WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies arcomac surface

  1. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...

  2. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  3. New applications of surface plasmon resonance technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianhao; Yin Meirong; Fang Zheyu; Yang Haidong; Yang Jia; Yang Huizhan; Kang Huizhen; Yang Dapeng; Lu Yanzhen

    2005-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance technology is reviewed and its new applications in various fields are described. These fields include surface plasmon resonance sensors, near-field scanning optical microscopy, thin film optics and thickness measurement, holography, precise measurement of angles, and Q switching. (authors)

  4. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  5. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power

  6. New developments in surface technology and prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Thomas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-03-01

    Novel lightweight applications in the automotive and aircraft industries require advanced materials and techniques for surface protection as well as direct and rapid manufacturing of the related components and tools. The manufacturing processes presented in this paper are based on multiple additive and subtractive technologies such as laser cutting, laser welding, direct laser metal deposition, laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique or CNC milling. The process chain is similar to layer-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques. In the first step, the 3D CAD geometry is sliced into layers by a specially developed software. These slices are cut by high speed laser cutting and then joined together. In this way laminated tools or parts are built. To improve surface quality and to increase wear resistance a CNC machining center is used. The system consists of a CNC milling machine, in which a 3 kW Nd:YAG laser, a coaxial powder nozzle and a digitizing system are integrated. Using a new laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique, coatings can be deposited onto parts for surface protection. The layers show a low porosity and high adhesion strength, the thickness is up to 0.3 mm, and the lower effort for preliminary surface preparation reduces time and costs of the whole process.

  7. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  8. Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...

  9. Bioinspired Functional Surfaces for Technological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumar, Suneel; Reddy, Kumbam Lingeshwar; Bahuguna, Ashish; Krishnan, Venkata

    2016-08-01

    Biological matters have been in continuous encounter with extreme environmental conditions leading to their evolution over millions of years. The fittest have survived through continuous evolution, an ongoing process. Biological surfaces are the important active interfaces between biological matters and the environment, and have been evolving over time to a higher state of intelligent functionality. Bioinspired surfaces with special functionalities have grabbed attention in materials research in the recent times. The microstructures and mechanisms behind these functional biological surfaces with interesting properties have inspired scientists to create artificial materials and surfaces which possess the properties equivalent to their counterparts. In this review, we have described the interplay between unique multiscale (micro- and nano-scale) structures of biological surfaces with intrinsic material properties which have inspired researchers to achieve the desired wettability and functionalities. Inspired by naturally occurring surfaces, researchers have designed and fabricated novel interfacial materials with versatile functionalities and wettability, such as superantiwetting surfaces (superhydrophobic and superoleophobic), omniphobic, switching wettability and water collecting surfaces. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to be utilized in different applications such as fog harvesting, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), catalysis, sensing and biological applications. This paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and artificial bioinspired surfaces utilized in different applications, where material science and engineering have merged by taking inspiration from the natural systems.

  10. Surface contamination technology in decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    Surface contamination measurement is the most basic technology in radiation control of the nuclear and radiation facilities. Loose surface contamination causes internal exposure through airborne contamination. Surface contamination measurement is recently more important in the waste management such as confirmation of decontamination factor, contamination survey of carried-out materials from radioactive control area, and application of clearance level. This report describes the base of surface contamination standards, meaning of contamination in decommissioning, relationship between clearance level and surface contamination, and current technology of surface contamination measurement. (author)

  11. Plasma technology of the surface polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Jorge C.N.; Mello, Sandra C.; Massi, Marcos; Otani, Choyu; Maciel, Homero S.; Bittencourt, Edison

    2005-01-01

    A number of polymers, especially rubbers, require surface treatment to achieve a satisfactory level of adhesion. The surface of EPDM rubber vulcanized is high hydrophobicity and is not suited for a number of potential applications, in particular, for adhering to the polyurethane liner of solid rocket propellants. In this case, plasma treatment can be a very attractive process because it can efficiently increase the surface energy attributed to surface oxidation with the introduction of polar groups 1, 2. In order to investigate the influence of the parameters on the modifications of the treated surface samples of EPDM rubber by plasma generated by gas oxygen and argon, the water and methylene iodide contact angles were measured at room temperature with an image analyzing using the sessile drop technique 3 - 6 . (author)

  12. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  13. Role of surface studies in science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkhanavala, M D [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1977-01-01

    Reactivity of solids is influenced by the surface properties such as structure, dislocations and composition. Corrosion and erosion are essentially surface phenomena. Surface studies, therefore, assume importance in prevention and minimization of corrosion and erosion. Discussion is illustrated with examples drawn from the field of nuclear power reactor technology.

  14. Advances in surface treatments: Technology, applications, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niku-Lari, A.

    1987-01-01

    An international handbook has been produced to include all aspects of residual stresses, including the theoretical background, effects of residual stresses, measurement and calculation and quantitative assessment of residual stress effects. Techniques for altering residual stresses, particularly surface treatments, are discussed. Up to date information on the state of the art is presented. (UK)

  15. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  16. Surface analytical methods in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    1985-06-01

    Application of SEM-EDX, AES, XPS are exemplarily demonstrated for highly radioactive materials with ionizing dose rates of about 1 Sv near the surface. The samples studied are aerosols from the high level waste vitrification process, postprecipitation in a pretreated fuel solution and emulsifying sludge from a solvent extraction process. The results of the chemical composition differentiated down to microscopic level reveal much more information about the history of a sample than those available from the integral macro-methods analysing. Elucidication of chemical composition and body structure in micrometer level may give insight into the origin and generation processes of samples under investigation. (orig.)

  17. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m 2 or 2116 ft 2 ) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage

  18. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  19. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  20. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. Surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductor nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Akazawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    The present status and key issues of surface passivation technology for III-V surfaces are discussed in view of applications to emerging novel III-V nanoelectronics. First, necessities of passivation and currently available surface passivation technologies for GaAs, InGaAs and AlGaAs are reviewed. Then, the principle of the Si interface control layer (ICL)-based passivation scheme by the authors' group is introduced and its basic characterization is presented. Ths Si ICL is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown ultrathin Si layer inserted between III-V semiconductor and passivation dielectric. Finally, applications of the Si ICL method to passivation of GaAs nanowires and GaAs nanowire transistors and to realization of pinning-free high-k dielectric/GaAs MOS gate stacks are presented

  3. Studies of cell biomechanics with surface micro-/nano-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhang Wei; Jiang Xingyu

    2011-01-01

    We report the recent progress in our studies of cell biology using micro-/nano-technology. Cells have a size of several to tens of microns, which makes them easily manipulated by micro-/nano-technology. The shape of the cell influences the alignment of the actin cytoskeleton, which bears the main forces of the cell, maintains the shape,and mediates a series of biochemical reactions. We invented a stretching device and studied the real-time actin filament dynamics under stretch. We found that one stretch cycle shortened the actin filaments and promoted their reassemble process. Cell migration is a complex mechanical process. We found that cell geometry determines the cell polarity and migration direction. We fabricated three-dimensional surfaces to mimic the topography in vivo, and further built a cell culture model by integrating the three-dimensional surface, microfluidics, cell patterning,and coculturing of multiple cell types. We also investigated the neuronal guidance by surface patterning. (authors)

  4. Surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Muzhi

    With more than 200 GW of accumulated installations in 2015, photovoltaics (PV) has become an important green energy harvesting method. The PV market is dominated by solar cells made from crystalline silicon wafers. The engineering of the wafer surfaces is critical to the solar cell cost reduction and performance enhancement. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the development of surface etching technologies for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells. It aims to develop a more efficient alkaline texturing method and more effective surface cleaning processes. Firstly, a rapid, isopropanol alcohol free texturing method is successfully demonstrated to shorten the process time and reduce the consumption of chemicals. This method utilizes the special chemical properties of triethylamine, which can form Si-N bonds with wafer surface atoms. Secondly, a room-temperature anisotropic emitter etch-back process is developed to improve the n+ emitter passivation. Using this method, 19.0% efficient screen-printed aluminium back surface field solar cells are developed that show an efficiency gain of 0.15% (absolute) compared with conventionally made solar cells. Finally, state-of-the-art silicon surface passivation results are achieved using hydrogen plasma etching as a dry alternative to the classical hydrofluoric acid wet-chemical process. The effective native oxide removal and the hydrogenation of the silicon surface are shown to be the reasons for the excellent level of surface passivation achieved with this novel method.

  5. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Zachary, E-mail: zstickney@scu.edu; Losacco, Joseph, E-mail: jlosacco@scu.edu; McDevitt, Sophie, E-mail: smmcdevitt@scu.edu; Zhang, Zhiwen, E-mail: zzhang@scu.edu; Lu, Biao, E-mail: blu2@scu.edu

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  6. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  7. Technology and economics of near-surface geothermal resources exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Э. И. Богуславский

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic justification for applicability of near-surface geothermal installations in Luga region, based on results of techno-economic calculations as well as integrated technical and economic comparison of different prediction scenarios of heat supply, both conventional and using geothermal heat pumps (GHP. Construction costs of a near-surface geothermal system can exceed the costs of central heating by 50-100 %. However, operation and maintenance (O&M costs of heat production for geothermal systems are 50-70 % lower than for conventional sources of heating. Currently this technology is very important, it is applied in various countries (USA, Germany, Japan, China etc., and depending on the region both near-surface and deep boreholes are being used. World practice of near-surface geothermal systems application is reviewed in the paper.

  8. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  9. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  10. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of different antimicrobial surface technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infection via microbiologically contaminated surfaces has already been demonstrated by other publications. In this work two different antibacterial surface technologies transition metalloacids (AMiSTec and TiO2/AgNO3 (Health Complete were compared regarding feasibility as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The examination of the antimicrobial activity was assessed according to the JIS Z 2801. We could demonstrate that all of our tested samples showed a strong antimicrobial activity (>log 3 germ reduction in the JIS experiments. Furthermore this strong antibacterial effect could be shown already after <30min incubation and at low light intensity (approx. 300 Lux for the TiO2/AgNO3 samples. Both technologies provide a high potential for an improved infection control for example in a high risk environment like operation rooms or intensive care units.

  12. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  13. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27–29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  14. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerlein, C; Hilleret, Noël; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis resu...

  15. Multijunction Solar Cell Technology for Mars Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mardesich, Nick; Ewell, Richard C.; Mueller, Robert L.; Endicter, Scott; Aiken, Daniel; Edmondson, Kenneth; Fetze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells used for Mars surface applications have been commercial space qualified AM0 optimized devices. Due to the Martian atmosphere, these cells are not optimized for the Mars surface and as a result operate at a reduced efficiency. A multi-year program, MOST (Mars Optimized Solar Cell Technology), managed by JPL and funded by NASA Code S, was initiated in 2004, to develop tools to modify commercial AM0 cells for the Mars surface solar spectrum and to fabricate Mars optimized devices for verification. This effort required defining the surface incident spectrum, developing an appropriate laboratory solar simulator measurement capability, and to develop and test commercial cells modified for the Mars surface spectrum. This paper discusses the program, including results for the initial modified cells. Simulated Mars surface measurements of MER cells and Phoenix Lander cells (2007 launch) are provided to characterize the performance loss for those missions. In addition, the performance of the MER rover solar arrays is updated to reflect their more than two (2) year operation.

  16. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1997-01-01

    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  17. An AES Study of the Room Temperature Surface Conditioning of Technological Metal Surfaces by Electron Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; Brown, A; Baker, M A

    2002-01-01

    The modifications to technological copper and niobium surfaces induced by 2.5 keV electron irradiation have been investigated in the context of the conditioning process occurring in particle accelerator ultra high vacuum systems. Changes in the elemental surface composition have been found using Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) by monitoring the carbon, oxygen and metal Auger peak intensities as a function of electron irradiation in the dose range 10-6 to 10-2 C mm-2. The surface analysis results are compared with electron dose dependent secondary electron and electron stimulated desorption yield measurements. Initially the electron irradiation causes a surface cleaning through electron stimulated desorption, in particular of hydrogen. During this period both the electron stimulated desorption and secondary electron yield decrease as a function of electron dose. When the electron dose exceeds 10-4 C mm-2 electron stimulated desorption yields are reduced by several orders of magnitude and the electron beam indu...

  18. Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation of Surfaces and Thin Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The effort included in this project included several related activities encompassing basic understanding, technological development, customer identification and commercial transfer of several methodologies for nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and thin surface coatings. Consistent with the academic environment, students were involved in the effort working with established investigators to further their training, provide a nucleus of experienced practitioners in the new technologies during their industrial introduction, and utilize their talents for project goals. As will be seen in various portions of the report, some of the effort has led to commercialization. This process has spawned other efforts related to this project which are supported from outside sources. These activities are occupying the efforts of some of the people who were previously supported within this grant and its predecessors. The most advanced of the supported technologies is thermography, for which the previous joint efforts of the investigators and NASA researchers have developed several techniques for extending the utility of straight thermographic inspection by producing methods of interpretation and analysis accessible to automatic image processing with computer data analysis. The effort reported for this technology has been to introduce the techniques to new user communities, who are then be able to add to the effective uses of existing products with only slight development work. In a related development, analysis of a thermal measurement situation in past efforts led to a new insight into the behavior of simple temperature probes. This insight, previously reported to the narrow community in which the particular measurement was made, was reported to the community of generic temperature measurement experts this year. In addition to the propagation of mature thermographic techniques, the development of a thermoelastic imaging system has been an important related development. Part of the

  19. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  20. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  1. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  2. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  3. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  4. G-Protein Coupled Receptors: Surface Display and Biosensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurchie, Edward; Leifert, Wayne

    Signal transduction by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) underpins a multitude of physiological processes. Ligand recognition by the receptor leads to the activation of a generic molecular switch involving heterotrimeric G-proteins and guanine nucleotides. With growing interest and commercial investment in GPCRs in areas such as drug targets, orphan receptors, high-throughput screening of drugs and biosensors, greater attention will focus on assay development to allow for miniaturization, ultrahigh-throughput and, eventually, microarray/biochip assay formats that will require nanotechnology-based approaches. Stable, robust, cell-free signaling assemblies comprising receptor and appropriate molecular switching components will form the basis of future GPCR/G-protein platforms, which should be able to be adapted to such applications as microarrays and biosensors. This chapter focuses on cell-free GPCR assay nanotechnologies and describes some molecular biological approaches for the construction of more sophisticated, surface-immobilized, homogeneous, functional GPCR sensors. The latter points should greatly extend the range of applications to which technologies based on GPCRs could be applied.

  5. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  6. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  7. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  8. Investigation on the micromilled surface characterization through replica technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, P.; Cacciatore, F.

    2016-01-01

    for the indirect measurement of micromilled surfaces, characterized by submicrometer roughness levels. The study assesses the performance of the replication method by measuring the surface roughness (in terms of Sa) of specifically designed micromilled flat surfaces. A 3D confocal optical microscope is employed...

  9. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Lagos, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  10. Parametric Surfaces Competition: Using Technology to Foster Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manmohan; Wangler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Although most calculus students are comfortable with the Cartesian equations of curves and surfaces, they struggle with the concept of parameters. A multivariable calculus course is really the time to nail this concept down, once and for all, since it provides an easy way to represent many beautiful and useful surfaces, and graph them using a…

  11. Electron stimulated desorption of gases at technological surfaces of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.Q.; Williams, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The release of gas by electron bombardment at aluminium alloy surfaces in vacuum -9 torr has been investigated for a range of treatments including bakeout and glow discharge cleaning. Particular attention has been given to the role of continuous electron bombardment, with current densities and electron energies of up to 1.5 mA cm -2 and 2.0 keV, respectively, over the 10 cm 2 of surface area under irradiation. The observations of desorption efficiency, defined as the number of desorbed molecules per incident electron, conform to a model involving a dynamic balance between adsorption and desorption, with contributions to adsorption from both surface and sub-surface gas. Continuous electron bombardment promotes a surface with low desorption efficiency, -5 mol/electron, however, the conditioning cycle is accelerated significantly by glow discharge treatment. There is evidence of some short-term memory when the samples are exposed to air. (author)

  12. A comparative analysis of strategic approaches for Information Technology (IT) for Commander Naval Surface Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Devine R.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As the lead organization for all United States Naval Surface Forces, Commander Naval Surface Forces (CNSF) is committed to providing operational commanders with well-trained, highly effective, and technologically relevant surface forces. Aligning itself with the Department of the Navy's Information Management (IM) and Information Technology (IT) strategic mission objectives, CNSF is dedicated to delivering secure, interoperable, and in...

  13. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  14. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  15. Flight Deck Display Technologies for 4DT and Surface Equivalent Visual Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denis R.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.

    2009-01-01

    NASA research is focused on flight deck display technologies that may significantly enhance situation awareness, enable new operating concepts, and reduce the potential for incidents/accidents for terminal area and surface operations. The display technologies include surface map, head-up, and head-worn displays; 4DT guidance algorithms; synthetic and enhanced vision technologies; and terminal maneuvering area traffic conflict detection and alerting systems. This work is critical to ensure that the flight deck interface technologies and the role of the human participants can support the full realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and its novel operating concepts.

  16. Smoother Sailing Ahead: Integrating Information Technology into the Surface Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    foreign competition, Ford Motor Company examined many areas of its operations. In its supply procurement division Ford employed over 500 personnel...generating reams of paperwork that contained many inventory discrepancies and billing errors. Mazda Motors in Japan performed the same function better...with five employees. (Schnitt, 1993, p. 19) The competition forced Ford to adopt new methods using modem information technology. Instead of pieces of

  17. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  18. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  19. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du [NDE Performance Demonstration Team, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  20. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  1. ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF ROAD SURFACES RECONSTRUCTIONS IN THE WORLD USING NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara Kyazymovna Izmaylova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the cost formation of restoration of road surfaces using the methods of replacing and processing the damaged layers. There is a mathematical model of cost of the one unit of production including the cost of building materials with delivery. The estimation of the total cost of repairs in the variable amount using the technology of full replacement of the surface and processing technology of the 50% of the material on the site.

  2. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  4. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-04-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  5. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  6. Functional properties of bio-inspired surfaces: characterization and technological applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O

    2009-01-01

    ... technological materials. It analyses how such surfaces can be described and characterized using microscopic techniques and thus reproduced, encompassing the important areas of current surface replication techniques and the associated acquisition of good master structures. It is well known that biological systems have the ability to sense, ...

  7. Topochip: technology for instructing cell fate and morphology via designed surface topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, G.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    The control of biomaterial surface topography is emerging as a tool to influence cells and tissues. Due to a lack a theoretical framework of the underlying molecular mechanisms, high-throughput screening (HTS) technology is valuable to identify and study bioactive surface topographies. To identify

  8. Surface reconstruction and deformation monitoring of stratospheric airship based on laser scanning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Xie, Yongjie; Ye, Hu; Zhang, Song; Li, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    Due to the uncertainty of stratospheric airship's shape and the security problem caused by the uncertainty, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship was conducted based on laser scanning technology and a √3-subdivision scheme based on Shepard interpolation was developed. Then, comparison was conducted between our subdivision scheme and the original √3-subdivision scheme. The result shows our subdivision scheme could reduce the shrinkage of surface and the number of narrow triangles. In addition, our subdivision scheme could keep the sharp features. So, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship could be conducted precisely by our subdivision scheme.

  9. Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Saeui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life—a single cell—and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate “functional biomaterial”. To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies—as they rapidly mature—hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

  10. Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeui, Christopher T.; Mathew, Mohit P.; Liu, Lingshui; Urias, Esteban; Yarema, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life—a single cell—and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate “functional biomaterial”. To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies—as they rapidly mature—hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels. PMID:26096148

  11. Technology of magnetic abrasive finishing in machining of difficult-to-machine alloy complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujian MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technology of magnetic abrasive finishing is one of the important finishing technologies. Combining with low-frequency vibration and ultrasonic vibration, it can attain higher precision, quality and efficiency. The characteristics and the related current research of magnetic abrasive finishing, vibration assisted magnetic abrasive finishing and ultrasonic assisted magnetic abrasive finishing are introduced. According to the characteristics of the difficult-to-machine alloy's complex surface, the important problems for further study are presented to realize the finishing of complex surface with the technology of magnetic abrasive finishing, such as increasing the machining efficiency by enhancing the magnetic flux density of machining gap and compounding of magnetic energy and others, establishing of the control function during machining and the process planning method for magnetic abrasive finishing of complex surface under the space geometry restraint of complex surface on magnetic pole, etc.

  12. Advanced surface technology a holistic view on the extensive and intertwined world of applied surface engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Moller, Per

    2013-01-01

    These two volumes serve as an inclusive and practical reference in manufacturing as well as a comprehensive text for university-level course work. Before delving into the variety of conventional and emerging surface finishing processes available to the 21st century practitioner, the authors cover the principles behind the processes, including wear and other mechanical properties, corrosion and electrochemistry. Throughout, the material also covers testing, property measurement and a generic introduction to basically all surface relevant characterization techniques, keyed to the specific process and application under discussion.

  13. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  14. Comprehensive investigation of the corrosion and surface chemical effects of the decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo-Nagy, Andrea; Varga, Kalman; Deak-Horvath, Emese; Nemeth, Zoltan; Horvath, David; Schunk, Janos; Patek, Gabor

    2012-09-01

    Decontamination technologies are mainly developed to reduce the collective dose of the maintenance personnel at NPPs. The highest efficiency (i.e., the highest DF values) available without detrimental modification of the treated surface of structural material is the most important goal in the course of the application of a decontamination technology. A so-called 'soft' chemical decontamination technology has been developed - supported by the Paks Nuclear Power Plant - at the Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology of the University of Pannonia. The novel base technology can be effectively applied for the decontamination of the heat exchanger tubes of steam generators. In addition, by optimizing the main technological parameters (temperature, concentration of the liquid chemicals, flow rates, contact time, etc.) it can be utilized for specific applications such as decontamination of some dismountable devices and separable equipment or the total decontamination prior to plant dismantling (decommissioning) in the future. The aim of this work is to compare the efficiency, corrosion and surface chemical effects of some improved versions of the novel base-technology elaborated for decontamination of austenitic stainless steel surfaces. The experiments have been performed at laboratory conditions in decontamination model systems. The applied methods: γ-spectrometry, ICP-OES, voltammetry and SEM-EDX. The experimental results revealed that the efficiency of the base-technology mainly depends on the surface features of the stainless steel samples such as the chemical composition and thickness of the oxide layer, the nature (quantity, morphology and chemical composition) of the crystalline deposits. It has been documented that the improved version of the base-technology are suitable for the decontamination of both steel surfaces covered by chemically resistant large Cr-content crystals and that having compact oxide-layers (up to a thickness of 10

  15. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  16. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  17. Macrodesign for microdevices: Polysilicon surface-micromachining technology, applications and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1997-05-01

    The intent of this tutorial is to overview the technology of multi-level polysilicon surface micromachining, to present examples of devices which fully utilize this level of complexity, and to discuss what they believe to be significant issues which are not fully resolved. Following this intent, the tutorial consists of four sections. The first is an introduction and description of multi-level polysilicon surface micromachining and its potential benefits. Specifically, the inclusion of a third deposited layer of mechanical polysilicon greatly extends the degree of complexity available for micromechanism design. The second section introduces wafer planarization by CMP as a process tool for surface micromachining. The third section presents examples of actuated geared micromechanisms which require the multi-level fabrication process. Demonstration of actuation mechanisms coupled to external devices are illustrated. Finally, polysilicon surface micromachining fabrication technology has reached a level where many device designs, for the most part, can be embodied in the technology to produce a mechanical construct which provides the desired function. When designed properly, the fabricated mechanical element, if free to operate, will produce the desired function. However, one set of issues which can hinder or prevent operation are related to the post-fabricated device surfaces. These surface issues; namely, stiction, friction, and wear, are emphasized in the final section as a major hindrance to realizing the full potential of surface micromachined devices.

  18. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  19. Surface technology is essential for transition to a hydrogen-based energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. P.; Leisner, P.; Møller, P.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface technology for the success of the ongoing energy turnaround in Germany has recently been discussed in this journal. The purpose of the present article is to add views based on the conditions valid for the Nordic region.......The importance of advanced surface technology for the success of the ongoing energy turnaround in Germany has recently been discussed in this journal. The purpose of the present article is to add views based on the conditions valid for the Nordic region....

  20. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  1. Manufacturing microsystems-on-a-chip with 5-level surface micromachining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    An agile microsystem manufacturing technology has been developed that provides unprecedented 5 levels of independent polysilicon surface-micromachine films for the designer. Typical surface-micromachining processes offer a maximum of 3 levels, making this the most complex surface-micromachining process technology developed to date. Leveraged from the extensive infrastructure present in the microelectronics industry, the manufacturing method of polysilicon surface-micromachining offers similar advantages of high-volume, high-reliability, and batch-fabrication to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as has been accomplished with integrated circuits (ICs). These systems, comprised of microscopic-sized mechanical elements, are laying the foundation for a rapidly expanding, multi-billion dollar industry 2 which impacts the automotive, consumer product, and medical industries to name only a few.

  2. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Boyce

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating “self-disinfecting” surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer “no-touch” (automated decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm light. These “no-touch” technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections

  3. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  4. Geometry Laboratory (GEOLAB) surface modeling and grid generation technology and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia A.; Smith, Robert E.; Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    The facilities and services of the GEOmetry LABoratory (GEOLAB) at the NASA Langley Research Center are described. Included in this description are the laboratory functions, the surface modeling and grid generation technologies used in the laboratory, and examples of the tasks performed in the laboratory.

  5. Technology development for metallic hot structures in aerodynamic control surfaces of reusable launchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudmeijer, K.J.; Wentzel, C.; Lefeber, B.M.; Kloosterman, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a summary is presented of the technology development in the Netherlands focussed on the design and development of a metallic aerodynamic control surface for the future European reusable launcher. The applied materials are mainly Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys produced by

  6. Deterministic ion beam material adding technology for high-precision optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2013-02-20

    Although ion beam figuring (IBF) provides a highly deterministic method for the precision figuring of optical components, several problems still need to be addressed, such as the limited correcting capability for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors and low machining efficiency for pit defects on surfaces. We propose a figuring method named deterministic ion beam material adding (IBA) technology to solve those problems in IBF. The current deterministic optical figuring mechanism, which is dedicated to removing local protuberances on optical surfaces, is enriched and developed by the IBA technology. Compared with IBF, this method can realize the uniform convergence of surface errors, where the particle transferring effect generated in the IBA process can effectively correct the mid-to-high spatial frequency errors. In addition, IBA can rapidly correct the pit defects on the surface and greatly improve the machining efficiency of the figuring process. The verification experiments are accomplished on our experimental installation to validate the feasibility of the IBA method. First, a fused silica sample with a rectangular pit defect is figured by using IBA. Through two iterations within only 47.5 min, this highly steep pit is effectively corrected, and the surface error is improved from the original 24.69 nm root mean square (RMS) to the final 3.68 nm RMS. Then another experiment is carried out to demonstrate the correcting capability of IBA for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors, and the final results indicate that the surface accuracy and surface quality can be simultaneously improved.

  7. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  8. Capability assessment and challenges for quantum technology gravity sensors for near surface terrestrial geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Metje, Nicole; Tuckwell, George

    2017-11-01

    Geophysical surveying is widely used for the location of subsurface features. Current technology is limited in terms of its resolution (thus size of features it can detect) and penetration depth and a suitable technique is needed to bridge the gap between shallow near surface investigation using techniques such as EM conductivity mapping and GPR commonly used to map the upper 5 m below ground surface, and large features at greater depths detectable using conventional microgravity (> 5 m below ground surface). This will minimise the risks from unknown features buried in and conditions of the ground during civil engineering work. Quantum technology (QT) gravity sensors potentially offer a step-change in technology for locating features which lie outside of the currently detectable range in terms of size and depth, but that potential is currently unknown as field instruments have not been developed. To overcome this, a novel computer simulation was developed for a large range of different targets of interest. The simulation included realistic noise modelling of instrumental, environmental and location sources of noise which limit the accuracy of current microgravity measurements, in order to assess the potential capability of the new QT instruments in realistic situations and determine some of the likely limitations on their implementation. The results of the simulations for near surface features showed that the new technology is best employed in a gradiometer configuration as opposed to the traditional single sensor gravimeter used by current instruments due to the ability to suppress vibrational environmental noise effects due to common mode rejection between the sensors. A significant improvement in detection capability of 1.5-2 times was observed, putting targets such as mineshafts into the detectability zone which would be a major advantage for subsurface surveying. Thus this research, for the first time, has demonstrated clearly the benefits of QT gravity

  9. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  10. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  11. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias, E-mail: ingo.wirth@ifam.frauhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM), Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  12. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  13. The technology of surface coatings by electron-beam (EB) with special reference to the wood industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The use of electron-beam as a processing means in surface coatings is discussed. Special attention has been given to this technology in relation to the surface coatings of wood. The main features of its technology and industrial requirements are outlined. (author)

  14. Enhanced Vision Flight Deck Technology for Commercial Aircraft Low-Visibility Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Norman, R. Michael; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. Ray

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) air field during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and mini cation effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Innovative nuclear technologies based on radiation induced surface activation (RISA). 1. The project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Kyosuke; Morooka, Shinichi; Hishida, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    This research of the Innovative nuclear technologies based on Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) is due to start from 2003 and to be ended to 2006, and performed fund by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Japan. One of the innovative technologies is to develop a high performance corrosion-proof film to prevent the surface of reactor internals from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), the other one is to develop the film for improving the heat transfer performance a high performance of the nuclear fuel rod. Both of these properties are derived under gamma ray irradiation by the RISA effect. This paper reports about the summary of this subsidy enterprise by METI. (author)

  16. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  17. Enhanced vision flight deck technology for commercial aircraft low-visibility surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Norman, R. M.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Comstock, J. R.

    2013-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center and the FAA collaborated in an effort to evaluate the effect of Enhanced Vision (EV) technology display in a commercial flight deck during low visibility surface operations. Surface operations were simulated at the Memphis, TN (FAA identifier: KMEM) airfield during nighttime with 500 Runway Visual Range (RVR) in a high-fidelity, full-motion simulator. Ten commercial airline flight crews evaluated the efficacy of various EV display locations and parallax and minification effects. The research paper discusses qualitative and quantitative results of the simulation experiment, including the effect of EV display placement on visual attention, as measured by the use of non-obtrusive oculometry and pilot mental workload. The results demonstrated the potential of EV technology to enhance situation awareness which is dependent on the ease of access and location of the displays. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  18. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites

  19. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  20. High performance workflow implementation for protein surface characterization using grid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clematis Andrea

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study concerns the development of a high performance workflow that, using grid technology, correlates different kinds of Bioinformatics data, starting from the base pairs of the nucleotide sequence to the exposed residues of the protein surface. The implementation of this workflow is based on the Italian Grid.it project infrastructure, that is a network of several computational resources and storage facilities distributed at different grid sites. Methods Workflows are very common in Bioinformatics because they allow to process large quantities of data by delegating the management of resources to the information streaming. Grid technology optimizes the computational load during the different workflow steps, dividing the more expensive tasks into a set of small jobs. Results Grid technology allows efficient database management, a crucial problem for obtaining good results in Bioinformatics applications. The proposed workflow is implemented to integrate huge amounts of data and the results themselves must be stored into a relational database, which results as the added value to the global knowledge. Conclusion A web interface has been developed to make this technology accessible to grid users. Once the workflow has started, by means of the simplified interface, it is possible to follow all the different steps throughout the data processing. Eventually, when the workflow has been terminated, the different features of the protein, like the amino acids exposed on the protein surface, can be compared with the data present in the output database.

  1. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  2. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Qazi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access component of air travel, which is the focus of this paper. Two aspects associated with the relationship between sustainable development and airport surface access are considered. Firstly, there is an evaluation of three technological innovation options that will enable sustainable transport solutions for surface access journeys: telepresence systems to reduce drop-off/pick-up trips, techniques to improve public transport and options to encourage the sharing of rides. Secondly, the role of behavioral change for surface access journeys from a theoretical perspective, using empirical data from Manchester airport, is evaluated. Finally, the contribution of technology and behavioral intervention measures to improvements in sustainable development are discussed.

  3. Oriented coupling of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to sensor surfaces using light assisted immobilisation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabe, Torben; Røder, Gustav Andreas; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Controlled and oriented immobilisation of proteins for biosensor purposes is of extreme interest since this provides more efficient sensors with a larger density of active binding sites per area compared to sensors produced by conventional immobilisation. In this paper oriented coupling of a major...... histocompatibility complex (MHC class I) to a sensor surface is presented. The coupling was performed using light assisted immobilisation--a novel immobilisation technology which allows specific opening of particular disulphide bridges in proteins which then is used for covalent bonding to thiol-derivatised surfaces...... via a new disulphide bond. Light assisted immobilisation specifically targets the disulphide bridge in the MHC-I molecule alpha(3)-domain which ensures oriented linking of the complex with the peptide binding site exposed away from the sensor surface. Structural analysis reveals that a similar...

  4. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center 'Welding Processes and Technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, N A; Kryukov, R E; Galevsky, G V; Titov, D A; Shurupov, V M

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies».New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed. (paper)

  5. Technology and human purpose: the problem of solids transport on the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids") on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of) form resistance - impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment) and air (dust). The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities), and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The latter property

  6. Comparison of eggshell surface sanitization technologies and impacts on consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajeeli, Morouj N; Taylor, T Matthew; Alvarado, Christine Z; Coufal, Craig D

    2016-05-01

    Shell eggs can be contaminated with many types of microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens, and thus present a risk for the transmission of foodborne disease to consumers. Currently, most United States egg processors utilize egg washing and sanitization systems to decontaminate surfaces of shell eggs prior to packaging. However, previous research has indicated that current shell egg sanitization technologies employed in the commercial egg industry may not completely eliminate bacteria from the surface of eggshells, and thus alternative egg sanitization technologies with the potential for increased microbial reductions on eggshells should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial efficacy and consumer sensory attributes of industry-available eggshell sanitization methods (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) applied via spray) to various alternative egg sanitization technologies. Eggs (White Leghorn hens; n=195) were obtained for evaluation of sanitizer-induced reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria (n=90) or inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) reduction (n=105). Sanitizing treatments evaluated in this experiment were: chlorine spray (100 ppm available chlorine), QAC spray (200 ppm), peracetic acid spray (PAA; 135 ppm) alone or in combination with ultraviolet light (UV; 254 nm), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 3.5% solution) spray in combination with UV (H2O2+UV). For enumeration of aerobic bacteria, eggs were sampled at 0, 7, and 14 days of storage at 4°C; surviving SE cells from inoculated eggs were enumerated by differential plating. Sensory trials were conducted to determine consumer liking of scrambled eggs made from eggs sanitized with chlorine, QAC, H2O2+UV, or no treatment (control). The H2O2 and UV treatment resulted in the greatest reductions in eggshell aerobic plate counts compared to other treatments throughout egg storage (Peggs represents a novel technology that could have important

  7. Plasma-aided surface technology for modification of materials referred to fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineff, P.; Gospodinova, D.; Kostova, L.; Vladkova, T.; Chen, E.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in dielectric barrier air discharge at atmospheric pressure and room temperature over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. New plasma-aided capillary impregnation technology for flame spreading stop and fire protection of porous materials was developed. Research, based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proves that plasma-chemical surface pre-treatment exert material change on chemical interaction between phosphorus containing flame retardant and wood matrix (Pinus sylvestris, Bulgaria; Pseudotsuga, Canada)

  8. Photonic Mach-Zehnder modulators driven by surface acoustic waves in AlGaAs technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Poveda, A.; Gargallo, B.; Artundo, I.; Doménech, J. D.; Muñoz, P.; Hey, R.; Biermann, K.; Tahraoui, A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.; de Lima, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, photonic devices driven by surface acoustic waves and operating in the GHz frequency range are presented. The devices were designed and fabricated in (Al,Ga)As technology. In contrast to previously realized modulators, where part of the light transmission is lost due to destructive interference, in the present devices light only switches paths, avoiding losses. One of the devices presents two output channels with 180°-dephasing synchronization. Odd multiples of the fundamental driving frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A second and more complex photonic integrated device, based on the acoustic modulation of tunable Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, is also proposed.

  9. Experimental verification of active IR stealth technology by controlling the surface temperature using a thermoelectric element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Geon; Han, Kuk Il; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Tae Kuk [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we propose a technique for IR low-observability that uses an active IR signal tuning through the real time control of the object surface temperature according to the varying background environment. This is achieved by applying the proper object surface temperature obtained to result in the minimum radiance difference between the object and the background. Experimental verification by using the thermoelectric temperature control element shows that the IR radiance contrast between the object and the background can be reduced up to 99% during the night and up to 95% during the day time as compared to the un-tuned original radiance contrast values. The stealth technology demonstrated in this paper may be applied for many military systems needed for the IR stealth performance when a suitable temperature control unit is developed.

  10. Experimental verification of active IR stealth technology by controlling the surface temperature using a thermoelectric element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Geon; Han, Kuk Il; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Tae Kuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a technique for IR low-observability that uses an active IR signal tuning through the real time control of the object surface temperature according to the varying background environment. This is achieved by applying the proper object surface temperature obtained to result in the minimum radiance difference between the object and the background. Experimental verification by using the thermoelectric temperature control element shows that the IR radiance contrast between the object and the background can be reduced up to 99% during the night and up to 95% during the day time as compared to the un-tuned original radiance contrast values. The stealth technology demonstrated in this paper may be applied for many military systems needed for the IR stealth performance when a suitable temperature control unit is developed

  11. RISK ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATERS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER CIRCULATION TECHNOLOGIES ON TROUT FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sidoruk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of aquaculture has led to an increasing impact on the status of surface waters. Fish production generates wastes that, at high concentrations, may present a serious risk to the aquatic environment. Studies on the assessment of the impact of water management technologies in trout production on the quality of surface waters were conducted in 2011. Six farms were selected for the studies and were divided into two groups based on water management solutions (n = 3: farms with a flow through system (FTS and farms with a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS. On all farms, water measurement points were set and they depicted the quality of inflow water, the quality of water in ponds and the quality of outflow water. The studies did not demonstrate any impact of applied technology on electrolyte conductivity or calcium and magnesium concentrations in outflow water from a trout operation. In addition, it was found that the use of water for production purposes resulted in a slight increase in phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in waste waters.

  12. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations in Data Sparse Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions of the World, surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The project is focused on improving weather observations for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. Instrumentation that has been developed use innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The goal of the project is to make the weather station designs, software, and processing tools an open community resource. The weather stations can be built locally by agencies, through educational institutions, and residential communities as a citizen effort to augment existing networks to improve detection of natural hazards for disaster risk reduction. The presentation will provide an overview of the open source weather station technology and evaluation of sensor observations for the initial networks that have been deployed in Africa.

  13. Desert water harvesting from TAKYR surfaces: assessing the potential of traditional and experimental technologies in the karakum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Ataev, A.; Mamedov, B.; Spaan, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    From historical times the traditionally nomadic people in desert environments of Turkmenistan have applied a range of innovative technologies to secure water supply for consumptive and productive purposes. These technologies make use of takyrs, flat or slightly sloping dense clay surfaces which act

  14. A Novel Particulate Matter 2.5 Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuling Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, fabrication and experiments of a miniature particulate matter (PM 2.5 sensor based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW technology were proposed. The sensor contains a virtual impactor (VI for particle separation, a thermophoretic precipitator (TP for PM2.5 capture and a SAW sensor chip for PM2.5 mass detection. The separation performance of the VI was evaluated by using the finite element method (FEM model and the PM2.5 deposition characteristic in the TP was obtained by analyzing the thermophoretic theory. Employing the coupling-of-modes (COM model, a low loss and high-quality SAW resonator was designed. By virtue of the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS technology and semiconductor technology, the SAW based PM2.5 sensor detecting probe was fabricated. Then, combining a dual-port SAW oscillator and an air sampler, the experimental platform was set up. Exposing the PM2.5 sensor to the polystyrene latex (PSL particles in a chamber, the sensor performance was evaluated. The results show that by detecting the PSL particles with a certain diameter of 2 μm, the response of the SAW based PM2.5 sensor is linear, and in accordance with the response of the light scattering based PM2.5 monitor. The developed SAW based PM2.5 sensor has great potential for the application of airborne particle detection.

  15. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  17. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  18. Examining the decontaminability of surfaces from the beginnings of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.

    2003-01-01

    Parallel with the development of nuclear technology in the 1950s, methods of examining the decontaminability of surface materials were elaborated, improved, and partly standardized in many countries. In 1988, ISO 8690 was adopted as an internationally accepted method of examination (technically identical to DIN 25 415, Part 1). A first range of coatings for nuclear applications were compiled from the large number of commercial products available on the market on the basis of the test method developed since 1962 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and then at the Karlsruhe Research Center. Subsequently, the continuously improved test method was used to study, in mainly chemically curing two-component coatings, the reduction of gloss by dulling agents and fillers as well as various shades of color. Floor and container coatings were also examined for their resistance to radiation and to chemicals as well as wear. (orig.) [de

  19. Hot Structure Control Surface Progress for X-37 Technology Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P. G.; Meyer, David L. (Editor); Snow, Holly (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been leading the development of technologies that will enable the development, fabrication, and flight of the automated X-37 Orbital Vehicle (OV). With the Administration s recent announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration, NASA placed the X-37 OV design on hold while developing detailed requirements for a Crew Exploration Vehicle, but has continued funding the development of high-risk, critical technologies for potential future space exploration vehicle applications. Hot Structure Control Surfaces (HSCS) technology development is one of the high-priority areas being funded at this time. The goal of HSCS research is to mitigate risk by qualifying the lightest possible components that meet the stringent X-37 OV weight and performance requirements, including Shuttle-type reen- try environments with peak temperatures of 2800 OF. The small size of the X-37 OV (25.7-feet long and 14.9-foot wingspan) drives the need for advanced HSCS because the vehicle's two primary aerodynamic surfaces, the flaperons and ruddervators, have thicknesses ranging from approximately 5 in. down to 1 in. Traditional metallic or polymer-matrix composites covered with tile or blanket thermal protection system (TPS) materials cannot be used as there is insufficient volume to fabricate such multi-component structures. Therefore, carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbodsilicon-carbide (C-SiC) composite HSCS structures are being developed in parallel by two teams supporting the X-37 prime contractor (The Boeing Company). The Science Applications International Coy. (SAIC) and Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT) team is developing the C-C HSCS, while the General Electric Energy Power Systems Composites (GE-PSC) and Materials Research and Design (MRD) team is developing the C-SiC HSCS. These two teams were selected to reduce the high level of risk associated with developing advanced control surface components. They have continued HSCS

  20. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  1. [Response surface method optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis preparation genistein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-04-01

    This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production.

  2. Adaptable Deployable Entry & Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Cubesat Delivery to Mars Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), uses a mechanical skeleton to deploy a revolutionary carbon fabric system that serves as both heat shield and primary structure during atmospheric entry. The NASA ADEPT project, currently funded by the Game Changing Development Program in STMD is currently focused on 1m class hypersonic decelerators for the delivery of very small payloads ( 5 kg) to locations of interest in an effort to leverage low-cost platforms to rapidly mature the technology while simultaneously delivering high-value science. Preliminary mission design and aerothermal performance testing in arcjets have shown the ADEPT system is quite capable of safe delivery of cubesats to Mars surface. The ability of the ADEPT to transit to Mars in a stowed configuration (similar to an umbrella) provides options for integration with the Mars 2020 cruise stage, even to consider multiple ADEPTs. System-level test campaigns are underway for FY15 execution or planning for FY16. These include deployment testing, wind tunnel testing, system-level arc jet testing, and a sounding rocket flight test. The goal is system level maturation (TRL 6) at a 1m class Mars design reference mission configuration.

  3. A review of the biomaterials technologies for infection-resistant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2013-11-01

    Anti-infective biomaterials need to be tailored according to the specific clinical application. All their properties have to be tuned to achieve the best anti-infective performance together with safe biocompatibility and appropriate tissue interactions. Innovative technologies are developing new biomaterials and surfaces endowed with anti-infective properties, relying either on antifouling, or bactericidal, or antibiofilm activities. This review aims at thoroughly surveying the numerous classes of antibacterial biomaterials and the underlying strategies behind them. Bacteria repelling and antiadhesive surfaces, materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties, antibacterial coatings, nanostructured materials, and molecules interfering with bacterial biofilm are considered. Among the new strategies, the use of phages or of antisense peptide nucleic acids are discussed, as well as the possibility to modulate the local immune response by active cytokines. Overall, there is a wealth of technical solutions to contrast the establishment of an implant infection. Many of them exhibit a great potential in preclinical models. The lack of well-structured prospective multicenter clinical trials hinders the achievement of conclusive data on the efficacy and comparative performance of anti-infective biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The industrial logistic surface: Displaying the impact of energy policy on uptake of new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Baroni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Two processes are widely viewed as fundamental to the transition from conventional fossil-fuelled energy systems to renewable powered systems that is under way. There is firstly the progressive reduction in costs as investment, or production/energy generating capacity, grows. To see the uptake itself we need a second process, captured as a logistic curve (or S-shaped curve) that depicts the uptake of the new technology as an industrial substitution process unfolding over time. In this paper we put these two processes together, deriving a single expression that depicts uptake as a function of both cumulative investment and time, where the key parameter can be related to the learning coefficient. We display this expression in the form of a 3-dimensional surface that we dub the Logistic Industrial Surface. It is applied to a real case involving cost reduction and logistic uptake of solar PV (photovoltaic) cells. In this specific case, we estimate the learning curve involved and on this basis calculate that (for an initial time period) early in the trajectory a cost reduction of 8.7% would be associated with an increase in investment of 10%, leading to an increase in uptake by 4.35%; whereas a cost reduction of 44% (corresponding to a doubling of investment) would lead to a more rapid uptake of 41.95%. We claim that this is the first demonstration in the literature of a direct connection between investment levels, cost reductions and consequent levels of uptake according to logistic industrial dynamics. - Highlights: • We derive an expression which combines learning curves with logistic uptake. • This expression is termed an ILS (industrial logistic surface). • We illustrate the ILS through different investment schedules. • We apply the new framework to the case of solar PV cost reductions and uptake. • We demonstrate the workings of the ILS with a numerical example

  5. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenet, D.

    2000-01-01

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  6. About the non-identity of the technological impact upon its repeat realization in the case of surface plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, Veselin I. [University of Rousse, Rousse (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Discussed are the cases when during the repeated applying surface plastic deformation (SPD) there is a significant manifestation of alternative combinations and otter effect and factors in addition to the factor number of processing runs. Then there are signs of non-identity of their technological impact. except for the influence of the factor frequency of the processing, there are a significant availability of alternative combinations of effects and other factors and there are signs of non-identity of the technological impact. Such combinations occur in relation to: mismatch of the overlaying of contact zones; generation random characteristics of the technological impact; System-driven differences in the condition of contact interaction between the deforming elements and the machined surfaces. Key words: surface plastic deformation.

  7. Integration of microplasma and microfluidic technologies for localised microchannel surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A.; Priest, Craig; Gruner, Philipp J.; Ruschitzka, Paul; Bradley, James W.; Ralston, John; Steele, David A.; Short, Robert D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the spatial surface chemical modification of bonded microchannels through the integration of microplasmas into a microfluidic chip (MMC). The composite MMC comprises an array of precisely aligned electrodes surrounding the gas/fluid microchannel. Pairs of electrodes are used to locally ignite microplasmas inside the microchannel. Microplasmas, comprising geometrically confined microscopic electrically-driven gas discharges, are used to spatially functionalise the walls of the microchannels with proteins and enzymes down to scale lengths of 300 μm inside 50 μm-wide microchannels. Microchannels in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) or glass were used in this study. Protein specifically adsorbed on to the regions inside the PDMS microchannel that were directly exposed to the microplasma. Glass microchannels required pre-functionalisation to enable the spatial patterning of protein. Firstly, the microchannel wall was functionalised with a protein adhesion layer, 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES), and secondly, a protein blocking agent (bovine serum albumin, BSA) was adsorbed onto APTES. The functionalised microchannel wall was then treated with an array of spatially localised microplasmas that reduced the blocking capability of the BSA in the region that had been exposed to the plasma. This enabled the functionalisation of the microchannel with an array of spatially separated protein. As an alternative we demonstrated the feasibility of depositing functional thin films inside the MMC by spatially plasma depositing acrylic acid and 1,7-octadiene within the microchannel. This new MMC technology enables the surface chemistry of microchannels to be engineered with precision, which is expected to broaden the scope of lab-on-a-chip type applications.

  8. Preparation of Copper and Chromium Alloyed Layers on Pure Titanium by Plasma Surface Alloying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojing; Li, Meng; Wang, Huizhen; Zhang, Xiangyu; Tang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Cu-Cr alloyed layers with different Cu and Cr contents on pure titanium were obtained by means of plasma surface alloying technology. The microstructure, chemical composition and phase composition of Cu-Cr alloyed layers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the alloyed layers are bonded strongly to pure titanium substrate and consist of unbound Ti, CuTi, Cu3Ti, CuTi3 and Cr2Ti. The thickness of Cu5Cr5 and Cu7Cr3 alloyed layer are about 18 μm and 28 μm, respectively. The antibacterial properties against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli, ATCC10536) and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC6538) of untreated pure titanium and Cu-Cr alloyed specimen were investigated by live/dead fluorescence staining method. The study shows that Cu-Cr alloyed layers exhibit excellent antibacterial activities against both E.coli and S.aureus within 24 h, which may be attributed to the formation of Cu-containing phases.

  9. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures for CTGS Substrates for SAW Technology with XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Brachmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and reproducible cleaning procedure of piezoelectric substrates is essential in surface acoustic waves (SAW technology to fabricate high-quality SAW devices, especially for new applications such SAW sensors wherein new materials for piezoelectric substrates and interdigital transducers are used. Therefore, the development and critical evaluation of cleaning procedures for each material system that is under consideration becomes crucial. Contaminants like particles or the presence of organic/inorganic material on the substrate can dramatically influence and alter the properties of the thin film substrate composite, such as wettability, film adhesion, film texture, and so on. In this article, focus is given to different cleaning processes like SC-1 and SC-2, UV-ozone treatment, as well as cleaning by first-contact polymer Opticlean, which are applied for removal of contaminants from the piezoelectric substrate Ca 3 TaGa 3 Si 2 O 14 . By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the presence of the most critical contaminants such as carbon, sodium, and iron removed through different cleaning procedures were studied and significant differences were observed between the outcomes of these procedures. Based on these results, a two-step cleaning process, combining SC-1 at a reduced temperature at 30 ∘ C instead of 80 ∘ C and a subsequent UV-ozone cleaning directly prior to deposition of the metallization, is suggested to achieve the lowest residual contamination level.

  10. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Feng

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  11. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing.

  12. Proceedings of national executive management seminar on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this seminar. The papers discussed are 1. Incentives for investment in the manufacturing sector (in Malaysia) 2.Trends and prospect of surface finishing by radiation curing technology in Malaysia 3. Industrial application of radiation curing

  13. Technological capabilities of increasing surface quality of workpieces made of titanium alloy VT22 and stability of surface grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Ya I.; Salov, V. M.; Mai, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    Surface grinding of flat workpieces made of alloy VT22 was conducted by the periphery of a highly porous wheel (HPW) from cubic boron nitride CBN30 B107 100 OV K27 КF40 with three processing techniques (ij). They are 10 - cross-feed per stroke, HPW cutting into a workpiece changes alternately from up to down; 12 – cross-feed per double stroke during the up HPW cutting-in at the working stroke; 22 – cross-feed per double stroke during the down HPW cutting-in at the working stroke. With the involvement of artificial neural network models, it was revealed that to improve the quality of surfaces and stability of its formation, grinding should be conducted if ij = 12.

  14. Surface modification of chitin using ultrasound-assisted and supercritical CO{sub 2} technologies for cobalt adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotto, Guilherme L., E-mail: guilherme_dotto@yahoo.com.br; Cunha, Jeanine M., E-mail: jeaninecunha@gmail.com; Calgaro, Camila O., E-mail: camila.itepjr@gmail.com; Tanabe, Eduardo H., E-mail: edutanabe@yahoo.com.br; Bertuol, Daniel A., E-mail: dbertuol@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitin was modified by ultrasound-assisted (UA) and supercritical (SCO{sub 2}) technologies. • Chitin, UA-chitin and SCO{sub 2}-chitin were used as adsorbents for Co(II). • UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments provided increase of 20 and 3 times in chitin surface area. • The Co(II) adsorption capacity increased until 67.8%, using UA-chitin. - Abstract: Ultrasound-assisted (UA) and supercritical CO{sub 2} technologies (SCO{sub 2}) were used to modify the chitin surface and, improve its adsorption characteristics regarding to cobalt. Chitin, before and after the treatments, was characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms (BET), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unmodified and surface modified chitins were used as adsorbents to remove cobalt from aqueous solutions. The adsorption study was performed by equilibrium isotherms and kinetic curves. The chitin particle characteristics, such as, surface area, pore volume and porosity were improved by the UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments. The crystallinity index decreased after the UA and SCO{sub 2} treatments, and also, intense surface modifications were observed. Langmuir and Freundlich models were adequate to represent the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum adsorption capacities were 50.03, 83.94 and 63.08 mg g{sup −1} for unmodified chitin, UA surface modified chitin and SCO{sub 2} surface modified chitin. The adsorption kinetic curves were well represented by the pseudo-second order model. UA and SCO{sub 2} technologies are alternatives to modify the chitin surface and improve its adsorption characteristics.

  15. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  16. Machining the Integral Impeller and Blisk of Aero-Engines: A Review of Surface Finishing and Strengthening Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Youzhi; Gao, Hang; Wang, Xuanping; Guo, Dongming

    2017-05-01

    The integral impeller and blisk of an aero-engine are high performance parts with complex structure and made of difficult-to-cut materials. The blade surfaces of the integral impeller and blisk are functional surfaces for power transmission, and their surface integrity has significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency and service life of an aero-engine. Thus, it is indispensable to finish and strengthen the blades before use. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of studies on finishing and strengthening technologies for the impeller and blisk of aero-engines. The review includes independent and integrated finishing and strengthening technologies and discusses advanced rotational abrasive flow machining with back-pressure used for finishing the integral impeller and blisk. A brief assessment of future research problems and directions is also presented.

  17. Actinide migration from contaminated soil to surface water at the rocky flats environmental technology site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Surficial soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contain elevated levels of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am due to wind dispersal of soil particles, contaminated in the 1960's by leaking drums stored on the 903 Pad. Over the past 4 years, actinide mobility in the surface environment at RFETS, Golden, Colorado, USA, was examined through field and laboratory experiments. From measurements of total 239,240 Pu and 241 Am concentrations in storm runoff and pond discharge samples, collected during spring and summer times, it was established that most of the actinide transport from contaminated soils to streams occurred in the particulate (0.45μm) and colloidal (3kDa - 0.45μm) phases. Controlled laboratory investigations of soil resuspension, indicated that remobilization of colloid-bound Pu during soil erosion events can be enhanced by humic acids. 2-D Polyacrylamide Gel electrophoresis (PAGE) experiments of radiolabeled colloidal organic and inorganic matter, extracted from RFETS soils, suggested that colloidal Pu, which was focused at pH IEP of 4.5, is mainly associated with organic (humic acids) colloids of 10-15 kDa molecular weight. Pu(IV) oxide and inorganic colloids such as iron and aluminum oxides have pH IEP of 8-10. While some clay minerals also have pH IEP of 3-5, no Al was found coincident with Pu. This finding has important ramifications for possible remediation, erosion controls, and land-management strategies. (author)

  18. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  19. Analysis of the surface technology of silicon detectors for imaging of low-energy beta tracers in biological material

    CERN Document Server

    Tykva, R

    2000-01-01

    Using silicon surface barrier detectors, the counting sensitivity of low-energy beta tracers is considerably influenced by surface technology applied in detector manufacturing. Original diagnostic procedure, using a mixture of uranium fission products, is described to trace the behaviors of different admixtures as in the etching bath as in the water used during development of the detector surface. In combination with some other described analyses, the detectors produced with the developed surface control are used in a PC - controlled scanning equipment reaching at room temperature an FWHM of 3.4 keV for sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am. Such detectors make it possible to image distribution, of e.g., sup 3 H, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 3 H+ sup 1 sup 4 C and other beta tracer combinations applied in life and environmental sciences.

  20. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Improved Surface Quality of Exposed Automotive Sheet Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Speer; David K. Matlock; Noel Meyers; Young-Min Choi

    2002-10-10

    Surface quality of sheet steels is an important economic and technical issue for applications such as critical automotive surfaces. This project was therefore initiated to develop a more quantitative methodology for measuring surface imperfections, and to assess their response to forming and painting, particularly with respect to their visibility or invisibility after painting. The objectives were met, and included evaluation of a variety of imperfections present on commercial sheet surfaces or simulated using methods developed in the laboratory. The results are expected to have significant implications with respect to the methodology for assessing surface imperfections, development of quantitative criteria for surface inspection, and understanding and improving key painting process characteristics that influence the perceived quality of sheet steel surfaces.

  1. Advantages of using microbial technology over traditional chemical technology in removal of black crusts from stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate.

  2. Advantages of Using Microbial Technology over Traditional Chemical Technology in Removal of Black Crusts from Stone Surfaces of Historical Monuments▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate. PMID:17601804

  3. Structural and technological formation of surface nanostructured Ti-Ni-Mo layers by high-speed gas-flame spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blednova Zhesfina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a complex method of forming surface-modified layers using materials with shape memory effect (SME based on TiNiMo including pre-grinding and mechanical activation of the coating material, high-speed gas-flame spraying of Ni adhesive layer and subsequent TiNiMo spraying with molybdenum content up to 2%, thermal and thermomechanical processing in a single technological cycle. This allowed forming nanostructured surface layers with a high level of functional mechanical and performance properties. We defined control parameters of surface steel modification using material with shape memory effect based on TiNiMo, which monitor the structural material state, both at the stage of spraying, and during subsequent combined treatment, which allows affecting purposefully on the functional properties of the SME surface layer. Test results of samples before coating and after surface modification with TiNiMo in the seawater indicate that surface modification brings to a slower damage accumulation and to increase of steel J91171 endurance limit in seawater by 45%. Based on complex metallophysical research of surface layers we obtained new data about nano-sized composition “steel - Ni - TiNiMo”.

  4. Surface Modification Technology of ODS Alloying Treatment by using Laser Heat Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. G.; Kim, I. H.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Koo, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthed) alloys can be applied as structural materials for components in the core of a nuclear power plants since these components must have a high mechanical strength at high temperature up to 700 .deg. C. This type of alloy was generally manufactured by mechanical alloying from its source metal and Y 2 O 3 powders. The mechanical alloyed powder is subjected to the HIP (Hot Isotatic Pressing) or hot extrusion: and this product is heat treated at target temperature and time. Thus, the Y 2 O 3 particles are dispersed in the metal matrix. These manufacturing process of ODS alloy is very complex and expensive. Also, it is necessary the special techniques to obtain the uniform dispersion and volume control of Y 2 O 3 particles. Another problem is the final product forming such as tube and sheet because the intermediated-product has a high mechanical strength due to the dispersion of Y 2 O 3 particles. The laser cladding techniques was applied on the surface cladding of ceramics and inter-metallic compounds on metal base and ceramic base components to increase corrosion and wear resistance. The laser heat source can be used to the alloying the metal and ceramic materials, because thermally melting of metal and ceramic is possible. So, we are applied on ODS alloy manufacturing by using the laser heat source. The main advantages and disadvantage of this technology can be resumed as follows: · It is possible to apply to the sheet and tube shape component, directly. · Metallurgical damage such as HAZ and severe grain growth is considerably reduced. · Good control of the alloying element of the treated zone · Highly reproducible homogeneous zone · The pores and cracks are suppressed in the treated zone · Oxidation can be prevented during the process. · Good control is possible for the irregular shaped components. · The bulk material alloying is limited by the power of laser source. So, this work is studied on the ODS alloy manufacturing

  5. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  6. Influence of gas-powder laser cladding’s technological parameters on structural characteristics of corrosion-resistant steels’ restored surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, S. E.; Oplesnin, S. P.; Goltyapin, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the developed industrial technology for surface restoration of corrosion-resistant steels by laser surfacing are presented in the article. A comparative analysis of the microstructure of the welded wear-resistant layer, the fusion zone with the base material and the diffusion zone for different technological surfacing regimes are given. Dyrometric studies and nondestructive testing of the deposited layer for defects were performed

  7. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  8. Environmental Aspects Of The Green Surface Plastic Deformation Technology Of Car Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Melnikov, P. A.; Lukyanov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign and domestic experience in development of dry processing technologies are considered. The results of the introduction of dry processing technologies (cutting, boring, milling, drilling) on the industrial companies in Germany are given. The negative impact on the environment and human health is shown. The possible ways of leakage of lubricoolant components in the atmosphere and soil are considered. Lubricoolants are considered as a required permanent component. Three main tasks for lubricoolant: cooling, lubricating and chip disposal are discribed.

  9. Strengthening of the nuclear valve sealing surface by laser cladding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Huang Guodong

    1998-07-01

    A 5 kW laser with CO 2 flow transverse for cladding Co-base alloy or Ni-base alloy coat on the austenite matrix of the nuclear valve sealing surface is introduced. The results show that, after the sealing surface of valve is processed by the laser cladding, the coat of 3.0 mm thick can be made with smooth surface. The test and comparison analysis indicate that the structure and all performance have obvious advantages over that of the plasma spurt welding, bead welding and flame welding processing

  10. Method of surface error visualization using laser 3D projection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Li, Lijuan; Lin, Xuezhu

    2017-10-01

    In the process of manufacturing large components, such as aerospace, automobile and shipping industry, some important mold or stamped metal plate requires precise forming on the surface, which usually needs to be verified, if necessary, the surface needs to be corrected and reprocessed. In order to make the correction of the machined surface more convenient, this paper proposes a method based on Laser 3D projection system, this method uses the contour form of terrain contour, directly showing the deviation between the actually measured data and the theoretical mathematical model (CAD) on the measured surface. First, measure the machined surface to get the point cloud data and the formation of triangular mesh; secondly, through coordinate transformation, unify the point cloud data to the theoretical model and calculate the three-dimensional deviation, according to the sign (positive or negative) and size of the deviation, use the color deviation band to denote the deviation of three-dimensional; then, use three-dimensional contour lines to draw and represent every coordinates deviation band, creating the projection files; finally, import the projection files into the laser projector, and make the contour line projected to the processed file with 1:1 in the form of a laser beam, compare the Full-color 3D deviation map with the projection graph, then, locate and make quantitative correction to meet the processing precision requirements. It can display the trend of the machined surface deviation clearly.

  11. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  12. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  13. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  14. Heterogeneous Wireless Mesh Network Technology Evaluation for Space Proximity and Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCristofaro, Michael A.; Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has identified standardized wireless mesh networking as a key technology for future human and robotic space exploration. Wireless mesh networks enable rapid deployment, provide coverage in undeveloped regions. Mesh networks are also self-healing, resilient, and extensible, qualities not found in traditional infrastructure-based networks. Mesh networks can offer lower size, weight, and power (SWaP) than overlapped infrastructure-perapplication. To better understand the maturity, characteristics and capability of the technology, we developed an 802.11 mesh network consisting of a combination of heterogeneous commercial off-the-shelf devices and opensource firmware and software packages. Various streaming applications were operated over the mesh network, including voice and video, and performance measurements were made under different operating scenarios. During the testing several issues with the currently implemented mesh network technology were identified and outlined for future work.

  15. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  16. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Exercise in Experimental Plastics Technology: Hot Embossing of Polymers with surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2004-01-01

    Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages such as relati......Hot Embossing of polymers with surface microstructure Polymer materials have proven to be good materials for manufacturing nano/ and microstructure. There are three major processing techniques: hot embossing, injection moulding and casting. Hot embossing provides several advantages...... such as relatively low cost for embossing tools, simple operation and high replication accuracy for small features. Two different plastic materials will be used to replicate surface microstructures by hot embossing. The hot embossing will be done in a hydraulic press where it is easy to control temperature...

  18. Experimental Comparison of the Tribological Properties of Selected Surfaces Created by Thermal Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tóth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article titled “Experimental comparison of the tribological properties of selected surfaces created by thermal spraying technology” deals with the surface condition of selected pairs working within the mixed friction before and after experimental tests. Based on the chosen methodology, the experimental tests were performed on the Tribotestor M’06 testing machine. The ecological oil MOGUL HEES 46 (manufactured by Paramo was used as a lubricant. The tests were performed on selected material pairs. The first friction element was a shaft of steel 14 220. The second friction element was a steel plate of steel 11 373 with a friction surface created by two materials, i.e. CuSn10 and NP 40. The results are statistically elaborated and illustrated in figures and tables.

  19. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES IN MECHANISED FEED WIG/TIG WELDING SURFACING OF WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURCA Mircea

    2016-09-01

    manual welding tests in the light of using the process for welding surfacing being known that in such applications mechanised operations are recommended whenever possible given the latter strengths i.e. increased productivity and quality deposits. The research also aims at achieving a comparative a study between wire mechanised feed based WIG manual welding and the manual rod entry based manual welding in terms of geometry deposits, deposits aesthetics, operating technique, productivity, etc . In this regard deposits were made by means of two welding procedures, and subsequently welding surfacing was made with the optimum values of the welding parameters in this case.

  1. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  2. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional means to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space relies on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave (MW) obse...

  3. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  4. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber.

  5. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  6. Development of the removal technology for toxic heavy metal ions by surface-modified activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Song, Kee Chan; Kim, Kwang Wook; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Il Hoon; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption capacities of both radionuclides(uranium, cobalt) and toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) using double surface-modified activated carbon in wide pH ranges are extensively evaluated. Surface-modified activated carbons are classified as AC(as-received carbon), OAC(single surface-modified carbon with nitric acid solution) and OAC-Na(double surface-modified carbon with various alkali solutions). It is established that optimal condition for the second surface modification of OAC is to use the mixed solution of both NaOH and NaCl with total concentration of 0.1 N based on adsorption efficiencies of uranium and cobalt. Variations of adsorption efficiencies in pH ranges of 2∼10 and the adsorption capacities in batch adsorber and fixed bed for removal of both radionuclides and toxic heavy metals using OAC-Na were shown to be superior to that of the AC and OAC even in a low pH range. Capacity factors of OAC-Na for the removal of various metal ions are also excellent to that of AC or OAC. Quantitative analysis of capacity factors for each ions showed that adsorption capacity of OAC-Na increased by 30 times for uranium, 60 times for cobalt, 9 times for lead, 30 times for cadmium, 3 times for chromium compared to that of AC at pH 5, respectively. Adsorption capacity of OAC-Na is comparable to that of XAD-16-TAR used as commercial ion exchange resin

  7. A small-displacement sensor using total internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology for heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu

    2009-01-01

    A small-displacement sensor based on total-internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology is proposed for use in heterodyne interferometry. A small displacement can be obtained simply by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states with the small-displacement sensor. The theoretical displacement resolution of the small-displacement sensor can reach 0.45 nm. The sensor has some additional advantages, e.g., a simple optical setup, high resolution, high sensitivity and rapid measurement. Its feasibility is also demonstrated.

  8. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in

  9. On the Application of Replica Molding Technology for the Indirect Measurement of Surface and Geometry of Micromilled Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, Paolo; Cacciatore, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    the replica molding technology. The method consists of obtaining a replica of the feature that is inaccessible for standard measurement devices and performing its indirect measurement. This paper examines the performance of a commercial replication media applied to the indirect measurement of micromilled...... components. Two specifically designed micromilled benchmark samples were used to assess the accuracy in replicating both surface texture and geometry. A 3D confocal microscope and a focus variation instrument were employed and the associated uncertainties were evaluated. The replication method proved...... to be suitable for characterizing micromilled surface texture even though an average overestimation in the nano-metric level of the Sa parameter was observed. On the other hand, the replicated geometry generally underestimated that of the master, often leading to a different measurement output considering...

  10. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  11. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  12. Ultrasonic detection technology based on joint robot on composite component with complex surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Juan; Xu, Chunguang; Zhang, Lan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2014-02-18

    Some components have complex surface, such as the airplane wing and the shell of a pressure vessel etc. The quality of these components determines the reliability and safety of related equipment. Ultrasonic nondestructive detection is one of the main methods used for testing material defects at present. In order to improve the testing precision, the acoustic axis of the ultrasonic transducer should be consistent with the normal direction of the measured points. When we use joint robots, automatic ultrasonic scan along the component surface normal direction can be realized by motion trajectory planning and coordinate transformation etc. In order to express the defects accurately and truly, the robot position and the signal of the ultrasonic transducer should be synchronized.

  13. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ryley, Tim; Elmirghani, Jaafar; Budd, Tom; Miyoshi, Chikage; Mason, Keith; Moxon, Richard; Ahmed, Imad; Qazi, Bilal; Zanni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access compon...

  14. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  15. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Biomimicry offers innovative sustainable solutions for many dire resource-based challenges. The Namib Desert beetle (sp. Stenocara) invites us to explore how we can collect fresh water more energy-efficiently. The beetle's unique back features with alternating hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions, aid its survival in a water scarce desert environment. We investigated the feasibility for enhanced condensation by patterning a zinc oxide (ZnO) surface to mimic the beetle's back. ZnO was selected as t...

  16. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  17. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treated and untreated areas of the material has been made.

  18. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  19. Prospects for the Development of Innovative Technology of Supersonic Gas-Powder Surfacing Coatings from Alloys of the System Ni-Cr-B-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Mikhail V.; Kiselev, Vadim S.; Shevtsov, Yuri O.; Radchenko, Tatyana B.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the research and development of technological recommendations of supersonic gas-powder surfacing, an example of the practical use of the developed technology is given. Market research indicates that demand for these products is stable due to the growing quality requirements of components and parts produced by the largest machine-building enterprises of Russia.

  20. 酵母细胞表面展示技术%Recent Advances in Yeast Cell-Surface Display Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳堃; 孙中远; 刘建新

    2011-01-01

    酵母细胞表达体系具备较为完善的蛋白质翻译后修饰和分泌的机制.以酵母为基础的细胞表面展示技术是一项新兴的真核蛋白展示技术,已成功应用于蛋白质识别、蛋白质的固定化和定向进化研究,成为了蛋白质工程研究的重要工具.根据与酵母细胞壁的外源目的蛋白融合部位的不同,酿酒酵母表面展示系统主要分为凝集素系统和絮凝素系统2大系统.将该技术引入动物营养研究领域,有望通过诱导宿主产生原虫或甲烷菌的抗体,对瘤胃微生态进行调控,从而以减少甲烷排放;生产高活性的全细胞催化剂,以提高反刍动物和单胃动物对纤维物质的利用效率.为此,本文就该技术的原理、特点和应用领域进行了综述.%Yeast cell has a perfect system for protein post-translational modification and secretion. The cell surface display technology based on yeast is a novel eukaryotic protein display technology. It has been successfully used for protein recognition, immobilization and remediation, and becomes an important tool for the study of protein engineering. Yeast cell surface display technology is divided into two systems, which are agglutinin and flocculin, according to the different insertion sites of the yeast cell wall for target heterologous proteins. If introduced to animal nutrition research, this technology will be a promising strategy to reduce the methane production by the regulation on ruminal microbial ecology, which is inducing of production of antibodies for protozoa and methanogen in host; highly active whole cell biocatalysts will be produced by increasing fiber utilization in ruminant and monogastric animal. Therefore, mechanism, characteristic and application of the technology are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Current Laser Resurfacing Technologies: A Review that Delves Beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissig, Jason; Hamilton, Kristy; Markus, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Numerous laser platforms exist that rejuvenate the skin by resurfacing its upper layers. In varying degrees, these lasers improve the appearance of lentigines and rhytides, eliminate photoaging, soften scarring due to acne and other causes, and treat dyspigmentation. Five major classes of dermatologic lasers are currently in common use: ablative and nonablative lasers in both fractionated and unfractionated forms as well as radiofrequency technologies. The gentler nonablative lasers allow for quicker healing, whereas harsher ablative lasers tend to be more effective. Fractionating either laser distributes the effect, increasing the number of treatments but minimizing downtime and complications. In this review article, the authors seek to inform surgeons about the current laser platforms available, clarify the differences between them, and thereby facilitate the identification of the most appropriate laser for their practice. PMID:23904818

  2. Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd., 12 Lentara St, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia); Smith, Geoff [Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    A means of assessing the relative impact of different renewable energy technologies on global warming has been developed. All power plants emit thermal energy to the atmosphere. Fossil fuel power plants also emit CO{sub 2} which accumulates in the atmosphere and provides an indirect increase in global warming via the greenhouse effect. A fossil fuel power plant may operate for some time before the global warming due to its CO{sub 2} emission exceeds the warming due to its direct heat emission. When a renewable energy power plant is deployed instead of a fossil fuel power plant there may be a significant time delay before the direct global warming effect is less than the combined direct and indirect global warming effect from an equivalent output coal fired plant - the ''business as usual'' case. Simple expressions are derived to calculate global temperature change as a function of ground reflectance and conversion efficiency for various types of fossil fuelled and renewable energy power plants. These expressions are used to assess the global warming mitigation potential of some proposed Australian renewable energy projects. The application of the expressions is extended to evaluate the deployment in Australia of current and new geo-engineering and carbon sequestration solutions to mitigate global warming. Principal findings are that warming mitigation depends strongly on the solar to electric conversion efficiency of renewable technologies, geo-engineering projects may offer more economic mitigation than renewable energy projects and the mitigation potential of reforestation projects depends strongly on the location of the projects. (author)

  3. Surface and material analytics based on Dresden-EBIS platform technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com; König, J., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com [DREEBIT GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Bischoff, L. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany and Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Nowadays widely used mass spectrometry systems utilize energetic ions hitting a sample and sputter material from the surface of a specimen. The generated secondary ions are separated and detected with high mass resolution to determine the target materials constitution. Based on this principle, we present an alternative approach implementing a compact Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in combination with a Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS). An LMIS can deliver heavy elements which generate high sputter yields on a target surface. More than 90% of this sputtered material consists of mono- and polyatomic neutrals. These particles are able to penetrate the magnetic field of an EBIS and they will be ionized within the electron beam. A broad spectrum of singly up to highly charged ions can be extracted depending on the operation conditions. Polyatomic ions will decay during the charge-up process. A standard bending magnet or a Wien filter is used to separate the different ion species due to their mass-to-charge ratio. Using different charge states of ions as it is common with EBIS it is also possible to resolve interfering charge-to-mass ratios of only singly charged ions. Different setups for the realization of feeding the electron beam with sputtered atoms of solids will be presented and discussed. As an example the analysis of a copper surface is used to show high-resolution spectra with low background noise. Individual copper isotopes and clusters with different isotope compositions can be resolved at equal atomic numbers. These results are a first step for the development of a new compact low-cost and high-resolution mass spectrometry system. In a more general context, the described technique demonstrates an efficient method for feeding an EBIS with atoms of nearly all solid elements from various solid target materials. The new straightforward design of the presented setup should be of high interest for a broad range of applications in materials research as well as for

  4. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  5. Biomimetics Bioinspired Hierarchical-Structured Surfaces for Green Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the general field of biomimetics - lessons from nature. It presents various examples of biomimetics, including roughness-induced superomniphobic surfaces which provide functionality of commercial interest. The major focus in the book is on lotus effect, rose petal effect, shark skin effect, and gecko adhesion.  For each example, the book first presents characterization of an object to understand how a natural object provides functionality, followed by modeling and then fabrication of structures in the lab using nature’s route to verify one’s understanding of nature and provide guidance for development of optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, examples of fabrication of optimum structures using smart materials and fabrication techniques, are presented. Examples of nature inspired objects are also presented throughout.

  6. Innovative technology for expedited site remediation of extensive surface and subsurface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audibert, J.M.E.; Lew, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale surface and subsurface contamination resulted from numerous releases of feed stock, process streams, waste streams, and final product at a major chemical plant. Soil and groundwater was contaminated by numerous compounds including lead, tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide, ethylene dichloride, and toluene. The state administrative order dictated that the site be investigated fully, that remedial alternative be evaluated, and that the site be remediated within a year period. Because of the acute toxicity and extreme volatility of tetraethyl lead and other organic compounds present at the site and the short time frame ordered by the regulators, innovative approaches were needed to carry out the remediation while protecting plant workers, remediation workers, and the public

  7. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. VCSELs Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The huge progress which has been achieved in the field is covered here, in the first comprehensive monograph on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) since eight years. Apart from chapters reviewing the research field and the laser fundamentals, there are comprehensive updates on red and blue emitting VCSELs, telecommunication VCSELs, optical transceivers, and parallel-optical links for computer interconnects. Entirely new contributions are made to the fields of vectorial three-dimensional optical modeling, single-mode VCSELs, polarization control, polarization dynamics, very-high-speed design, high-power emission, use of high-contrast gratings, GaInNAsSb long-wavelength VCSELs, optical video links, VCSELs for optical mice and sensing, as well as VCSEL-based laser printing. The book appeals to researchers, optical engineers and graduate students.

  9. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  10. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  11. Portable Ultraviolet Light Surface-Disinfecting Devices for Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitovic-Jokic, Milica; Kabali, Conrad; Li, Chunmei; Higgins, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Background Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile. The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection. Several portable no-touch ultraviolet (UV) light systems have been proposed to supplement current hospital cleaning and disinfecting practices. Methods We searched for studies published from inception of UV disinfection technology to January 23, 2017. We compared portable UV surface-disinfecting devices used together with standard hospital room cleaning and disinfecting versus standard hospital cleaning and disinfecting alone. The primary outcome was HAI from C. difficile. Other outcomes were combined HAIs, colonization (i.e., carrying an infectious agent without exhibiting disease symptoms), and the HAI-associated mortality rate. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to rate the quality of evidence of included studies. We also performed a 5-year budget impact analysis from the hospital's perspective. This assessment was limited to portable devices and did not examine wall mounted devices, which are used in some hospitals. Results The database search for the clinical review yielded 10 peer-reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Three studies focused on mercury UV-C–based technology, seven on pulsed xenon UV technology. Findings were either inconsistent or produced very low-quality evidence using the GRADE rating system. The intervention was effective in reducing the rate of the composite outcome of HAIs (combined) and colonization (but quality of evidence

  12. Trans advanced surface laser ablation (TransPRK) outcomes using SmartPulseTechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Kymionis, George D

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate early visual rehabilitation, post-operative pain, epithelial healing and haze after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) using the SmartPulseTechnology (SPT) of Schwind Amaris (Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). This was a retrospective comparative evaluation of a cohort of myopic patients undergoing TransPRK with SPT (group 1), with one matched control group that underwent conventional TransPRK (group 2). All cases had a 6-month post-operative follow-up including visual acuity and slit-lamp examination. Subjective evaluation of pain was recorded post-operatively. 49 eyes of 25 patients in group 1 and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group 2 were enrolled. The patients' visual rehabilitation was significantly faster in group 1, one day and one week post-operatively (P0.05). TransPRK using SPT provides promising results in the early post-operative period. Visual rehabilitation, re-epithelialization and pain were faster in the early post-operative period in group 1 in comparison with group 2. Haze formation was not significantly different between the two groups; however, it was consistently less in group 1. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental consequences of Pollution and its Impact on earth's surface climate Using Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Modern transportation is an indispensable ingredient for development, allowing the pressure group of labor, supplies and goods, and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Climate change is a most important threat to sustainable development in any developing or developed country. Urban air pollution is on the rise, due to rapid economic and inhabitants growth and an increase in motorization. Modern transport is fundamental for improvement, allowing the movement of goods and enabling general public to access key resources and services. Travel today is relatively faster and people across the world are travelling more than ever before. Its stipulate regarding forecast is an indispensable part of transportation development in order to evaluate future needs of an urban area. Over increasing traffic concentration posed continued threat to ambient air quality and responsible for producing agents of physical condition hazards. Geospatial technology provides the smartest approach to resolve these inconvenience as it can cover a large area in a fraction of time. The research work focuses on the recognition of traffic intensities with increasing of SO2, NO2 and noise level considered at particular traffic sites in the Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. SO2, NO2 and Noise levels recorded in the city, are much higher than the permissible level and are likely to causes associated health and psychological illnesses to nearby inhabitant.

  14. Detection and Identification of Salmonella spp. in Surface Water by Molecular Technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, S. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is classified to gram-negative bacterium and is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The genus of Salmonella comprises more than 2,500 serotypes and its taxonomy is also very complicated. In tradition, the detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time and labor consuming. To overcome this disadvantage, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using novel procedures of detection method and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 157 surface water samples in Taiwan. The procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella, and then isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. The selective enrichment and culture plates were both detected by PCR. Finally, we used biochemical tests and serological assay to confirm the serovars of Salmonella and also used Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify their sarovar catagories by the genetic pattern. In this study, 44 water samples (28%) were indentified as Salmonella. The 44 positive water samples by culture method were further identified as S. Agona(1/44), S. Albany (10/44), S. Bareilly (13/44),S. Choleraesuis (2/44),S. Derby (4/44),S. Isangi (3/44),S.Kedougou(3/44),S. Mbandaka(1/44),S.Newport (3/44), S. Oranienburg(1/44), S. Potsdam (1/44),S. Typhimurium (1/44), andS. Weltevreden(1/44) by PFGE. The presence of Salmonella in surface water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed if water is not adequately treated. Therefore, the authorities need to have operating systems that currently provide adequate source

  15. Prediction Surface Morphology of Nanostructure Fabricated by Nano-Oxidation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Li, Jeen-Fong; You, Yong-Chin

    2015-12-04

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for visualization of a nano-oxidation technique performed on diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. Experiments of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film include those on nano-oxidation points and nano-oxidation lines. The feature sizes of the DLC thin film, including surface morphology, depth, and width, were explored after application of a nano-oxidation technique to the DLC thin film under different process parameters. A databank for process parameters and feature sizes of thin films was then established, and multiple regression analysis (MRA) and a back-propagation neural network (BPN) were used to carry out the algorithm. The algorithmic results are compared with the feature sizes acquired from experiments, thus obtaining a prediction model of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film. The comparative results show that the prediction accuracy of BPN is superior to that of MRA. When the BPN algorithm is used to predict nano-point machining, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) of depth, left side, and right side are 8.02%, 9.68%, and 7.34%, respectively. When nano-line machining is being predicted, the MAPEs of depth, left side, and right side are 4.96%, 8.09%, and 6.77%, respectively. The obtained data can also be used to predict cross-sectional morphology in the DLC thin film treated with a nano-oxidation process.

  16. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Technological Improvement of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pizzol, Carine; O'Reilly, Andre; Winter, Evelyn; Sonaglio, Diva; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal particles consisting of a matrix composed of solid (at room and body temperatures) lipids dispersed in aqueous emulsifier solution. During manufacture, their physicochemical properties may be affected by several formulation parameters, such as type and concentration of lipid, proportion of emulsifiers and amount of solvent. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of these variables on the preparation of SLN. A D-optimal Response Surface Methodology design was used to establish a mathematical model for the optimization of SLN. A total of 30 SLN formulations were prepared using the ultrasound method, and then characterized on the basis of their physicochemical properties, including particle size, polydispersity index (PI) and Zeta Potential (s). Particle sizes ranged between 107 and 240 nm. All SLN formulations showed negative sigma and PI values below 0.28. Prediction of the optimal conditions was performed using the desirability function targeting the reduction of all responses. The optimized SLN formulation showed similar theoretical and experimental values, confirming the sturdiness and predictive ability of the mathematical model for SLN optimization.

  17. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  18. Technology for On-Chip Qubit Control with Microfabricated Surface Ion Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highstrete, Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Quantum Information Sciences Dept.; Scott, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Nordquist, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Tigges, Christopher P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Blain, Matthew Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Heller, Edwin J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsystems Integration Dept.; Stevens, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). MESAFab Operations 2 Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Trapped atomic ions are a leading physical system for quantum information processing. However, scalability and operational fidelity remain limiting technical issues often associated with optical qubit control. One promising approach is to develop on-chip microwave electronic control of ion qubits based on the atomic hyperfine interaction. This project developed expertise and capabilities at Sandia toward on-chip electronic qubit control in a scalable architecture. The project developed a foundation of laboratory capabilities, including trapping the 171Yb+ hyperfine ion qubit and developing an experimental microwave coherent control capability. Additionally, the project investigated the integration of microwave device elements with surface ion traps utilizing Sandia’s state-of-the-art MEMS microfabrication processing. This effort culminated in a device design for a multi-purpose ion trap experimental platform for investigating on-chip microwave qubit control, laying the groundwork for further funded R&D to develop on-chip microwave qubit control in an architecture that is suitable to engineering development.

  19. Development surface modification technologies - A development of new nuclear materials by thin film deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jong; Lee, Min Goo; Kim, Hyun Ho; Kim, Yong Il; Kwang, Hee Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Scienec and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Pitting corrosion of TiN-coted Inconel 600 in hightemperature chloride solution was studied. To improve the pitting resistance of Inconel 600 by depositing TiN thin film, TiN must have the thickness greater than a critical value at which the characteristics of the film itself appear. E{sub np}s of the TiN-coated sample were higher than those of the bare Inconel 600 at all the solution temperature implying that the TiN film improved the pitting resistance. The heavy defects on the surface of the substrate which were incompletely covered by TiN film served as the active sites for the pit nucleation. Fine polishing reduced those defects and improved the pitting resistance of the TiN-coated Inconel 600. The pit densities of the TiN-coated samples were much lower than those of the bare Inconel 600 at low chloride concentrations. However, at high chloride concentrations the TiN film failed to improve the pitting resistance of the Inconel. The TiN film deposited by ion-plating on Stellite was studied. The X-ray analysis shows that the deposited films were only in .delta.-TiN phase and the texture was changed from (111) to (200) with the increase of N{sub 2}/Ar ratio. The impurities in TiN films were carbon and oxygen. The amounts of these impurities were decreased greatly when the substrate bias, -200 V, was applied compared to no bias. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs. (author)

  20. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  1. Chaos control of the micro-electro-mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Shaohua; Sun, Quanping; Cheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses chaos control of the micro-electro- mechanical resonator by using adaptive dynamic surface technology with extended state observer. To reveal the mechanism of the micro- electro-mechanical resonator, the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are given to research the nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior, and Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos which relate closely with the appearance of chaos are presented based on the potential function. To eliminate the effect of chaos, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme with extended state observer is designed to convert random motion into regular motion without precise system model parameters and measured variables. Putting tracking differentiator into chaos controller solves the ‘explosion of complexity’ of backstepping and poor precision of the first-order filters. Meanwhile, to obtain high performance, a neural network with adaptive law is employed to approximate unknown nonlinear function in the process of controller design. The boundedness of all the signals of the closed-loop system is proved in theoretical analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are executed and extensive results illustrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  2. Cell surface engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with membrane separation technology for xylitol production from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirimand, Gregory; Sasaki, Kengo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Xylitol, a value-added polyol deriving from D-xylose, is widely used in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite extensive studies aiming to streamline the production of xylitol, the manufacturing cost of this product remains high while demand is constantly growing worldwide. Biotechnological production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste may constitute an advantageous and sustainable option to address this issue. However, to date, there have been few reports of biomass conversion to xylitol. In the present study, xylitol was directly produced from rice straw hydrolysate using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 strain expressing cytosolic xylose reductase (XR), along with β-glucosidase (BGL), xylosidase (XYL), and xylanase (XYN) enzymes (co-)displayed on the cell surface; xylitol production by this strain did not require addition of any commercial enzymes. All of these enzymes contributed to the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of the lignocellulosic hydrolysate to xylitol to produce 5.8 g/L xylitol with 79.5 % of theoretical yield from xylose contained in the biomass. Furthermore, nanofiltration of the rice straw hydrolysate provided removal of fermentation inhibitors while simultaneously increasing sugar concentrations, facilitating high concentration xylitol production (37.9 g/L) in the CBP. This study is the first report (to our knowledge) of the combination of cell surface engineering approach and membrane separation technology for xylitol production, which could be extended to further industrial applications.

  3. Protein profiling of single epidermal cell types from Arabidopsis thaliana using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Berit; Melle, Christian; Lieckfeldt, Elke; Zöller, Daniela; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Fisahn, Joachim

    2008-08-25

    Here, we describe a novel approach for investigating differential protein expression within three epidermal cell types. In particular, 3000 single pavement, basal, and trichome cells from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were harvested by glass micro-capillaries. Subsequently, these single cell samples were joined to form pools of 100 individual cells and analyzed using the ProteinChip technology; SELDI: surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization. As a result, numerous protein signals that were differentially expressed in the three epidermal cell types could be detected. One of these proteins was characterized by tryptical digestion and subsequent identification via tandem quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. Down regulation of this sequenced small subunit precursor of ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase(C) oxygenase(O) (RuBisCo) in trichome and basal cells indicates the sink status of these cell types that are located on the surface of A. thaliana source leaves. Based on the obtained protein profiles, we suggest a close functional relationship between basal and trichome cells at the protein level.

  4. Definition of criteria for estimating alternative technologies of increasing quality of rotor shaft neck by electroerosive alloying and surface plastic deformation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsynkovskyy, V.; Kirik, G.; Tarelnyk, V.; Zharkov, P.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzhyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    There are represented the results of influence of the surface plastic deformation (SPD) methods, namely, diamond smoothing (DS) and ball-rolling surface roughness generation (BSRG) ones on the qualitative parameters (residual stresses, fatigue strength and wear resistance values) of the steel substrate surface layers formed by the electroerosive alloying (EEA) method. There are proposed the most rational methods of deformation and also the composition for electroerosive coatings providing the presence of the favorable residual compressive stresses in the surface layer, increasing fatigue strength and wear resistance values. There are stated the criteria for estimating the alternative variants of the combined technologies and choosing the most rational ones thereof.

  5. Research status and future trends on surface pre-grouting technology in reforming wall rock of vertical shafts in coal mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    In the mine construction, the surface pre-grouting technology is an important method to prevent water blast in excavation process of vertical shaft when the shaft must pass through the thick, water-rich and high water-pressure bedrock aquifer. It has been nearly 60 years since the technology was used to reform wall rock of vertical shaft in coal mine in China for the first time, and the existing technology can basically meet the needs of constructing 1000m deep vertical shaft. Firstly, the article introduces that in view of Magg’s spherical seepage theory and Karol’s spherical seepage theory, Chinese scholars found that the diffusion of grout from borehole into the surrounding strata in horizontal direction is irregular through a lot of research and engineering practice of using the surface pre-grouting technology to reform wall rock of vertical shafts, and put forward the selecting principles of grout’s effective diffusion radius in one grouting engineering; Secondly, according to the shape of the grouting boreholes, surface pre-grouting technology of vertical shaft is divided into two stages: vertical borehole stage and S-type borehole stage. Thirdly, the development status of grouting materials and grouting equipment for the technology is introduced. Fourthly, grouting mode, stage height and pressure of the technology are introduced. Finally, it points out that with the increasing depth of coal mining in China, the technology of reforming wall rock of 1000~2000m deep vertical shafts will face many problems, such as grouting theory, grouting equipment, grouting finishing standard, testing and evaluation of grouting effect, and so on. And it put forward a preliminary approach to solving these problems. This paper points out future research directions of the surface pre-grouting technology in China.

  6. A low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for a black bisphenol A polycarbonate board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suhuan; Liu, Jianguo, E-mail: Liujg@mail.hust.edu.cn; Lv, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A low-cost, high-efficiency, high-flexibility surface modification technology was achieved. • Different laser modification parameters resulted in different surface microstructures. • These special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties. • After the modification, the surface energy was found to have a significant increase. • The technology would be advantageous to fabricate high-quality micro devices and systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for polymer materials was achieved at high laser scanning speeds (600–1000 mm s{sup −1}) and using an all-solid state, Q-switched, high-average power, and nanosecond pulse ultraviolet (355 nm wavelength) laser. During the surface modification of a very important engineering plastic, i.e., black bisphenol A polycarbonate (BAPC) board, it was found that different laser parameters (e.g., laser fluence and pulse frequency) were able to result in different surface microstructures (e.g., many tiny protuberances or a porous microstructure with periodical V-type grooves). After the modification, although the total relative content of the oxygen-containing groups (e.g., C-O and COO{sup −}) on the BAPC surface increased, however, the special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties (e.g., contact angle and surface energy) of the BAPC. The change trend of the water contact angle on the BAPC surface was with an obvious increase, that of the diiodomethane contact angle was with a most decrease, and that of the ethylene glycol contact angle was between the above two. It showed that the wetting properties of the three liquids on the modified BAPC surface were different. Basing on the measurements of the contact angles of the three liquids, and according to the Young equation and the Lifshitz van der Waals and Lewis acid–base theory, the BAPC surface energy after the modification was

  7. A low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for a black bisphenol A polycarbonate board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Suhuan; Liu, Jianguo; Lv, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A low-cost, high-efficiency, high-flexibility surface modification technology was achieved. • Different laser modification parameters resulted in different surface microstructures. • These special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties. • After the modification, the surface energy was found to have a significant increase. • The technology would be advantageous to fabricate high-quality micro devices and systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a low-cost, high-efficiency and high-flexibility surface modification technology for polymer materials was achieved at high laser scanning speeds (600–1000 mm s −1 ) and using an all-solid state, Q-switched, high-average power, and nanosecond pulse ultraviolet (355 nm wavelength) laser. During the surface modification of a very important engineering plastic, i.e., black bisphenol A polycarbonate (BAPC) board, it was found that different laser parameters (e.g., laser fluence and pulse frequency) were able to result in different surface microstructures (e.g., many tiny protuberances or a porous microstructure with periodical V-type grooves). After the modification, although the total relative content of the oxygen-containing groups (e.g., C-O and COO − ) on the BAPC surface increased, however, the special microstructures played a deciding role in the surface properties (e.g., contact angle and surface energy) of the BAPC. The change trend of the water contact angle on the BAPC surface was with an obvious increase, that of the diiodomethane contact angle was with a most decrease, and that of the ethylene glycol contact angle was between the above two. It showed that the wetting properties of the three liquids on the modified BAPC surface were different. Basing on the measurements of the contact angles of the three liquids, and according to the Young equation and the Lifshitz van der Waals and Lewis acid–base theory, the BAPC surface energy after the modification was calculated

  8. Fabrication of a nano-structured PbO2 electrode by using printing technology: surface characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Muthuraman, G.; Cho, G.; Moon, I. S.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation aimed to introduce printing technology for the first time to prepare a nanostrucutured PbO 2 electrode and its application to a cerium redox transfer process. The new method of nano-size PbO 2 preparation demonstrated that nano-PbO 2 could be obtained in less time and at less cost at room temperature. The prepared nano-PbO 2 screen printed on a Ti electrode by three different compositions under similar conditions showed through surface and electrochemical analyses no adherence on Ti and no contact with other nano-PbO 2 particles. Gravure printing of nano-PbO 2 on a PET (poly ethylene thin) film at high pressure was done with two different compositions for the first time. The selective composition of 57.14 % nano-PbO 2 powder with 4.28 % carbon black and 38.58 % ECA (ethyl carbitol acetate) produced a film with a nanoporous structure with an electron transfer ability. Finally, the optimized gravure-printed nano-PbO 2 electrode was applied to the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by using cyclic voltammetry. The gravure-printed nano-PbO 2 should pave the way to promising applications in electrochemical and sensor fields.

  9. Fabrication of a nano-structured PbO{sub 2} electrode by using printing technology: surface characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Muthuraman, G.; Cho, G.; Moon, I. S. [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This investigation aimed to introduce printing technology for the first time to prepare a nanostrucutured PbO{sub 2} electrode and its application to a cerium redox transfer process. The new method of nano-size PbO{sub 2} preparation demonstrated that nano-PbO{sub 2} could be obtained in less time and at less cost at room temperature. The prepared nano-PbO{sub 2} screen printed on a Ti electrode by three different compositions under similar conditions showed through surface and electrochemical analyses no adherence on Ti and no contact with other nano-PbO{sub 2} particles. Gravure printing of nano-PbO{sub 2} on a PET (poly ethylene thin) film at high pressure was done with two different compositions for the first time. The selective composition of 57.14 % nano-PbO{sub 2} powder with 4.28 % carbon black and 38.58 % ECA (ethyl carbitol acetate) produced a film with a nanoporous structure with an electron transfer ability. Finally, the optimized gravure-printed nano-PbO{sub 2} electrode was applied to the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by using cyclic voltammetry. The gravure-printed nano-PbO{sub 2} should pave the way to promising applications in electrochemical and sensor fields.

  10. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part I – Moulding technologies vs. zinc coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczęsny A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that in the process of hot dip galvanizing the decisive influence on the mechanism of zinc coating formation and properties has the quality of the mechanically untreated (raw surface layer of the galvanized product. The terms “casting surface layer” denote various parameters of the microstructure, including the type of metal matrix, the number of grains and the size of graphite nodules, possible presence of hard spots (the precipitates of eutectic cementite and parameters of the surface condition. The completed research has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing.

  11. [Optimization of one-step pelletization technology of Biqiu granules by Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-jun; Liu, Li-li; Hu, Jun-hua; Wu, Yun; Chao, En-xiang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    First with the qualified rate of granules as the evaluation index, significant influencing factors were firstly screened by Plackett-Burman design. Then, with the qualified rate and moisture content as the evaluation indexes, significant factors that affect one-step pelletization technology were further optimized by Box-Behnken design; experimental data were imitated by multiple regression and second-order polynomial equation; and response surface method was used for predictive analysis of optimal technology. The best conditions were as follows: inlet air temperature of 85 degrees C, sample introduction speed of 33 r x min(-1), density of concrete 1. 10. One-step pelletization technology of Biqiu granules by Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface methodology was stable and feasible with good predictability, which provided reliable basis for the industrialized production of Biqiu granules.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR PREPARATION OF SURFACE AT UP “TEHNOPARK BNTU “METOLIT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Goranski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New tendencies and results of the work of the department 'Technologies of coatings of RUP 'Technopark BNTU ''Metolit'' in the field of creation of rational technologies of wear-resistant coverings are examined. The complex approach to decision of arising scientific, technological, construction and organizational processes is shown. The concrete examples of the realized and introduced developments are given.

  13. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-11-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed.

  14. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-01-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed. (paper)

  15. NOAA JPSS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Precipitation and Surface Products from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains two-dimensional precipitation and surface products from the JPSS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) using sensor data from the...

  16. Automation of technological processes at surface mines in the GDR as one of the main directions of increased coal extraction effectiveness by surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona, U.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, about 53% of brown coal is mined with the use of overburden conveyor bridges, 27% with the use of belt conveyors, and 20% with the use of rail transport. Compares efficiency and cost per 1 m/sup 3/ of these transport methods. The overburden conveyor bridges, their specifications and microcomputer control are described. Describes utilization of microcomputer techniques, especially the stereochart system of Carl Zeiss Jena, for automated processing of data on surface mine geometry. Other computer applications are also presented, e.g. for surveying, slope stability calculation, and conveyor bridge control. Maintains that application of the KED/KEM microcomputer system for overburden conveyor bridge control increases its effectiveness by 10%, i.e. by 8 million m/sup 3//a.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on research and development of multifunction members structure control technologies. Development of advanced surface treatment technologies for methane-fueled aero engines (1. Microstructure control technologies for ultrahigh temperature members); 1998 nendo fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (chokoon buzai mikuro kozo seigyo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites) strong at ultrahigh temperatures are taken up. So as to improve on its resistance to oxidation, corrosion, and abrasion as well as on its strength at ultrahigh temperatures, an ion engineering-assisted technique is used to reform the C/C composite surface layer and a technology is developed for thin coating formation on the C/C composite surface. Next, technologies are developed for multifunction coating formation on top of the surface, for defect prevention or removal from the C/C composite, and for adhesion enhancement between the C/C composite fibers and the matrix. Technologies are further developed for evaluating hostile environment withstanding capabilities at ultrahigh temperatures. In this fiscal year, in the study of microstructure controlling multilayer coating technologies, development is conducted of technologies of ion engineering-assisted surface control and reform and of technologies of forming multifunctional coatings high in reliability and resistance to corrosion. In the field of microstructure control composition, 3-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials are manufactured by way of trial and evaluated, and their behavior under rigorous conditions is evaluated. (NEDO)

  18. Experimental Study of Static Contact-angle on Peak-like Microstructural Surfaces Produced by PIII Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runhua; Yang, Lixin

    2018-06-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was used to fabricate micro/nano structures on monocrystalline Si surfaces with different ratios of mixed gases (SF6/O2). The micro/nano structures on the surfaces of the sample were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that with increasing ratio of mixed gases (SF6/O2), the height of the micro/nano structures first increased and then decreased. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the surfaces' micro/nano structures have an obvious effect on the contact-angle, and could cause a change in surface wettability. The theoretical analysis of contact-angle showed that the Wenzel and Cassie theories cannot predict the contact-angle of a roughened surface accurately, and should be corrected for practical applications using an actual model. Moreover, the contact-angle first increased and then decreased with increasing ratio of mixed gases (SF6/O2), which is in accordance with the change of the height of micro/nano structures.

  19. Research trends in biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering: 3D bioprinting, surface modification, nano/micro-technology and clinical aspects in tissue engineering of cartilage and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Bang, Sumi; Cho, Younghak; Lee, Sahnghoon; Lee, Inseop; Zhang, ShengMin; Noh, Insup

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses about biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage, after previous scientific commentary of the invitation-based, Korea-China joint symposium on biomimetic medical materials, which was held in Seoul, Korea, from October 22 to 26, 2015. The contents of this review were evolved from the presentations of that symposium. Four topics of biomimetic medical materials were discussed from different research groups here: 1) 3D bioprinting medical materials, 2) nano/micro-technology, 3) surface modification of biomaterials for their interactions with cells and 4) clinical aspects of biomaterials for cartilage focusing on cells, scaffolds and cytokines.

  20. Develop of ceramic effects: surface finishes, through digital inject technology; Desarrollo de efectos ceramicos como acabados superficiales, mediante tecnologia de inyeccion digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Ferro Spain SA has tackled the practical viability of tile surfaces decoration by means of applying layers of reduced thickness by means of the use of digital injection technology by ink jet and, specifically, relating to effects and superficial finishes different from colouring. It has been studied several mechanisms which allow to get those effects and the influence of the main variables. It has also been assessed the obtained results dealing with the current regulations as in the case of non-slip effect. (Author)

  1. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  2. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  3. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  4. PSInSAR technology and its use for monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation; Technologia PSInSAR a jej vyuzitie na monitorovanie deformacii zemskeho povrchu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batorova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra inzinierskej geologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Method of permanent reflex points (PSInSAR) allows to monitor the time evolution of deformations of the Earth's surface with a millimeter precision. For deformation size determination there are used the maps of movement speed or time delay of line set of data that are obtained by evaluating of SAR images. SAR files must be processed using the basic mathematical calculation presented in the work, with an emphasis on the parameters used in geology. Extensive processing of multiple SAR imagery showed that they can be used during monitoring of the field with an accurate identification of the objects on the Earth's surface, which provide a stable reflection of radar rays transmitted from the satellite. These objects are known as permanent reflection points (PS). PS can be geo-referenced, allowing accurate determination of the movement size of the Earth's surface deformation. In this paper an example of using of PSInSAR technology for monitoring of slope movements on the territory of Slovakia is presented. (authors)

  5. Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources (1). Material surface improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Shoubu, Takahisa; Takeuchi, Hirotsugu; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-mercury target systems for MW-class spallation neutron sources are being developed in the world. Proton beams will be used to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by microjets and/or shock waves that are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. Bubble collapse behavior was observed by using a high-speed video camera, as well as simulated numerically. Localized impact due to cavitation bubble collapse was quantitatively estimated through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment. A novel surface treatment technique that consists of carburizing and nitriding processes was developed and the treatment condition was optimized to mitigate the pitting damage due to localized impacts. (author)

  6. Evaluation of 137 Cs in Chernobyl landscapes: mapping surface migration balance as background for application of rehabilitation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1995-01-01

    This work includes two maps of balance evaluation of 137 Cs horizontal migration in natural landscapes of Chernobyl zone. The first map shows the short-term balance, which reflects the evaluation of 137 Cs migration from present up to 20-30 years in future. the second map refers to the kong-term balance and represents a forecast of the radioecological situation 60-80 years from the accident. On the base of our evaluation the territory of 30-km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant can be divided in three parts, approximately equal but slightly differentiated in time. In fact, the landscape of extreme-morainic ridge of Christogalovka presents a clear negative balance of 137 Cs both in short-term and in long-term aspects. Landscapes with negative balance of the 137 Cs occupy for short-term about 37 % and for long-term 41 % of the investigated territory. Neutral balance is expected for short- and long-term to be approximately 39 % and 35 % of the territory respectively. Positive balance is expected for approx. 24 % of the territory in both terms. The proposed evaluations are qualitative and they can be used as background for preparation of any decisions related to the application of decontamination technologies and its ecological consequences

  7. Integration of BST varactors with surface acoustic wave device by film transfer technology for tunable RF filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideki; Tanaka, Shuji; Kimura, Tetsuya; Koutsaroff, Ivoyl P; Kadota, Michio; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a film transfer process to integrate barium strontium titanate (BST) metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices on a lithium niobate (LN) substrate. A high-quality BST film grown on a Si substrate above 650 °C was patterned into the MIM structures, and transferred to a LN substrate below 130 °C by Ar-plasma-activated Au–Au bonding and the Si lost wafer process. Simple test SAW devices with the transferred BST variable capacitors (VCs) were fabricated and characterized. The resonance frequency of a one-port SAW resonator with the VC connected in series changed from 999 to 1018 MHz, when a dc bias voltage of 3 V was applied to the VC. Although the observed frequency tuning range was smaller than expected due to the degradation of BST in the process, the experimental result demonstrated that a tunable SAW filter with the transferred BST VCs was feasible. (paper)

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of ammonium nitrate samples fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Pellegrino, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are increasingly focusing efforts on energetic materials detection and identification. Main hazards encountered in theater include homemade explosives and improvised explosive devices, in part fabricated from simple components like ammonium nitrate (AN). In order to accurately detect and identify these unknowns (energetic or benign), fielded detection systems must be accurately trained using well-understood universal testing substrates. These training substrates must contain target species at known concentrations and recognized polymorphic phases. Ammonium nitrate is an explosive precursor material that demonstrates several different polymorphic phases dependent upon how the material is deposited onto testing substrates. In this paper, known concentrations of AN were uniformly deposited onto commercially available surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using a drop-on-demand inkjet printing system. The phase changes observed after the deposition of AN under several solvent conditions are investigated. Characteristics of the collected SERS spectra of AN are discussed, and it is demonstrated that an understanding of the exact nature of the AN samples deposited will result in an increased ability to accurately and reliably "train" hazard detection systems.

  9. Shaping optimal zinc coating on the surface of high-quality ductile iron casting. Part II – Technological formula and value of diffusion coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The completed research presented in the first part of the article has allowed linking the manufacturing technology of ductile iron castings with the process of hot dip galvanizing. On the basis of these data simulations were carried out to examine the behaviour of zinc diffusion coefficient D in the galvanized coating. The adopted model of zinc coating growth helped to explain the cases of excessive growth of the intermetallic phases in this type of coating. The paper analyzes covered the relationship between the roughness and phase composition of the top layer of product and the thickness and kinetics of zinc coating growth referred to individual sub-layers of the intermetallic phases.Roughness and phase composition in the surface layer of product were next related to the diffusion coefficient D examined in respective sublayers of the intermetallic phases.

  10. Applying of the array transducers' technology for surface acoustic waves materials characterization in the transient regime; Application de la technologie multi-elements a la caracterisation des materiaux par ondes acoustiques de surface en regime impulsionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenet, D

    2000-07-01

    In this document we present a theoretical and experimental study which has been led to design a surface acoustic wave device for local characterisation (relatively to the wavelength) of isotropic or anisotropic materials. The device is based on a phased-array transducer of conical shape we have specifically designed for this purpose. It operates in the impulsive mode, in the frequency range of 1-5 MHz. In order to deduce mechanical properties of the material, it is possible to measure the surface wave characteristics (velocity, attenuation,...). Different methods for measuring the wave velocity have been developed taking advantage of from the phased-array technology. The originality of theses methods relies on the fact that the measures are performed without moving the transducer. Consequently, the device requires no additional mechanical system and it is quite compact. In addition, this shortens the characterisation process duration comparatively to the usually available methods (e. g. the V(z) technique). In the theoretical section of this study, a versatile model allowing to simulate in the time harmonic regime as well as in the transient regime, the transmitted field, the field reflected on isotropic or anisotropic planar samples and the output voltage for transducers of arbitrary shapes has been developed. The model has been applied to the phased-array conical transducer as well as to more classical transducers such as planar (rectangular) or focusing (spherically or cylindrically shaped) transducers. It predicts not only the geometrical contributions of the reflected field and signal but also the leaky contributions related to the surface acoustic waves. (author)

  11. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  12. Development of surface decontamination technology for radioactive waste using plasma. Dust behaviors in the treatment of oxide films using a low-pressure arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Kazuo; Furukawa, Shizue; Amakawa, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Kanbe, Hiromu

    2002-01-01

    We are developing the surface treatment technique using low-pressure arc as a new decontamination technology for radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities. For the practical use, effective dust collection methods are necessary, because dust is generated from oxide films on the surface during the treatment. The method using gas stream and filters may be one of them, but the behavior of the dust has not been examined yet. We studied the basic behavior of the dust and the possibilities of dust control by gas stream as follows. 1. Most of the dust attached to the anode in the case of no gas blow. 2. Dust attachment to the anode was reduced to about half using small cross section type anode. It seems to be possible to reduce the dust attachment by proper choice of electrode shape. 3. The dust attachment was reduced to 10 to 40 percent by the gas blow to the side of arc. The dust control by gas stream might be possible. (author)

  13. Surface modification of bisphenol A polycarbonate material by ultraviolet Nd:YVO4 laser high-speed microprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Suhuan; Lv, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and high-efficiency microprocessing modification technology for the surface of bisphenol A polycarbonate (BAPC) material was achieved (in particular, from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity) at high laser scanning speeds (600–1000 mm s  − 1 ) and using an all-solid state, Q-switched, high-average power and nanosecond pulse Nd:YVO 4 laser (355 nm wavelength). During the modification, it was found that the laser fluence and pulse width were the two main parameters affecting the modification effect. Moreover, the modification had a significant effect on the water contact angle, wetting behavior, microstructure, average roughness and chemical composition of the surface. When the laser fluences applied were low (i.e., less than the so-called critical fluence of the UV laser modification of the BAPC material), the water contact angle was found to be a little less than the original, the hydrophilicity was slightly improved, the relative content of the oxygen-containing groups (e.g. O–C and COO  −  ) increased, the microstructure and average roughness only had a very slight change, and the wetting behavior complied with the Wenzel regime. On the other hand, when the laser fluences applied were high, the water contact angle significantly increased, the hydrophilicity markedly decreased and the relative content of the oxygen-containing groups also increased. Here, a porous microstructure with periodical v-type grooves was generated and the average roughness had an obvious increase. In this case, the wetting behavior could be explained by the Cassie-Baxter regime, i.e., the microstructure and average roughness change played a deciding role. The reason for this might be that different laser parameters result in different material deformation and removal processes, thereby resulting in different surface chemical compositions, microstructures, roughnesses and wetting properties. (paper)

  14. Nanostructured surfaces using thermal nanoimprint lithography: Applications in thin membrane technology, piezoelectric energy harvesting and tactile pressure sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabar, Bhargav Pradip

    Oxide nanorods were characterized to determine their piezoelectric response to an applied force. An atomic force microscope operating in the force spectroscopy mode was used to apply forces in the nN range. In contrast to previously published reports using lateral tip motion (C-AFM), the action of the tip in our experiment was perpendicular to the plane of the nanorods, allowing a more defined tip -- nanorod interaction. Voltage pulses of a positive polarity with amplitude ranging from hundreds of microV to few mV were observed. The tip -- nanorod interaction was modeled using commercial solid modeling software and was simulated using finite element analysis. Comparison of the results yielded useful observations for design of piezoelectric energy harvesters/sensors using ZnO nanorods. A nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) piezoelectric energy harvester using crystalline ZnO nanowires is developed. The device converts ambient vibrations into usable electrical energy for low power sensor applications. This is accomplished by mechanical excitation of an ordered ZnO nanorod array using a suspended bulk micromachined proof mass. The device is capable of generating up to 14.2 mV single polarity voltage under an input vibration of amplitude 1 g (9.8 m/s2) at a frequency of 1.10 kHz. Finally, large area arrays of ordered ZnO piezoelectric nanorods are developed on flexible substrates towards self-powered sensing skin for robots. The sensor array is designed to measure tactile pressure in the 10 kPa-- 200 kPa range with 1 mm spatial resolution. A voltage signal in the range of few mV is observed in response to applied pressure. This work represents the first demonstration of perfectly ordered, vertically aligned, crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays, fabricated in polyimides to ensure conformity to non-planar surfaces such as a robot's. The sensors are self-packaged using a flexible substrate and a superstrate. In addition to the novelty of the sensor structure itself, the work includes an

  15. Managing and understanding risk perception of surface leaks from CCS sites: risk assessment for emerging technologies and low-probability, high-consequence events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as a partial solution to the greenhouse gas emissions problem. As CCS has become mainstream, researchers have raised multiple risk assessment issues typical of emerging technologies. In our research, we examine issues occuring when stored carbon dioxide (CO2) migrates to the near-surface or surface. We believe that both the public misperception and the physical reality of potential environmental, health, and commercial impacts of leak events from such subsurface sites have prevented widespread adoption of CCS. This paper is presented in three parts; the first is an evaluation of the systemic risk of a CCS site CO2 leak and models indicating potential likelihood of a leakage event. As the likelihood of a CCS site leak is stochastic and nonlinear, we present several Bayesian simulations for leak events based on research done with other low-probability, high-consequence gaseous pollutant releases. Though we found a large, acute leak to be exceptionally rare, we demonstrate potential for a localized, chronic leak at a CCS site. To that end, we present the second piece of this paper. Using a combination of spatio-temporal models and reaction-path models, we demonstrate the interplay between leak migrations, material interactions, and atmospheric dispersion for leaks of various duration and volume. These leak-event scenarios have implications for human, environmental, and economic health; they also have a significant impact on implementation support. Public acceptance of CCS is essential for a national low-carbon future, and this is what we address in the final part of this paper. We demonstrate that CCS remains unknown to the general public in the United States. Despite its unknown state, we provide survey findings -analyzed in Slovic and Weber's 2002 framework - that show a high unknown, high dread risk perception of leaks from a CCS site. Secondary findings are a

  16. The Use of Terrestrial Analogs in Preparing for Planetary Surface Exploration: Sampling and Radioisotopic Dating of Impactites and Deployment of In Situ Analytical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey

    Impact cratering has played a crucial role in the surface development of the inner planets. Constraining the timing of this bombardment history is important in understanding the origins of life and our planet's evolution. Plate tectonics, active volcanism, and vegetation hinder the preservation and identification of existing impact craters on Earth. Providing age constraints on these elusive structures will provide a deeper understanding of our planet's development. To do this, (U-Th)/He thermochronology and in situ 40 Ar/39Ar laser microprobe geochronology are used to provide ages for the Haughton and Mistastin Lake impact structures, both located in northern Canada. While terrestrial impact structures provide accessible laboratories for deciphering Earth's impact history, the ultimate goal for understanding the history of the reachable inner Solar System is to acquire robust, quantitative age constraints for the large lunar impact basins. The oldest of these is the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), located on the lunar farside. While it is known that this basin is stratigraphically the oldest on the Moon, its absolute age has yet to be determined. Several reports released in the last decade have highlighted sampling and dating SPA as a top priority for inner Solar System exploration. This is no easy task as the SPA structure has been modified by four billion subsequent years of impact events. Informed by studies at Mistastin---which has target lithologies analogous to those at SPA---sampling strategies are discussed that are designed to optimize the probability of a high science return with regard to robust geochronology of the SPA basin. Planetary surface missions, like one designed to explore and sample SPA, require the integration of engineering constraints with scientific goals and traverse planning. The inclusion of in situ geochemical technology, such as the handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (hXRF), into these missions will provide human crews with the

  17. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, M, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Tayjor, W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    In this project a consortium consisting of Cronus Exploration (Traverse City, MI), Michigan Technological University (Houghton, MI) and Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI) proposed to develop and execute an economical and environmentally sensitive plan for recovery of hydrocarbons from an abandoned shallow-shelf carbonate field that is typical of many fields in the U.S. Midwest. This is a 5-year project that will use surface geochemistry as a tool to reduce risk in locating and producing hydrocarbons in Class II fields. The project will develop new techniques for measuring hydrocarbon gases in the soil horizon to locate new and bypassed oil in the shallow-shelf carbonate environments typified by the Dundee and Trenton Formations of the Michigan Basin (Fisher et. al., 1988). In Phase I of the project, the consortium proposes to re-develop the Vernon Oil field located in Vernon Twp, Isabella County, Michigan and produce both bypassed hydrocarbons from the original field and to locate and produce extensions of the original field

  18. Comparative evaluation of the three different surface treatments - conventional, laser and Nano technology methods in enhancing the surface characteristics of commercially pure titanium discs and their effects on cell adhesion: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh; Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan; Mahadevan; Santhosh, S

    2015-04-01

    The surface area of the titanium dental implant materials can be increased by surface treatments without altering their shape and form, thereby increasing the biologic properties of the biomaterial. A good biomaterial helps in early cell adhesion and cell signaling. In this study, the commercially pure titanium surfaces were prepared to enable machined surfaces to form a control material and to be compared with sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces, laser treated surfaces and titanium dioxide (20 nm) Nano-particle coated surfaces. The surface elements were characterized. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in vitro using L929 fibroblasts. The results suggested that the titanium dioxide Nano-particle coated surfaces had good osteoconductivity and can be used as a potential method for coating the biomaterial.

  19. Development Of Electro-Spark Alloying (ESA) And Thermo-Reactive Electro-Spark Surface Strengthening (TRESS) Technologies And Set Of Equipment With Attachments For Mechanization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levashov, Evgeny A

    2006-01-01

    ... (Technological University) as follows: The main goal of the project is to develop advanced ESA and TRESS coating technologies for application on Ti and superalloys substrates to resist high-cycle fatigue failure initiated at the blade roots...

  20. [Quantitative evaluation of printing accuracy and tissue surface adaptation of mandibular complete denture polylactic acid pattern fabricated by fused deposition modeling technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K H; Wang, Y; Chen, H; Zhao, Y J; Zhou, Y S; Sun, Y C

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the adaptation of polylactic acid (PLA) pattern of mandibular complete denture fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Methods: A mandibular complete denture digital model was designed through a complete denture design software based on a pair of standard maxillomandibular edentulous plaster model and their occlusion bases. Ten PLA mandibular complete dentures were printed with a FDM machine. The dentures were scanned with and without the plaster model using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner. In Geomagic software, the scanning data of printed dentures were registered to its computer aided design (CAD) data, and the printing error was analyzed using the multipoint registration command. For quantitatively evaluating the adaptation of the denture, the data of plaster model and PLA denture were registered to the whole data of denture located in the plaster model using the best-fit alignment command, the 3D deviation of the plaster model and tissue surface of the denture represent the space between them. The overall area was separated into three parts: primary stress-bearing area, secondary stress-bearing area and border seal area, and the average deviations of these three parts were measured. The values were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results: Compared with the CAD data, the printing error was (0.013±0.004) mm. The overall 3D deviation between PLA denture and plaster model was (0.164±0.033) mm, in which the primary stress-bearing area was (0.165± 0.045) mm, the secondary stress-bearing area was (0.153 ± 0.027) mm, the border seal area was (0.186 ± 0.043) mm. These showed a good fit in the majority parts of the FDM denture to the plaster model. No statistically significant difference was observed between the three areas ( F =1.857, P =0.175>0.05). Conclusions: Combined with the 3D scanning, CAD and FDM technology, a FDM 3D printing process of complete denture for injection moulding can be established

  1. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  2. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.

    1992-09-01

    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  3. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  4. Innovative nuclear technologies based on radiation induced surface activation. (5) Development of high performance BWR by the radiation induced surface activation visualization study on the boiling enhancement with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Takamasa, Tomoji

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60 Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, CHF of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.5 mm in diameter. Oxidation of the surface was carried out by plasma jetting. The test section was irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. A test piece had been hold horizontally on the electrode after 5400 kGy irradiation. Then, the whole CHF test apparatus with test piece was set on the table in the gamma ray irradiation room. The test piece was irradiated in the water at least 30 minutes. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure under irradiation. The results of on-site experiment were compared with that of off-site one. (author)

  5. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  6. Uniform superhydrophobic surfaces using micro/nano complex structures formed spontaneously by a simple and cost-effective nonlithographic process based on anodic aluminum oxide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yongsung; Kim, Byung Min; Ko, Jong Soo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a uniform micro/nano double-roughened superhydrophobic surface with a high static contact angle (CA) and low contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The proposed micro/nano complex structured surfaces were self-fabricated simply and efficiently using a very simple and low-cost nonlithographic sequential process, which consists of aluminum (Al) sputtering, anodization of the Al layer and pore widening, without specific equipment and additional subsequent processes. The wetting properties of the fabricated surfaces were characterized by measuring the static CAs and the CAHs after plasma polymerized fluorocarbon coating with a low surface energy. The measured static CA and CAH were 154 ± 2.3° and 5.7 ± 0.8°, respectively, showing that the fabricated double-roughened surfaces exhibit superhydrophobic behaviors clearly. In addition, the proposed double-scaled surfaces at a wafer-level exhibited uniform superhydrophobic behaviors across the wafer with an apparent CA and CAH of 153.9 ± 0.8° and 4.9 ± 1.3°, respectively.

  7. New Technology-Large-Area Three- Dimensional Surface Profiling Using Only Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasound-Given 1999 R&D 100 Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Surface topography, which significantly affects the performance of many industrial components, is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over small areas or with optical scattering methods over larger areas. To develop air-coupled surface profilometry, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated a Space Act Agreement with Sonix, Inc., through two Glenn programs, the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP) and COMMTECH. The work resulted in quantitative surface topography profiles obtained using only high-frequency, focused ultrasonic pulses in air. The method is nondestructive, noninvasive, and noncontact, and it does not require light-reflective surfaces. Air surface profiling may be desirable when diamond-tip or laserbased methods are impractical, such as over large areas, when a significant depth range is required, or for curved surfaces. When the configuration is optimized, the method is reasonably rapid and all the quantitative analysis facilities are online, including two- and three-dimensional visualization, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling.

  8. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States

  9. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  10. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale

  11. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication

  12. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  13. An integrated approach to planning and rehabilitation for the future: proceedings of the 2. mining and the environment conference - Sudbury '99: volume two: ecosystems: health evaluation and restoration technologies, ground and surface water remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsack, D. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre in Mining and Mining Environment Research; Belzile, P. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept.of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Yearwood, P. [ed.] [Inco Ltd., Copper Cliff, ON (Canada). Environmental Control and Occupational Health; Hall, G. [ed.] [Falconbridge Ltd., Falconbridge, ON (Canada). Technology Centre

    1999-07-01

    Volume two of the symposium featured 27 papers under the general headings of ecosystems - health evaluation and restoration technologies; and ground and surface water remediation. Five papers are abstracted separately on the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands, the effects of emission reductions from the smelters in Sudbury on recovery of lakes within the metal deposition zone, the effects of regional reductions in sulphur deposition on the recovery of biodiversity in lakes, the influence of drought-induced acidification on biotic recovery and the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands.

  14. Near Surface Ocean Experimental Technology Workshop Proceedings Held at Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity, NSTL Station, Mississippi on 6-8 November 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    have been made by Sippican Corporation of Marion, Massachusetts. An example of our use was a survey in ,June 1978 around the 2 km high Caryn Seamount ...Sound. McGraw-Hill, New York, 384 pp. 8. Wishner, K. F., 1979, The biomass and ecology of the deep-sea benthopelagic (near-bottom) zooplankton, Ph.D...COMPONENT PART NOTICE THIS PAPER IS A COMPONENT PART OF THE FOLLOWING COMPILATION REPORT: (TITLE): Near Sarface Ocean Experimental Technology Workshop

  15. Report on the evaluation of the development of the catalyst surface high accuracy quantitative analysis technology using electron spectroscopy; Denshi bunkoho ni yoru shokubai hyomen koseido teiryo bunseki gijutsu no kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    An objective evaluation from a third party was conducted on the purpose, plan, execution method, achievement, etc. of a project 'The devilment of the catalyst surface high accuracy quantitative analysis technology using electron spectroscopy.' The purpose of the project is to make the relationing possible between the analytical results of the catalyst surface and the catalyst performance which has been so far difficult by heightening the accuracy of the catalyst quantitative surface analytical accuracy using the electron spectroscopy. The purpose and significance are judged to be worth a lot. This project is an industry/university/government joint project between the two countries. The project is excellent both in connection among research institutes and leadership of chief researchers, and it is judged that the joint research system fully functioned. The term of the project was shortened from 3 years in the first plan to 2 years, and therefore, the study was finished only on silicon oxide and organic thin films. However, it was determined that the study results are to be run in the magazine 'Surface and Interface Analysis,' which indicates that the achievement was judged to be very worth in the academic viewpoint. (NEDO)

  16. Scientific Research Program for Power, Energy, and Thermal Technologies. Task Order 0001: Energy, Power, and Thermal Technologies and Processes Experimental Research. Subtask: Thermal Management of Electromechanical Actuation System for Aircraft Primary Flight Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Computer FHPCP Flexible Heat Pipe Cold Plate HPEAS High Performance Electric Actuation System HPU Hydraulic Power Unit HSM Hydraulic Service...provide improved thermal paths and phase change materials offer energy storage. Loop heat pipes (LHP’s) and Flexible Heat Pipe Cold Plates (FHPCP’s...flows upward due to density difference through centrally located vapor channels called risers and then condenses on the colder surface associated

  17. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Detection of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) Samples Fabricated Using Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Technology on Commercial and Fabricated SERS Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    a secondary ultraviolet ( UV )- visible (Vis) measurement. This method has been previously documented and typically has R 2 values above 0.998 and...surface, respectively. These concentrations were independently validated by UV -Vis measurements (data not shown), and have been previously discussed (83...laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. J. Anal. Atom. Spectro . 2011, 26 (7), 1445–1450. 30. Banas, A.; Banas, K.; Breese, M.B.H.; Loke, J.; Teo, B. H

  19. Extraction and Analysis of Mega Cities’ Impervious Surface on Pixel-based and Object-oriented Support Vector Machine Classification Technology: A case of Bombay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. S.; Sun, Z. C.; Sun, L.; Wu, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impervious surface extraction method using remote sensing imagery and monitor the spatiotemporal changing patterns of mega cities. Megacity Bombay was selected as the interesting area. Firstly, the pixel-based and object-oriented support vector machine (SVM) classification methods were used to acquire the land use/land cover (LULC) products of Bombay in 2010. Consequently, the overall accuracy (OA) and overall Kappa (OK) of the pixel-based method were 94.97% and 0.96 with a running time of 78 minutes, the OA and OK of the object-oriented method were 93.72% and 0.94 with a running time of only 17s. Additionally, OA and OK of the object-oriented method after a post-classification were improved up to 95.8% and 0.94. Then, the dynamic impervious surfaces of Bombay in the period 1973-2015 were extracted and the urbanization pattern of Bombay was analysed. Results told that both the two SVM classification methods could accomplish the impervious surface extraction, but the object-oriented method should be a better choice. Urbanization of Bombay experienced a fast extending during the past 42 years, implying a dramatically urban sprawl of mega cities in the developing countries along the One Belt and One Road (OBOR).

  20. Preparation of SmBCO layer for the surface optimization of GdYBCO film by MOCVD process based on a simple self-heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2018-07-01

    The MOCVD process was adopted to grow the REBa2Cu3O7-δ ((REBCO), RE = rare earth elements) films on the LaMnO3 (LMO) templates. Meanwhile, the LMO-template tapes are heated by the joule effect after applying a heating current through the Hastelloy metal substrates. The surface of GdYBCO films prepared by MOCVD method is prone to form outgrowths. So the surface morphology of GdYBCO film is optimized by depositing the SmBCO layer, which is an important process method for the preparation of high-quality multilayer REBCO films. At last, the GdYBCO/SmBCO/GdYBCO multilayer films were successfully prepared on the LMO templates based on the simple self-heating method. It is demonstrated that the GdYBCO surface was well improved by the characterization analysis of scanning electron microscope. And the Δω of REBCO (005) and Δφ of REBCO (103), which were performed by an X-ray diffraction system, are respectively 1.3° and 3.3° What's more, the critical current density (Jc) has been more than 3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) and the critical current (Ic) basically shows a trend of good linear increase with the increase of the number of REBCO layers.

  1. Lander Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006 NASA has been formulating robotic missions to the lunar surface through programs and projects like the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, and International Lunar Network. All of these were led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Due to funding shortfalls, the lunar missions associated with these efforts, the designs, were not completed. From 2010 to 2013, the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Activity was funded by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop technologies that would enable and enhance robotic lunar surface missions at lower costs. In 2013, a requirements-driven, low-cost robotic lunar lander concept was developed for the Resource Prospector Mission. Beginning in 2014, The Advanced Exploration Systems funded the lander team and established the MSFC, Johnson Space Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory team with MSFC leading the project. The lander concept to place a 300-kg rover on the lunar surface has been described in the New Technology Report Case Number MFS-33238-1. A low-cost lander concept for placing a robotic payload on the lunar surface is shown in figures 1 and 2. The NASA lander team has developed several lander concepts using common hardware and software to allow the lander to be configured for a specific mission need. In addition, the team began to transition lander expertise to United States (U.S.) industry to encourage the commercialization of space, specifically the lunar surface. The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative was started and the NASA lander team listed above is partnering with three competitively selected U.S. companies (Astrobotic, Masten Space Systems, and Moon Express) to develop, test, and operate their lunar landers.

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Research on polychloride vinyl resin substituting technology applying technology to reform surface of polymeric materials); 1998 nendo kobunshi zairyo no hyomen kaishitsu gijutsu wo oyoshita pori enka biniru jushi daitaika gijutsu ni kansuru kebnky seika hokokusho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is intended to develop a technology to substitute polyvinyl chloride resin being regarded as the generation source of dioxines and environmental hormones in spite of being low in cost and having many excellent characteristics, with polyolefin resin having the same mechanical properties. It has become possible to improve adhesion of polyolefin, and substitute the products manufactured by using polyvinyl chloride resin currently with the polyolefin resin having about the same mechanical properties by establishing the technology to form two layers of polyolefin resin and modified polyolefin resin having polar groups, and by developing a bonding pretreatment agent using soft polyolefin resin as the base. The developed technology can be applied to developing products as targeted by the business entities participating in this project (the edge material for bath tub lids, a product currently available, and the water draining pipe as a new product). The current fiscal year has executed the following activities: (1) improvement in high-frequency weldability by means of polymer blending, (2) development of primers, (3) development of a two-layer forming technology to laminate resin layers with excellent adhesion on material surface, and (4) development of the plasma treatment technology. (NEDO)

  3. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  5. NAL-Tokyo Institute of Technology: Oxygen concentration on the surface of the solid, C[sub 6]0 are used, and it succeeds in the measurement. Kotai hyomen no sanso nodo, C[sub 60] mochii sokuteini seiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-12-31

    NAL succeeded in oxygen concentration measurement on the surface of the solid which fralen (C[sub 6]0) which was the same base body in cooperation with Tokyo Institute of Technology, biotechnology course as to carbon was used for fralen absorbs light, and materiality to be returned in the condition (base bottom condition) of the place by this activated condition's reacting for the activated condition with oxygen is used. The condition that became of this fralen was used, and oxygen pressure (concentration) developed how to measure it. Oxygen pressure on the surface of the irradiation is measured the light with applying fralen on the surface of the measurement solid and spraying oxygen gas on the application side. So far, 100 points and more of holes were made on the surface of the model, and a pressure sensor was installed, and pressure measurement was being done, and it was as it were the measurement of the meeting body of the point in the aircraft and the wind experiment of the rocket model. The application of fralen, light only irradiates it, and oxygen pressure can be measured easily in the way of measuring it this time. Moreover, it is the measurement of the non-contact and non-destruction side. The illuminant, which makes fralen activated condition again, is sufficient with the visible light, and it is said that it doesn't need to use purple outside light about it. If light can irradiate it again, the surface pressure of which part can be measured, too. (translated by NEDO)

  6. NAL-Tokyo Institute of Technology: Oxygen concentration on the surface of the solid, C{sub 6}0 are used, and it succeeds in the measurement; Kotai hyomen no sanso nodo, C{sub 60} mochii sokuteini seiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    NAL succeeded in oxygen concentration measurement on the surface of the solid which fralen (C{sub 6}0) which was the same base body in cooperation with Tokyo Institute of Technology, biotechnology course as to carbon was used for fralen absorbs light, and materiality to be returned in the condition (base bottom condition) of the place by this activated condition`s reacting for the activated condition with oxygen is used. The condition that became of this fralen was used, and oxygen pressure (concentration) developed how to measure it. Oxygen pressure on the surface of the irradiation is measured the light with applying fralen on the surface of the measurement solid and spraying oxygen gas on the application side. So far, 100 points and more of holes were made on the surface of the model, and a pressure sensor was installed, and pressure measurement was being done, and it was as it were the measurement of the meeting body of the point in the aircraft and the wind experiment of the rocket model. The application of fralen, light only irradiates it, and oxygen pressure can be measured easily in the way of measuring it this time. Moreover, it is the measurement of the non-contact and non-destruction side. The illuminant, which makes fralen activated condition again, is sufficient with the visible light, and it is said that it doesn`t need to use purple outside light about it. If light can irradiate it again, the surface pressure of which part can be measured, too. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  8. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol–gel surface imprinting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni, E-mail: tannii@21cn.com

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid imprinted polymer with imprinting factor 2.12 was prepared for the first time through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between the template molecules and the bifunctional monomers. • The obtained surface molecularly imprinting polymers exhibited high affinity and selectivity to the template molecules. • The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were used in separation the natural active component nordihydroguaiaretic acid from medicinal plants. - Abstract: In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO{sub 2}) was prepared through sol–gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO{sub 2}) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO{sub 2} and NIP@SiO{sub 2} were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO{sub 2} could reach to 5.90 mg g{sup −1}, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO{sub 2}. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results

  9. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol–gel surface imprinting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid imprinted polymer with imprinting factor 2.12 was prepared for the first time through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between the template molecules and the bifunctional monomers. • The obtained surface molecularly imprinting polymers exhibited high affinity and selectivity to the template molecules. • The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were used in separation the natural active component nordihydroguaiaretic acid from medicinal plants. - Abstract: In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO_2) was prepared through sol–gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO_2) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO_2 and NIP@SiO_2 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO_2 could reach to 5.90 mg g"−"1, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO_2. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results indicated that the MIP@SiO_2 had

  10. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Geothermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-01-01

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  11. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998. Development of advanced surface processing technology for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Laser-aided advanced processing system technology); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (Laser oyo senshin kako system gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the research and development of erosion-resistant abradable materials for the methane-fueled aircraft engine front section, a laser-aided surface reform technology was developed for Ti alloys and the like. In relation with the article 'Intermetallic Compound Coating Formation Technology,' an NiTi sprayed coating containing excess Ni solid solution was found to be quite high in resistance to erosion, and similar to Ti-6Al-4V in resistance to oxidation at 300 degrees C. Furthermore, an MCrAlY erosion-resistant coating was formed capable of resisting oxidation at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees C. In relation with the article 'Spraying Phenomenon Evaluation Technology,' studies were made of combustion synthesis reaction during plasma spraying and of the prediction of flight trajectories of different powders, for which optical fiber dichroic temperature measuring, 2-dimensional imaging, and LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) were applied in combination. Concerning the spraying of intermetallic compound coatings, a temperature rise occurred when heating by laser was performed simultaneously with the laser-induced combustion synthesis reaction. In relation with the article 'Technology of Multiple Spraying on Curved Substrate,' it was found that the gas cooled method works effectively when spraying an erosion-resistant coating onto a thin Ti alloy made turbine blade. (NEDO)

  13. 21 March 2011 - South African Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Director General P. Mjwara signing the guest with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser J. Ellis and ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and J. Cleymans; in the CERN control centre with R. Steerenberg; visiting ALICE surface exhibition with P. Giubellino and LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    21 March 2011 - South African Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology (DST) Director General P. Mjwara signing the guest with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser J. Ellis and ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson P. Giubellino and J. Cleymans; in the CERN control centre with R. Steerenberg; visiting ALICE surface exhibition with P. Giubellino and LHC superconducting magnet test hall with L. Bottura.

  14. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  15. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  16. Study of the diamond and diamond like films formation and technology development for the films precipitation on solid surface for wear resistance increasing of tools, machine and mechanism parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanbekov, Z.; Bekmuhambetov, E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the project: The purpose of the project is a development and a creation of an effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors and composite on the carbon fibers base. The study method includes the experimental investigation of the base surface structure and properties, preparation of the surface for diamond and diamond like coats growing. The precipitation of above mentioned films will be carried out from the plasma being formed from carbon gas medium at low pressure. The main purposes of the project are: - development of the technology for obtaining the films with specified properties; provision of required rate -of the precipitation; - decreasing of temperature; - manufacturing of the functioning laboratory stand with further developing of a pilot- - commercial plant for diamond and diamond like coating. It is supposed to develop a method of the monocrystal diamond films growing, that are useful for semiconductor devices manufacturing The methods: A thermo-emission and ECR methods will be used for investigation of the diamond and diamond like films formation and growth processes. The plant that will be used for the first method is a two electrode construction. Refractory metals (W,Re) being heated up to 2500 Kelvin degrees, are usually used as an actuating electrode. The second one is a base on which the precipitation is carrying out. Refractory metals, steel, silicon can be used as the base. Actuating medium is a mixture of carbon and inert gases. The second method is based on a principle of a plasma formation with use of 2.45 GHz Shf radiation power. An ECR-plasma is formed in conjunction with magnetic field in the actuating chamber. This method allows to precipitate high quality films at lower pressure. Expected results: The main purpose of the project is to assimilate the high effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on different

  17. Technology of stable, prolonged-release eye-drops containing Cyclosporine A, distributed between lipid matrix and surface of the solid lipid microspheres (SLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Eliza; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to prepare solid lipid microspheres (SLM) with incorporated Cyclosporine A (Cs), suitable for ocular application. For this purpose, SLM were formulated by using different lipids and three different nonionic surfactants. The SLM were produced using a hot emulsification method. The SLM dispersions contained 10, 20 or 30% of lipid (w/w) and up to 2% (w/w) of Cs. The size of the microspheres with Cs ranged from 1 to 15 μm. Physically stable SLM with Cs were prepared using Compritol, as a lipid matrix, and Tween 80, as a surfactant. In contrast, dispersion with Precirol alone, formed semi-solid gels during storage, while in formulations with Precirol and Miglyol, crystals of Cs were observed. In vitro release profile of Compritol formulations showed that 40% of Cs is released within 1h, while the release of the following 40% takes more time, depending on lipid content in the formulations. The large part of Cs, added to SLM formulations (from 45 to 80%), was found on the surface of microparticles, but no drug crystallization occurred during a long-term storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.S.; Cook, R.B.; Miegroet, H.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report / R and D of important region technology. R and D of technologies giving multi-functional characteristics to C/C composites (development of high-grade surface processing technology for engine members for methane fueled air craft. 1. control technology of micro structures of ultra-high temperature members); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). 1. chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing members most suitable for aircraft use engines with methane as fuel, the R and D were conducted of technology to reform surfaces and interfaces of materials. In the R and D, the paper took up carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials (C/C composites). In the surface control and reformation technology using the ion engineering method, etc., in the sealing processing of C/C composites, tried was the formation of a C/SiC/Si3N4 composite layer which was formed by Si3N4 much smaller in thermal expansion coefficient than SiC. Further, technologies on ion injection, thin film formation, giving of oxidation resistance/corrosion resistance, improving/giving of thermal shock resistance, etc. In the multi-functional coating formation technology such as high liability and corrosion resistance, the study was carried out of the dense composite functionally-gradient layer as thermal stress relaxation layer and the fiber reinforced layer by carbon fiber using pores. Besides, studies were made of technologies of the micro structure control combination, evaluation of ultra-high temperature resistant environmental characteristics, etc. 61 refs., 198 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  1. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol-gel surface imprinting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO2) was prepared through sol-gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO2) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO2 and NIP@SiO2 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO2 could reach to 5.90 mg g-1, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO2. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results indicated that the MIP@SiO2 had potential application in separation of the natural active component NDGA from medicinal plants.

  2. Application of Nanotrap technology for high sensitivity measurement of urinary outer surface protein A carboxyl-terminus domain in early stage Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Ruben; Espina, Benjamin H; Shah, Ketul; Lepene, Benjamin; Mayuga, Christine; Douglas, Temple A; Espina, Virginia; Rucker, Sally; Dunlap, Ross; Petricoin, Emanuel F Iii; Kilavos, Mary Frekko; Poretz, Donald M; Irwin, Gilbert R; Shor, Samuel M; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra

    2015-11-04

    Prompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB. We employed Nanotrap particles to concentrate urinary OspA and used a highly specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a detector of the C-terminus peptides. We mapped the mAb epitope to a narrow specific OspA C-terminal domain OspA236-239 conserved across infectious Borrelia species but with no homology to human proteins and no cross-reactivity with relevant viral and non-Borrelia bacterial proteins. 268 urine samples from patients being evaluated for all categories of LB were collected in a LB endemic area. The urinary OspA assay, blinded to outcome, utilized Nanotrap particle pre-processing, western blotting to evaluate the OspA molecular size, and OspA peptide competition for confirmation. OspA test characteristics: sensitivity 1.7 pg/mL (lowest limit of detection), % coefficient of variation (CV) = 8 %, dynamic range 1.7-30 pg/mL. Pre-treatment, 24/24 newly diagnosed patients with an erythema migrans (EM) rash were positive for urinary OspA while false positives for asymptomatic patients were 0/117 (Chi squared p antibiotic therapy, 10/10 were positive for urinary OspA. Urinary OspA of 8/8 patients switched from detectable to undetectable following symptom resolution post-treatment. Specificity of the urinary OspA test for the clinical symptoms was 40/40. Specificity of the urinary OspA antigen test for later serology outcome was 87.5 % (21 urinary OspA positive/24 serology positive, Chi squared p = 4.072e(-15)). 41 of 100 patients under

  3. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  4. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Singh, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear) polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads) show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm) in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical Ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature

  5. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nanofilms and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature.

  6. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  7. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  8. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es-haghi, Ali; Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. - Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L −1 and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L −1 with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples

  9. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-haghi, Ali, E-mail: a.eshaghi@rvsri.ac.ir [Department of Physico Chemistry, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, PO Box 31975/148, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L⁻¹ and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L⁻¹with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples.

  10. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  11. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  12. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. A novel research approach on the dynamic properties of photogenerated charge carriers at Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films by a frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The changed SPV with chopping frequencies indicate the separation speeds of photogenerated charge carriers in different films. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films show good photoelectric responses in visible-light region. • Frequency-modulated SPV give dynamic information and evidence of Ag{sub 2}S QDSSCs’ performance. • Frequency-modulated SPV can supply complementary information in the study of Ag{sub 2}S ODSSCs. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films with different amount of Ag{sub 2}S were fabricated by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers at different spectral regions were studied by the frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology. Some novel dynamic information of photogenerated charge carriers in a wide spectral range is found. The results indicate that the rate and direction of separation (diffusion) for photogenerated charge carriers are closely related to the performance of quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on the Ag{sub 2}S/TiO{sub 2} nano-structure.

  14. Method for surface treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Doehler, H.; Bartel, R.; Ardenne, T. von.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at simplifying the technology and saving energy in modifying surfaces with the aid of electron beams. The described beam-object geometry allows to abandon additional heat treatments. It can be used for surface hardening

  15. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  16. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  17. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  18. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  19. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  20. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  1. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  2. Dynamical speckles in watery surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovera-Gonzalez, J.J.; Moreno-Yeras, A.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Alvarez-Salgado, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of watery surfaces with monolayer of surfactant substances is of interest in diverse technological applications. The format ion and study of molecular monolayer deposited in these surfaces require the application of measurements techniques that allow evaluating the recovery grade locally without modifying practically the studied surface. In this paper the preliminary results obtained by the authors it plows exposed applying the technique of dynamic speckle interferometry in watery surfaces and their consideration like to possible resource to measure the grade of local recovery of these surfaces on the it bases that the speckles pattern dog reveal the dynamics of evaporation that takes place in the same ones. (Author)

  3. Contraceptive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M; Atkinson, L

    1984-06-01

    A question of the 1980s is how will contraceptive technology contribute to improving family planning services to meet the goal of making available a simple, safe, effective, and widely acceptable contraceptive method. Significant changes in existing technology in the 1970s resulted in safer and more effective contraceptive methods. Voluntary sterilization emerged as the primary method in developed and developing countries, as important modifications simplified the procedure for women. The tolerance and effectiveness of the IUD were improved by reducing its size, adding copper to its surface, or encapsulating progesterone within it. The steroid content of the birth control pill was reduced 10-fold, leading to fewer side effects, and the pill was found to be an effective postcoital contraceptive when taken at specific intervals. Vacuum aspiration for the termination of 1st trimester pregnancy proved to be 1 of the safest surgical techniques practiced. Belated attention is now being focused on adapting existing contraceptive methods for use during the postpartum period and breast feeding. The insertion of an IUD immediately following childbirth is a particularly useful option in the developing world as an increasing number of women have their babies in urban hospitals. A method of enhancing the contraceptive effect of breast feeding should neither change milk production nor transfer the drug to the nursing infant. Fortunately, progestin-only pills have been found to have no effect on breast milk and an attempt is being made to expand the use of this approved method. More simplification of female sterilization is needed. Current techniques require back-up facilities in case of complications and are unlikely to meet the developing world's enormous demand. 2 methods not widely used -- spermicides and periodic abstinence -- are coming under new scrutiny. In mid-1983 the US Food and Drug Administration approved a spermicide-impregnanated disposable sponge for over

  4. FY 1993 research and development of the technology for controlling structures of functional composite members. R and D of advanced surface processing for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Technology for controlling the microscopic structures of superhigh-temperature members); 1993 nendo fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu). Chokoon buzai micro kozo seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1993 research and development project, implemented for development of the technologies for modification of material surfaces and interfaces, with the objectives to develop the optimum members for methane-fueled aircraft engines. For R and D of multi-layered films with controlled microscopic structures, the tests are conducted for forming thin-film layers by, e.g., ion implantation, ion mixing and implantation of large quantities of ions as the surface controlling/modification techniques based on, e.g., ionic techniques. The tests are conducted for, e.g., chemical vapor-phase reaction evaporation and low-pressure plasma spraying as the technologies for forming multi-functional films of, e.g., high reliability and resistance to corrosion. For development of the technologies for controlling/compositing the microscopic structures, the tests are conducted for, e.g., selection of the matrix materials, and prevention/removal of defects by the chemical vapor-phase reaction penetration treatment effected for extended periods. For development of the technologies for evaluation of the characteristics under superhigh-temperature environments, the tests are conducted to investigate the mechanical characteristics of isotropically uniform metallic materials under multi-dimensional stresses and evaluation thereof, and mechanical and thermal characteristics of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon composites and evaluation thereof. (NEDO)

  5. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  6. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  7. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  8. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  9. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  10. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  11. Surface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites, as the...

  12. The surface learned from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Kim, W. D.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, I would like to introduce the emerging surface of nature. The surface in nature, has the multi and optimized function with well organized structure. There are so many examples that we learn and apply to technology. First example is self-cleaning surface. Some plants (such as lotus leaf, taro leaf) and the wings of many large-winged insects (such as moth, butterfly, dragonfly) remain their surface clean in the very dirty environment. This self cleaning effect is accomplished by the superhydrophobic surfaces which exhibit the water contact angle of more than 150° with low sliding angle. Generally, the superhydrophobic surface is made up the two factors. One is the surface composition having the low surface tension energy. The other is the surface morphology of hierarchical structure of micro and nano size. Because almost nature surface have the hierarchical structures range from macro to nano size, their topography strength their function to adjust the life in nature environment. The other example is the surface to use for drag reduction. The skin friction drag causes eruptions of air or water resulting in greater drag as the speed is increased. This drag requires more energy to overcome. The shark skin having the fine sharp-edged grooves about 0.1 mm wide known riblet reduces in skin friction drag by being far away the vortex. Among a lot of fuctional surface, the most exciting surface the back of stenocara a kind of desert beetles. Stenocara use the micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions on their backs to capture water from fog. This fog-collecting structure improves the water collection of fog-capture film, condenser, engine, and future building. Here, the efforts to realize these emerging functional surfaces in nature on technology are reported with the fabrication method and their properties, especially for the control of surface wettability.

  13. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters, and process waters by absorbi...

  14. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  15. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  16. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  17. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  18. PREFACE: Nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard E.

    2003-10-01

    devices, respectively, while the papers by Ledieu and Guo report the structural characterization of novel surface systems—quasicrystal surfaces and supramolecular monolayers, respectively. The final two papers, by Bennett and Smith, demonstrate the positive interplay between experimental measurements and theoretical modelling in the investigation of nanostructured surfaces. The examples discussed include, respectively, the growth of metal clusters on oxide surfaces and the deposition of fullerenes and energetic clusters from the gas phase. We note finally that the last six papers in this special issue have been contributed by members of the Committee of the newly-formed Nanoscale Physics and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics. The Group shares with this special issue the aim of promoting and disseminating exciting advances in the flourishing field of nanoscale physics.

  19. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  20. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  1. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  2. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  3. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Johnson, Christopher; Potter, Kristin; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  4. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  5. Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars is characterized on the basis of reformatted Viking remote-sensing data, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include impact craters, ridges and faults, volcanic studies (modeling of surface effects on volcanic activity, description and interpretation of volcanic features, and calculations on lava-ice interactions), the role of liquid water on Mars, evidence for abundant ground ice at high latitudes, water-cycle modeling, and the composition and dynamics of Martian dust

  6. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  8. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...... & Brass, 1990; Kling 1991; Orlikowski 2000). It also demonstrates that technology is a flexible variable adapted to the organisation's needs, culture, climate and management philosophy, thus leading to different uses and outcomes of the same technology in different organisations (Barley 1986; 1990...

  9. Technology roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of a technology road map is to define the state of a current technology, relevant market issues, and future market needs; to develop a plan that industry can follow to provide these new products and services; and to map technology pathways and performance goals for bringing these products and services to market. The three stages (planning, implementation, and reviewing and updating), benefits, and status of the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are outlined. Action Plan 2000, a $1.7 million 2000 Climate Change Technology and Innovation Program, which uses the technology roadmapping process, is described. The members of the management steering committee for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are listed. A flowsheet showing activities until November 2004, when the final clean coal road map is due, is included.

  10. Appropriate Technology as Indian Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the mounting enthusiasm of Indian communities for appropriate technology as an inexpensive means of providing much needed energy and job opportunities. Describes the development of several appropriate technology projects, and the goals and activities of groups involved in utilizing low scale solar technology for economic development on…

  11. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  12. European workshop on technologies for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesing, J H; Pippich, B [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Current European research activities in the field of environmental technologies are discussed under the following headings: photocatalysis; emission abatement - catalytic processes (mainly NO{sub x} reduction catalysts for vehicles and industrial boilers); emission abatement - biological and chemical processes; biological wastewater treatment; chemical and physical wastewater treatment; integrated wastewater treatment; environmental technologies in pulp and paper industry; environmental technologies in surface treatment; selected examples of `clean technologies`; environmental technologies in ceramic and cement industry and policy and strategies.

  13. Technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report

  14. Mostly surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a number of topics related to surfaces, such as Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, the fundamental group, universal covering surfaces, Riemannian manifolds, the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, and the Riemann mapping theorem. The main idea is to get to some interesting mathematics without too much formality. The book also includes some material only tangentially related to surfaces, such as the Cauchy Rigidity Theorem, the Dehn Dissection Theorem, and the Banach-Tarski Theorem. The goal of the book is to present a tapestry of ideas from various areas of mathematics in a clear and rigorous yet informal and friendly way. Prerequisites include undergraduate courses in real analysis and in linear algebra, and some knowledge of complex analysis.

  15. Surface rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Corrêa Landim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.

  16. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...... and other devices are depicted by everyday aesthetics as capable of producing a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper of this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity, no soul - such is the prophecy. This personification...... or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization...

  17. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  18. Army Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    that allows them to perform applied research under the Institute for Biotechnology research team 1 2 3 20 | ARMY TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE ...DASA(R&T) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology Download the magazine , view online or read each individual story with...Army photo by Conrad Johnson) Front and back cover designs by Joe Stephens EXECUTIVE DEPUTY TO THE COMMANDING GENERAL Army Technology Magazine is an

  19. Technology alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G.; Kugler, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, Canada and Korea developed a highly successful relationship that could serve as a model for other high-technology industries. This is particularly significant when one considers the complexity and technical depth required to design, build and operate a nuclear reactor. This paper will outline the overall framework for technology transfer and cooperation between Canada and Korea, and will focus on cooperation in nuclear R and D between the two countries

  20. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  1. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  2. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented......: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  3. The use of electro membrane technology in treating waste waters in the surface treatment industry; Electromembrana como tecnologia de tratamiento de aguas residuales en la industria de tratamiento de superficies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, J. R. [Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio. Villanueva de la Canada. Madrid (Spain); Marquinez, R.; Belaustegui, Y.; Valle, B. [LEIA CDT. ParqueTecnologico de Alava. Minano. Alava (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper three electro membrane technologies, Electrodialysis, trohidrolysis are described. After studying their fundamentals, a series of examples of application in different industrial sectors are given. These show the utility of the above technologies to minimize the environmental impact of industrial processes. Their main advantages are the recovery of valuable chemicals contained in industrial effluents and the dramatic reduction in the sludge generated in the waste treatment conventional methods (up to 90%). (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Nano Surface Engineering in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bin-shi; Wang Hai-dou; Dong Shi-yun; Shi Pei-jing; Xu Yi

    2004-01-01

    Nano surface engineering is the new development of surface engineering, and is the typical representation that the advanced nano technology improves the traditional surface engineering. The connotation of nano surface engineering is profound. The initial stage of nano surface engineering is realized at present day. The key technologies of nano surface engineering are the support to the equipment remanufacturing. Today the relatively mature key technologies are: nano thermal spraying technology, nano electric-brush plating technology, nano self-repairing anti-friction technology and metal surface nanocrystallization, etc. Many scientific issues have been continuously discovered. Meanwhile they have been applied in the practice more and more, and have archived the excellent remanufacturing effect.

  5. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  6. E-PERM alpha surface monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Innovative Technology Summary Reports are designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They are also designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. Each report describes a technology, system, or process that has been developed and tested with funding from DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST). The E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor is an integrating electret ion chamber innovative technology used to measure alpha radiation on surfaces of materials. The technology is best used on surfaces with low contamination levels such as areas with potential for free release, but can also be used in areas with higher levels of contamination. Measurement accuracy and production of the E-PERM reg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor compared favorably with the baseline technology. The innovative technology cost is approximately 28% higher than the baseline with an average unit cost per reading costing %6.04 vs. $4.36; however, the flexibility of the E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor may offer advantages in ALARA, reduction of operator error, waste minimization, and measurement accuracy

  7. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  8. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from MTU1 Buoy by Michigan Technological University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123646 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from MTU Buoy by Michigan Technological University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-09-01 (NODC Accession 0123644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123644 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  11. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  12. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  13. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  14. Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The conference was organized to evaluate the application directions of radiation technology in Vietnam and to utilize the Irradiation Centre in Hanoi with the Co-60 source of 110 kCi. The investigation and study of technico-economic feasibility for technology development to various items of food and non-food objects was reported. (N.H.A)

  15. Technology Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Heather; McGilll, Toria

    2011-01-01

    Social networking and other technologies, if used judiciously, present the means to integrate 21st century skills into the classroom curriculum. But they also introduce challenges that educators must overcome. Increased concerns about plagiarism and access to technology can test educators' creativity and school resources. Air Academy High School,…

  16. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  17. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  18. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  19. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  20. Bioinspired Surface Treatments for Improved Decontamination: Icephobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    5 TABLES Table 1 — Contact angles ...fluorosilane to produce both texture and hydrophobic properties. [1, 2] The coating technology is reported to produce a water contact angle of greater than...160° with sliding angles ᝺° classifying the surface as superhydrophobic (water contact angles >150°). The durability of the material was previously

  1. Distributed Surface Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    surface missile SSN nuclear powered attack submarine ST Singapore Technologies T-AKE Lewis and Clarke class TDSI Temasek Defense Systems Institute TRL...total of 313 (Department of the Navy N8 Department 2013). This 306-ship plan includes 12 SSBNs, 48 SSNs , 11 aircraft carriers, 88 cruisers and...MoCil • • West Reef Barque Canada Stloal frinc2 of wales Bank • Reef fat Grair9r Bani< Aneoyna Cltf •Mari\\eles • • • • Nlenwl Bank Ardaser n Dalas

  2. Surface smoothness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used....... We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers....

  3. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  4. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  5. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  6. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  7. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  8. Surface Transportation Security Priority Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    intercity buses), and pipelines, and related infrastructure (including roads and highways), that are within the territory of the United States...Modernizing the information technology infrastructure used to vet the identity of travelers and transportation workers  Using terrorist databases to...examination of persons travelling , surface transportation modes tend to operate in a much more open environment, making it difficult to screen workers

  9. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  10. Biomedical applications using low temperature plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiujuan; Jiang Nan

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature plasma technology and biomedicine are two different subjects, but the combination of the two may play a critical role in modern science and technology. The 21 st century is believed to be a biotechnology century. Plasma technology is becoming a widely used platform for the fabrication of biomaterials and biomedical devices. In this paper some of the technologies used for material surface modification are briefly introduced. Some biomedical applications using plasma technology are described, followed by suggestions as to how a bridge between plasma technology and biomedicine can be built. A pulsed plasma technique that is used for surface functionalization is discussed in detail as an example of this kind of bridge or combination. Finally, it is pointed out that the combination of biomedical and plasma technology will be an important development for revolutionary 21st century technologies that requires different experts from different fields to work together. (authors)

  11. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  12. Technology | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory develops and applies advanced, next-generation technologies to solve basic and applied problems in the biomedical sciences, and serves as a national resource of shared high-tech facilities.

  13. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  14. Technological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkes, M; Coppock, R; Edwards, S

    1980-01-01

    The book begins with brief statements from representatives of political organizations. Part II presents an overview of the discussion about the control and management of technological progress. Parts III and IV discuss important elements in citizens' perception of technological risks and the development of consensus on how to deal with them. In Part V practical problems in the application of risk assessment and management, and in Part VI additional points are summarized.

  15. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  16. Technological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierkes, M.; Coppock, R.; Edwards, S.

    1980-01-01

    The book begins with brief statements from representatives of political organizations. Part II presents an overview of the discussion about the control and management of technological progress. Parts III and IV discuss important elements in citizens' perception of technological risks and the development of consensus on how to deal with them. In Part V practical problems in the application of risk assessment and management, and in Part VI additional points are summarized. (DG)

  17. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  18. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)

  20. Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2) Technology Description Document (TDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Andrew; Engelland, Shawn; Capps, Al; Eshow, Michelle; Jung, Yoon; Sharma, Shivanjli; Talebi, Ehsan; Downs, Michael; Freedman, Cynthia; Ngo, Tyler; hide

    2018-01-01

    This Technology Description Document (TDD) provides an overview of the technology for the Phase 1 Baseline Integrated Arrival, Departure, and Surface (IADS) prototype system of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2) project, to be demonstrated beginning in 2017 at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT). Development, integration, and field demonstration of relevant technologies of the IADS system directly address recommendations made by the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Integration Working Group (NIWG) on Surface and Data Sharing and the Surface Collaborative Decision Making (Surface CDM) concept of operations developed jointly by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and aviation industry partners. NASA is developing the IADS traffic management system under the ATD-2 project in coordination with the FAA, flight operators, CLT airport, and the National Air Traffic Controllers Association (NATCA). The primary goal of ATD-2 is to improve the predictability and operational efficiency of the air traffic system in metroplex environments, through the enhancement, development, and integration of the nation's most advanced and sophisticated arrival, departure, and surface prediction, scheduling, and management systems. The ATD-2 project is a 5-year research activity beginning in 2015 and extending through 2020. The Phase 1 Baseline IADS capability resulting from the ATD-2 research will be demonstrated at the CLT airport beginning in 2017. Phase 1 will provide the initial demonstration of the integrated system with strategic and tactical scheduling, tactical departure scheduling to an en route meter point, and an early implementation prototype of a Terminal Flight Data Manager (TFDM) Electronic Flight Data (EFD) system. The strategic surface scheduling element of the capability is consistent with the Surface CDM Concept of Operations published in 2014 by the FAA Surface

  1. Report of the surface science workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized

  2. Report of the surface science workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Yates, J.T. Jr.; Clinton, W.

    1977-03-01

    A three-day workshop was held to review the various areas of energy development and technology in which surface science plays major roles and makes major contributions, and to identify the major surface-science-related problem areas in the fields with ERDA's mission in the fossil, nuclear, fusion, geothermal, and solar energy technologies and in the field of environmental control. The workshop activities are summarized. (GHT)

  3. Optimization of surface roughness in CNC end milling using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In this study, minimization of surface roughness has been investigated by integrating design of experiment method, Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm ...

  4. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  5. Nonlinear optical studies of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1994-07-01

    The possibly of using nonlinear optical processes for surface studies has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG), in particular, have been well accepted as viable surface probes. They have many advantages over the conventional techniques. By nature, they are highly surface-specific and has a submonolayer sensitivity. As coherent optical processes, they are capable of in-situ probing of surfaces in hostile environment as well as applicable to all interfaces accessible by light. With ultrafast pump laser pulses, they can be employed to study surface dynamic processes with a subpicosecond time resolution. These advantages have opened the door to many exciting research opportunities in surface science and technology. This paper gives a brief overview of this fast-growing new area of research. Optical SHG from a surface was first studied theoretically and experimentally in the sixties. Even the submonolayer surface sensitivity of the process was noticed fairly early. The success was, however, limited because of difficulties in controlling the experimental conditions. It was not until the early 1980's that the potential of the process for surface analysis was duly recognized. The first surface study by SHG was actually motivated by the then active search for an understanding of the intriguing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It had been suspected that the enhancement in SERS mainly came from the local-field enhancement due to local plasmon resonances and pointing rod effect on rough metal surfaces. In our view, Raman scattering is a two-photon process and is therefore a nonlinear optical effect

  6. Environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  7. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  8. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  9. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  10. Airborne Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Winkert, Tom; Plants, Michael; hide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss our development effort of an airborne instrument as a pathfinder for the Lidar Surface Technology (LIST) mission. This paper will discuss the system approach, enabling technologies, instrument concept and performance of the Airborne LIST Simulator (A-LISTS).

  11. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  12. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...... must be performed such that total traceability and authenticity of the final products can be presented on demand. The most important aspects to be considered within seafood technology today are safety, healthy products and high eating quality. Safety can be divided into microbiological safety...... and not presenting any safety risk per se. Seafood is healthy due to the omega-3 fatty acids and the nutritional value of vitamins, peptides and proteins. The processing technology must however be performed such that these valuable features are not lost during production. The same applies to the eating quality. Any...

  13. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  14. Technology Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter-relationships. Spe......This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter......-relationships. Specific results from different levels of analysis show the different dimensions of technology management: • Co-word terms identify themes • Journal co-citation network: linking to other disciplines • Co-citation network show concentrations of themes The analysis shows that MOT has a bridging role...

  15. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  16. Microplates with adaptive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Meshude; Lakshmi, Dhana; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletska, Elena V; Chianella, Iva; Güven, Olgun; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2011-11-14

    Here we present a new and versatile method for the modification of the well surfaces of polystyrene microtiter plates (microplates) with poly(N-phenylethylene diamine methacrylamide), (poly-NPEDMA). The chemical grafting of poly-NPEDMA to the surface of microplates resulted in the formation of thin layers of a polyaniline derivative bearing pendant methacrylamide double bonds. These were used as the attachment point for various functional polymers through photochemical grafting of various, for example, acrylate and methacrylate, polymers with different functionalities. In a model experiment, we have modified poly-NPEDMA-coated microplates with a small library of polymers containing different functional groups using a two-step approach. In the first step, double bonds were activated by UV irradiation in the presence of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter). This enabled grafting of the polymer library in the second step by UV irradiation of solutions of the corresponding monomers in the microplate wells. The uniformity of coatings was confirmed spectrophotometrically, by microscopic imaging and by contact angle measurements (CA). The feasibility of the current technology has been shown by the generation of a small library of polymers grafted to the microplate well surfaces and screening of their affinity to small molecules, such as atrazine, a trio of organic dyes, and a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The stability of the polymers, reproducibility of measurement, ease of preparation, and cost-effectiveness make this approach suitable for applications in high-throughput screening in the area of materials research.

  17. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Development of autonomous surface reforming technology by use of multi-energy laser (MEL); 2000 nendo taju ihacho laser (MEL) ho ni yoru chokoshitsumaku no jiko hyomen kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using a MEL (multi-energy laser) method in which multiple laser devices were operated for the formation of an ultra-hard surface reformed layer. At the first step of the research, a carbon-based material was irradiated with various laser beams in an CO2 gas atmosphere, and the hardness, Raman spectrum, etc., of the surface structure were evaluated. As the result, it was found that the formation of diamond like carbon (DLC) texture advances faster when the excited wavelength is longer from ArF laser toward SHG-YAG laser. At the second step, an effort was made to grow DLC out of tungsten carbide. When a normal pulse YAG laser beam was projected on a WC-Co substrate, W was dissociated on the surface for the precipitation of graphite. Next, XeCl excimer laser was projected on the precipitated graphite, and then the graphite was reformed into DLC. In this experiment, transition from graphite to DLC was controlled by changing the delay time lengths of the two laser beams. (NEDO)

  18. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  19. Technological Inovattion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bostan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectacular development of technology within the field of informatics and telecommunicationfor the last decade, associated with a postindustrial revolution, has solidly contributed to the globalization ofthe contemporary international economic life. A very important factor in promoting the globalization ofproduction and the financial globalization is the recent progress from the technology of information andcommunication which has a strong impact on the economic, social and cultural life. The postindustrialrevolution marks the transfer from an industrial based culture to a culture based on information,communication and experience.

  20. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  1. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  2. Vacuum science, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Pramod K

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum plays an important role in science and technology. The study of interaction of charged particles, neutrals and radiation with each other and with solid surfaces requires a vacuum environment for reliable investigations. Vacuum has contributed immensely to advancements made in nuclear science, space, metallurgy, electrical/electronic technology, chemical engineering, transportation, robotics and many other fields. This book is intended to assist students, scientists, technicians and engineers to understand the basics of vacuum science and technology for application in their projects. The fundamental theories, concepts, devices, applications, and key inventions are discussed.

  3. Surfaces of Building Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  4. The estimation of dynamic contact angle of ultra-hydrophobic surfaces using inclined surface and impinging droplet methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasikova, Darina; Kotek, Michal

    2014-03-01

    The development of industrial technology also brings with optimized surface quality, particularly where there is contact with food. Application ultra-hydrophobic surface significantly reduces the growth of bacteria and facilitates cleaning processes. Testing and evaluation of surface quality are used two methods: impinging droplet and inclined surface method optimized with high speed shadowgraphy, which give information about dynamic contact angle. This article presents the results of research into new methods of measuring ultra-hydrophobic patented technology.

  5. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  6. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  7. Health technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Delphine; Dangleant, Caroline; Ganier, Aude; Kaczmarek, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    The CEA is an organization with a primarily technological focus, and one of the key areas in which it carries out research is Health Technology. This field of research was recognized and approved by the French Atomic Energy Committee on July 20, 2004. The expectations of both the public and health care professionals relate to demands for the highest standards of health care, at minimum risk. This implies a need to diagnose illness and disease as accurately and as at early a stage as possible, to target surgery precisely to deal only with damaged organs or tissues, to minimize the risk of side effects, allergies and hospital-acquired infections, to follow-up and, as far as possible, tailor the health delivery system to each individual's needs and his or her lifestyle. The health care sector is subject to rapid changes and embraces a vast range of scientific fields. It now requires technological developments that will serve to gather increasing quantities of useful information, analyze and integrate it to obtain a full understanding of highly complex processes and to be able to treat the human body as un-invasively as possible. All the technologies developed require assessment, especially in the hospital environment. (authors)

  8. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  9. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  10. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  11. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  12. Photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5-6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10-15 years. (author)

  13. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  14. Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2000-09-01

    This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

  15. Wetting study of patterned surfaces for superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43202-1107 (United States)], E-mail: Bhushan.2@osu.edu; Jung, Yong Chae [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43202-1107 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have considerable technological potential for various applications due to their extreme water-repellent properties. A number of studies have been carried out to produce artificial biomimetic roughness-induced hydrophobic surfaces. In general, both homogeneous and composite interfaces are possible on the produced surface. Silicon surfaces patterned with pillars of two different diameters and heights with varying pitch values were fabricated. We show how static contact angles vary with different pitch values on the patterned silicon surfaces. Based on the experimental data and a numerical model, the trends are explained. We show that superhydrophobic surfaces have low hysteresis and tilt angle. Tribological properties play an important role in many applications requiring water-repellent properties. Therefore, it is important to study the adhesion and friction properties of these surfaces that mimic nature. An atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) is used for surface characterization and adhesion and friction measurements.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF WEDM MACHINED SURFACE WAVINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Mouralova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM an unconventional machining technology which has become indispensable in many industries. The typical morphology of a surface machined using the electrical discharge technology is characterized with a large number of craters caused by electro-spark discharges produced during the machining process. The study deals with an evaluation of the machine parameter setting on the profile parameters of surface waviness on samples made of two metal materials Al 99.5 and Ti-6Al-4V. Attention was also paid to an evaluation of the surface morphology using 3D colour filtered and non-filtered images.

  17. SCAN Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greene, Gretchen; Greene, Robert; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    A strategy for the reproduction (by milling in marble using a vertically moving spherical tool) of a given height function is found using a level curve analysis of the largest principal (upward pointing) curvature of the corresponding surface. Data fitting is applied to the discrete data set whic...

  18. Report of the expert committee on the biological clean technology. No. 1. subcommittee. ; Measurement method of aerofungi and surface pollution fungi. Baiorojikaru kurin gijutsutaikei chosa senmon iinkai hokoku. 1. ; Kuchukin/hyomen osenkin sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    The measurement of the aerofungi and surface pollution fungi is different in the collection, culture, count, evaluation method and so forth, and therefore a method to be able to correspond to all cases is not yet established. At present, it is required for performing a measurement that it is well adapted to a limit and characteristics of the individual measurement instrument. The aerofungi and surface pollution fungi handled in this paper should be the bacteria and true fungi, and moreover a case to measure them as the bacteria particle and true fungi should be an object. In case of measurement, for all of the culture medium adjustment, transportation sampling and culture, the aseptic manipulation is indispensable. In case of to measure them as the particle of the microorganisms, a process of the culture and count of the colony coming into view is passed through. When the various samplers are used, it is required for confirming beforehand that the flow rate complied with the regulations is aspirated. A measurement of a concentration of the aerial floating microorganisms is greatly influenced by the meteorological condition, personnel, its activity state and so forth, and consequently it shows generally a violent fluctuation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1999 international cooperation project report. Development of high-precision quantitative analysis technology for catalyst surfaces by electron spectroscopy; 1999 nendo denshi bunkoho ni yoru shokubai hyomen koseido teiryo bunseki bijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project targets to make analysis of surface chemical phenomena of solid catalysts possible, and establish the basis of intelligent design for catalytic materials, through development of an advanced electron spectroscopy for surface analysis. In fiscal 1999, the research was promoted by using the diffraction grating and driving mechanism introduced in fiscal 1998, and by developing the measurement result on silicon oxide films by radiation beam photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurement technique was established by the optimized measurement process which can treat variable parameters as constant. The analysis result of measurement data in fiscal 1999 showed the dependence of an electron damping length in silicon oxide films on radiation photon energy. The energy dependence well agreed with a theoretically obtained inelastic mean free path of electrons qualitatively, while was smaller by nearly 30% than the latter quantitatively. Measurement was made on the damping length in oxidation-active Gd and Nd oxide films. In both cases of Si and Si oxide film substrates, oxidation of substrates or formation of silicate was observed. (NEDO)

  20. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  1. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  2. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  3. Solid surface vs. liquid surface: nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, and DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Mori, Taizo; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P

    2017-09-13

    The investigation of molecules and materials at interfaces is critical for the accumulation of new scientific insights and technological advances in the chemical and physical sciences. Immobilization on solid surfaces permits the investigation of different properties of functional molecules or materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Liquid surfaces also present important media for physicochemical innovation and insight based on their great flexibility and dynamicity, rapid diffusion of molecular components for mixing and rearrangements, as well as drastic spatial variation in the prevailing dielectric environment. Therefore, a comparative discussion of the relative merits of the properties of materials when positioned at solid or liquid surfaces would be informative regarding present-to-future developments of surface-based technologies. In this perspective article, recent research examples of nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, DNA nanotechnology, and DNA origami are compared with respect to the type of surface used, i.e. solid surfaces vs. liquid surfaces, for future perspectives of interfacial physics and chemistry.

  4. Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation, developed by Ames Research Center, protects the Space Shuttle from the searing heat that engulfs it on reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Initially integrated into the Space Shuttle by Rockwell International, production was transferred to Hi-Temp Insulation Inc. in 1974. Over the years, Hi-Temp has created many new technologies to meet the requirements of the Space Shuttle program. This expertise is also used commercially, including insulation blankets to cover aircrafts parts, fire barrier material to protect aircraft engine cowlings and aircraft rescue fire fighter suits. A Fire Protection Division has also been established, offering the first suit designed exclusively by and for aircraft rescue fire fighters. Hi-Temp is a supplier to the Los Angeles City Fire Department as well as other major U.S. civil and military fire departments.

  5. Technological elixir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-07-01

    In a short article, the aim of Pilot (formerly the Oil and Gas Industry Task Force) is discussed with respect to extending the productive life of the North Sea. The head of Pilot is the Industry Facilitator MD David Ellix and he believes that the new technology will restore the North Sea to its former level of productivity. The problems, and how they are to be addressed, are discussed.

  6. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  8. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  9. Biohydrometallurgical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.; Wey, J.E.; Lakshmanan, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, August 22-25, 1993, is ''Biohydrometallurgy: An Industry Matures.'' This is a developing technology which made important contributions to the minerals industry. Biohydrometallurgical technology was first introduced into the copper industry and subsequently to the uranium industry for the production of metal values from low-grade mineral resources. Currently, biotechnology has advanced a step further. It is now commercially applied for the treatment of high-grade refractory gold ores in aerated stirred reactors to liberate precious metals for cyanidation. In addition, the industrial applications of biotechnology involve bioenhanced tertiary oil recovery processes, which contribute to an increase in oil production from previously exhausted wells. Furthermore, many bioremediation technologies are being developed for the removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated soils and aqueous mining and industrial effluents. This volume contains papers selected for publication which are predominantly dealing with subjects related to laboratory and industrial scale bioleaching of base and precious metals, biocorrosion phenomena, diverse bioreduction processes and electrochemical reactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  11. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Technology: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris M

    2003-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  12. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmuller, R.; Giselbrecht, S.; Escalante-Marun, M.; Groenendijk, M.; Papenburg, B.; Rivron, N.; Unadkat, H.; Saile, V.; Subramaniam, V.; Berg, A. van den; Blitterswijk, C. Van; Wessling, M.; Boer, J. den; Stamatialis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  13. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmüller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Groenendijk, Max; Papenburg, Bernke; Rivron, Nicolas; Unadkat, Hemant; Saile, Volker; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Albert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Wessling, Matthias; Boer, Jan de; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  14. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  15. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  16. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  17. Surface engineering and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of a Conference organised jointly by The Institute of Metals and The Centre for Exploitation of Science and Technology (CEST). It sets out to review this role and point the way to the future by collecting together a series of invited papers written by noted authorities in their fields. The opening review by CEST highlights the economic and industrial importance of Surface Engineering and is followed by a group of four articles devoted to specific branches of industry. Several technical papers then describe various aspects of the development of heat treatment over the last twenty-five years. These are followed by papers describing advances made possible by new technologies such as plasma, laser and ion beam. A separate abstract has been prepared for a paper on materials aspects of ion beam technology. (author)

  18. PIGMI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The accelerator technologies relevant to the design of a medically practical pion generator for medical irradiations (PIGMI) have been identified and developed. A base-case design for PIGMI is presented here. The accelerator portion of the PIGMI facility consists of an injector, an rf quadrupole linac structure, a drift-tube linac structure, a coupled-cavity linac structure, 1 440-MHz rf system, six 1320-MHz rf systems, and a control and instrumentation system. Each of these components is described in some detail. A 100-μA, 650-MeV proton beam is anticipated. 24 figures, 2 tables

  19. Clean technologies: methods for minimizing the releases and choice of the effluents valorization processes. Application to metal workshops; Technologies propres: methodes de minimisation des rejets et de choix des procedes de valorisation des effluents. Application aux ateliers de traitement de surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforest, V.

    1999-12-10

    Currently, the essential part of the money invested by the industrialist is for the water treatment. In France, most of the 20 billions francs per year devoted to the water treatment is used for the industrial activity. The global management of effluents favour the integration of clean technologies (optimization, change and modification of the production process) in order to reduce the pollution problem at its source. Our study aims at the introduction of clean technologies in the metal workshops (consumer and generator of water and chemicals) by the development of two data management methods, which lead to two decision support systems. The aim of the first one is to minimize both the water consumption and the wastewater disposal by optimizing the production process (optimum yield and efficiency of the rinsing baths). The second one concerns the choice of valorization techniques considering the valorization objectives, the effluents characteristics and the parameters limiting the use of the techniques. Our approach fits into a global management method for the metal finishing industry wastewater. Its aim is to limit the quantity of wastewater generated, to valorize effluents and by this way to develop the clean technologies.

  20. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  1. Challenges in realizing ultraflat materials surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yatsui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraflat surface substrates are required to achieve an optimal performance of future optical, electronic, or optoelectronic devices for various applications, because such surfaces reduce the scattering loss of photons, electrons, or both at the surfaces and interfaces. In this paper, we review recent progress toward the realization of ultraflat materials surfaces. First, we review the development of surface-flattening techniques. Second, we briefly review the dressed photon–phonon (DPP, a nanometric quasiparticle that describes the coupled state of a photon, an electron, and a multimode-coherent phonon. Then, we review several recent developments based on DPP-photochemical etching and desorption processes, which have resulted in angstrom-scale flat surfaces. To confirm that the superior flatness of these surfaces that originated from the DPP process, we also review a simplified mathematical model that describes the scale-dependent effects of optical near-fields. Finally, we present the future outlook for these technologies.

  2. Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an

  3. Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Wearable technology projects, to be useful, in the future, must be seamlessly integrated with the Flight Deck of the Future (F.F). The lab contains mockups of space vehicle cockpits, habitat living quarters, and workstations equipped with novel user interfaces. The Flight Deck of the Future is one element of the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) facility, which, to a large extent, manages the F.F network and data systems. To date, integration with the Flight Deck of the Future has been limited by a lack of tools and understanding of the Flight Deck of the Future data handling systems. To remedy this problem it will be necessary to learn how data is managed in the Flight Deck of the Future and to develop tools or interfaces that enable easy integration of WEAR Lab and EV3 products into the Flight Deck of the Future mockups. This capability is critical to future prototype integration, evaluation, and demonstration. This will provide the ability for WEAR Lab products, EV3 human interface prototypes, and technologies from other JSC organizations to be evaluated and tested while in the Flight Deck of the Future. All WEAR Lab products must be integrated with the interface that will connect them to the Flight Deck of the Future. The WEAR Lab products will primarily be programmed in Arduino. Arduino will be used for the development of wearable controls and a tactile communication garment. Arduino will also be used in creating wearable methane detection and warning system.

  4. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  5. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  8. Superconductivity in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1976-01-01

    Physics, especially high energy physics and solid state physics was the first area in which superconducting magnets were used but in the long run, the most extensive application of superconductivity will probably be in energy technology. Superconducting power transmission cables, magnets for energy conversion in superconducting electrical machines, MHD-generators and fusion reactors and magnets for energy storage are being investigated. Magnets for fusion reactors will have particularly large physical dimensions, which means that much development effort is still needed, for there is no economic alternative. Superconducting surfaces in radio frequency cavities can give Q-values up to a factor of 10 6 higher than those of conventional resonators. Particle accelerators are the important application. And for telecommunication, simple coaxial superconducting radio frequency cables seem promising. The tunnel effect in superconducting junctions is now being developed commercially for sensitive magnetometers and may soon possibly feature in the memory cells of computer devices. Hence superconductivity can play an important role in the technological world, solving physical and technological problems and showing economic advantages as compared with possible conventional techniques, bearing also in mind the importance of reliability and safety. (author)

  9. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  10. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Surface chemistry and tribology of MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic length scale and high surface-to-volume ratio, characteristic of microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS), dictate that surface properties are of paramount importance. This review deals with the effects of surface chemical treatments on tribological properties (adhesion, friction, and wear) of MEMS devices. After a brief review of materials and processes that are utilized in MEMS technology, the relevant tribological and chemical issues are discussed. Various MEMS microinstruments are discussed, which are commonly employed to perform adhesion, friction, and wear measurements. The effects of different surface treatments on the reported tribological properties are discussed.

  12. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible.

  14. Electrochemical cleaning of Sv-08G2S wire surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.I.; Degtyarev, V.G.; Novikov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of industrial tests of the Sv-08G2S wire with different state of surface fwith technological lubrication, after mechanical cleaning, with electrochemically cleaned surface) are presented. Advantages of welding-technological properties of the wire with electroe chemically cleaned surface are shown. An operation principle of the electrochemical cleaning facility is described. A brief specf ification f of the facility is given [ru

  15. Technology round and management of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tae

    1994-04-01

    This book deals with beginning of technology round with background of it, change of scientific technique paradigm with economy, management and policy, change of international political environment globalization of technical and economic environment, formation of strategic alliance, intensifying regionalism, new GATT system, UR and technology round, new international technique regulation and technology round of OECD, feature and meaning of technology round, assignment and scientific technique of Korea, past and present of scientific technology in Korea, correspondence for technology round.

  16. Mining Pribram in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Geomechanics session of the Symposium ''Mining Pribram in Science and Technology'' held from October 15 to 20, 1984 heard a total of 18 papers dealing with the effects of exploitation on the stability of the surrounding massif and surface, the protection of surface and deep mines, geophysical surveying, the measurement of deformations caUsed by undermining, the mathematical modelling of surface deformation and various measuring methods and methods of interpreting measured results. 4 papers are included into INIS. (B.S.)

  17. A prototype methodology combining surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization protein chip technology and artificial neural network algorithms to predict the chemoresponsiveness of breast cancer cell lines exposed to Paclitaxel and Doxorubicin under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahid; Ball, Graham; Hornbuckle, Jo; Holding, Finn; Carmichael, James; Ellis, Ian; Ali, Selman; Li, Geng; McArdle, Stephanie; Creaser, Colin; Rees, Robert

    2003-09-01

    An ability to predict the likelihood of cellular response towards particular chemotherapeutic agents based upon protein expression patterns could facilitate the identification of biological molecules with previously undefined roles in the process of chemoresistance/chemosensitivity, and if robust enough these patterns might also be exploited towards the development of novel predictive assays. To ascertain whether proteomic based molecular profiling in conjunction with artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms could be applied towards the specific recognition of phenotypic patterns between either control or drug treated and chemosensitive or chemoresistant cellular populations, a combined approach involving MALDI-TOF matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, Ciphergen protein chip technology and ANN algorithms have been applied to specifically identify proteomic 'fingerprints' indicative of treatment regimen for chemosensitive (MCF-7, T47D) and chemoresistant (MCF-7/ADR) breast cancer cell lines following exposure to Doxorubicin or Paclitaxel. The results indicate that proteomic patterns can be identified by ANN algorithms to correctly assign 'class' for treatment regimen (e.g. control/drug treated or chemosensitive/chemoresistant) with a high degree of accuracy using boot-strap statistical validation techniques and that biomarker ion patterns indicative of response/non-response phenotypes are associated with MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells exposed to Doxorubicin. We have also examined the predictive capability of this approach towards MCF-7 and T47D cells to ascertain whether prediction could be made based upon treatment regimen irrespective of cell lineage. Models were identified that could correctly assign class (control or Paclitaxel treatment) for 35/38 samples of an independent dataset. A similar level of predictive capability was also found (> 92%; n = 28) when proteomic patterns derived from the drug resistant cell line MCF-7

  18. Biohydrometallurgical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.; Apel, M.L.; Brierley, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium (IBS) held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, August 22--25, 1993, is ''Biohydrometallurgy: An Industry Matures''. This is a developing technology which made important contributions to the minerals industry. The IBS-93 is focused on recent advances achieved in fundamental and applied aspects of research and development of biotechnologies applied to mineral domains. The papers presented at the Symposium are grouped together in two volumes, which are the following: this volume contains papers selected for publication which are predominantly dealing with subjects related to laboratory and industrial scale bioleaching of base and precious metals, biocorrosion phenomena, diverse bioreduction processes and electrochemical reactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  19. Robot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean; Coiffet, Philippe.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperation is concerned with the exploration and exploitation of of spaces which do not allow, because of their inaccessibility or hostility, direct access to man. This volume (Parts 2, 3 and 4) covers the contribution of computer science and automatic control to this technology. Part 2 includes a description of teleoperation systems followed by chapters on the operator substitution function by computer feedback to the operator. Part 3 has chapters on performance evaluation of teleoperation systems and the human operator in the teleoperation system. Part 4 is about applications of teleoperation in the nuclear industry, underwater, in space, in medicine, in industry and in security and civil protection. The nuclear applications include research and pilot facilities, reactor operation and maintenance, reactor decommissioning and dismantling and in emergencies, for example following a reactor accident. (U.K.)

  20. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, A.C. [Demand Data Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper addressed the issue of how the petroleum industry can prepare itself with regards to the imminent changes in communication mechanisms as the Internet and World-Wide-Web are being accepted as the norm for all technical and scientific information services. In particular, the paper focused on new technologies for data acquisition, well site monitoring and data analysis where information is gathered from a remote site to the office. The paper also reviewed modeling concepts which show that secure and dependable data communications can disseminate information to personnel within an organization to make informed decisions and reduce response time. The topic is particularly relevant to the petroleum industry as fluctuations in oil and gas pricing, global competition, environmental policy, and government monetary and fiscal policy have forced companies to change the way they conduct business. Security issues associated with data communication were also addressed. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  2. 10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  3. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  4. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  5. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  6. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  7. Vacuum and ultravacuum physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bello, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum technology has enormous impact on human life in many aspects and fields, such as metallurgy, material development and production, food and electronic industry, microelectronics, device fabrication, physics, materials science, space science, engineering, chemistry, technology of low temperature, pharmaceutical industry, and biology. All decorative coatings used in jewelries and various daily products—including shiny decorative papers, the surface finish of watches, and light fixtures—are made using vacuum technological processes. Vacuum analytical techniques and vacuum technologies are pillars of the technological processes, material synthesis, deposition, and material analyses—all of which are used in the development of novel materials, increasing the value of industrial products, controlling the technological processes, and ensuring the high product quality. Based on physical models and calculated examples, the book provides a deeper look inside the vacuum physics and technology.

  8. Study of Membrane Reflector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, K.; Hedgepeth, J.

    1979-01-01

    Very large reflective surfaces are required by future spacecraft for such purposes as solar energy collection, antenna surfaces, thermal control, attitude and orbit control with solar pressure, and solar sailing. The performance benefits in large membrane reflector systems, which may be derived from an advancement of this film and related structures technology, are identified and qualified. The results of the study are reported and summarized. Detailed technical discussions of various aspects of the study are included in several separate technical notes which are referenced.

  9. How Technology Teachers Understand Technological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Per

    2014-01-01

    Swedish technology teachers' views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers' understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack…

  10. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  11. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  12. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  13. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  14. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  15. Overview of surface study of fusion research in universities linkage organization, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Akira; Kamada, Kohji; Yamashina, Toshiro.

    1981-02-01

    Overview of surface material developments for fusion devices in university linkage organization has been described. Including subjects are surface properties investigations, surface diagnostics, coating technologies tritium related surface problems and permeation studies. Because surface material investigations are wide spread subjects, necessities of problem definitions from plasma physics side were recognized. (author)

  16. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  17. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  18. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  19. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  20. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  1. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  2. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  3. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  4. Upstream technology - onshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, H.

    1998-01-01

    Ways in which the onshore petroleum industry can meet the challenges of technological development in the new century to allow the industry to operate in a sustainable fashion were discussed. Advances in the areas of emissions control, environment protection, production, process automation and in situ heavy oil production have been mentioned as the most important guarantors of sustainable development. Ongoing work to combat emissions includes: (1) electricity from flare gas, (2) flare performance, (3) waste gas injection, (4) zero gas emissions equipment for wells, and (5) enhanced coalbed methane recovery. From the vantage point of improving environmental performance, efforts to minimize surface disturbance, to treat drilling wastes, and to remediate sites with native plants have shown good results. Technology developments in production include: (1) downhole gas/water separation and downhole oil/water separation, (2) water coning control, and (3) pipelines. The most significant advances in automation are the increased use of SCADA monitoring systems and pump off controllers. The two most notable developments in the in situ heavy oil exploitation area are the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process and its variant, the Vapex process. The most successful pilot to date has been the AOSTRA Underground Test Facility project in Athabasca. Cooperative research in numerical simulations, tomographic imaging, carbon dioxide, solvent and steam experiments and methane injection work have been cited as the most promising among the collaborative projects promoted by the Canadian Oilsands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD)

  5. Acoustic Separation Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Ahrens; Tim Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream

  6. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  7. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  8. RSP Tooling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-20

    RSP Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The general concept involves converting a mold design described by a CAD file to a tooling master using a suitable rapid prototyping (RP) technology such as stereolithography. A pattern transfer is made to a castable ceramic, typically alumina or fused silica (Figure 1). This is followed by spray forming a thick deposit of a tooling alloy on the pattern to capture the desired shape, surface texture, and detail. The resultant metal block is cooled to room temperature and separated from the pattern. The deposit's exterior walls are machined square, allowing it to be used as an insert in a standard mold base. The overall turnaround time for tooling is about 3 to 5 days, starting with a master. Molds and dies produced in this way have been used in high volume production runs in plastic injection molding and die casting. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Grupo Vitro has been established to evaluate the feasibility of using RSP Tooling technology for producing molds and dies of interest to Vitro. This report summarizes results from Phase I of this agreement, and describes work scope and budget for Phase I1 activities. The main objective in Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling method to produce molds for the manufacture of glass and other components of interest to Vitro. This objective was successfully achieved.

  9. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  10. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which...

  11. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...

  12. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  13. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  14. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  15. Surface exploration geophysics applied to the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of a permanent lunar base, the desire to explore the lunar near-surface for both scientific and economic purposes will arise. Applications of exploration geophysical methods to the earth's subsurface are highly developed. This paper briefly addresses some aspects of applying this technology to near surface lunar exploration. It is noted that both the manner of application of some techniques, as well as their traditional hierarchy as assigned on earth, should be altered for lunar exploration. In particular, electromagnetic techniques may replace seismic techniques as the primary tool for evaluating near-surface structure

  16. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  17. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  18. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  19. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  20. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO's areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation's largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST's Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management