the selectivity (up to 96% ee (R)-salsolidine, kcat 14-4 min(-1) vs [Ir], KM 65-370 mM) decrease upon fully saturating all biotin binding sites (the ee varying between 96% ee and 45% ee R). In contrast, for [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112K Sav, both the rate and the selectivity remain nearly constant upon varying the Ir/streptavidin ratio [up to 78% ee (S)-salsolidine, kcat 2.6 min(-1), KM 95 mM]. X-ray analysis complemented with docking studies highlight a marked preference of the S112A and S112K Sav mutants for the SIr and RIr enantiomeric forms of the cofactor, respectively. Combining both docking and saturation kinetic studies led to the formulation of an enantioselection mechanism relying on an "induced lock-and-key" hypothesis: the host protein dictates the configuration of the biotinylated Ir-cofactor which, in turn, by and large determines the enantioselectivity of the imine reductase.

  15. Artificial organs versus regenerative medicine: is it true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Okubo, Hisashi

    2003-09-01

    Individuals engaged in the fields of artificial kidney and artificial heart have often mistakenly stated that "the era of artificial organs is over; regenerative medicine is the future." Contrarily, we do not believe artificial organs and regenerative medicine are different medical technologies. As a matter of fact, artificial organs developed during the last 50 years have been used as a bridge to regeneration. The only difference between regenerative medicine and artificial organs is that artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration promote tissue regeneration in situ, instead of outside the body (for example, vascular prostheses, neuroprostheses, bladder substitutes, skin prostheses, bone prostheses, cartilage prostheses, ligament prostheses, etc.). All of these artificial organs are successful because tissue regeneration over a man-made prosthesis is established inside the patient's body (artificial organs to support regeneration). Another usage of the group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration is to sustain the functions of the patient's diseased organs during the regeneration process of the body's healthy tissues and/or organs. This particular group includes artificial kidney, hepatic assist, respiratory assist, and circulatory assist. Proof of regeneration of these healthy tissues and/or organs is demonstrated in the short-term recovery of end-stage organ failure patients (artificial organs for bridge to regeneration). A third group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration accelerates the regenerating process of the patient's healthy tissues and organs. This group includes neurostimulators, artificial blood (red cells) blood oxygenators, and plasmapheresis devices, including hemodiafiltrators. So-called "therapeutic artificial organs" fall into this category (artificial organs to accelerate regeneration). Thus, almost all of today's artificial organs are useful in the bridge to regeneration of healthy natural tissues and organs

  16. Artificial Atoms: from Quantum Physics to Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this workshop is to survey the most recent advances of technologies enabling single atom- and artificial atom-based devices. These include the assembly of artificial molecular structures with magnetic dipole and optical interactions between engineered atoms embedded in solid-state lattices. The ability to control single atoms in diamond or similar solids under ambient operating conditions opens new perspectives for technologies based on nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The scope of the workshop is extended towards the physics of strong coupling between atoms and radiation field modes. Beyond the traditional atom-cavity systems, artificial dipoles coupled to microwave radiation in circuit quantum electrodynamics is considered. All these technologies mutually influence each other in developing novel devices for sensing at the quantum level and for quantum information processing.

  17. Recent advances in cooled-semen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Christine

    2008-09-01

    The majority of horse registries approve the use of artificial insemination, and horse breeding has widely taken benefit from the use of cooled-stored semen. New insights into cooled-semen technology open possibilities to reduce problems such as impaired semen quality after cooled-storage in individual stallions. The stallion itself has major impacts on quality and fertility of cooled-stored semen. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves semen quality in a variety of species, but only few studies on this topic exist in the horse. Proper semen collection and handling is the main key to the maintenance of semen quality during cooled-storage. Semen collection should be achieved by minimal sexual stimulation with a single mount; this results in high sperm concentration, low content of seminal plasma and minimal contamination with bacteria. Milk-based semen extenders are most popular for semen processing and storage. The development of more defined extenders containing only the beneficial milk ingredients has made extender quality more constant and reliable. Semen is often centrifuged to decrease the seminal plasma content. Centrifugation results in a recovery rate of only 75% of spermatozoa in the semen pellet. Recovery rates after centrifugation may be improved with use of a "cushion technique" allowing higher centrifugation force and duration. However, this is not routinely used in cooled-semen technology. After slow-cooling, semen-storage and shipping is best performed at 5 degrees C, maintaining semen motility, membrane integrity and DNA integrity for up to 40 h after collection. Shipping containers created from Styrofoam boxes provide maintenance of semen quality at low cost.

  18. Effect of reproductive tract scoring on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers bred by timed insemination and natural service versus only natural service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, K; Kasimanickam, R; Tibary, A; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-04-15

    The objective was to determine the effects of reproductive tract score (RTS) on reproductive performance in beef heifers bred by timed artificial insemination followed by natural service (AI-NS) or by natural service only (NSO). Angus cross beef heifers (n = 2660) in the AI-NS group were artificially inseminated at a fixed time (5- or 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release protocol) once, then exposed to bulls 2 weeks later (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:40-1:50) for the reminder of the 85-day breeding season. Angus cross beef heifers (n = 1381) in NSO group were submitted to bulls (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:20-1:25) for the entire 85-day breeding season. Heifers were reproductive tract scored from 1 (prepubertal) to 5 (cyclic) 4 weeks before, and were body condition scored (BCS) from 1 (emaciated) to 9 (obese) at the beginning of breeding season. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 70 days after AI for AI-NS group and 2 months after the end of breeding season for both groups. Heifers in both groups were well managed and of similar age (14.9 ± 0.4 [AI-NS] and 14.7 ± 0.8 [NSO] months). Pregnancy rates (PRs) and number of days to become pregnant were calculated using PROC GLIMMIX and PROC LIFETEST procedures of SAS. Adjusting for BCS (P = 0.07), expressed estrus (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05), and BCS by year interaction (P < 0.05), the AI-PR was greater for heifers in AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.0001; 40.7%, 48.3%, 57.6%, and 64.6% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Controlling for BCS (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05) and the breeding season pregnancy rates (BS-PRs) were greater for heifers in the AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 81.2%, 86.5%, 90.4%, and 95.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Similarly, adjusting for BCS, year (P < 0.05), the BS-PR was greater for heifers in NSO group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 79.7%, 84.3%, 88.4%, and 90.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Heifers with higher RTS

  19. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  20. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  1. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  2. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  3. Short communication: Prepartum plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations based on day of insemination are lower in cows developing postpartum diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechotta, M; Sander, A K; Kastelic, J P; Wilde, R; Heppelmann, M; Rudolphi, B; Schuberth, H J; Bollwein, H; Kaske, M

    2012-03-01

    Because peripartal production diseases are prevalent in dairy cows, early recognition is crucial. Several studies reported metabolic variables as risk predictors for subsequent diseases. To improve on-farm testing and application of those methods, the sampling procedure should take into account variation in gestation length. Furthermore, additional variables indicating cows at risk of any production disease should be sought. Therefore, the objective was to characterize differences between cows with and without postpartum production disease (retained fetal membranes, ketosis, hypocalcemia, abomasal displacement, metritis, mastitis) by prepartum measurement of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations relative to the artificial insemination (AI) that established pregnancy. Blood was collected from 41 Holstein Friesian cows on 235 to 241, 242 to 248, 249 to 255, 256 to 262, 263 to 269, 270 to 276, 277 to 283, and 284 to 290 d after AI. Health status was assessed daily for 3 wk after calving; 25 cows (66%) had at least one production disease. Cows developing postpartum diseases had higher mean serum NEFA concentrations (450 ± 26 μmol/L; mean ± SE) and lower plasma IGF-I concentrations (78 ± 6 ng/mL) prepartum compared with healthy cows (259 ± 19 μmol/L and 117 ± 8 ng/mL, respectively). In conclusion, because of substantial variation among cows in gestation length, blood samples should be collected and studies performed on risk prediction relative to AI rather than expected date of calving. As the somatotropic axis is one of the key regulators of metabolic adaption for onset of lactation, IGF-I might be a useful variable to differentiate between cows susceptible to production diseases and cows that are able to adapt adequately within the transition period and remain healthy. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. No interaction between X-ray induced lesions in maternal and paternal chromosomes in inseminated eggs of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuergler, F.E.; Graf, U.; Jeanneret, P.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray induced premutational lesions persist in mature gametes of drosophila until fertilization. Repairable lesions in sperm and oocyte chromosomes are repaired exclusively by maternal repair systems in the inseminated egg. Interactions between irradiated genomes in inseminated eggs might result in additional lethality if breaks induced in separate nuclei, which would normally be repaired, could interact to form dicentric chromosomes. Adult drosophila flies were X-irradiated (up to 5 kR), individual females crossed to three or four males, and the dose-response curves for dominant lethals (embryonic lethality) compared. The results indicate thet the potentially lethal damage present in irradiated sperm chromosomes was expressed independently of whether or not the oocyte was also irradiated. There were no (or only very few) interactions between maternal and paternal chromosome complements, and the maternal repair systems acting on radiation-induced chromosome breaks in sperm were resistant to X-rays. (U.K.)

  5. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  6. Artificial Organs 2015: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2015 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for providing their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of their time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Artificial Organs 2013: a year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2013 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide so meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley Periodicals, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  8. Artificial Organs 2017: A Year in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchesky, Paul S

    2018-03-01

    In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. Peer-reviewed Special Issues this year included contributions from the 12th International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion edited by Dr. Akif Undar, Artificial Oxygen Carriers edited by Drs. Akira Kawaguchi and Jan Simoni, the 24th Congress of the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support edited by Dr. Toru Masuzawa, Challenges in the Field of Biomedical Devices: A Multidisciplinary Perspective edited by Dr. Vincenzo Piemonte and colleagues and Functional Electrical Stimulation edited by Dr. Winfried Mayr and colleagues. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, John Wiley & Sons for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. We look forward to reporting further advances in the coming years. © 2018 International Center for

  9. High-response intrauterine insemination cycles converted to low-cost in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletebi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatma AletebiAssisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University, Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is a trend to cancel intrauterine insemination (IUI in women with a high response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF in high-response IUI cycles in comparison with conventional IVF.Methods and materials: A total of 46 women were included in the study. Group A (study group included 23 women with hyper-response to IUI cycles who were converted to IVF. They received oral letrozole 2.5 mg twice daily from days 3–7 of the menstrual cycle, along with 75 International Units (IU of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on days 3 and 8. Group B (control group underwent conventional IVF, and received downregulation with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist followed by stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone 150–300 IU/day. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin, followed by IVF and embryo transfer. The primary outcome measure analyzed was pregnancy rates in both groups.Results: The study group received a significantly lower (P = 0.001 total dose of follicle-stimulating hormone and had significantly (P = 0.002 decreased levels of terminal estradiol. Although the pregnancy rate (30.43% in the study group versus 39.13% in the conventional group per stimulated cycle was higher in the conventional IVF group, the miscarriage rate (study group 4.34% versus conventional group 13.04% was also higher, and hence the take-home baby rate (study group 26.08% versus conventional group 30.43% was more or less similar in both the groups.Conclusion: IVF can be offered to women having a high response to IUI cycles with good pregnancy rates and at low cost compared with use of a conventional protocol, and therefore can be considered more patient-friendly in selected cases.Keywords: low

  10. Comparative evaluation of reproductive parameters between the automatic GEDIS cervical insemination method and the traditional in multicolor bristles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez-Torres Oscar Patricio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in Ecuador, in the province of Tungurahua, Cevallos county. A comparison of reproductive parameters between the cervical self insemination method and the traditional one in multiparous sows was performed using 12 sows (hybrid females between the second and fourth calving, dividing In two groups of 6 sows respectively, using the insemination protocol 12h - 24h - 36h. Fresh semen was prepared with long-term diluent + bidistilled water, at a concentration of 3 x 109 spermatozoa/mL in total volume per 100 mL straw. At the time of insemination the amount of seminal reflux was determined and when the Student's T test was applied with paired observations in the results, they statistically reported a significant difference at 5% among the evaluated methods, the calculated T value was 9.50 Which is greater than the T of tables at 5% of 2.57. The duration of each method was determined, results that reported similarity between the two methods (15 min. At 21 days post insemination pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound and evaluation of no return of heat, results that reported in both methods 100% effectiveness. Subsequently, at the time of delivery, the number of total born piglets was evaluated, using the Student's T-test with paired observations that statistically there was no significant difference at 5% between the two methods, the calculated T value was 0, 14 which is less than the T of tables at 5% of 2.57. We also determined the weight of piglets at birth, reported by Student's t-test with paired observations that there is a statistically significant difference to 5% among the evaluated methods, the calculated T value was 5.17, which is higher than the T Of tables at 5% of 2.57. As for costs there is no considerable difference.

  11. [Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kamada, Mayumi; Okuno, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI. In addition, with the aim of creating new therapeutic targets in genomic drug discovery, we have been also working on the development of a binding affinity prediction system for mutated proteins and drugs by molecular dynamics simulation using supercomputer "Kei". We also have tackled for problems in a drug virtual screening. Our developed AI technology has successfully generated virtual compound library, and deep learning method has enabled us to predict interaction between compound and target protein.

  12. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Brittany J; Hilton, Tara N; Rivière, Raphaël N; Ferraro, Zachary M; Deonandan, Raywat; Walker, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the ethical and medical challenges faced by women of advanced maternal age who decide to have children. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) make post-menopausal pregnancy physiologically plausible, however, one must consider the associated physical, psychological, and sociological factors involved. A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms post-menopause, pregnancy + MeSH terms [donations, hormone replacement therapy, assisted reproductive technologies, embryo donation, donor artificial insemination, cryopreservation]. Overall, 28 papers encompassing two major themes (ethical and medical) were included in the review. There are significant ethical considerations and medical (maternal and fetal) complications related to pregnancy in peri- and post-menopausal women. When examining the ethical and sociological perspective, the literature portrays an overall positive attitude toward pregnancy in advanced maternal age. With respect to the medical complications, the general consensus in the evaluated studies suggests that there is greater risk of complication for spontaneous pregnancy when the mother is older (eg, >35 years old). This risk can be mitigated by careful medical screening of the mother and the use of ARTs in healthy women. In these instances, a woman of advanced maternal age who is otherwise healthy can carry a pregnancy with a similar risk profile to that of her younger counterparts when using donated oocytes.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    means for supplementing the objective decision with a subjective one. Machine ethics can/will be of the highest quality because it will be derived from the sciences, modelled by techniques and accomplished by technologies. If our theoretical hypothesis about a specific moral intelligence, necessary for the implementation of an artificial moral conduct, is correct, then some theoretical and technical issues appear, but the following working hypotheses are possible: structural, functional and behavioural. The future of human and/or artificial morality is to be anticipated.

  14. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  15. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.