WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologies analyzing land-use

  1. Land use and coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve and the Hanford National Environmental Research Park were established to promote the use of the Hanford Site for ecological research, especially studies related to energy technologies and their potential for environmental impacts. Coal is currently regarded as the most dependable interim source of energy in the United States. To meet expected demands, coal needs to be mined in large quantities and may be mined predominantly in locations of sparse precipitation. Often the most economical way to extract coal is through surface mining. It is expected that following coal extraction the pits will be filled with overburden, graded to approximate original contour, native topsoil applied to prescribed depths and planted with climatically adapted herbs, shrubs or trees. Because primary productivity in dry regions is characteristically low, it is realistic to expect, if the above procedure is followed, that the revegetated surfaces will also produce little phytomass in the years following restoration. Appropriate data are needed for accurate estimation of the economic feasibility of a particular restoration practice or its alternative. Research programs are discussed briefly

  2. Effects of Policy and Technological Change on Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Mary Clare. Ahearn

    2004-01-01

    Land use in the United States is dynamic, as discussed in Chapter 2, with millions of acres of Land shifting uses each year. Many of these land-use changes are the result of market forces in an economy affected by modem technology and policy choices. Changes in land use are the result of choices inade by individuals, corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and...

  3. Urban Dynamics: Analyzing Land Use Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William; Richards, Lora R.; Buchanan, Janis T.; Wegener, Whitney R.

    2000-01-01

    In FY99, the Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) staff at Ames continued managing the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Urban Dynamics Research program, which has mapping and analysis activities at five USGS mapping centers. Historic land use reconstruction work continued while activities in geographic analysis and modeling were expanded. Retrospective geographic information system (GIS) development - the spatial reconstruction of a region's urban land-use history - focused on the Detroit River Corridor, California's Central Valley, and the city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

  4. Analyzing the Impacts of Land Use Land Change on Near Shore Coastal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R. D.; Ta, E.; Boyle, C.; Alwood, B.

    2017-12-01

    The natural beauty of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) has continued to attract visitors and residents, which overtime has increased human development and impact. The resulting land use change increases sediment loads and the flow of pollutants into surrounding nearshore environments such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Compounded with regional climate-related processes such as rising ocean temperatures and acidification, future land-use change poses a formidable threat to coral reefs and other susceptible marine environments. Without a healthy environment, the USVI economy also becomes endangered because it is mainly supported by tourism and recreation. Using Google Earth Engine, we created a tool to composite yearly Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and Sentinel-2 MSI images identify changes from 1985 to present day. Using these land cover change maps we then analyzed trends at a watershed scale using hydrological data. We found there is a spatial relationship between development intensity and the health of coral reefs. Our work supports the existing knowledge of the link between land use and coastal ecosystem health.

  5. A multi-scale, multi-model approach for analyzing the future dynamics of European land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Eickhout, B.; Meijl, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Europe¿s rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian production structure are likely to have a large impact on

  6. Effect of Technology Driven Agricultural Land Use Change on Regional Hydroclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R. W.; Sines, T. R.; Groisman, P. Y.; Gelder, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    During the mid-20th century motorized equipment replaced work animals in the central U.S. This led to a 95% decrease in farmland for producing oats, which had mostly been used as feed for horses. Much of this land was converted to more profitable crops such as soybeans and maize. The same period also saw a strong shift of the central U.S. precipitation intensity spectrum toward heavier events. Was this a coincidence, or is there a causal relationship? We investigate possible connections between this technology-driven land use change and regional hydroclimate by performing multi-decadal simulations over the central U.S. using the WRF-ARW regional climate model coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5). Cropland planted in maize, soybean, winter wheat, small grains (which includes oats and spring wheat), and other C3 and C4 crops were reconstructed on a decade by decade basis from 1940-2010 using county-level crop data. These crop distributions were used as land surface boundary conditions for two multi-decadal regional climate simulations, one with 1940s land use and another with modern (circa 2010) land use. Modern land use produced a shift in the simulated daily precipitation intensity spectrum toward heavy events, with higher frequencies of heavy precipitation amounts and lower frequencies of light amounts compared to 1940s land use. The results suggest that replacement of work animals by mechanized transport led to land use changes that produced about 10-30% of the observed trend toward more intense precipitation over the central United States. We therefore recommend that policy- and technology-driven changes in crop type be taken into account when projecting future climate and water resources.

  7. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Qiong; Li, Hongqing; Liu, Xusheng; Niu, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wang, Qiong

    2008-09-03

    Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively); isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%); rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%); dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively); forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively); grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively). Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees) was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  8. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively; isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%; rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%; dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively; forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively; grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively. Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  9. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Selçuk

    2008-10-01

    Mapping land use/land cover (LULC) changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities), negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel). In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude) by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2%) (especially in tea gardens), urban (117%), pasture (-72.8%) and forestry (-12.8%) areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  10. Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Reis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping land use/land cover (LULC changes at regional scales is essential for a wide range of applications, including landslide, erosion, land planning, global warming etc. LULC alterations (based especially on human activities, negatively effect the patterns of climate, the patterns of natural hazard and socio-economic dynamics in global and local scale. In this study, LULC changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey. For this purpose, firstly supervised classification technique is applied to Landsat images acquired in 1976 and 2000. Image Classification of six reflective bands of two Landsat images is carried out by using maximum likelihood method with the aid of ground truth data obtained from aerial images dated 1973 and 2002. The second part focused on land use land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel. In third part of the study, the land cover changes are analyzed according to the topographic structure (slope and altitude by using GIS functions. The results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred in agricultural (36.2% (especially in tea gardens, urban (117%, pasture (-72.8% and forestry (-12.8% areas has been experienced in the region between 1976 and 2000. It was seen that the LULC changes were mostly occurred in coastal areas and in areas having low slope values.

  11. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  12. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  13. Analyzing the effect of biofuel expansion on land use in major producing countries: evidence of increased multiple cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Dixon, J.; Keulen, van H.; Quist-Wessel, P.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates on impacts of biofuel production often use models with limited ability to incorporate changes in land use, notably cropping intensity. This review studies biofuel expansion between 2000 and 2010 in Brazil, the USA, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Mozambique, South Africa plus 27 EU member

  14. Utilization of multi-temporal landsat imagery for analyzing land Use/Cover changes and urban expansion of Nakhon Rachasima City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prach Sangthongwattanakul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of important causes to climate change is land use/ land cover changes due to their important role in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which directly relate to a solution to the problem of global warming. Analysis of land use/ land cover changes is thus very important for developing countries such as Thailand, especially to study the trend of land use/land cover changes that can be used for investigation of theirs driving forces. In addition, during these four decades, land use/cover in Nakhon Ratchasima city, a metropolitan city in Northeastern Thailand, has been rapidly changes because of rapid economical growth together with its location situated in the central of Northeastern Thailand. This study aims to determine land use/cover changes pattern of the Nakhon Ratchasima city. We employed unsupervised classification approach coupled with GIS analyses was employed to generate land use/cover maps for 1972, 2002 and 2013 with four classes; vegetated areas, settlement areas, barelands and water resoures. The results indicate that urban areas have increased based on economic and population growth as well as road network extension and consequently the urban growth affected environmental conditions. In the study, with multi-temporal Landsat data, we successfully used remote sensing techniques together with information technology as a tool for effectively monitoring urban growth.

  15. Linking crop structure, throughfall, soil surface conditions, runoff and soil detachment: 10 land uses analyzed in Northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Valentin, Christian; Sounyafong, Phabvilay; de Rouw, Anneke; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Silvera, Norbert; Pierret, Alain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    In Montane Southeast Asia, deforestation and unsuitable combinations of crops and agricultural practices degrade soils at an unprecedented rate. Typically, smallholder farmers gain income from "available" land by replacing fallow or secondary forest by perennial crops. We aimed to understand how these practices increase or reduce soil erosion. Ten land uses were monitored in Northern Laos during the 2015 monsoon, using local farmers' fields. Experiments included plots of the conventional system (food crops and fallow), and land uses corresponding to new market opportunities (e.g. commercial tree plantations). Land uses were characterized by measuring plant cover and plant mean height per vegetation layer. Recorded meteorological variables included rainfall intensity, throughfall amount, throughfall kinetic energy (TKE), and raindrop size. Runoff coefficient, soil loss, and the percentage areas of soil surface types (free aggregates and gravel; crusts; macro-faunal, vegetal and pedestal features; plant litter) were derived from observations and measurements in 1-m 2 micro-plots. Relationships between these variables were explored with multiple regression analyses. Our results indicate that TKE induces soil crusting and soil loss. By reducing rainfall infiltration, crusted area enhances runoff, which removes and transports soil particles detached by splash over non-crusted areas. TKE is lower under land uses reducing the velocity of raindrops and/or preventing an increase in their size. Optimal vegetation structures combine minimum height of the lowest layer (to reduce drop velocity at ground level) and maximum coverage (to intercept the largest amount of rainfall), as exemplified by broom grass (Thysanolaena latifolia). In contrast, high canopies with large leaves will increase TKE by enlarging raindrops, as exemplified by teak trees (Tectona grandis), unless a protective understorey exists under the trees. Policies that ban the burning of multi-layered vegetation

  16. Role of Technology in Decision Making: Exploring Land-Use Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaino, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in population, climatic changes, and other environmental issues are current challenges affecting the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) decision to examine land-use trends and emphasize efficient use and reuse of limited resources. Because of global concerns involving limited natural resources, researchers recognize land-use decision…

  17. Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

  18. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  19. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael Q.; Han, Jeongwoo; Haq, Zia; Tyner, Wallace E.; Wu, May; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam 3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm 3 in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  20. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  1. 1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    "1st or 2nd generation bioethanol-impacts of technology integration & on feed production and land use" Liquid bio fuels are perceived as a means of mitigating CO2 emissions from transport and thus climate change, but much concern has been raised to the energy consumption from refining biomass...... to liquid fuels. Integrating technologies such that waste stream can be used will reduce energy consumption in the production of bioethanol from wheat. We show that the integration of bio refining and combined heat an power generation reduces process energy requirements with 30-40 % and makes bioethanol...

  2. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    summarize the information there is a mechanism of data grouping, which provides general data of the number of entries, maximum, minimum, average values for different groups of records.Results. This technology has been tested in the monitoring requirements of the services of additional professional education and the definition of the educational needs of teachers and executives of educational organizations of the Irkutsk region. The survey has involved 2,780 respondents in 36 municipalities. Creating the data model took several hours. The survey was conducted during the month.Conclusion. The proposed technology allows a short time to collect the information in relational form, and then analyze it without the need for programming with flexible assignment of the operating logic for form.

  3. PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE LAND USE AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN TWO AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the main agroecosystems, their limiting factors and adequate technological options, participatory approaches, such as community ranking, were used in a micro-hydrological basin in Central Oaxaca, Mexico. This area is characterized by small farm size (1-2 ha, low input agriculture and low standards of living. The results of a pretested survey were presented at community meetings and were subjected to discussion to rank the problems found in order of importance. Overall, the main production constraints were: low soil fertility, insect pests and plant diseases, lack of rain and soil erosion. After field evaluations of several sustainable technologies, the following was found: a organic mulching can reduce soil erosion, weeds and conserve soil moisture, b intercropped green manures with maize could be a mean to improve soil fertility while still allowing producing this staple crop, c composting of crop residues with weeds and farmyard manure was also promoted amongst the peasants, but only a few of them adopted this practice due mostly to high labor requirements and d even though it is an expensive technology, the use of floating row covers to produce tomatoes and hot peppers was quickly adopted by the peasants. It was concluded that the best way to convince the peasants to adopt a technological innovation is to show them that it works under their own circumstances.

  4. Analyzing the water budget and hydrological characteristics and responses to land use in a monsoonal climate river basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Hydrological models have been increasingly used by hydrologists and water resource managers to understand natural processes and human activities that affect watersheds. In this study, we use the physically based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to investigate the hydrological processes in the East River Basin in South China, a coastal area dominated by monsoonal climate. The SWAT model was calibrated using 8-year (1973–1980) record of the daily streamflow at the basin outlet (Boluo station), and then validated using data collected during the subsequent 8 years (1981–1988). Statistical evaluation shows that SWAT can consistently simulate the streamflow of the East River with monthly Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.93 for calibration and 0.90 for validation at the Boluo station. We analyzed the model simulations with calibrated parameters, presented the spatiotemporal distribution of the key hydrological components, and quantified their responses to different land uses. Watershed managers can use the results of this study to understand hydrological features and evaluate water resources of the East River in terms of sustainable development and effective management.

  5. Coupling an Intercalibration of Radiance-Calibrated Nighttime Light Images and Land Use/Cover Data for Modeling and Analyzing the Distribution of GDP in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatialized GDP data is important for studying the relationships between human activities and environmental changes. Rapid and accurate acquisition of these datasets are therefore a significant area of study. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS radiance-calibrated nighttime light (RC NTL images exhibit the potential for providing superior estimates for GDP spatialization, as they are not restricted by the saturated pixels which exist in nighttime stable light (NSL images. However, the drawback of light overflow is the limited accuracy of GDP estimation, and GDP data estimations based on RC NTL images cannot be directly used for temporal analysis due to a lack of on-board calibration. This study develops an intercalibration method to address the comparability problem. Additionally, NDVI images are used to reduce the light overflow effect. In this way, the secondary and tertiary industry outputs are estimated by using intercalibrated RC NTL images. Primary industry production is estimated by using land use/cover data. Ultimately, four 1 km gridded GDP maps of Guangdong for 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2010 are generated. The verification results of the proposed intercalibration method demonstrate that this method is reasonable and can be effectively implemented. These maps can be used to analyze the distribution and spatiotemporal changes of GDP density in Guangdong.

  6. The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

  7. Current Situation of Land Use in Three-Gorges Reservoir Region in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Fuhai; ZHOU, Qigang; YANG, Fei; YANG, Pengwu; WANG, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Land is rare natural resource. Production and construction of all sectors in a region must be based on land. Thus, overall research and analysis on current situation of land use can reveal scope, depth and reasonableness of land use, is helpful for analyzing internal mechanism land use change, and can reflect production scale, level and characteristics, and also can provide basis for optimization and adjustment of land use structure. Based on RS and GIS technologies, with the aid of TM image ...

  8. Location and uptake: integrated household and GIS analysis of technology adoption and land use, with application to smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, S.J.; Baltenweck, Isabelle; Waithaka, M.M.; deWolff, T.; Njoroge, L.

    2002-01-01

    GIS-derived measures of location and space have increasingly been used in models of land use and ecology. However, they have made few inroads into the literature on technology adoption in developing countries, which continues to rely mainly on survey-derived information. Location, with all its dimensions of market access, demographics and agro-climate, nevertheless remains key to understanding potential for technology use. The measures oflocation typically used in the adoption literature, suc...

  9. Linking geomorphologic knowledge, RS and GIS techniques for analyzing land cover and land use change: a multitemporal study in the Cointzio watershed, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Mendoza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that changes in land cover and land use (LCLU are relevant to current local and global changes that are directly linked with food security, human health, urbanization, biodiversity, trans-border migration, environmental refuges, water and soil quality, runoff and sedimentation rates, and other processes. This paper examines LCLU change processes within the Cointzio watershed (Central Mexico. The analysis covers a 28-year time period from 1975 to 2003. LCLU changes were deduced from multi-temporal remote sensing analyses (1975, 1986, 1996, 2000 and 2003. Nearly all of the LCLU changes experienced in the Cointzio watershed occurred during the 1986-1996 period. Half of the 665 km2 of the watershed have changed during this period, in what corresponds to a ten-fold increase in the rate of change as compared to the 1975-1986 and 1996-2003 periods. These massive changes are probably related to the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA of 1986, which limited the transit of undocumented Mexican workers to the United States of America. The methodology applied in this research constitutes a low-cost alternative for evaluating the impact of LCLU change in watersheds. The magnitude of land use change differed during the periods of analyses in the watershed, functional zones and geoforms. The methodological approach applied in this analysis integrates standard procedures to evaluate land cover and land use change in watersheds. Due to the practical value of the results, the data and information generated during the analysis have been made available to local authorities.

  10. A GIS technology and method to assess environmental problems from land use/cover changes: Conakry, Coyah and Dubreka region case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sylla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of investigating the land use/cover surrounding Conakry city and its two neighboring cities from the past to the present periods which are herein after referred to as this “region” and the impact of numerous changes during that time. These changes have become a major concern for the Guinean government and scientific community. Using map interpretation with integration of remote sensing, GIS technology and a GIS method we investigated the land use/cover and a population dynamism model with the aims of promoting a sustainable recovery and future judicious utilization. We found out that these three cities are on the verge of being unified, as a result of the expansion of urban residential areas and the changing economic realities causing significant influences on this land use/cover change. The pattern of land cover 59 years ago presented a landscape relatively pristine, while that in the present period presents a landscape that is markedly in a degrading decline. During the past 59 years, land use/cover has been influenced by key factors that revolve around socio-economic development, climatic patterns, topography manipulation, and policy implementation influences. The level of degradation of the land use/cover has increased and will oblige the political, scientific and local communities to take note of the environmental changes and set up urgent, rigorous and coherent policies for the rational development and management of the land use/cover resources of this region. That can be part of a model for other countries to reclaim the past sustainable environment.

  11. Structural Agricultural Land Use Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Fezzi, Carlo; Bateman, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a structural econometric model of agricultural land use and production based on the joint multi-output technology representation introduced by Chambers and Just (1989). Starting from a flexible specification of the farm profit function we derive land use allocation, input applications, crops yield and livestock number equations in a joint and theoretically consistent framework. We present an empirical application using fine-scale spatial data covering the entirety of Engla...

  12. Ecosystems and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

    Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.

  13. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  14. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.

    1994-01-01

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term open-quotes GIS,close quotes, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a open-quotes black boxclose quotes shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options

  15. An analysis of effect of land use change on river flow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yuting; Yang, Xinyue; Wang, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Land use scenario analysis, SWAT model, flow characteristic indices and flow variability technology were used to analyze the effect of land use quantity and location change on river flow. Results showed that river flow variation caused by land use change from forest to crop was larger than that caused by land use change from forest to grass; Land use change neither from upstream to downstream nor from downstream to upstream had little effect on annual average discharge and maximum annual average discharge. But it had obvious effect on maximum daily discharge; Land use change which occurred in upstream could lead to producing larger magnitude flood more easily; Land use change from forest to crop or grass could increase the number of large magnitude floods and their total duration. And it also could increase the number of small magnitude floods but decrease their duration.

  16. Land Use Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This study examines current and emerging issues relating to federal involvement in the land use planning, management, and control area and represents the perspective used to organize General Accounting Office (GAO) audit efforts. (Author)

  17. Conceptualizing distal drivers in land use competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems...... as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly distal nature of driving forces behind land use practices. We then expand the notion of distal as mainly a measure of Euclidian space to include temporal, social, and institutional dimensions. This understanding of distal widens our analytical scope...... for the analysis of land use competition as a distributed process to consider the role of knowledge and power, technology, and different temporalities within a relational or systemic analysis of practices of land use competition. We conclude by pointing toward the historical and social contingency of land use...

  18. Land use and land cover change detection at Mirzapur Union of Gazipur District of Bangladesh using remote sensing and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesmin, R; Mohiuddin, A S M; Uddin, M J; Shahid, M A

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted with a view to identify and quantify the changes in land use and land cover occurred during the last 20 years at Mirzapur Union of Gazipur district of Bangladesh using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Two LANDSAT TM images of 1989 and 2009 with 30mx30m spatial resolution were used to determine the temporal land cover changes. Subsequently, a ground verification was done in the study site. The study revealed that forest cover was decreased by 20.29 % and settlement area was found to increase by 28.64% and water bodies was decreased by 6.25 %. In the same period of time, bare land was found to increase by 20.91 % due to the effect of clearing of forest area which is not replanted again. A lot of new infrastructures has been built by this time. Population pressure becomes double enhancing the deforestation of Sal (Shorea robusta). Most prominent features are the emergence of brick fields and various industries. Thus, the above study demonstrated the usefulness of RS and GIS technology regarding resource management and urban planning

  19. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  20. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  1. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  2. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  3. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10 6 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10 6 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10 6 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  4. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  5. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  6. Change of land use in Beijing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Yuhuan; He, Ting

    2004-10-01

    This paper analyzed major characteristics of land use changes in the Beijing-around region, based on TM(ETM) in 1991 and 2002. On the basis of that, we studied the differences in districts of land use change on county area scale, using intensity, state and trend parameters of land use change. In addition, we investigated the effects of land use change on eco-environment in this region. We found that the area of arable land decreased greatly, with a gradually increasing trend from southeast to northwest from 1991 to 2002. On the other hand, the area of forested land and grassland increased, especially in the northwestern area. The total area of sandy land increased, with a gradually decreasing trend from east to west. Land use change was characterized by low intensity, and the area of net change in each kind type of land use was much more for the most counties in the studied region. From south and north to middle and east to west, the intensity of land use change increased gradually. The degree of single-direction interchange between different land use types decreased gradually from west to east. In recent 10 yr, quality and productivity of land was decreased increasingly in this region. But with the construction of various forest zones by reversing arable land to grassland and forest land, the descent dust amount per yr in Beijing suburban decreased with increase of the area of grassland and forestry land in the Beijing-around region.

  7. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options evaluation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated.

  8. Financial options methodology for analyzing investments in new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenning, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of investments in longer term research and development in emerging technologies, because of the nature of such subjects, must address inherent uncertainties. Most notably, future cash flow forecasts include substantial uncertainties. Conventional present value methodology, when applied to emerging technologies severely penalizes cash flow forecasts, and strategic investment opportunities are at risk of being neglected. Use of options valuation methodology adapted from the financial arena has been introduced as having applicability in such technology evaluations. Indeed, characteristics of superconducting magnetic energy storage technology suggest that it is a candidate for the use of options methodology when investment decisions are being contemplated

  9. An ISM approach for analyzing the factors in technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology transfer, from research and technology organizations (RTOs toward local industries, is considered as one of important and significant strategies for countries' industrial development. In addition to recover the enormous costs of research and development for RTOs, successful technology transfer from RTOs toward local firms forms technological foundations and develops the ability to enhance the competitiveness of firms. Better understanding of factors influencing process of technology transfer helps RTOs and local firms prioritize and manage their resources in an effective and efficient way to maximize the success of technology transfer. This paper aims to identify important effective factors in technology transfer from Iranian RTOs and provides a comprehensive model, which indicate the interactions of these factors. In this regard, first, research background is reviewed and Cummings and Teng’s model (2003 [Cummings, J. L., & Teng, B.-S. (2003. Transferring R&D knowledge: The key factors affecting knowledge transfer success. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20(1-2, 39-68.] was selected as the basic model in this study and it was modified through suggesting new factors identified from literature of inter-organizational knowledge and technology transfer and finally a Delphi method was applied for validation of modified model. Then, research conducted used Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM to evaluate the relationship between the factors of final proposed model. Results indicate that there were twelve factors influencing on technology transfer process from Iranian RTOs to local firms and also the intensity of absorption capability in transferee could influence on the intensity of desorption capability in transferor.

  10. Land use and land cover change based on historical space-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yongjing

    2016-09-01

    Land use and cover change is a leading edge topic in the current research field of global environmental changes and case study of typical areas is an important approach understanding global environmental changes. Taking the Qiantang River (Zhejiang, China) as an example, this study explores automatic classification of land use using remote sensing technology and analyzes historical space-time change by remote sensing monitoring. This study combines spectral angle mapping (SAM) with multi-source information and creates a convenient and efficient high-precision land use computer automatic classification method which meets the application requirements and is suitable for complex landform of the studied area. This work analyzes the histological space-time characteristics of land use and cover change in the Qiantang River basin in 2001, 2007 and 2014, in order to (i) verify the feasibility of studying land use change with remote sensing technology, (ii) accurately understand the change of land use and cover as well as historical space-time evolution trend, (iii) provide a realistic basis for the sustainable development of the Qiantang River basin and (iv) provide a strong information support and new research method for optimizing the Qiantang River land use structure and achieving optimal allocation of land resources and scientific management.

  11. Analyzing the Diffusion of Chinese Rice Farming Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2006, the Chinese government pledged to build 10 agro-technology demonstration centres across Africa. Since then, the figure has increased to 25 and it will likely increase again in the future. One of the main goals of the demonstration centres is to ...

  12. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  13. Investigation of environmental indices from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite. [environmental trends in land use water quality, and air quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Ward, E. A.; Elliott, J. C.; Friedman, E. J.; Riley, E. L.; Stryker, S.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Land use change, water quality, and air quality indices have been calculated from analysis of ERTS-1 multispectral scanning imagery and computer compatible tapes. Specifications have been developed and discussed for an ERTS-1 environmental monitoring system which help to serve the information needs of environmental managers at the Federal, state, regional, and local level. General conclusions of the investigation are that ERTS-1 data is very useful in land use mapping and updating to 10-15 categories, and can provide an overall measure of air and water turbidity; however, more and better ground truth and possibly additional spacecraft sensors will be required if specific air and water pollutants are to be quantified from satellite data.

  14. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States); Hersman, Bill [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  15. Polarized 3He gas circulating technologies for neutron analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David W. [Xemed, LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-10-02

    We outline our project to develop a circulating polarized helium-3 system for developing of large, quasi-continuously operating neutron analyzers. The project consisted of four areas: 1) Development of robust external cavity narrowed diode laser output with spectral line width < 0.17 nm and power of 2000 W. 2) Development of large glass polarizing cells using cell surface treatments to obtain long relaxation lifetimes. 3) Refinements of the circulation system with an emphasis on gas purification and materials testing. 4) Design/fabrication of a new polarizer system. 5) Preliminary testing of the new polarizer. 1. Developed Robust High-Power Narrowed Laser The optical configuration of the laser was discussed in the proposal and will be reviewed in the body of this report. The external cavity is configured to mutually lock the wavelength of five 10-bar laser stacks. All the logistical milestones were been met and critical subsystems- laser stack manifold and power divider, external laser cavity, and output telescope- were assembled and tested at low power. Each individual bar is narrowed to ~0.05 nm; when combined the laser has a cumulative spectral width of 0.17 nm across the entire beam due to variations of the bars central wavelength by +/- 0.1 nm, which is similar to that of Volume Bragg Grating narrowed laser bars. This configuration eliminates the free-running “pedestal” that occurs in other external cavity diode lasers. The full-scale laser was completed in 2016 and was used in both the older and newer helium polarizers. This laser was operated at 75% power for periods of up to 8 hours. Once installed, the spectrum became slightly broader (~.25 nm) at full power; this is likely due to very slight misalignments that occurred during handling. 2. Developed the processes to create uniform sintered sol-gel coatings. Our work on cell development comprised: 1) Production of large GE180 cells and explore different means of cell preparation, and 2) Development of

  16. Evaluating The Land Use And Land Cover Dynamics In Borena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS was an effective approach for analyzing the direction, rate, and spatial pattern of land use change. Three land use and land cover maps were produced by analyzing remotely sensed images of Landsat satellite imageries at three time points (1972,1985,and 2003) .

  17. The Use of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technology for Monitoring Land Use and Soil Carbon Change in the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rodriguez, Linda L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Aerial photography, one of the first form of remote sensing technology, has long been an invaluable means to monitor activities and conditions at the Earth's surface. Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the use of computers in showing and manipulating spatial data. This report will present the use of geographic information systems and remote sensing technology for monitoring land use and soil carbon change in the subtropical dry forest life zone of Puerto Rico. This research included the south of Puerto Rico that belongs to the subtropical dry forest life zone. The Guanica Commonwealth Forest Biosphere Reserve and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are studied in detail, because of their location in the subtropical dry forest life zone. Aerial photography, digital multispectral imagery, soil samples, soil survey maps, field inspections, and differential global positioning system (DGPS) observations were used.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - LEAD IN DUST WIPE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY, PALINTEST, SCANNING ANALYZER , SA-5000 SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative

  19. Uncertainties in land use data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Castilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the description and assessment of uncertainties in land use data derived from Remote Sensing observations, in the context of hydrological studies. Land use is a categorical regionalised variable reporting the main socio-economic role each location has, where the role is inferred from the pattern of occupation of land. The properties of this pattern that are relevant to hydrological processes have to be known with some accuracy in order to obtain reliable results; hence, uncertainty in land use data may lead to uncertainty in model predictions. There are two main uncertainties surrounding land use data, positional and categorical. The first one is briefly addressed and the second one is explored in more depth, including the factors that influence it. We (1 argue that the conventional method used to assess categorical uncertainty, the confusion matrix, is insufficient to propagate uncertainty through distributed hydrologic models; (2 report some alternative methods to tackle this and other insufficiencies; (3 stress the role of metadata as a more reliable means to assess the degree of distrust with which these data should be used; and (4 suggest some practical recommendations.

  20. Review of Land Use and Land Cover Change research progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yue; Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Pei

    2018-02-01

    Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC) can reflect the pattern of human land use in a region, and plays an important role in space soil and water conservation. The study on the change of land use patterns in the world is of great significance to cope with global climate change and sustainable development. This paper reviews the main research progress of LUCC at home and abroad, and suggests that land use change has been shifted from land use planning and management to land use change impact and driving factors. The development of remote sensing technology provides the basis and data for LUCC with dynamic monitoring and quantitative analysis. However, there is no uniform standard for land use classification at present, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the collection and analysis of land cover data. Globeland30 is an important milestone contribution to the study of international LUCC system. More attention should be paid to the accuracy and results contrasting test of land use classification obtained by remote sensing technology.

  1. Exploring land use change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    theoretical lines of thought within the Land Change Science community. The four perspectives are system dynamics, resilience theory, a rationality perspective, and a multifunctional agriculture perspective. The thesis shows how the previous tendency to field expansion in the Sahel has been replaced by a very...... of this complementarity, rather than to identify the single best method for analyzing Sahelian land use systems. The thesis for example illuminates how system dynamics and resilience theory, on the one hand, provide attractive means for exploring system feedbacks and trajectories of change, yet, on the other hand, lack...... perceptions of land use changes became apparent, however, already in the beginning of 2000, when researchers within the Land Change Science community raised their concerns about general narratives of field expansions that were assumed to progress linearly and be solely driven by population growth. Calls...

  2. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  3. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  4. Woody plants and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxley, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of woody species in land use systems has recently gained international attention. In addition to the production of food and fuelwood, trees can maintain or improve the fertility status of the soil and conserve both soil and water. The use of multipurpose trees in land use system and the important role of trees in association with other crops is now recognized. The methods of scientifically studying such systems, and of manipulating them to improve their productivity or net utility have not been well developed. This introductory paper documents the role of woody species in agriculture, forestry and agroforestry. It outlines some of the important research needs for such systems and the role which isotopes could play in the research. (author)

  5. Land use change and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

    Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

  6. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  7. Bend case study : indirect land use and growth impacts : interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    To improve environmental analysis of indirect land use impacts of highway capacity improvements, this study analyzed the land use and growth patterns of 20 Oregon communities over 20 years. Using a Geographic Information System and aerial photos, gro...

  8. Risk-maps informing land-use planning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basta, Claudia [DIRC Sustainable Urban Areas, Section of Material Science and Sustainable Construction, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: c.basta@citg.tudelft.nl; Neuvel, Jeroen M.M. [Land Use Planning, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Postbus 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jeroen.neuvel@wur.nl; Zlatanova, Sisi [Section GISt, OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 9, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.zlatanova@otb.tudelft.nl; Ale, Ben [Safety Science Group, TBM Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2600 GA, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-06-25

    The definition of safety distances as required by Art 12 of the Seveso II Directive on dangerous substances (96/82/EC) is necessary to minimize the consequences of potential major accidents. As they affect the land-use destinations of involved areas, safety distances can be considered as risk tolerability criteria with a territorial reflection. Recent studies explored the suitability of using Geographical Information System technologies to support their elaboration and visual rendering. In particular, the elaboration of GIS 'risk-maps' has been recognized as functional to two objectives: connecting spatial planners and safety experts during decision making processes and communicating risk to non-experts audiences. In order to elaborate on these findings and to verify their reflection on European practices, the article presents the result of a comparative study between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands recent developments. Their land-use planning practices for areas falling under Seveso II requirements are explored. The role of GIS risk-maps within decisional processes is analyzed and the reflection on the transparency and accessibility of risk-information is commented. Recommendations for further developments are given.

  9. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  10. Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert T.; Noble, Ian R.; Bolin, Bert; Ravindranath, N. H.; Verardo, David J.; Dokken, David J.

    2000-07-01

    The exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere is an important factor in controlling global warming and climate change. Consequently, it is important to examine how carbon flows between different pools and how carbon stocks change in response to afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation, and other land-use activities. This IPCC Special Report is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art examination of the scientific and technical implications of carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. It also examines environmental and socioeconomic issues, conservation, sustainable resource management, and development issues in relation to carbon sequestration. The volume will be invaluable for government policymakers, business/industry analysts and officials, environmental groups, and researchers in global change, atmospheric chemistry, soil science, and economics.

  11. Scientific and methodical bases of transformation of agricultural land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolisnyk H.

    2016-05-01

    land use. Based on the concept of "transformation of agricultural land use" recommended to carry out classification of it’s types: by the result - effective, moderately effective and ineffective; by duration - short, medium and long-term; by the way impact of external and internal factors - evolution, revolutionary; within the meaning of preconditions – economic, social, environmental, political, military and others. Described stages of transformation of agricultural land use, namely: first - imbalance second - unstable and uncertain state; coexistence between forms; third - the establishment of stability and dominance of the new system; fourth - arising of equilibrium state; fifth - post-transformational. The result of of transformation of agricultural land use is the emergence of agricultural formations of market type based on various forms of ownership. In the article analyzes experience of transformation forms of ownership of land in countries such as: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, where land privatization was carried out by restitution and immediately had the opportunity to freely dispose of land. This had a positive impact on the rapid recovery of agricultural production after the establishment of a market economy. But in Ukraine the land was equally distributed among rural population, much of which has never conducted an independent business that has affected the efficiency of agricultural production. After transformation of land relations in our state occurred redistribution of lands between the categories of landowners and land users. The main land users were newly established agricultural enterprises, farms, private farms and citizens for agricultural commodity production. The specific of transformation was the concentration of agricultural land in large agricultural enterprises, which are the main producers of agricultural products and services and in fact - legal successors of collective farms and state farms with employees. Study

  12. [Study on the land use optimization based on PPI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Ting

    2012-03-01

    Land use type and managing method which is greatly influenced by human activities, is one of the most important factors of non-point pollution. Based on the collection and analysis of non-point pollution control methods and the concept of the three ecological fronts, 9 land use optimized scenarios were designed according to rationality analysis of the current land use situation in the 3 typed small watersheds in Miyun reservoir basin. Take Caojialu watershed for example to analyze and compare the influence to environment of different scenarios based on potential pollution index (PPI) and river section potential pollution index (R-PPI) and the best combination scenario was found. Land use scenario designing and comparison on basis of PPI and R-PPI could help to find the best combination scenario of land use type and managing method, to optimize space distribution and managing methods of land use in basin, to reduce soil erosion and to provide powerful support to formulation of land use planning and pollution control project.

  13. Analyzing the effects of information technology on supply chain integration: The role of ERP success mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Alimohamadian; Farshid Abdi

    2014-01-01

    This research analyzes the effects of Information Technology (IT) on Supply Chain Integration (SCI) through ERP mediator by proposing a conceptual model among these components. We also hypothesize that three constructs of IT influence on enterprise resource planning (ERP) success and one construct of ERP success influences on SCI. To clarify the relationships among the constructs, structural equation model (SEM) is conducted to examine the model fit and seven hypotheses. The data was collecte...

  14. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  15. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  16. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  17. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  18. Analyzing Influence of the Transmission Medium on Timing Signals Transmitted by Hybrid Optical Transport Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Róka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with synchronization aspects in SDH and Synchronous Ethernet timing networks utilizing optical transmission medium. First, it explains a hierarchical configuration of timing network elements, characterizes transmission features of the optical fiber, particularly its main negative influences influencing transmitted information signals. The main part is dedicated to the evaluation program created for analyzing influences of the optical transmission path on timing signals transmitted by SDH and SyncE transport technologies. At last, resultant values from the introduced evaluation program are presented and evaluated.

  19. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 1 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  20. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  1. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... field research, semi-structured interviews and household questionnaire surveys were employed. Additionally, secondary information was collected during the interviews held with key-informants at different administrative levels. Qualitative information was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative research......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  2. The quest for the perfect model: Pre World War 1. Military land use modeling of the Greater Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    the rotational system. At first the survey campaign seems to be going very well, but relative quickly did the military run into problems. The rapid urbanization of the landscape north of Copenhagen meant, that farming did not take place and at the island of Amager southwest of Copenhagen the farmers didn’t use......Anthropogenic land use practices are the single most important factor in the changing European landscapes. Respectively much attention has been devoted within Landscape Ecology to analyze changing patterns of land use and develop research strategies to understand the processes behind these changes...... and to inform policy makers. Models are used as an important tool in this research partly due to the revolution in information technologies during the last 30 years, which has made modeling more widespread in the research community. However modeling human decision making in form of land use practices...

  3. Analyzing the causes of urban waterlogging and sponge city technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of social economy in China, increased urban population, and rapid urbanization cause serious problems, for example, a heavy rain in the city inevitably leads to waterlogging, which poses a great threat to the livelihood and property security. Disaster due to urban flood is a key problem that restricts the development of urban ecology in China. The reason is the sharp increase of impermeable surface ratio in urban areas, leading to a decrease in rainfall infiltration and increase in surface runoff. To effectively solve the urban waterlogging, China proposed the construction of sponge city. This paper analyzes and summarizes the reasons for the formation of urban waterlogging, and introduces the concept of the sponge city technology to prevent waterlogging.

  4. Analyzing the effects of information technology on supply chain integration: The role of ERP success mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Alimohamadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the effects of Information Technology (IT on Supply Chain Integration (SCI through ERP mediator by proposing a conceptual model among these components. We also hypothesize that three constructs of IT influence on enterprise resource planning (ERP success and one construct of ERP success influences on SCI. To clarify the relationships among the constructs, structural equation model (SEM is conducted to examine the model fit and seven hypotheses. The data was collected from three Iranian firms through questionnaire with 23 questions adopted by past researches. The results confirmed that top management support of IT and employees’ general IT skills factors of IT enhance ERP success, and ERP success positively influences on Supply Chain Integration, so these two IT factors influence Supply Chain Integration through ERP success. Our data unsupported negative impact of satisfaction with legacy IT system on ERP success.

  5. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF LAND USE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE GENERAL EKOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN CONTAMINATED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzyn N.V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper all the main positive and negative factors in particular the rational use and protection of land are analyzed. The system of common environmental criteria optimization of land use in terms of radiation contamination is presented. The order and sequence of application of common environmental criteria of optimal land use in terms of radiation contamination are determined. Rational use and protection of land large scientific-technical, social, economic, and environmental issue of our time, the solution of which depends achieve both economic and social goals of our society. This is primarily due to the exceptional role of land in the production of wealth, constraint, and the inability to replace land resources and anthropogenic environmental changes in large areas, causing activation of soil erosion, creating man-made landscapes, flooding, and flooding large areas of land pollution products and waste industrial production, radionuclides, chemicals. The feature of the land is also not the same quality and fertility of different plots, property continuously improved when used properly. The Chernobyl disaster a substantial part of the territory of Ukraine dangerous radiation situation, about 20% of the long term are the basis for the manifestation of small doses of radiation is created. This necessitates the analysis of areas of land for their suitability for agricultural production. Significant impact on agricultural production in many regions of Ukraine were consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Thus, about 20% of Ukraine have a long-term basis for the display of small doses of radiation. Research methods of organizational systems, environmental, economic, and technological measures to ensure stable functioning of agro-ecosystems based radiation factor is carried out. In research still missing environmental and economic analysis of the relationship between the efficiency of land use and economic-economic factors, but some parts of this

  7. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the Eastern Himalayas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Various forces such as climate change, population dynamics and socioeconomics are threatening the environment, health and wellbeing of the rural poor in the Himalayan region. This project will prepare three transdisciplinary research teams to analyze three different land uses and their contexts: pastoralism in an alpine ...

  8. Physical safety and multiple land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple land use brings with it several safety risks when buildings are developed above or nearby transport routes of hazardous materials. To reduce these risks several measures can be implemented in multiple land-use projects for both the construction and the exploitation stage. These measures

  9. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  10. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  11. A regional land use survey based on remote sensing and other data: A report on a LANDSAT and computer mapping project, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nez, G. (Principal Investigator); Mutter, D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project mapped land use/cover classifications from LANDSAT computer compatible tape data and combined those results with other multisource data via computer mapping/compositing techniques to analyze various land use planning/natural resource management problems. Data were analyzed on 1:24,000 scale maps at 1.1 acre resolution. LANDSAT analysis software and linkages with other computer mapping software were developed. Significant results were also achieved in training, communication, and identification of needs for developing the LANDSAT/computer mapping technologies into operational tools for use by decision makers.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  13. Changes of brain structure in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment analyzed via VBM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuyuan; Nie, Kun; Huang, Biao; Mei, Mingjin; Guo, Manli; Xie, Sifen; Huang, Zhiheng; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Jiehao; Zhang, Yuhu; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-09-29

    To analyze changes in cerebral grey matter volume and white matter density in non-dementia Parkinson's disease patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technology; to investigate features of brain structure changes in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and reveal their intrinsic pathological changes. Based on the diagnostic criteria of PD-MCI, 23 PD-MCI patients, 23 Parkinson's disease patients with normal cognition (PD-NC), and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy people were recruited for the study. Scans were performed on all subjects on a 3.0T MR scanner to obtain brain structural magnetic resonance images. Images were preprocessed using the VBM8 tool from SPM8 software package on the Matlab R2008a platform, and data were then analyzed using the SPM statistical software package to compare the differences of grey matter volume and white matter density between groups, and to evaluate the brain structural changes corresponding to the overall cognitive function. Compared to the control group, the PD-NC group suffered from grey matter atrophy, mainly found in the prefrontal lobe, limbic lobe and left temporal gyrus. The PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the frontal lobe, limbic lobe, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Compared to the PD-NC group, the PD-MCI group suffered from grey matter atrophy found in the left-side middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and frontal lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MMSE score (mainly memory related) including the right cingulate gyrus and the limbic lobe. The grey matter regions correlated with MoCA score (mainly non-memory related) including the frontal lobe, basal ganglia, parahippocampal gyrus, occipital lobe and the cerebellum. Additionally, overall cognitive function in non-dementia PD was mainly located in the frontal and limbic system, and was dominated by subcortical atrophy. Structural changes in PD-MCI patients are associated with overall

  14. Urban land use and land cover change analysis and modeling a case study area Malatya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Gülendam

    2013-01-01

    Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. This research was conducted to analyze the land use and land cover changes and to model the changes for the case study area Malatya, Turkey. The first step of the study was acquisition of multi temporal data in order to detect the changes over the time. For this purpose satellite images (Landsat 1990-2000-2010) have been used. In order to acquire data from satel...

  15. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  16. Analyzing Neutrophil Morphology, Mechanics, and Motility in Sepsis: Options and Challenges for Novel Bedside Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Molema, Grietje; Plötz, Frans B

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in neutrophil morphology (size, shape, and composition), mechanics (deformability), and motility (chemotaxis and migration) have been observed during sepsis. We combine summarizing features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility that change during sepsis with an investigation into their clinical utility as markers for sepsis through measurement with novel technologies. We performed an initial literature search in MEDLINE using search terms "neutrophil," "morphology," "mechanics," "dynamics," "motility," "mobility," "spreading," "polarization," "migration," and "chemotaxis." We then combined the results with "sepsis" and "septic shock." We scanned bibliographies of included articles to identify additional articles. Final selection was done after the authors reviewed recovered articles. We included articles based on their relevance for our review topic. When compared with resting conditions, sepsis causes an increase in circulating numbers of larger, more rigid neutrophils that show diminished granularity, migration, and chemotaxis. Combined measurement of these variables could provide a more complete view on neutrophil phenotype manifestation. For that purpose, sophisticated automated hematology analyzers, microscopy, and bedside microfluidic devices provide clinically feasible, high-throughput, and cost-limiting means. We propose that integration of features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility with these new analytical methods can be useful as markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of sepsis and may even contribute to basic understanding of its pathophysiology.

  17. Understanding the global land-use marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belward, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Over 7 billion humans inhabit Earth and our population increases by more than a hundred per minute. Satisfying the resource demands of seven-plus billion people whilst sustaining the Earth System is a delicate balancing act. We need to balance resource use with regenerative capacity and this balance must avoid tipping points beyond which return and recovery are impossible. Tipping points in the physical, biogeochemical and ecological components of the Earth System have all been proposed - adding the global land-use marketplace to such a list may not be obvious but it undeniably deserves attention. The land is where most humans live most of the time. It meets most food, fuel, freshwater and fibre requirements and shapes Earth's climate. As land is essentially a finite resource this leads to intense competition. Monetizing land resources is nothing new. Choice of agricultural practice has long been governed in part by economics. But in recent years monetization has extended to include new dimensions such as carbon trading and biodiversity offsetting. Our land-use marketplace now has to optimise food, fibre and fuel production whilst maintaining and enhancing land's role as a carbon sink, a hydrologic reservoir and a support for biological diversity. International (and national) environmental policies aim to find a balance between such competing uses. These policies call for accurate, accountable and timely evidence concerning how, when and where land resources are changing. In 2013 the European Space Agency will launch the first of the Copernicus programme's Earth Observing Sentinel satellites. These technologically advanced systems are matched to data acquisition and processing strategies that should provide scientific evidence concerning the land on an unprecedented scale. This paper provides one vision of how Earth science will benefit from the Sentinels and their associated services and how this science will subsequently inform and shape policies, especially

  18. Conversion of land use and cover in northwest Amazon (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural resources in a disorderly way has been demanding constant monitoring and ecological-economic zoning. The knowledge on land use and cover allows that measures that guarantee the preservation, maintenance of the environment and space management be appropriate to the reality, since through these factors it is possible to follow the probable environmental impacts and the socioeconomic development of a place in several contexts. The Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques have been applied to land use and land cover mapping. This study aimed to analyze the conversion of land use from different perspectives, concerning geoprocessing techniques, in the southeastern of Roraima State, Brazil, in two distinct periods. In order to verify the land use and cover, two analyses were conducted, using the Spring and TerraView softwares. Great part of the cultivated areas was converted into capoeira, what probably denotes an ending of profitable agriculture, as well as its abandonment caused by the nutritional deficiency of the soil, that became inappropriate for cultivation in the subsequent years. A fuzzy logic would possibly fit well to the types of data analyzed, because the attribute query is overly complex.

  19. SMEX03 Land Use Classification Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of land use classification data derived from Landsat 5 data for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03). Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  20. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  1. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  2. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  3. Novel indirect calorimetry technology to analyze metabolism in individual neonatal rodent pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus F Dominguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to characterize the development of metabolic function in neonatal rodents has been limited due to technological constraints. Low respiratory volumes and flows at rest pose unique problems, making it difficult to reliably measure O(2 consumption, CO(2 production, respiratory quotient (RQ, and energy expenditure (EE. Our aim was to develop and validate a commercial-grade indirect calorimetry system capable of characterizing the metabolic phenotype of individual neonatal rodents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this research need, we developed a novel, highly sensitive open-circuit indirect calorimetry system capable of analyzing respiratory gas exchange in a single neonatal rodent pup. Additionally, we derived an equation from known metabolic relationships to estimate inlet flow rates, improving the efficiency of data collection. To validate the neonatal rodent indirect calorimetry system and evaluate the applicability of the derived equation for predicting appropriate flow rates, we conducted a series of experiments evaluating the impact of sex, litter size, time of day (during the light phase, and ambient temperature on neonatal rat metabolic parameters. Data revealed that the only metabolic parameter influenced by litter size is a neonatal rat's RQ, with rat pups reared in a small litter (5 pups having lower RQ's than rat pups reared in either medium (8 pups or large (11 pups litters. Furthermore, data showed that ambient temperature affected all metabolic parameters measured, with colder temperatures being associated with higher CO(2 production, higher O(2 consumption, and higher energy expenditure. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study demonstrate that the modified Panlab Oxylet system reliably assesses early postnatal metabolism in individual neonatal rodents. This system will be of paramount importance to further our understanding of processes associated with the developmental origins of adult

  4. Predictive Measurement of the Structure of Land Use in an Urban Agglomeration Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific measurement of land use in space is an essential task in urban agglomeration studies, and the fractal feature is one of the most powerful tools for describing the phenomenon of space. However, previous research on the fractal feature of land use has mostly been conducted in urban space, and examines the fractal feature of different land use types, respectively; thus, the measurement of the relationship between different land use types was not realized. Meanwhile, previous prediction methods used for spatial land use mostly relied on subjective abstraction of the evolution, theoretically, regardless of whether they were calibrated, so that complete coverage of all the mechanisms could not be guaranteed. Based on this, here, we treat the land use structure in urban agglomeration space as the research object, and attempt to establish a fractal measure method for the relationship between different land use types in the space of urban agglomeration. At the same time, we use the allometric relationship between “entirety” and “local” to establish an objective forecast model for the land use structure in urban agglomeration space based on gray prediction theory, to achieve a predictive measurement of the structure of land use in urban agglomeration space. Finally, this study applied the methods on the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei urban agglomeration to analyze the evolution of the stability of the structure of land use and achieve predictive measurement of the structure of land use. The results of the case study show that the methods proposed in this study can obtain the measurement of the relationship between different land use types and the land use prediction that does not depend on the subjective exploration of the evolution law. Compared with the measurement methods that analyzed the fractal feature of different land types, respectively, and the prediction methods that rely on subjective choice, the methods presented in this

  5. Land use dynamics and demographic change in southern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Issa

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing world’s population, coupled with the technology improvement, man has emerged as the major, most powerful and universal instrument of environmental change in the biosphere today. To understand and predict the impacts of this change in the future, long-term reconstruction of land use and cover changes at global, regional and local scales is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of population growth on land cover change and generate knowledge t...

  6. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Negro, Simona O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/300489021; Rogge, Karoline S.; Hekkert, Marko P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143777629

    2016-01-01

    One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations - typically by identifying system barriers - the actual role of these proposed policies in

  7. Biodiversity data obsolescence and land uses changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Escribano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary biodiversity records (PBR are essential in many areas of scientific research as they document the biodiversity through time and space. However, concerns about PBR quality and fitness-for-use have grown, especially as derived from taxonomical, geographical and sampling effort biases. Nonetheless, the temporal bias stemming from data ageing has received less attention. We examine the effect of changes in land use in the information currentness, and therefore data obsolescence, in biodiversity databases. Methods We created maps of land use changes for three periods (1956–1985, 1985–2000 and 2000–2012 at 5-kilometres resolution. For each cell we calculated the percentage of land use change within each period. We then overlaid distribution data about small mammals, and classified each data as ‘non-obsolete or ‘obsolete,’ depending on both the amount of land use changes in the cell, and whether changes occurred at or after the data sampling’s date. Results A total of 14,528 records out of the initial 59,677 turned out to be non-obsolete after taking into account the changes in the land uses in Navarra. These obsolete data existed in 115 of the 156 cells analysed. Furthermore, more than one half of the remaining cells holding non-obsolete records had not been visited at least for the last fifteen years. Conclusion Land use changes challenge the actual information obtainable from biodiversity datasets and therefore its potential uses. With the passage of time, one can expect a steady increase in the availability and use of biological records—but not without them becoming older and likely to be obsolete by land uses changes. Therefore, it becomes necessary to assess records’ obsolescence, as it may jeopardize the knowledge and perception of biodiversity patterns.

  8. Multimodal methodologies for analyzing preschool children’s engagements with digital technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    Recent research on the role of technologies and specifically digital technologies in pedagogy has engaged in re-reading Vygotsky’s opus with a focus on the technological mediatedness of personal and collective development. Among other issues, it questions the differentiation between tools and signs...... and between reality and virtuality. In its stead, it suggests understanding technologies as mediating devices or artifacts, which offer the possibility to communicate with others for the sake of negotiating and actualizing imaginations together, for the sake of transforming pedagogical practice...... and the technologies it builds on collectively. Particularly when it comes to actively engaging in such a collective transformation as a researcher together with young children, the above conceptual reformulation poses a number of methodological challenges. For instance it remains unclear how the perspectives...

  9. A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.

  10. Transitioning Submersible Chemical Analyzer Technologies for Sustained, Autonomous Observations From Profiling Moorings, Gliders and other AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Alfred K; Donaghay, Percy L; Moore, Casey; Arrieta, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The long term goal is to transition existing prototype autonomous profiling nutrient analyzers into commercial products that can be readily deployed on autonomous profiling moorings, coastal gliders...

  11. Transitioning Submersible Chemical Analyzer Technologies for Sustained, Autonomous Observations from Profiling Moorings, Gliders and other AUVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Alfred K; Donaghay, Percy L; Moore, Casey; Arrieta, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The long term goal is to transition existing prototype autonomous profiling nutrient analyzers into commercial products that can be readily deployed on autonomous profiling moorings, coastal gliders...

  12. Monitoring Spatiotemporal Changes of Heat Island in Babol City due to Land Use Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi Panah, S. K.; Kiavarz Mogaddam, M.; Karimi Firozjaei, M.

    2017-09-01

    Urban heat island is one of the most vital environmental risks in urban areas. The advent of remote sensing technology provides better visibility due to the integrated view, low-cost, fast and effective way to study and monitor environmental and humanistic changes. The aim of this study is a spatiotemporal evaluation of land use changes and the heat island in the time period of 1985-2015 for the studied area in the city of Babol. For this purpose, multi-temporal Landsat images were used in this study. For calculating the land surface temperature (LST), single-channel and maximum likelihood algorithms were used, to classify Images. Therefore, land use changes and LST were examined, and thereby the relationship between land-use changes was analyzed with the normalized LST. By using the average and standard deviation of normalized thermal images, the area was divided into five temperature categories, inter alia, very low, low, medium, high and very high and then, the heat island changes in the studied time period were investigated. The results indicate that land use changes for built-up lands increased by 92%, and a noticeable decrease was observed for agricultural lands. The Built-up land changes trend has direct relation with the trend of normalized surface temperature changes. Low and very low-temperature categories which follow a decreasing trend, are related to lands far away from the city. Also, high and very high-temperature categories whose areas increase annually, are adjacent to the city center and exit ways of the town. The results emphasize on the importance of attention of urban planners and managers to the urban heat island as an environmental risk.

  13. MONITORING SPATIOTEMPORAL CHANGES OF HEAT ISLAND IN BABOL CITY DUE TO LAND USE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Alavi Panah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island is one of the most vital environmental risks in urban areas. The advent of remote sensing technology provides better visibility due to the integrated view, low-cost, fast and effective way to study and monitor environmental and humanistic changes. The aim of this study is a spatiotemporal evaluation of land use changes and the heat island in the time period of 1985-2015 for the studied area in the city of Babol. For this purpose, multi-temporal Landsat images were used in this study. For calculating the land surface temperature (LST, single-channel and maximum likelihood algorithms were used, to classify Images. Therefore, land use changes and LST were examined, and thereby the relationship between land-use changes was analyzed with the normalized LST. By using the average and standard deviation of normalized thermal images, the area was divided into five temperature categories, inter alia, very low, low, medium, high and very high and then, the heat island changes in the studied time period were investigated. The results indicate that land use changes for built-up lands increased by 92%, and a noticeable decrease was observed for agricultural lands. The Built-up land changes trend has direct relation with the trend of normalized surface temperature changes. Low and very low-temperature categories which follow a decreasing trend, are related to lands far away from the city. Also, high and very high-temperature categories whose areas increase annually, are adjacent to the city center and exit ways of the town. The results emphasize on the importance of attention of urban planners and managers to the urban heat island as an environmental risk.

  14. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  15. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  16. Multimodal methodologies for analyzing preschool children’s engagements with digital technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    Recent research on the role of technologies and specifically digital technologies in pedagogy has engaged in re-reading Vygotsky’s opus with a focus on the technological mediatedness of personal and collective development. Among other issues, it questions the differentiation between tools and signs...... and the technologies it builds on collectively. Particularly when it comes to actively engaging in such a collective transformation as a researcher together with young children, the above conceptual reformulation poses a number of methodological challenges. For instance it remains unclear how the perspectives...... of how adults can meaningfully communicate with young children, who are not able to fully verbalize their premises and reasons for acting, and who therefore hold a relatively weak positioning when it comes to influencing the negotiation processes necessary for engaging in collective transformative...

  17. Land use and land use dynamics in the upper-Ruizi river catchment, Southwestern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Vanonckelen, Steven; Isabirye, Moses; Deckers, Seppe; Poesen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In the effort to assess the land uses and land use dynamics in the Lake Victoria basin, a field survey is carried out in the Ruizi river catchment, Southwestern Uganda. The catchment plays a crucial role in the food production of the entire country and it is probably a major contributor of water and sediment to Lake Victoria. A land use map of relevant sub-catchments is constructed by field visits and GPS mapping. The land use dynamics are researched in two micro-catchments by compari...

  18. Hydropower-induced land use change in Fincha's watershed, werstern Ethiopia: analysis and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.O.; Sterk, G.

    2008-01-01

    The present article analyzes the land use dynamics caused by hydropower dam construction in 1973 in the Fincha'a watershed (1318 km2), a tributary of the Blue Nile. Aerial photos (1957 and 1980) and an ASTER satellite image of 2001 were used to make 3 land use maps of the watershed using a

  19. Land use and land cover dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon: understanding human-environmental interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Soler, de L.

    2014-01-01

    Land use and land cover dynamics are a result of the interactions between human activities and the environment. The objective of this thesis is to analyze Amazonian land use and land cover pattern dynamics in order to identify the underlying system dynamics. By combining empirical statistical

  20. Rural Land Use in the Monongahela River Basin. [Agricultural Experiment Station] Bulletin 641.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Jacob; And Others

    In order to determine rural land use in the Monongahela River Basin, 11,528 landowners, controlling 40 percent of 10 contiguous counties in north-central West Virginia and constituting 19 percent of the rural population, were surveyed. Data derived from 892 questionnaire responses were analyzed in terms of past, present, and future land use; land…

  1. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities

  2. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenarios for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios by applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained will be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic (common sense) approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

  3. Land use change modelling: current practice and research priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Schot, P.; Dijst, M.J.; Veldkamp, A.

    2004-01-01

    Land use change models are tools to support the analysis of the causes and consequences of land use dynamics. Scenario analysis with land use models can support land use planning and policy. Numerous land use models are available, developed from different disciplinary backgrounds. This paper reviews

  4. Stream Biodiversity: The Ghost of Land Use Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Harding; J.S. Benfield; E.F. Bolstad; P.V. Helfman; E.B.D. Jones

    1998-01-01

    The influece of past land use on the present-day diversity of stream invertebrates and fish was investigated by comparing watersheds with different land-use history. Whole watershed land use in the 1950s was the best predictor of present-day diversity, whereas riparian land use and watershed land use in the 1990s were comparatively poor indicators. Our findings...

  5. Land Use Change Modelling in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Buytaert, W.

    2014-12-01

    Land use activities, through the provision of natural resources, are essential to human existence. In many regions land use change is degrading biodiversity and threatening the sustainability of ecosystem services upon which communities and livelihoods depend. Spatially explicit land use change models are widely used to understand and quantify key processes that affect land use change and make predictions about past and future change. These models typically include a module to estimate the suitability of different locations to particular land use types based on biophysical and socioeconomic predictor variables and a module to allocate change spatially. They are commonly implemented in languages such as C/C++ and Fortran and made available as standalone applications or through proprietary GIS. In many cases the models are released under closed source licences, limiting the reproducibility of scientific results and making model comparison difficult. This work presents a new R package providing methods and classes to support land use change modelling and model development and comparison within the open source R statistical computing environment. The package makes use of existing R implementations of methods such as random forests and recursive partitioning and regression trees to estimate location suitability, as well as providing methods for statistical model building and evaluation. Currently two spatial allocation methods are provided: the first based on the widely used and tested CLUE-S algorithm and the second a novel stochastic procedure developed for large scale applications. Some common tools for evaluating allocation results are implemented. It is hoped that the package will provide a framework for the development of new routines that can be incorporated into future releases of the code.

  6. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  7. Innovative CO2 Analyzer Technology for the Eddy Covariance Flux Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and evaluate NDIR Analyzers that can be used to observe Eddy Covariance Flux and Absolute Dry Mole Fraction of CO2 from stationary and airborne...

  8. Innovative CO2 Analyzer Technology for the Eddy Covariance Flux Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and evaluate NDIR Analyzers that can observe eddy covariance flux of CO2 from unmanned airborne platforms. For both phases, a total of four...

  9. [Adoption of new technologies by health services: the challenge of analyzing relevant factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Evelinda

    2008-05-01

    The exponential increase in the incorporation of health technologies has been considered a key factor in increased expenditures by the health sector. Such decisions involve multiple levels and stakeholders. Decentralization has multiplied the decision-making levels, with numerous difficult choices and limited resources. The interrelationship between stakeholders is complex, in creative systems with multiple determinants and confounders. The current review discusses the interaction between the factors influencing the decisions to incorporate technologies by health services, and proposes a structure for their analysis. The application and intensity of these factors in decision-making and the incorporation of products and programs by health services shapes the installed capacity of local and regional networks and modifies the health system. Empirical observation of decision-making and technology incorporation in Brazilian health services poses an important challenge. The structured recognition and measurement of these variables can assist proactive planning of health services.

  10. Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Analyzing the Experience of Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschauer, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Reports two years of ethnographic research on efforts to use online technologies in Hawaiian language revitalization programs. Issues discussed include the Internet's role in promoting or hindering language diversity, relationship of multimedia computing to non-Western patterns of civilization, Internet use for exploring cultural and social…

  11. Frames for Learning Science: Analyzing Learner Positioning in a Technology-Enhanced Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silseth, K.; Arnseth, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relationship between how students are positioned in social encounters and how this influences learning in a technology-supported science project. We pursue this topic by focusing on the participation trajectory of one particular learner. The analysis shows that the student cannot be interpreted as one type of…

  12. Analyzing the Discourse of Chais Conferences for the Study of Innovation and Learning Technologies via a Data-Driven Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Silber-Varod

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid technological changes confront researchers of learning technologies with the challenge of evaluating them, predicting trends, and improving their adoption and diffusion. This study utilizes a data-driven discourse analysis approach, namely culturomics, to investigate changes over time in the research of learning technologies. The patterns and changes were examined on a corpus of articles published over the past decade (2006-2014 in the proceedings of Chais Conference for the Study of Innovation and Learning Technologies – the leading research conference on learning technologies in Israel. The interesting findings of the exhaustive process of analyzing all the words in the corpus were that the most commonly used terms (e.g., pupil, teacher, student and the most commonly used phrases (e.g., face-to-face in the field of learning technologies reflect a pedagogical rather than a technological aspect of learning technologies. The study also demonstrates two cases of change over time in prominent themes, such as “Facebook” and “the National Information and Communication Technology (ICT program”. Methodologically, this research demonstrates the effectiveness of a data-driven approach for identifying discourse trends over time.

  13. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #3: IPCC SPECIAL REPORT ON "LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE, AND FORESTRY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORD is participating in the development of an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on "Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry." Preparation of the Special Report was requested by the Conference of the Parties(COP) to the United Nations Framework Conve...

  14. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  15. Does reading scenarios of future land use changes affect willingness to participate in land use planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; Kathleen P. Bell; Mario F. Teisl

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios of future outcomes often provide context for policy decisions and can be a form of science communication, translating complex and uncertain relationships into stories for a broader audience. We conducted a survey experiment (n = 270) to test the effects of reading land use change scenarios on willingness to participate in land use planning activities. In the...

  16. Modelling land Use Change : Improving the prediction of future land use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Modelling land Use Change: Improving the prediction of future land use patterns. Man has been altering his living environment since prehistoric times and will continue to do so. It is predicted that by 2030 about 90,000 ha will be needed for residential developments in the Netherlands and 55,000 ha

  17. Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry platform that provides the highest levels of performance for mass accuracy and resolving power, there is room for improvement in analyzer cell design as the ideal quadrupolar trapping potential has yet to be generated for a broadband MS experiment. To this end, analyzer cell designs have improved since the field’s inception, yet few research groups participate in this area because of the high cost of instrumentation efforts. As a step towards reducing this barrier to participation and allowing for more designs to be physically tested, we introduce a method of FT-ICR analyzer cell prototyping utilizing printed circuit boards at modest vacuum conditions. This method allows for inexpensive devices to be readily fabricated and tested over short intervals and should open the field to laboratories lacking or unable to access high performance machine shop facilities because of the required financial investment.

  18. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation....

  19. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  20. Impact assessment of land use policies: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Brouwer, F.M.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue is built around a series of impact assessments of land use policies and sustainable development in developing countries, carried out in the EU-funded project LUPIS (Sixth framework programme, Global Change and Ecosystems, Contract 36955). The project targeted at the development

  1. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  2. Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

  3. Multiobjective decision support for land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; van Herwijnen, M.; Stewart, T.J.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to show how a formal decision support method can be used effectively to support a land-use planning problem. Central to our approach is a heuristic algorithm based on a goal-programming/reference-point approach. The algorithm is tested on a small region in the

  4. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area

  5. E-health beyond technology: analyzing the paradigm shift that lies beneath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerenhout, Tania; Devisch, Ignaas; Cornelis, Gustaaf C

    2018-03-01

    Information and computer technology has come to play an increasingly important role in medicine, to the extent that e-health has been described as a disruptive innovation or revolution in healthcare. The attention is very much focused on the technology itself, and advances that have been made in genetics and biology. This leads to the question: What is changing in medicine today concerning e-health? To what degree could these changes be characterized as a 'revolution'? We will apply the work of Thomas Kuhn, Larry Laudan, Michel Foucault and other philosophers-which offers an alternative understanding of progress and revolution in medicine to the classic discovery-oriented approach-to our analysis. Nowadays, the long-standing curative or reactive paradigm in medicine is facing a crisis due to an aging population, a significant increase in chronic diseases and the development of more expensive diagnostic tools and therapies. This promotes the evolution towards a new paradigm with an emphasis on preventive medicine. E-health constitutes an essential part of this new paradigm that seeks to solve the challenges presented by an aging population, skyrocketing costs and so forth. Our approach changes the focus from the technology itself toward the underlying paradigm shift in medicine. We will discuss the relevance of this approach by applying it to the surge in digital self-tracking through health apps and wearables: the recognition of the underlying paradigm shift leads to a more comprehensive understanding of self-tracking than a solely discovery-oriented or technology-focused view can provide.

  6. Analyzing the Curricula of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Technology-Related Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaden, Abdullah; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected…

  7. Urban Land Use Planning Trend and Sustainable Challenges in Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousif Mangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use planning is a technical approach for developing and managing the land into various public interests to endorse sustainable socio-economic development. This paper focuses on socio-economic problems by improper allocations of urban land uses particularly in vertical development (High rise buildings. Taluka Qasimabad Town was selected as a case study to observe the existing urban land use trends. Spatial and Quantitative data were collected through detailed land use survey and formal interviews. The ArcGIS and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science online software were used to analyze spatial and quantitative data. LRM (Linear Regression Model was used for predicting urban land use change particularly in vertical development by the year 2050. In this context, yearly code and land use change variables were applied in LRM to predict land use change since 2007. The results were found that rapid change in land uses occurred in the study area, by which inhabitants are facing problems like privacy, insecurity, property devaluation, and orientation nearby their accommodations. This research can lead to suggest several ways to improve and enhance urban land use planning approaches for betterment of urban communities.

  8. Analyzing nitrogen concentration using carrier illumination (CI) technology for DPN ultra-thin gate oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.S.; Wu, Bill; Fan, Aki; Kuo, C.W.; Segovia, M.; Kek, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in the gate oxide plays a key role for 90 nm and below ULSI technology. Techniques like secondary ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are commonly used for understanding N concentration. This paper describes the application of the carrier illuminationTM (CI) technique to measure the nitrogen concentration in ultra-thin gate oxides. A set of ultra-thin gate oxide wafers with different DPN (decoupled plasma nitridation) treatment conditions were measured using the CI technique. The CI signal has excellent correlation with the N concentration as measured by XPS

  9. Land use and household energy dynamics in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Interventions to mitigate household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels often fail to take into account the role of access to freely available woodfuels in determining fuel choice and willingness to adopt clean cooking technologies, key factors in mitigating the burden of HAP. We use national-scale remote sensing data on land use land cover change, and population representative data from two waves of the Malawi Living Standards Measurement Survey to explore the relationship between land use change and the type of fuel households use, time spent collecting fuel, and expenditures on fuel, hypothesizing that land use dynamics influence household-level choice of primary cooking fuel. We find considerable heterogeneity with respect to regeneration and deforestation/degradation dynamics and evidence of spatial clustering. We find that regeneration of forests and woodlands increases the share of households that collect fuelwood, whereas deforestation and degradation lead households to purchase fuelwood. We also find that a relatively large share of land under woody savannah or degraded forest (versus fully stocked forest) increases fuel collection time. Areas with regeneration happening at broader scale experience increases in fuel expenditures. Our findings have implications for the spatial targeting of interventions designed to mitigate HAP.

  10. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  11. Determination of the Actual Land Use Pattern Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Multispectral Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindaroğlu, T.; Gündoğan, R.; Gülci, S.

    2017-11-01

    The international initiatives developed in the context of combating global warming are based on the monitoring of Land Use, Land Use Changes, and Forests (LULUCEF). Determination of changes in land use patterns is used to determine the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce adverse effects in subsequent processes. This process, which requires the investigation and control of quite large areas, has undoubtedly increased the importance of technological tools and equipment. The use of carrier platforms and commercially cheaper various sensors have become widespread. In this study, multispectral camera was used to determine the land use pattern with high sensitivity. Unmanned aerial flights were carried out in the research fields of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University campus area. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (multi-propeller hexacopter) was used as a carrier platform for aerial photographs. Within the scope of this study, multispectral cameras were used to determine the land use pattern with high sensitivity.

  12. Land use scenarios for greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...... framework, the “Fingerplan 2007”. We test three policy scenarios and analyse different effects on urban growth by using the Metronamica model from the Dutch-based Research Institute for Knowledge Systems (RIKS). We analyse the possibilities to elaborate a practical and useful outcome within a relatively...

  13. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  14. Economics and land-use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this book is to use the tools developed by modern microeconomics to provide a framework for the analysis of policies towards the allocation of land and the control of activities using land. There has been a traditional conflict between economists and land-use planners. But the new concepts of externalities and public goods have given economists new tools particularly relevant to land-use planning. Developments in planning theory have also tended to make the planners' prime concern the best allocation of total resources: the central problem of economic analysis. The principal focus of the book is the general justification for intervention in the urban land and property markets, the principles for evaluating such intervention and the proper role of the public sector within the urban economy. It also considers in some detail the practical problems involved in putting these principles into effect.

  15. Land use change affecting our (modelled) climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, M.; van den Hurk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Up until now, climate models often have used a static representation of land cover characteristics and only recently, the impact of a changing land surface on climate and climate simulations has attracted more attention. With climate scenarios to the fifth Assessment Report currently in preparation, this time considering different representative concentration pathways and associated land cover scenarios, we are still building up process-knowledge on the strength of land-atmosphere coupling. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of land cover changes on the atmosphere by running global simulations with the EC-Earth climate model, using different historical land use data as well as two land use scenarios to analyse the following aspects in more detail: On the one hand the impact of land cover change via modified albedo, and on the other hand its impact via modified surface resistance, rooting depth and soil-moisture capacity on available energy, evapotranspiration, wind and temperature.

  16. Exploring land use change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    The threat of a rapidly growing population has been at the forefront of many environmental debates about the Sahel with particular emphasis on land degradation due to the postulated increasing cultivated area needed to fulfil the food requirements. The deficiencies of such purely unidirectional...... perceptions of land use changes became apparent, however, already in the beginning of 2000, when researchers within the Land Change Science community raised their concerns about general narratives of field expansions that were assumed to progress linearly and be solely driven by population growth. Calls...... fluctuating cultivated area despite continued population growth. Instead, land use changes can be attributed to driving forces such as the possibilities of buying food crops at low prices in the local villages, and the engagement in non-agricultural activities such as migration and gold-digging. But recent...

  17. Sustainable Land-Use Planning to Improve the Coastal Resilience of the Social-Ecological Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Min Kim; Soojin You; Jinhyung Chon; Junga Lee

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of land-use transitions decrease the coastal resilience of the social-ecological landscape (SEL), particularly in light of the fact that it is necessary to analyze the causal relationship between the two systems because operations of the social system and the ecological system are correlated. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of the coastal SEL and create a sustainable land-use planning (SLUP) strategy to enhance coastal resilience. The selected study site was ...

  18. Prestudy Oskarshamn. Land use and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars; Carlsson, Rumar; Sidenvall, J.

    1998-09-01

    Localisation of a repository in the Oskarshamn area is discussed from land use and environmental impact points of view. The ground installations are supposed to create the most important impacts. An interesting alternative is to have the underground installations off-shore, in a rock volume under the Baltic, and the ground installation on the Simpevarp peninsula. Other areas more or less well suited when considering environmental impacts are also discussed

  19. Achieving land use potential through reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: policy, rules and regulations; surface mine spoil and soil; wetlands technical division; forestry and wildlife technical division; abatement and treatment of acidic conditions; wetlands technical division; ecological evaluations of reclamation success; international tailing reclamation technical division; disposal and utilization of coal combustion residues; landscape architecture technical division; impacts and biological treatment of acidic drainage; reclamation with trees and woods shrubs; reclamation and restoration practices; and ultimate land use

  20. Final Environmental Planning Technical Report. Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Courts 4 Rifle Range I Swimming Pool 1 Mat Room (Wrestling, Judo ) I Multipurpose Room -- Tennis Courts 4 -- Volleyball Courts 4 Outdoor Facilities...County. Cheyenne, Wyomi ng. Cheyenne-Laramie County Regional Planning Office 1978 The Land Use Plans for Albin , Burns, Pine Bluffs, and Laramie... Albin , Chugwater, Pine Bluffs, Gering-Scottsbluff, and Kimball) were not considered in the regional recreation analysis. In the settlement year (1991

  1. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  2. Urban Land Uses and Smart Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work consists of the will to define a renewed relationship between spatial planning and transport systems, which focuses attention on road safety, whereas to date the studies on this relationship have mainly examined the transport impacts on land use. Therefore, in addition to the analysis of the physical characteristics of road infrastructure, there is a need to examine which urban land uses can generate points of risk, both in terms of attraction of vehicles and pedestrian flows as well as in terms of concentration of vulnerable road users, in order to organize a complete information and telecommunication system for road safety. In short, considering a specific testing ground, some urban land uses have been located, with relative dimensional analysis and characterization of access conditions in typological-functional terms: services (schools, healthcare structures, sports facilities; tertiary/production industry (wholesale, shopping centres, industrial sites; tourism sector (hotels, resorts, historical and cultural heritage. The collection of information, corresponding to mapping of prospective risk factors, represented the basis for the entry of specific data within a wider reference database.

  3. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  4. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  5. Globalization and Land-Use Transitions in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ricardo. Grau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Current socioeconomic drivers of land-use change associated with globalization are producing two contrasting land-use trends in Latin America. Increasing global food demand (particularly in Southeast Asia accelerates deforestation in areas suitable for modern agriculture (e.g., soybean, severely threatening ecosystems, such as Amazonian rain forests, dry forests, and subtropical grasslands. Additionally, in the coming decades, demand for biofuels may become an emerging threat. In contrast, high yields in modern agricultural systems and rural-urban migration coupled with remittances promote the abandonment of marginal agricultural lands, thus favoring ecosystem recovery on mountains, deserts, and areas of poor soils, while improving human well-being. The potential switch from production in traditional extensive grazing areas to intensive modern agriculture provides opportunities to significantly increase food production while sparing land for nature conservation. This combination of emerging threats and opportunities requires changes in the way the conservation of Latin American ecosystems is approached. Land-use efficiency should be analyzed beyond the local-based paradigm that drives most conservation programs, and focus on large geographic scales involving long-distance fluxes of products, information, and people in order to maximize both agricultural production and the conservation of environmental services.

  6. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Climate change and land use. Towards the Nexus Land Use model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazas, C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impacts of arbitrations on land use (choice between urban development, agriculture, infrastructures, forests, free spaces, and so on, which are concurrent and exclusive) on greenhouse gas emissions. The first part highlights the complexity of this issue as land use can both generate important greenhouse gas emissions (through deforestation, methane emission by cattle, nitrogenous fertilizers) and absorb large quantities of CO 2 . The second part analyses and discusses the extent and the reasons of deforestation, commenting the situation in developed countries and in the case of the tropical forest. The third part describes the competition between land uses, reviews existing economical models, and presents the Nexus Land Use model which could be able to integrate agricultural and forestry challenges at the planet scale

  8. Geomorphic versus land use controls on suspended sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Vaughan, A. A.; Fisher, A. C. N.

    2017-12-01

    The relation between river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) concentration reflects the degree to which sediment sources are accessed or depleted across the range of flow conditions. Increased availability of high resolution topography and land use data greatly enhance our ability to evaluate linkages between characteristics of these sediment rating curves (SRCs) and the geomorphic features that influence them. We evaluated Q-SS relations at 45 gages throughout Minnesota, USA representing a wide variety of landscape settings in terms of topography, land use, and geologic history. We characterized the SRCs according to the overall shape, steepness (exponent), vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow (90% exceedance) conditions. Rivers exhibited three distinct SRC shapes, simple power functions, threshold power functions and peaked power functions. We used random forest models to analyze relations between SRC parameters and attributes of the watershed as well as the near-channel environment. The model correctly classified 78% of SRC shapes and explained 60% of variance in the SRC exponent, 43% of the SRC coefficient for rising limb samples, and 45% of variance under low flow conditions. Notably, the random forest models predict that near-channel morphology predominately controls both the shape and steepness of the sediment rating curves. Land use predominately controls the vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow conditions. These findings suggest that land use and watershed restoration practices may have little capacity to alter the shape and steepness of these curves as these characteristics may be dictated by the geologic and geomorphic setting. Rather, human influences in the watershed may exhibit the greatest influence on suspended sediment concentrations at moderate to low flows. Criteria to evaluate improvements in water quality as a result of changes in land management might be most meaningful if they

  9. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbiao Yang

    Full Text Available Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.

  10. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and

  11. Land use change in the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bocco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the land use change in the Baja California Peninsula, at the level of vegetation types. The time period analyzed was 1978 (Serie I de INEGI to 2000 (Inventario Nacional Forestal at 1:250 000 scale. The spatial analyses were carried out in a GIS environment to identify the changes in the period. A transition matrix was elaborated and the changes detected were grouped in three major processes: scrubland depletion (deforestation of woody vegetation, recovery of natural vegetation cover, and urban growth. In the time period analyzed (22 years 7.7 % of the territory underwent land use changes. The deforestation and urbanization processes were more dynamic in the northern part of the peninsula, while recovery was more relevant in the south zone. The deforestation of scrubland for agriculture activities is the main process in the peninsula. The urbanization, in absolute terms, is the least important in the time period analyzed; however, the surface occupied for human settlements increased in almost 270 %.

  12. Land-use regime shifts: an analytical framework and agenda for future land-use research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Ramankutty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key research frontier in global change research lies in understanding processes of land change to inform predictive models of future land states. We believe that significant advances in the field are hampered by limited attention being paid to critical points of change termed land-use regime shifts. We present an analytical framework for understanding land-use regime shifts. We survey historical events of land change and perform in-depth case studies of soy and shrimp development in Latin America to demonstrate the role of preconditions, triggers, and self-reinforcing processes in driving land-use regime shifts. Whereas the land-use literature demonstrates a good understanding of within-regime dynamics, our understanding of the drivers of land-use regime shifts is limited to ex post facto explications. Theoretical and empirical advances are needed to better understand the dynamics and implications of land-use regime shifts. We draw insights from the regime-shifts literature to propose a research agenda for studying land change.

  13. Multi-sensor technologies for analyzing sinkholes in Hamedan, west Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajedian, Sanaz; Motagh, Mahdi; Hojati, Ahmad; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Dissolution of the carbonate beds such as limestone, dolomite or gypsum by acidic groundwater flowing through fractures and joints in the bedrock alters land surface and enhances the development of sinkholes. Sinkhole formation causes the surface to subside or even collapse suddenly without any prior warning, leading to extensive damage and sometimes loss of life and property, in particular in urban areas. Delineating sinkholes is critical for understanding hydrological processes and mitigating geological hazards in karst areas. The recent availability of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) from TanDEM-X (TDX) mission enables us to delineate and analyze geomorphologic features and landscape structures at an unprecedented level of details, in comparison to previous missions such as c-band and x-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In this study, we develop an adaptive sinkhole-delineating method based on photogrammetry techniques to detect karst sinkholes in Hamedan , west Iran, using TDX-derived DEMs. We apply automatic feature extraction using watershed algorithm in order to detect depression areas. We show that using high-resolution TDX data from different geometries and time periods we could effectively distinguish sinkholes from other depression features of the basin. We also use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique with SAR data acquired from a variety of sensors including Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1 to quantify long-term subsidence in areas prone to sinkhole formation. Our results indicate that the formation of a lot of sinkholes is influenced by land subsidence, affecting the region over 100 km with the maximum rate of 4-5 cm/yr during 2003 to 2016.

  14. Historical reconstruction of spatial distribution of land use/land cover in the early reclaimed time of Northeast China——Based on the HLURM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Yansui

    2017-04-01

    Understanding long-term human-environment interactions is essential to understanding changes in terrestrial ecosystems and this requires historical reconstruction of past land cover changes. Historical reconstruction of land use/land cover (LULC) aims to reproduce information concerning past land use, not only the quantity of land use/cover in a historical period, but also the spatial distribution. Recently, improved remote sensing technology has made feasible the continuous observation of land cover. However, remotely-sensed data have only existed for the last four decades at most, following the advent of the first land satellite, LandSat-1, launched in 1972. Prior to that, other data sources must be relied on, which may cover the global scale but often inconsistently. In this context, increasing numbers of researchers have made efforts to reconstruct historical LULC based on prime data sources and research approaches. And significant progress in gathering historical land change data has been made both at global and regional scales. However, most of the existing historical LULC reconstructions do not sufficiently meet the requirements of climate assessments due to insufficient spatial and thematic detail and the lack of consideration of various land change types. Most current studies do not thematically represent 100% of the land area, and ignore the consideration of completing land categories and land conversion types. Current research mainly focuses on arable land, wetland and forestland and it does not provide information on land categories such as settlement, water, and other land types. It is a research direction to build historical spatial land use and land cover datasets with high resolution. This paper provides a retrospective overview of historical reconstruction methods of past land-cover based on the prime data sources and research approaches. This research also explored the possibility of building a spatial-explicit modeling framework named HLURM

  15. Initiatives to address ''greenhouse gas'' emissions - their relation to land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, S.E.; Cope, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study from the UK Department of the Environment, considering the effects of climatic changes on land use planning and its systems. After an overview of the methodology and of the analytical framework of the investigation, it focuses on policies applicable to transport, which is one of the most important sectors having to respond to a possible climatic change, and has large interactions with land use. Eventually, this paper describes different energy technologies and their relevance for land-use policy. (TEC). 4 refs

  16. Agriculture land use and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.M.L

    2005-01-01

    There is agro-pastoral farming system prevalent in mountainous and sub-mountainous areas of Himalayan region including Azad Jammu and Kashmir. As such, Agriculture Sector includes Crop-husbandry, livestock farming and forestry in its ambit. There are varied forms of land uses, like crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, wildlife conservation etc. Therefore, the paper attempts to spotlight the interplay of these land uses with respect to the environment in general with specific reference to AJK and other mountainous and sub- mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. Agricultural activities have both negative and beneficial effects on the environment. The negative effects in the forms of physical degradation of the soil due to agriculture are: soil erosion, desertification, water logging and salinity and soil compaction. The land use practices such as overgrazing, deforestation and some cultivation practices, removal of vegetative cover or hedgerows, lack of proper drainage outlets, accentuate these problems. The improper management of water use and sometimes excessive mechanization and Ploughing further aggravates problem of physical degradation of the soil. The chemical degradation, as a result of agricultural practices, include acidification, Salinization, contamination caused by pesticides and insecticides and resultantly water and air pollution, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. Further negative effects emerging out of agricultural practices are greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses and lowering of humus content, which makes soil susceptible to compaction and erosion. The beneficial environmental effects emanating from the use of best agricultural management practices and integrated farming systems are protection of soil fertility and stability, prevention of excessive run offs. It also provides habitats for varied forms of flora and fauna, reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2)/ and reduce the incidence and severity of natural

  17. Land Use Planning in the Urban Sensitive Areas Case Study, Farahzad Valley Stream-Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rafieian; M. Mahmoodi; S. Shayan

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1-Introduction As an important fundamental Issue in urban planning, land use suitability assessment provides important reference for planning, planning management, planning implementation and planning evaluation. Whether at home or abroad, many scholars and planning workers have made in-depth study and explore at the approaches of land suitability assessment, especially in the use of GIS technology. Land use suitability assessment is an important fundamental work in urban pla...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  19. Analyzing the effect of customer loyalty on virtual marketing adoption based on theory of technology acceptance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most advantages of the internet and its expansion is probably due to its easy and low cost access to unlimited information and easy and fast information exchange. The accession of communication technology for marketing area and emergence of the Internet leads to creation and development of new marketing models such as viral marketing. In fact, unlike other marketing methods, the most powerful tool for selling products and ideas are not done by a marketer to a customer but from a customer to another one. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between customers' loyalty and the acceptance of viral marketing based on the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM model among the civil engineers and architects who are the members of Engineering Council in Isfahan (ECI. The research method is descriptive–survey and it is applicable in target. The statistical population includes civil engineers and architects who are the members of Engineering Council in Isfahan including 14400 members. The sample size was determined 762 members based on Cochran sampling formula, the sample was selected as accessible. The data was collected by field method. Analyzing the data and recent research hypothesis, the data was extracted from the questionnaires. Then, all the data was analyzed by computer and SPSS and LISREL software. According to the results of the data, the loyalty of the civil engineers and architects members of ECI was associated with the acceptance and practical involvement of viral marketing.

  20. Tree Regeneration Under Different Land-Use Mosaics in the Brazilian Amazon's "Arc of Deforestation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Vale, Igor; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Mitja, Danielle; Grimaldi, Michel; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Desjardins, Thierry; Costa, Luiz Gonzaga Silva

    2015-08-01

    We studied the tree-regeneration patterns in three distinct agricultural settlements in the Eastern Amazon to test the influence of land-use mosaics. The following questions are addressed: are the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees affected by the various land-use types applied in the agricultural settlements? Do tree-regeneration patterns respond similarly to distinct land-use mosaics? Is there a relationship between tree regeneration and soil characteristics among the land-use types? The regeneration was inventoried at 45 sampling points in each settlement. At each sampling point, fourteen soil variables were analyzed. Nine different land-use types were considered. The floristic structure and composition of the settlements showed differences in the density of individuals and species and high species heterogeneity among the land-use types. The maximum Jaccard similarity coefficient found between land-use types was only 29%. Shade-tolerant species were the most diverse functional group in most land-use types, including pasture and annual crops, ranging from 91% of the number of species in the conserved and exploited forests of Travessão 338-S to 53% in the invaded pastures of Maçaranduba. The land-use types influenced significantly the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees in two agricultural settlements, but not in third the settlement, which had greater forest cover. This finding demonstrates that the composition of each land-use mosaic, established by different management approaches, affects regeneration patterns. Tree regeneration was related to soil characteristics in all mosaics. Preparation of the area by burning was most likely the determining factor in the differences in soil characteristics between forests and agricultural areas.

  1. Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuelian

    Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

  2. Simulating the Interactions Among Land Use, Transportation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most transportation studies, computer models that forecast travel behavior statistics for a future year use static projections of the spatial distribution of future population and employment growth as inputs. As a result, they are unable to account for the temporally dynamic and non-linear interactions among transportation, land use, and socioeconomic systems. System dynamics (SD) provides a common framework for modeling the complex interactions among transportation and other related systems. This study uses a SD model to simulate the cascading impacts of a proposed light rail transit (LRT) system in central North Carolina, USA. The Durham-Orange Light Rail Project (D-O LRP) SD model incorporates relationships among the land use, transportation, and economy sectors to simulate the complex feedbacks that give rise to the travel behavior changes forecasted by the region’s transportation model. This paper demonstrates the sensitivity of changes in travel behavior to the proposed LRT system and the assumptions that went into the transportation modeling, and compares those results to the impacts of an alternative fare-free transit system. SD models such as the D-O LRP SD model can complement transportation studies by providing valuable insight into the interdependent community systems that collectively contribute to travel behavior changes. Presented at the 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society in Cambridge, MA, July 18th, 2017

  3. Soil Properties Affected by Land Use Systems in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    R.P. Chauhan; K.R. Pande; S. Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in acidic soils of Mangalpur and Fulbari VDCs in western Chitwan, Nepal to study the effects of different land use systems on soil properties. Seven land use systems (cereal based lowland, cereal based upland, vegetable farm land, fruit orchard land, pasture land, forest land and farmer’s field) were used and they were replicated four times in randomized complete block designs. Composite soil samples were collected from each study sites and were analyzed in la...

  4. Agricultural Land Use Change after NAFTA in Central West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcóatl Orozco-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that agricultural land use change and modernization in agricultural production techniques are related to the loss of crop diversity. Two processes contribute to this loss; first is the replacement of landraces by modern varieties, and second is the abandonment of traditional crops in favor of cash crops. We studied the expression of these processes in a region that is both an agro-biodiversity and cultural center and one of the most significant fruit exporters of Mexico. We analyzed agricultural change based on the transformation of cropping areas and the primary crops’ locations in Michoacán state. We examined the crop-harvested area statistics from 1950 to 2015, and identified 23 crops as the most important in terms of harvested area and monetary value. After NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, harvested area for nine crops changed significantly: seven crops increased, and two decreased. Positive trends were observed for commercial fruits oriented to export markets, and negative trends were observed for traditional crops. These crops, such as beans and maize, are important for food security. Additionally, we analyzed how these land-use and agricultural changes overlap in zones of maize planted-area change. Using a maize-race collection database, we identified three native maize races that could be at risk due to the abandonment of maize in favor of commercial crops.

  5. Saving Soil for Sustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo M. Torre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper experiments with some costs-benefit analyses, seeking a balance between soil-take and buildability due to land policy and management. The activities have been carried out inside the MITO lab (Lab for Multimedia Information for Territorial Objects of the Polytechnic University of Bari. Reports have been produced about the Southern Italian Apulia Region, which is rich in farmland and coastline, often invaded by construction, with a severe loss of nature, a degradation of the soil, landscape, and ecosystem services. A methodological approach to the assessment of sustainability of urban expansion related, on one hand, to “plus values” deriving from the transformation of urban fringes and, on the other hand to the analysis of the transition of land-use, with the aim of “saving soil” against urban sprawl. The loss of natural and agricultural surfaces due to the expanding artificial lands is an unsustainable character of urban development, especially in the manner in which it was carried out in past decades. We try to assess how plus value can be considered “unearned”, and to understand if the “land value recapture” can compensate for the negative environmental effects of urban expansion. We measured the transition from farmlands and natural habitat to urbanization with the support of the use of some Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools, in favor of a new artificial land cover in the region of Apulia, Southern Italy. Data have been collected at the regional scale and at the local level, producing information about land use change and increases of property values due to improvements, referring to the 258 municipalities of the region. Looking at the results of our measurements, we started an interpretation of the driving forces that favor the plus values due to the transition of land-use. Compensation, easements, recapture of plus value, and improvement are, nowadays in Italy, discussed as major land-policy tools for

  6. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  7. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America into a lea......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...... into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation....

  8. Urban Land Use Mapping by Combining Remote Sensing Imagery and Mobile Phone Positioning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use is of great importance for urban planning, environmental monitoring, and transportation management. Several methods have been proposed to obtain land use maps of urban areas, and these can be classified into two categories: remote sensing methods and social sensing methods. However, remote sensing and social sensing approaches have specific disadvantages regarding the description of social and physical features, respectively. Therefore, an appropriate fusion strategy is vital for large-area land use mapping. To address this issue, we propose an efficient land use mapping method that combines remote sensing imagery (RSI and mobile phone positioning data (MPPD for large areas. We implemented this method in two steps. First, a support vector machine was adopted to classify the RSI and MPPD. Then, the two classification results were fused using a decision fusion strategy to generate the land use map. The proposed method was applied to a case study of the central area of Beijing. The experimental results show that the proposed method improved classification accuracy compared with that achieved using MPPD alone, validating the efficacy of this new approach for identifying land use. Based on the land use map and MPPD data, activity density in key zones during daytime and nighttime was analyzed to illustrate the volume and variation of people working and living across different regions.

  9. Scenario Simulation and the Prediction of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC models are essential for analyzing LULC change and predicting land use requirements and are valuable for guiding reasonable land use planning and management. However, each LULC model has its own advantages and constraints. In this paper, we explore the characteristics of LULC change and simulate future land use demand by combining a CLUE-S model with a Markov model to deal with some shortcomings of existing LULC models. Using Beijing as a case study, we describe the related driving factors from land-adaptive variables, regional spatial variables and socio-economic variables and then simulate future land use scenarios from 2010 to 2020, which include a development scenario (natural development and rapid development and protection scenarios (ecological and cultivated land protection. The results indicate good consistency between predicted results and actual land use situations according to a Kappa statistic. The conversion of cultivated land to urban built-up land will form the primary features of LULC change in the future. The prediction for land use demand shows the differences under different scenarios. At higher elevations, the geographical environment limits the expansion of urban built-up land, but the conversion of cultivated land to built-up land in mountainous areas will be more prevalent by 2020; Beijing, however, still faces the most pressure in terms of ecological and cultivated land protection.

  10. Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2010-06-01

    Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

  11. Harmonized Global Land Use for Years 1500 -2100, V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data represent fractional land use and land cover patterns annually for the years 1500 - 2100 for the globe at 0.5-degree (~50-km) spatial resolution. Land use...

  12. Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dar es Salaam Land Use and Informal Settlement Data Set represents urban land use and consolidation of informal settlements for the years 1982, 1992, 1998, and...

  13. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly becau...... challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research.......Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because...... we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major...

  14. SMEX02 Land Surface Information: Land Use Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of land use classification data collected for the Iowa Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) study region. The land use classification image...

  15. Prediction of spatial distribution for some land use allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of spatial distribution for some land use allometric characteristics in land use planning models with geostatistic and Geographical Information System (GIS) (Case study: Boein and Miandasht, Isfahan Province, Iran)

  16. Land use impacts on transport : how land use factors affect travel behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2005-11-16

    The relationship between land use patterns and travel behaviour was examined with reference to the ability of land use management strategies to achieve transportation planning objectives. The study examined how land use factors such as density, regional accessibility, roadway connectivity affect per capita motor vehicle ownership and use; mode split; non-motorized travel; and accessibility by people who are physically or economically disadvantaged. The social, economic and environmental impacts that result from higher travel were discussed with reference to the degree to which conventional planning accounts for this increased travel. Alternatives for improving mobility in urban and suburban areas were presented. It was concluded that travel behaviour can change by promoting more efficient use of existing roadway capacity, by improving travel options and providing incentives to use alternative transport modes. It was suggested that strategies such as Smart Growth and New Urbanism can be applied in a variety of land use scenarios, including urban, suburban and rural areas to help achieve transportation planning objectives. 122 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. land-use and land-use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    with large uncertainties, thus, there is need for more detailed studies on the effects of land-use change on N2O emissions and on spatial and temporal variations in N2O emissions from the different savanna ecosystems. Key Words: Greenhouse gases, miombo, mopane, savanna. RÉSUMÉ. L'oxyde nitreux (N2O) est un gaz ...

  18. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  19. Visual land-use compatibility and scenic-resource quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Hendrix

    1977-01-01

    The effect that land-use relationships have upon perceived quality of the visual landscape is discussed, and a case is made for expansion of fit-misfit theory into what has been called visual land-use compatibility. An assessment methodology that was designed to test people's perceptions of land-use relationships is presented and the results are discussed.

  20. A multiobjective GIS-based land use planning algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, T.J.; Janssen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper purposes an enhanced land use optimization model for land-use planning with a new spatial component. This component uses a simple representation of the proximity of related land uses to each other as a function of distances between parcel centroids. A special purpose genetic algorithm is

  1. Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptual rainfall–runoff models have become a basic tool for evaluating effects of land use/cover changes on the hydrologic processes in small-scale as well as large watersheds. The runoff-producing mechanism is influenced by land use/cover changes. In this study, we analysed the effect of land use change on ...

  2. Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security, and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County, the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County, and the downstream (Qinglong County. These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin.

  3. The effect of land use change to maximum and minimum discharge in Cikapundung River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Arno Adi; Putro, Anton Winarto; Kusuma, M. Syahril B.; Natasaputra, Suardi

    2017-11-01

    Land use change are become issues for many river basin in the world, including Cikapundung River Basin in West Java. Cikapundung River is one of the main water sources of Bandung City water supply system. In the other hand, as one of the tributaries of Citarum River, Cikapundung also contributes to flooding in the Southern part of Bandung. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of land use change on Cikapundung river discharge, to maintain the reliability of water supply system and to minimize flooding in Bandung Basin. Land use map of Cikapundung River in 2009 shows that residential area (49.7%) and mixed farming (42.6%), are the most dominant land use type, while dry agriculture (19.4%) and forest (21.8%) cover the rest. The effect of land use change in Cikapundung River Basin is simulated by using Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) through 3 land use change scenarios: extreme, optimum, and existing. By using the calibrated parameters, simulation of the extreme land use change scenario with the decrease of forest area by 77.7% and increase of developed area by 57.0% from the existing condition resulted in increase of Qmax/Qmin ratio from 5.24 to 6.10. Meanwhile, simulation of the optimum land use change scenario with the expansion of forest area by 75.26% from the existing condition resulted in decrease of Qmax/Qmin ratio from 5.24 to 4.14. Although Qmax/Qmin ratio of Cikapundung is still relatively small, but the simulation shows the important of water resources analysis in providing river health indicator, as input for land use planning.

  4. CO2 EFFLUX IN VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS

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    Israel Cantu Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinations of CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-water content in vertisols were monitored at least twice a week between July 2001 and January 2002. At each sampling date, two daily measurements (at 08:00 and 14:00 h local time, named as morning and afternoon, respectively were carried out. A dynamic closed chamber with a portable system EGM employing a infrared gas analyzer (IRGA and a soil chamber (SRC-1 were used to assess soil CO2 efflux throughout the experimental period from vertisols under different land uses in northeastern Mexico: Pasture (Dichanthium annulatum, Leucaena leucocephala in an alley cropping system, a native and undisturbed shrubland plot, a Eucalyptus microtheca plantation, and a Sorghum bicolor field. Results showed for the Eucalyptus and Pasture plots a highly significant and positive linear relationship between morning and afternoon soil respiration rate and soil temperature, while no significant relationship was found between soil temperature and soil respiration for the Leucaena, Sorghum nor the Shrubland plots. Soil temperature alone explained 68% of the variation in the CO2 efflux rate in Eucalyptus and 33% in Pasture. During the study period, average morning soil respiration rates for all land uses ranged from 0.7 (October to 8.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 (August, while afternoon soil respiration rates ranged from 0.6 to 14.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates showed the following decreasing CO2 efflux order among the five investigated land uses: Pasture>Shrubland>Leucaena>Eucalyptus>Sorghum; thus, the pasture plot showed the highest average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates; 3.5 and 5.0 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, the Sorghum plot showed the lowest average morning (1.9 and afternoon (2.5 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 soil respiration rates. The Pasture and Shrubland, which are common livestock management practices in this region, contribute to more CO2 emissions

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions from forestry and peat land using land-use/land-cover changes in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sulistyono, N.; Slamet, B.; Wati, R.

    2018-03-01

    Forestry and peat land including land-based is one of the critical sectors in the inventory of CO2 emissions and mitigation efforts of climate change. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes between 2006 and 2012 in North Sumatra, Indonesia with emphasis to CO2 emissions. The land-use/land-cover consists of twenty-one classes. Redd Abacus software version 1.1.7 was used to measure carbon emission source as well as the predicted 2carbon dioxide emissions from 2006-2024. Results showed that historical emission (2006-2012) in this province, significant increases in the intensive land use namely dry land agriculture (109.65%), paddy field (16.23%) and estate plantation (15.11%). On the other hand, land-cover for forest decreased significantly: secondary dry land forest (7.60%), secondary mangrove forest (9.03%), secondary swamp forest (33.98%), and the largest one in the mixed dry land agriculture (79.96%). The results indicated that North Sumatra province is still a CO2 emitter, and the most important driver of emissions mostly derived from agricultural lands that contributed 2carbon dioxide emissions by 48.8%, changing from forest areas into degraded lands (classified as barren land and shrub) shared 30.6% and estate plantation of 22.4%. Mitigation actions to reduce carbon emissions was proposed such as strengthening the forest land, rehabilitation of degraded area, development and plantation forest, forest protection and forest fire control, and reforestation and conservation activity. These mitigation actions have been simulated to reduce 15% for forestry and 18% for peat land, respectively. This data is likely to contribute to the low emission development in North Sumatra.

  6. Evaluation of Landscape Impacts and Land Use Change: a Tuscan Case Study for CAP Reform Scenarios

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    Iacopo Bernetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study uses information from different sources and on different scales in an integrated set of models in order to analyze possible land use change scenarios arising in response to CAP reform. Five main steps were followed: (1 analysis of past land use changes, (2 multivariate analysis of future land use changes using a neural network time series forecast model (Multi-Layer Perceptron Method, (3 modelization of land use change demand (Markovian Chains Method, (4 allocation of the demand to define transition localization, (5 definition of policy scenarios. The final stage is the comparison of CAP scenarios using a multicriteria decision making approach, in order to supply valuable information to policy makers regarding the possible local effects of key direction changes in CAP.

  7. Temporal Changes of Land Use Capability Classification Depending on the Urban Development: Case Study of Trabzon Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, H. E.; Memisoglu, T.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving high efficiency by taking advantage of agricultural land at a high level allows the continued vitality of the soil and also contributes to the country's economy. The land with the most fertilizer from agricultural land is generally the first class agricultural land (I.) followed by second (II.) and third class (III.) agricultural lands. It is accepted that all these lands are considered to be protected and various restrictions have been introduced to these lands. Soil conservation, use and development of balanced is possible to be defined in detail by exploiting the developing science and technology possibilities, determination well-defined properties and the implementation of policies by making the necessary plans. For this reason, Trabzon province is selected as the pilot region land use capability of agricultural land classes (especially urban-rural area and plateau) ongoing changes in the past years until today are examined depending on the land use first, second and third class. In this context, satellite images for 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2017 and land use data including the non-agricultural use of the province of Trabzon has been discussed and the temporal changes of agricultural areas depending on land use capability have been examined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In all the productive areas of Trabzon Province, the increase in urban-rural development has been examined in detail because of especially the creation of planned areas and the occurrence of construction needs. This study is a small-scale case study and the results are examined and analyzed using GIS.

  8. Impact of Land Use on PM2.5 Pollution in a Representative City of Middle China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haiou; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Zhaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been suggested as an approach to mitigate PM2.5 pollution. However, there are only a few researches analyzing the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution. This paper employed land use regression (LUR) models and statistical analysis to explore the effect of la...

  9. Agricultural Land Use classification from Envisat MERIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, L.; Kodesova, R.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on evaluation of a crop classification from middle-resolution images (Envisat MERIS) at national level. The main goal of such Land Use product is to provid spatial data for optimisation of monitoring of surface and groundwater pollution in the Czech Republic caused by pesticides use in agriculture. As there is a lack of spatial data on the pesticide use and their distribution, the localisation can be done according to the crop cover on arable land derived from the remote sensing images. Often high resolution data are used for agricultural Land Use classification but only at regional or local level. Envisat MERIS data, due to the wide satellite swath, can be used also at national level. The high temporal and also spectral resolution of MERIS data has indisputable advantage for crop classification. Methodology of a pixel-based MERIS classification applying an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique was proposed and performed at a national level, the Czech Republic. Five crop groups were finally selected - winter crops, spring crops, summer crops and other crops to be classified. Classification models included a linear, radial basis function (RBF) and a multi-layer percepton (MLP) ANN with 50 networks tested in training. The training data set consisted of about 200 samples per class, on which bootstrap resampling was applied. Selection of a subset of independent variables (Meris spectral channels) was used in the procedure. The best selected ANN model (MLP: 3 in, 13 hidden, 3 out) resulted in very good performance (correct classification rate 0.974, error 0.103) applying three crop types data set. In the next step data set with five crop types was evaluated. The ANN model (MLP: 5 in, 12 hidden, 5 out) performance was also very good (correct classification rate 0.930, error 0.370). The study showed, that while accuracy of about 80 % was achieved at pixel level when classifying only three crops, accuracy of about 70 % was achieved for five crop

  10. The Public Discourse about Land Use and Water Quality: Themes in Newspapers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andrea N.; Thompson, Jan R.; Bengston, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Effective educational and management programs to improve water quality will require an improved understanding of public perceptions of the relationship between land use and water quality. We analyzed a large database of newspaper articles in the Upper Mississippi River Basin to assess the public discourse about water quality and land use, and…

  11. Land Use Changes Monitoring with CORINE Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Iwona; Szuniewicz, Karol; Pawlewicz, Katarzyna; Czyża, Szymon

    2017-10-01

    The Corine Land Cover (CLC) data is a collection of information about land cover, which was created during the program that was implemented by the EU. In this article authors proposes new index of space fragmentation, which is based on the analysis of the length of the boundaries of the various forms of land use - Ex. This papers contains the procedure of designation the new index and two examples of its use for the two regions in the north – eastern part of Poland. These regions are characterized by a particularly high environmental values. Therefore, especially for these areas it is extremely important to study the fragmentation of landscapes as monitoring the increase of anthropopression. For visualization and spatial analysis authors used GIS technology.

  12. Urban Land Use Efficiency and Coordination in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the focused pursuit of economic growth in the process of the large-scale urban development of China, the phenomena of low land use efficiency and discordance of land use induce unwanted economic, social, and environmental costs. This paper presents a comprehensive study of urban land use efficiency and of the degree of land use coordination of 33 cities in China, using theoretical analysis, data envelopment analysis, principal component analysis, the coordination coefficient method, and four-quadrant analysis. The findings of this study suggest a gradually increasing proportion of land use efficiency from eastern to central and western regions of China, coinciding with China’s pattern of socioeconomic development. No correlation was found between high levels of urban land use efficiency and the degree of land use coordination; however, a significant correlation was found between low land use efficiency and low degrees of land use coordination. Rational land use planning and policy design can effectively improve both urban land use efficiency and coordination.

  13. Sensitive Land Use Planning, Malinao, Albay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abante, A. M. R.; Abante, C. G. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the hazard zone as defined in the zoning ordinance of the Local Government of Malinao. The zonification was completed in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Land Use Plan stipulating the allowed use and regulations of zones to control future land development. This paper brings together an examination of human exposure as well as spatial situations and conditions of their houses within the hazard zone playing with flood risks. The purposive selection sample households were based on characteristics of people residing within it, in which the site concurs with the flood forecasted frequent every 5, 25 and 100 years turned to be significant to better understanding ‘risks computing’ were variables retrieved from the intersecting spaces fused to get the complex interrelationship of the sets of flood hazard, vulnerability and exposure of inhabitants and their place of residence weighted against capability of individual family or household to withstand effects of flooding. The Risk Quotient Object and Field Bases Model were tested in specific location in Malinao. The sample households’ individual risk location quotient varies from high to a very high risk distributions ranging from 8 to 125 numerical values. As Malinao stays on to experience flood hazards, changing climate and other natural calamities, the need to understand the six elements of disaster risk computing at household level is becoming crucial in risk reduction meeting the targets and priorities for action as specified in the Sendai Framework.

  14. PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF PROVISION OF STABLE LAND USE

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    L. Hun’ko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of stable land use are highlighted in this article. The question of the territory of agricultural enterprises is considered as well. The characteristic of the type of land use is given here. The recommendations are shown on the formation of ecologically safe types of land use. In the terms of new land relations is important to resolve the issue of land use regulation to with stand landscapes against adverse natural and anthropogenic influences. The main instrument of the state, which aims to provide an ecologically permissible and economically effective land use, land use is as an important component of land relations. Planning should include a system of legal, technical, economic and environmental activities that will ensure the preservation, restoration and rational use of land and other natural resources for the benefit of the whole society. Keywords: land use, land management, stable development, landscape, soil erosion, protection of land.

  15. Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers as an enabling technology for a new generation of chemical analyzers for liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, B.; Reidl-Leuthner, C.; Ritter, W.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation introduces a chemical analyzer (The ERACHECK) which is based on quantum cascade laser technology for measuring oil-in-water. Using these mid-IR lasers, it was possible to develop a portable, robust and highly precise analyzer for the measurement of oil-in-water, a parameter which is vital in the petrochemical industry for process control and environmental analysis. The overall method employs a liquid-liquid extraction step of the aqueous sample using a cyclic, aliphatic hydrocarbon such as cyclohexane. Quantification is based on measurement of the C-H deformation vibrations of the extracted hydrocarbons in the cyclic extraction solvent. The developed method is linear from 0.5 - 2000 ppm of oil in water, with precisions well below 15% in terms of r.s.d for repeated measurements. The portability of the ERACHECK and its robustness has been key for its successful use on oil rigs as well as petrochemical production sites on land. The values provided by the ERACHECK correlate well with those obtained by the former CFC (Freon 113) based method for oil in water, which is no longer in use in industrialized countries due to the ozone depleting effect of the CFCs employed.

  16. Interactions between land use change and carbon cycle feedbacks: Land Use and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Munoz, Ernesto [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Lawrence, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schlunegger, Sarah [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ward, Daniel S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lawrence, David [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-23

    We explore the role of human land use and land cover change (LULCC) in modifying the terrestrial carbon budget in simulations forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, extended to year 2300 by using the Community Earth System Model, . Overall, conversion of land (e.g., from forest to croplands via deforestation) results in a model-estimated, cumulative carbon loss of 490 Pg C between 1850 and 2300, larger than the 230 Pg C loss of carbon caused by climate change over this same interval. The LULCC carbon loss is a combination of a direct loss at the time of conversion and an indirect loss from the reduction of potential terrestrial carbon sinks. Approximately 40% of the carbon loss associated with LULCC in the simulations arises from direct human modification of the land surface; the remaining 60% is an indirect consequence of the loss of potential natural carbon sinks. Because of the multicentury carbon cycle legacy of current land use decisions, a globally averaged amplification factor of 2.6 must be applied to 2015 land use carbon losses to adjust for indirect effects. This estimate is 30% higher when considering the carbon cycle evolution after 2100. Most of the terrestrial uptake of anthropogenic carbon in the model occurs from the influence of rising atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis in trees, and thus, model-projected carbon feedbacks are especially sensitive to deforestation.

  17. Land use in Permanent Preservation Areas of Grande River (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Delano Cardoso de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Forestry Code established the Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs to preserve environmentally significant areas, such as the banks of waterways. Grande River is an important Brazilian river whose watercourse contains several hydroelectric plants, with few PPAs containing original features. Thus, this study analyzed land use in PPAs of a non-dammed stretch of the upper Rio Grande, in southern Minas Gerais. For this analysis, we used an image of the Rapideye sensor and the Maximum Likelihood classification method. The results showed the occurrence of pastures (49.63%, exposed soil (9.13%, others (0.77%, water (0.15% and ornamental vegetation (0.13% while the remaining native vegetation represented only 40.19% of PPAs. These numbers show that environmental laws have not been fulfilled in this area and there is strong human intervention in the PPAs studied.

  18. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    loss after land use change at 100 fieldsites which encapsulate a range of UK climates and soil types. Our overall objective is to use our measured data to parameterise and validate the models that we will use to predict the implications of bioenergy crop deployment in the UK up to 2050. The resultant output will be a meta-model which will help facilitate decision making on the sustainable development of bioenergy in the UK, with potential deployment in other temperate climates around the world. Here we report on the outcome of the first of three years of work. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). Don et al. (2012) Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon. GCB Bioenergy 4, 372-379.

  19. Sustainable Land-Use Planning to Improve the Coastal Resilience of the Social-Ecological Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of land-use transitions decrease the coastal resilience of the social-ecological landscape (SEL, particularly in light of the fact that it is necessary to analyze the causal relationship between the two systems because operations of the social system and the ecological system are correlated. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of the coastal SEL and create a sustainable land-use planning (SLUP strategy to enhance coastal resilience. The selected study site was Shindu-ri, South Korea, where land-use transitions are increasing and coastal resilience is therefore decreasing. Systems thinking was used to analyze the study, which was performed in four steps. First, the issues affecting the coastal area in Shindu-ri were defined as coastal landscape management, the agricultural structure, and the tourism industry structure. Second, the main variables for each issue were defined, and causal relationships between the main variables were created. Third, a holistic causal loop diagram was built based on both dynamic thinking and causal thinking. Fourth, five land-uses, including those of the coastal forest, the coastal grassland, the coastal dune, the agricultural area, and developed sites, were selected as leverage points for developing SLUP strategies to increase coastal resilience. The results show that “decrease in the size of the coastal forest”, “decrease in the size of the coastal dune”, and “increase in the size of the coastal grasslands” were considered parts of a land-use plan to enhance the resilience of the Shindu-ri SEL. This study developed integrated coastal land-use planning strategies that may provide effective solutions for complex and dynamic issues in the coastal SEL. Additionally, the results may be utilized as basic data to build and implement coastal land-use planning strategies.

  20. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  1. Land use patterns and urbanization in the holy city of Varanasi, India: a scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Nivedita; Sharma, Gyan Prakash; Raghubanshi, A S

    2010-08-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas than in the city center. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, remote sensing is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatial data. This study intends to estimate land use pattern in a planned and unplanned urban setup and also to analyze the impact of change in land use pattern in the Varanasi urban environment. The results indicate that the planned urban setup had a higher tree cover to that of unplanned area in the Varanasi City, although a considerable disparity existed within the planned urban setups. The results emphasize the need to critically review concepts of urban planning and give more consideration to the preservation and management of urban tree cover/greenspace.

  2. Does land-use intensification decrease plant phylogenetic diversity in local grasslands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Eugen; Prati, Daniel; Durka, Walter; Michalski, Stefan; Fischer, Markus; Schmitt, Barbara; Blaser, Stefan; Brändle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) has been successfully used as a complement to classical measures of biological diversity such as species richness or functional diversity. By considering the phylogenetic history of species, PD broadly summarizes the trait space within a community. This covers amongst others complex physiological or biochemical traits that are often not considered in estimates of functional diversity, but may be important for the understanding of community assembly and the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functions. In this study we analyzed the relationship between PD of plant communities and land-use intensification in 150 local grassland plots in three regions in Germany. Specifically we asked whether PD decreases with land-use intensification and if so, whether the relationship is robust across different regions. Overall, we found that species richness decreased along land-use gradients the results however differed for common and rare species assemblages. PD only weakly decreased with increasing land-use intensity. The strength of the relationship thereby varied among regions and PD metrics used. From our results we suggest that there is no general relationship between PD and land-use intensification probably due to lack of phylogenetic conservatism in land-use sensitive traits. Nevertheless, we suggest that depending on specific regional idiosyncrasies the consideration of PD as a complement to other measures of diversity can be useful.

  3. Wildfire seasonality and land use: when do wildfires prefer to burn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, Sofia; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Ricotta, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increasing anthropogenic fire activity, understanding the role of land-use in shaping wildfire regimes has become a major concern. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have been carried out on the relationship between land-use and wildfire patterns, in order to identify land-use types where fire behaves selectively, showing a marked preference (or avoidance) in terms of fire incidence. By contrast, the temporal aspects of the relationship between landuse types and wildfire occurrence have received far less attention. The aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2006 to identify land-use types where wildfires occur earlier or later than expected from a random null model. The study highlighted a close relationship between the timing of fire occurrence and land-cover that is primarily governed by two complementary processes: climatic factors that act indirectly on the timing of wildfires determining the spatial distribution of land-use types, and human population and human pressure that directly influence fire ignition. From a practical viewpoint, understanding the temporal trends of wildfires within the different land-use classes can be an effective decision-support tool for fire agencies in managing fire risk and for producing provisional models of fire behavior under changing climatic scenarios and evolving landscapes.

  4. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  5. Social sensing of urban land use based on analysis of Twitter users' mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Soliman

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies showed that digital footprints around built environments, such as geo-located tweets, are promising data sources for characterizing urban land use. However, challenges for achieving this purpose exist due to the volume and unstructured nature of geo-located social media. Previous studies focused on analyzing Twitter data collectively resulting in coarse resolution maps of urban land use. We argue that the complex spatial structure of a large collection of tweets, when viewed through the lens of individual-level human mobility patterns, can be simplified to a series of key locations for each user, which could be used to characterize urban land use at a higher spatial resolution. Contingent issues that could affect our approach, such as Twitter users' biases and tendencies at locations where they tweet the most, were systematically investigated using 39 million geo-located Tweets and two independent datasets of the City of Chicago: 1 travel survey and 2 parcel-level land use map. Our results support that the majority of Twitter users show a preferential return, where their digital traces are clustered around a few key locations. However, we did not find a general relation among users between the ranks of locations for an individual-based on the density of tweets-and their land use types. On the contrary, temporal patterns of tweeting at key locations were found to be coherent among the majority of users and significantly associated with land use types of these locations. Furthermore, we used these temporal patterns to classify key locations into generic land use types with an overall classification accuracy of 0.78. The contribution of our research is twofold: a novel approach to resolving land use types at a higher resolution, and in-depth understanding of Twitter users' location-related and temporal biases, promising to benefit human mobility and urban studies in general.

  6. Engaging Middle School Students with Google Earth Technology to Analyze Ocean Cores as Evidence for Sea Floor Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouhet, T.; Cook, J.

    2006-12-01

    Google Earth's ability to captivate students' attention, its ease of use, and its high quality images give it the potential to be an extremely effective tool for earth science educators. The unique properties of Google Earth satisfy a growing demand to incorporate technology in science instruction. Google Earth is free and relatively easy to use unlike some other visualization software. Students often have difficulty conceptualizing and visualizing earth systems, such as deep-ocean basins, because of the complexity and dynamic nature of the processes associated with them (e.g. plate tectonics). Google Earth's combination of aerial photography, satellite images and remote sensing data brings a sense of realism to science concepts. The unobstructed view of the ocean floor provided by this technology illustrates three-dimensional subsurface features such as rift valleys, subduction zones, and sea-mounts enabling students to better understand the seafloor's dynamic nature. Students will use Google Earth to navigate the sea floor, and examine Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) core locations the from the Glomar Challenger Leg 3 expedition. The lesson to be implemented was expanded upon and derived from the Joint Oceanographic Insitute (JOI) Learning exercise, Nannofossils Reveal Seafloor Spreading. In addition, students take on the role of scientists as they graph and analyze paleontological data against the distance from the Mid Ocean Ridge. The integration of ocean core data in this three-dimensional view aids students' ability to draw and communicate valid conclusions about their scientific observations. A pre and post survey will be given to examine attitudes, self-efficacy, achievement and content mastery to a sample of approximately 300 eighth grade science students. The hypothesis is that the integration of Google Earth will significantly improve all areas of focus as mentioned above.

  7. Interactions between land use, climate and hydropower in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, James

    2015-04-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs on a 1 km by 1 km grid across Scotland, using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. Parameter-related uncertainty in the model has been constrained using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to derive posterior probability distributions for key model parameters. Our results give an indication of the sensitivity and vulnerability of Scotland's run-of-river hydropower resources to possible changes in climate and land use. The effects are spatially variable and the range of uncertainty is sometimes large, but consistent patterns do emerge. For example, many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with significantly lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require

  8. Multi-temporal land use classification using hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi N. Kantakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC classification of a satellite image is one of the prerequisites and plays an indispensable role in many land use inventories and environmental modeling. Many studies viz., forest inventories, hydrology and biodiversity studies, etc., are in demand to account the dynamics of land use and phenology of vegetation. Multi-temporal land use classification accounts the phenology of vegetation and land use dynamics of the study area. In this study, a hybrid classification scheme was developed to prepare a multi-temporal land use classification data set of Sawantwadi taluka of Maharashtra state in India. Parametric classification methods like maximum likelihood and ISODATA clustering methods are combined with the non-parametric decision tree approach to generate the multi-temporal LULC dataset. The accuracy assessment results have shown very promising results with a 93% overall accuracy with a kappa of 0.92.

  9. Problems Of The Land Use And Food Supply In Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Ravilovich Galiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the problems of food supply of the population of the region. Subject matter of the research is the relations developed in the conditions of economic reforms in the field of agrarian land use in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Purpose of the work is to develop recommendations on improvement of a situation of the food self-sufficiency and effective land use in Bashkortostan. The research is based on the dialectic approach and economic-mathematical method of the research. The results of the research testify the need of revision of such land features as an indispensability and not susceptibility to obsolescence in the conditions of further growth and development of scientific and technical progress to prevent a lag between our country and developed foreign countries in the theory of rural economics and practice of the food supply. At the differentiation of subsidies for 1 liter of milk and on 1 head of uterine livestock of breeding cattle (on 1 cow, an ewe, a goat as a correcting indicator, it is expedient to use the cadastral cost of the farmland as an integrated indicator reflecting fertility of arable and fodder grounds, an spareness, rockiness, a slope corner, transport availability or remoteness. Results of the research are applicable in the scientific and educational sphere, connected with the rural economics theory, and also in state bodies agriculture at the distribution of subsidies between market participants. Land is replaceable and worn-out means of production in agriculture, and also a basis for the enterprise placement. Ignoring of the remoteness of lands, the soil qualities, and technological properties leads to the state regulation of agriculture without including the nature efficiency of agrarian landscapes.

  10. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  11. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  12. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  13. Geo-spatial analysis of land use and land cover changes in the Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    local communities and investors in the tourism and hospitality industry in order to reduce the environmental ... 1Department of Geography and Rural Development, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,. Kumasi .... Pandy and Nathawat (2006), in a related study on land use and land cover mapping in.

  14. Synergistic interactions of dynamic ridesharing and battery electric vehicles land use, transit, and auto pricing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is widely recognized that new vehicle and fuel technology is necessary, but not sufficient, to meet deep greenhouse gas (GHG) : reductions goals for both the U.S. and the state of California. Demand management strategies (such as land use, transit...

  15. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Witte, N.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  16. Downscaling of land use change scenarios to assess the dynamics of European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, C. J E; De Witte, N.A.J.; Veldkamp, A.

    Europe's rural areas are expected to witness massive and rapid changes in land use due to changes in demography, global trade, technology and enlargement of the European Union. Changes in demand for agricultural products and agrarian structure are likely to have a large impact on landscape quality

  17. Development of an Integrated GIS and Land Use Planning Course: Impacts of Hybrid Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an action research undertaken at Queensland University of Technology. It evaluates the effectiveness of the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) within the substantive domains of an existing land use planning course in 2011. Using student performance, learning experience survey, and questionnaire survey data, it…

  18. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  19. Impact of land use change on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taleshian Jeloudar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of soil separates to detachment by water is described as soil erodibility by Universal Soil Loss Equation which can be affected by land use change. In this study it was attempted to quantify the changes of Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor and its soil driving factors in three land uses including rangeland, rainfed farming, and orchards in Babolrood watershed, northern Iran. Soil composite samples were obtained from two layers in three land uses, and the related soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The rainfed farming land use showed the highest clay contents, but the highest amounts of soil organic matter and sand particles were found in orchard land use. The high intensity of tillage led to the significant decrease of soil aggregate stability and permeability in the rainfed farming land use. The Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor was negatively correlated with soil permeability (r=-0.77**. In rangeland, the K-factor (0.045 Mg h/MJ/mm was significantly higher and the particle size distribution had a great impact on the K-factor. The orchard land use, converted from the rangeland, did not show any increase of soils erodibility and can potentially be introduced as a good alternative land use in sloping areas. However, more detailed studies on environmental, social and economic aspects of this land use are needed.

  20. Validation of land use / land cover changes for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Caspersen, Ole Hjort

    2018-01-01

    This report presents applied methods and results for a validation of land use and land cover changes for 1990 and 2014-2016. Results indicate that generally, accuracies of land use and land cover. However, afforestation and particularly deforestation are significantly overestimated.......This report presents applied methods and results for a validation of land use and land cover changes for 1990 and 2014-2016. Results indicate that generally, accuracies of land use and land cover. However, afforestation and particularly deforestation are significantly overestimated....

  1. Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Destouni, Georgia; Angerbjörn, Anders; Borgström, Sara; Boyd, Emily; Cousins, Sara A.O.; Dalén, Love; Ehrlén, Johan; Ermold, Matti; Hambäck, Peter A.; Hedlund, Johanna; Hylander, Kristoffer; Jaramillo, Fernando; Lagerholm, Vendela K.; Lyon, Steve W.; Moor, Helen; Nykvist, Björn; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Plue, Jan; Prieto, Carmen; van der Velde, Ype; Lindborg, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely

  2. Research on the Eco-tourism and Environment-friendly Land Use Patterns in Shangri-La

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Fei; Li, Wei; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis of the geographical features of the Shangri-La, the eco-tourism and environment-friendly land use patterns were proposed. And the significances of the mode of economic development in Shangri-La were analyzed.

  3. History through sediments: environmental, land use and technological change in the record of a temperate wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel, central Spain); La historia a traves de los sedimentos: cambios climaticos y de uso del suelo en el registro reciente de un humedal mediterraneo (Las Tablas de Daimiel, Ciudad Real)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santisteban, J. I.; Mediavilla, R.; Gil Garcia, M. J.; Dominguez Castro, F.; Ruiz Zapata, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of the sediments of a temperate wetland in central Spain (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park) and their correlation to historical and documental data allows to interpret the environmental changes recorded in such sediments as due to the variable intensity human action in addition to the natural variability. Recorded events are related to land use changes that are caused by the socio economical circumstances of the surrounding human communities. Relative intensity and length of such impacts permits to estimate the duration of the anthropic events and the recovery ability of the natural system, evidencing that the intensity degree is determined by the technological capability to sustain a prolonged soil use. As a result, the Tablas de Daimiel National Park record has been divided in three periods: a natural period, when the impact of events is short and the environment is able to recover quickly, a pre industrial period, when changes are gradual but sustained, and an industrial period, when the sustained activity is so intense that the natural system is unable to recover. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. Climate change and land use. Towards the Nexus Land Use model; Changement climatique et usage des terres. Vers le modele Nexus Land Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazas, C

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impacts of arbitrations on land use (choice between urban development, agriculture, infrastructures, forests, free spaces, and so on, which are concurrent and exclusive) on greenhouse gas emissions. The first part highlights the complexity of this issue as land use can both generate important greenhouse gas emissions (through deforestation, methane emission by cattle, nitrogenous fertilizers) and absorb large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The second part analyses and discusses the extent and the reasons of deforestation, commenting the situation in developed countries and in the case of the tropical forest. The third part describes the competition between land uses, reviews existing economical models, and presents the Nexus Land Use model which could be able to integrate agricultural and forestry challenges at the planet scale.

  5. Application of Numenta® Hierarchical Temporal Memory for land-use classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Meroño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the application of memoryprediction theory, implemented in the form of a Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM, for land-use classification. Numenta®HTM is a new computing technology that replicates the structure and function of the human neocortex. In this study, a photogram, received by a photogrammetric UltraCamD® sensor of Vexcel, and data on 1 513 plots in Manzanilla (Huelva, Spain were used to validate the classification, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 90.4%. The HTMapproach appears to hold promise for land-use classification.

  6. THE LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE ANALYSIS IN BEIJING HUAIROU IN LAST TEN YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With eCognition software, the sample-based object-oriented classification method is used. Remote sensing images in Huairou district of Beijing had been classified using remote sensing images of last ten years. According to the results of image processing, the land use types in Huairou district of Beijing were analyzed in the past ten years, and the changes of land use types in Huairou district were obtained, and the reasons for its occurrence were analyzed.

  7. Corneal biomechanical properties after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK with the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology and ocular response analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes of corneal biomechanical properties before and after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK(FS-LASIKusing Corneal Visualisation Scheimpflug Technology(Corvis STand Ocular Response Analyzer(ORA, and the correlation with other myopic parameters. METHODS:Sixty three patients(63 eyeswho had myopic femtosecond laser assisted LASIK(FS-LASIKwere enrolled in the study. The right eye of each patient was analyzed in this study. The corneal biomechanical parameters pre-operative and 1mo post-operative was measured with the Corvis ST(Oculus, Wetzlar, Germanyand ORA(Reichert, Buffalo, New York, USA. Comparison of the biomechanical property values before and after surgery was peformed using Paired t-test or Mann-Whitney U. Pearson or Spearman correlations were used to evaluate the relationship between parameters.RESULTS: The postoperative 1st A-time, Vin, 2nd A length, Vout, HC time and Radius demonstrate significant decreases comparing with preoperative values(P=0.00, P=0.00, P=0.00, P=0.00, P=0.00, P=0.00 respectively. The postoperative 2nd A-time, DA and PD significantly increases(P=0.00, P=0.00, P=0.00, however, the 1st A length had no significant difference after surgery. The CH and CRF were significantly lower after FS-LASIK(P=0.00, P=0.00. A statistically significant correlation coefficient was found between preoperative central corneal thickness(CCTwith postoperative-preoperative changes of 1st A-time, 2nd A-time, DA and Radius respectively(P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.03, P=0.01. CONCLUSION:There were significantly changes of corneal biomechanical properties after FS-LASIK surgery. The changes of corneal biomechanical properties after FS-LASIK can be reflected by some parameters of Corvis ST and ORA. The mainly influence of corneal biomechanical alteration was possibly correlation with corneal thickness.

  8. Monitoring and Modeling Land Use Dynamics in a Watershed Using Spatial Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganci, U.; Erturk, A.; Seker, D. Z.; Tanik, A.; Sertel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Temporal land use and land cover changes are main reasons of excessive effects on changes in ecological and hydrological characteristics of a watershed. These effects occurred as pollution of the environment and deterioration of habitats in the watersheds. When the land use changes occur slowly, the watersheds' ecology could adapt itself against these changes. On the other hand, a rapid land use changes mostly resulted with extreme damage which cannot be tolerated by watershed ecology. It is not easy to follow the temporal behavior of the land use/cover changes with conventional methods. This situation is mainly because of lack of available and updated data and unsuitable data organization in state departments, deviation from original master plans or secondary unintended effects usually not registered in official documents. In this study a combination of GIS and Remote Sensing are used to monitor land use/cover changes in selected area. Remote sensing is an effective technique for monitoring the direct (man-made) and indirect (man-caused) changes on land and water resources for decades. GIS is also an efficient tool for analyze of any kind of spatial data which come from different data sources such as remotely sensed data and tabular data. In this study, Koycegiz watershed located at the western Mediterranean coast of Turkey has been selected as the study area. The area of the watershed is approximately 1000 km2 and more than one third of this area is an environmental protection zone. Effects of increased agriculture and urbanization on the watershed were monitored by using the land use/cover information derived from remotely sensed data belongs to different time periods from the year 1984 to present. Remotely sensed data obtained from the different years were classified into five main land use classes which are agricultural areas, forestry, settlements, meadows-pastures and wetlands. GIS analyses are used to detect the temporal changes in land use/cover. Different

  9. Integrated modelling and the impacts of water management on land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, W; Spachinger, K; Metzka, R

    2008-01-01

    River systems and the quantity and quality of water depend on the catchment, its structure and land use. In central Europe especially land is a scarce resource. This causes conflicts between different types of land use, but also with the interests of flood protection, nature conservation and the protection of water resources and water bodies in the flood plain and on a catchment scale. ILUP - Integrated Land Use Planning and River Basin Management was a project, funded by the European Union, to address the problems of conflicting interests within a catchment. It addressed the problems of conflicting land use from a hydrological perspective and with regard to the resulting problems of water management. Two test river basins, Vils and Rott, both with a catchment size of about 1000 square kilometres, were considered for the German part of the project. Objective of the project was to identify means of managing land use with regard to water management objectives and adapt planning strategies and methodologies of water management authorities to the new needs of catchment management and planning. Catchment models were derived to simulate hydrological processes, assess the safety of dams and improve the control strategy of detention reservoirs with regard to land use in the lower system. Hydrodynamic models provided the basis to assess flood prone areas, evaluate flood protection measures and analyze the impacts of river training and discharge on morphology. Erosion and transport models were used to assess the impacts of land use on water quality. Maps were compiled from model results to provide a basis for decision making. In test areas new ways of planning and implementation of measures were tested. As a result of model scenarios in combination with the socio economic situation in the catchment new methods of land management and land use management were derived and implemented in model areas. The results of the project show that new ways of managing land use in river

  10. Category identification of changed land-use polygons in an integrated image processing/geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Sally; Stow, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    A framework is proposed for analyzing ancillary data and developing procedures for incorporating ancillary data to aid interactive identification of land-use categories in land-use updates. The procedures were developed for use within an integrated image processsing/geographic information systems (GIS) that permits simultaneous display of digital image data with the vector land-use data to be updated. With such systems and procedures, automated techniques are integrated with visual-based manual interpretation to exploit the capabilities of both. The procedural framework developed was applied as part of a case study to update a portion of the land-use layer in a regional scale GIS. About 75 percent of the area in the study site that experienced a change in land use was correctly labeled into 19 categories using the combination of automated and visual interpretation procedures developed in the study.

  11. Developments in ecology in systems analysis and land-use planning. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1074

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, H. H.; Klopatek, J. M.; Emanuel, W. R.

    1977-09-01

    The need for ecological analysis in land-use planning has become increasingly evident as mans' land-intensive activities continually lead to conflict or to difficult decisions. Systems-analysis techniques useful in land-use planning are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on ecological and environmental aspects of the problem. Three particular approaches to different parts of the overall land-use problem are given as examples of the application of systems analysis in this area. Simulation models for forest succession at the stand and landscape level provide a tool for studying natural land-use transition. Energy-based models are used to analyze the land-use plan for an area where mans' activities dominate. Finally, multiple objective optimization is discussed as a framework for planning, which allows the consideration of trade-offs between conflicting planning criteria and integrates decision makers in the analysis. 80 references.

  12. The socio-economic analysis of land use changes and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Decreasing agricultural land, inappropriate land use practices and declining rural family living standards are closely interrelated problems in Uganda. This study analyzes forces driving family resource use changes and decision-making while pursuing better opportunities in two zones in Uganda having varied soil ...

  13. Land Use Types In Relation To Microbial Distribution in a Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were subjected to routine laboratory analysis. Mean statistic was used to analyze generated data. Soil properties differed among land use types and this influenced distribution of soil microbes. Soils of the petrol dumpsite had the least Ca: Mg ratio but dominated in the content and distribution of Pseudomonas.

  14. Contrasting effects of land use intensity and exotic host plants on the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones.

  15. Land Use Act and Rural Poverty Reduction in Nigeria | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To stem the tide, the Federal Government of Nigeria came up with the Land Use Act to regulate use and interest in land. It was thought that with government take over of land property; it would become readily available to various users without hitches. The Land Use Act has however created a lot of problems for the populace.

  16. the implications of land use/cover dynamics on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-04

    Dec 4, 2017 ... The analysis of static land use maps of 1983, 2000, and 2013, all pointed to the fact that, there have been significant changes observed on forest cover, farmland, grazing land and settlement land uses. ... materials, provision of shelter, food production, .... lean resources and created a variety of complex.

  17. Anthropogenic soils and land use patterns in relation to small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterogeneity in the landscapes of West Usambara Mountains on land use and human activities has been reported. However, the interface of land use patterns and human modified soils with small mammal and flea abundance for possible explanation of plague has not been explored. This study was carried out to ...

  18. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  19. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  20. Calibration and validation of land-use models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Land use is constantly changing. For example, urban areas expand as a result of population growth, cropping patterns change to fulfil the demand for bioenergy and natural vegetation recovers in locations where farmers cease to farm. Understanding these changes is pivotal to explore future land-use

  1. Anthropogenical Drivers on Land Use/Cover Change and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommended to the government to facilitate participatory land use planning at village level, agro-forestry, provision of extensions services, and modern family planning services to check overpopulation for sustainable land use and improvement of rural livelihoods in and beyond the study area. Keywords: Land ...

  2. Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, K.; Perez-Soba, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ex ante impact assessment can help in structuring the analysis of human-environment interactions thereby supporting land use decision making for sustainable development. The contributions to this special feature focus on some of the challenges of making land use impact assessment operational for

  3. Land Use Changes within the Bogoso-Prestea Gold Concession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining activities have existed in the Bogoso-Prestea area for over a century. The high demand for gold has led to intense mining activities in the area and has resulted in land use changes. This study evaluated a total area of 4 379.93 ha within the Bogoso-Prestea Gold Concession that has experienced land use change ...

  4. The role of population in understanding Honduran land use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2004-01-01

    Land use patterns are usually influenced by large variety of factors that act over a broad range of scales. Biophysical, climatic, and socioeconomic factors are important and need to be considered, when distribution of land use is to be understood. The main objective of this study is to test this

  5. Predicted impacts of land use change on groundwater recharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine land use changes in upper Berg catchment using multi-temporal Landsat images from 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2008, and to predict the impact of these land use changes on groundwater recharge. For the simulation of groundwater recharge the distributed hydrological model ...

  6. Spatial Relationships of Urban Land Use, Soils and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    land uses. Spatial distribution of heavy metals indicates areas of potential risks of harmful heavy metals in the urban environment which enhances action plan for remediation and protection of the urban environment. @JASEM. Key words: Urban Land use, Soils, Heavy metals, Contamination Factor, Geo-accumulation index.

  7. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and impacts on land type changes in Madagascar. ... explore and understand decisions and management strategies. We finally report on first outcomes of the game including land use decisions, reaction to market fluctuation and landscape change. RÉSUMÉ

  8. 44 CFR 80.19 - Land use and oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land use and oversight. 80.19... RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE Post-Award Requirements § 80.19 Land use and oversight. This section applies to... and beneficial functions of the floodplain. (ii) In the rare circumstances where the Administrator has...

  9. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  10. Predicted impacts of land use change on groundwater recharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-13

    Apr 13, 2012 ... images from 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2008, and to predict the impact of these land use changes on groundwater recharge. For ... Policy intention is to maintain a balance between demand, quantity and quality of groundwater. Land use change is a major factor affecting the .... tion in the channel network.

  11. Ecological support for rural land-use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Theobald; Thomas Spies; Jeff Kline; Bruce Maxwell; N. T. Hobbs; Virginia H. Dale

    2005-01-01

    How can ecologists be more effective in supporting ecologically informed rural land-use planning and policy? Improved decision making about rural lands requires careful consideration of how ecological information and analyses can inform specific planning and policy needs. We provide a brief overview of rural land-use planning, including recently developed approaches to...

  12. The Environmental Impact of Flooding on Transportation Land Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental problems of flooding on transportation land use manifest as a result of different land use activities of man to earn his living and his livelihood. Natural surfaces were replaced by more impermeable roads and concrete which have very low infiltration capacity, which have hydrological consequences of resulting ...

  13. Agricultural Land-Use Change and Disappearance of Farmlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study assessed agricultural land-use change in. Kaduna metropolis. This study combined the use of remote sensing and geographic information system. (GIS) application to ascertain the rate of agricultural land-use change from 1980 to 2012 in the study area. The four imageries (Landsat MSS 1980, ...

  14. Current Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Land Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use mapping is important for evaluation, management and conservation of natural resources of an area and the knowledge on the existing land use is one of the prime pre-requisites for suggesting better use of land. In this study, we examined four mapping approaches (unsupervised, supervised, fuzzy supervised and ...

  15. A remote sensing evaluation for agronomic land use mapping in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal objective of this study is to identify, demarcate and map agricultural land use categories of Tehran province on basis of remote sensing survey technique. In this research, Landsat ETM images of July 2006 were used to expose the use of remote sensing technique in order to produce current land use map of the ...

  16. 9 Impact of Land Use on River.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    water extraction and deforestation for fuel wood and other domestic uses, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and land degradation due to improper agricultural practices are also major land use activities that impact negatively on the river systems. The study concluded that there is the need to streamline land use activities,.

  17. Characterizing urbanization, and agricultural and conservation land-use change in Riverside County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiongwen; Li, Bai-Lian; Allen, Michael F

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring trends in urbanization and land use related to population growth and changing social and economic conditions is an important tool for developing in land use and habitat conservation policy. We analyzed urbanization and agricultural land-use change in Riverside County, California from 1984 to 2002, comparing maps every two years on the basis of aerial photographs. Matrix analysis combined with information theory was applied to study land type conversion. Results showed that the total area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" increased the most whereas total area of "Prime Farmland" decreased most. Land-use characterized as "Grazing Land,"Farmland of Local Importance," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance" also decreased. Mean patch size also decreased for "Grazing Land,"Water Area,"Other Land," and "Prime Farmland." The diversity of land types decreased dramatically after 1992. Urbanization patterns were different among three city groups (Riverside City, Coachella Valley, and Blythe), indicating the different times for "leapfrog" development in the three areas. Furthermore, the unpredictability and change in composition of land use increased after 1996 due to intensified urbanization. If the current driving forces continue, our model projects that in 2020 the area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" may increase between 25% and 39% in comparison with 2002. Percentages of most agricultural land types are projected to decrease, especially "Farmland of Local Importance,"Prime Farmland," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance." If the county's goal is to preserve agricultural lands and natural biodiversity, while maintaining sustainable development, current land-use policies and practices should be changed. This study demonstrates new useful methods for monitoring and detection of change of land-use processes.

  18. Land use change has stronger effects on functional diversity than taxonomic diversity in tropical Andean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Boris A; Santillán, Vinicio E; Graham, Catherine H

    2018-03-01

    Land use change modifies the environment at multiple spatial scales, and is a main driver of species declines and deterioration of ecosystem services. However, most of the research on the effects of land use change has focused on taxonomic diversity, while functional diversity, an important predictor of ecosystem services, is often neglected. We explored how local and landscape scale characteristics influence functional and taxonomic diversity of hummingbirds in the Andes Mountains in southern Ecuador. Data was collected in six landscapes along a land use gradient, from an almost intact landscape to one dominated by cattle pastures. We used point counts to sample hummingbirds from 2011 to 2012 to assessed how local factors (i.e., vegetation structure, flowering plants richness, nectar availability) and landscape factors (i.e., landscape heterogeneity, native vegetation cover) influenced taxonomic and functional diversity. Then, we analyzed environment - trait relationships (RLQ test) to explore how different hummingbird functional traits influenced species responses to these factors. Taxonomic and functional diversity of hummingbirds were positively associated with landscape heterogeneity but only functional diversity was positively related to native vegetation coverage. We found a weak response of taxonomic and functional diversity to land use change at the local scale. Environment-trait associations showed that body mass of hummingbirds likely influenced species sensitivity to land use change. In conclusion, landscape heterogeneity created by land use change can positively influence hummingbird taxonomic and functional diversity; however, a reduction of native vegetation cover could decrease functional diversity. Given that functional diversity can mediate ecosystem services, the conservation of native vegetation cover could play a key role in the maintenance of hummingbird pollination services in the tropical Andes. Moreover, there are particular functional

  19. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  20. Biofuels and Land use in Sweden - An overview of land-use change effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, J. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Ahlgren, S. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Grahn, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sundberg, C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    Supported by policies, biofuel production has been continuously increasing worldwide during recent years owing to a scientific consensus that human-induced global warming is a reality and the need to reduce import dependency of fossil fuels. However, concerns have been raised that bio-fuels, often advocated as the future substitute for greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fossil fuels, may cause negative effects on the climate and the environment. When assessing GHG emissions from biofuels, the production phase of the biofuel crop is essential since this is the phase in which most of the GHG emissions occur during the life cycle of the fuel (not accounting for biogenic CO{sub 2} from the tailpipe). Much research has been focusing on the GHG performance of biofuels, but there are also a range of other possible environmental effects of biofuel production, often linked to land use and land management. Changes in land use can result from a wide range of anthropogenic activities including agriculture and forestry management, livestock and biofuel production. Direct effects of land-use change (LUC) range from changes of carbon stock in standing biomass to biodiversity impacts and nutrient leakage. Beside the direct effects, indirect effects can influence other uses of land through market forces across countries and continents. These indirect effects are complex to measure and observe. This report provides an overview of a much debated issue: the connection between LUC and bio-fuel production and associated potential impacts on a wide range of aspects (i.e., soil chemistry, biodiversity, socio economics, climate change, and policy). The main purpose of the report is to give a broad overview of the literature on LUC impacts from biofuel production, not only taking into account the link between LUC and GHG, which has been addressed in many other studies. The report first presents a review of the literature in the different scientific areas related to LUC and biofuel production

  1. Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.; Haven, K.

    1979-12-01

    This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  2. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  3. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS IMPOSING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE, BURDENED LAND RIGHTS DURING LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh J.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of balanced consolidation of social legislation in a reasonable ratio of land rights and the interests of society as a whole, as well as local communities, citizens and legal entities established by them are general in nature and require specificity it is. Proved that one way of solving this problem is the establishment of restoictions of land rights, restrictions in land use. However, the mechanism of regulation establishment, implementation and termination of restrictions on the rights to land are not very functional and needs improvement. Current legislation in Ukraine does not contain a balanced set of regulations that would determine the nature and objectives of the restrictions, including encumbrances of land rights, their types, the reasons establishing and implementing restrictions of ownership and other rights to land and so on. Based on our analysis, we provide scientifically grounded suggestions on improving the legal framework, particularly, in terms of restrictions on land use and registration in the land management process, as an important means of influence on those rights in order to ensure rational land use and protection it is. Proved that the efficiency of administrative decisions during setting restrictions on land use purpose and usage of land is possible on the basis of land zoning, thus, it is necessary to adopt the Law of Ukraine "On land zoning." In addition, the current classification of land use restrictions, which was proposed by prominent scientists in Ukraine AM Tretyak (classification of restrictions in land use by functional features, and D.S. Dobryak and D.I. Babmindra (classification of restrictions on land use based on their placement by owners and land users, is complemented by types, namely: legal, environmental, ecological, technological, sanitation, urban and special. In the result of scientific studies,we have proposed a model of methodological process of land management actions on formation

  4. [Influence of land use change on vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao-Qin; Zeng, Hui; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    To study the vegetation cover dynamics under urbanization is of significance to direct regional ecological conservation. Based on the 1995-2007 remote sensing data and the investigation data of 1996 and 2007 land use change in Shenzhen, and by using NDVI index tracking and algebraic overlay calculation, this paper analyzed the vegetation types and their spatial differentiation, land use change pattern, and the relationships between land use change and vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen. In 1995-2007, the vegetation cover in 65% of the study area changed significantly, with an overall increasing trend. Land use change was mainly caused by the development of urbanization and commercial agriculture, with 31% of the land surface changed in land use function. The land use change was one of the main causes of vegetation cover dynamics, and about 35% of the region where vegetation cover significantly degraded was related to land use change. 55% of the region where land use function changed due to mechanical disturbance caused the degradation of vegetation cover, but by the end of the study period, the vegetation cover in most of the degraded region had being improved significantly.

  5. Economic structure and environmental quality and their impact on changing land use efficiency in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chong; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Extensive urban land expansion and heavy industrialization have increased energy consumption and caused environmental problems, both of which present serious threats to humans. Consequently, improved land use efficiency and realization of green development are imperative. Based on a detailed analysis of spatialtemporal evolution of urban land use efficiency, this paper analyzes the synergistic effect of industrial structure and city size, as well as the effect of environmental quality, by using panel data from 283 cities at or above prefecturelevel in China from 2003 to 2012. It was concluded that 1) environmental quality has an obvious "crowding out effect" on urban land use efficiency and 2) urban land use efficiency shows a significant spatial auto-correlation. The effect of industrial structure is dependent on population size of the city. It has been found that a threshold population size of more than 108.45 (10,000 persons) is needed for an optimized benefit from industrial linkages. The urban population size presents an inverted-U shape against the urban land use efficiency, and the marginal benefit of urban size increases when the industrial structure shifts from secondary industry to tertiary industry. Additionally we found that the actual urban size of 98.2% is less than the cities' optimal sizes.

  6. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  7. Evaluating sources of PAHs in urban streams based on land use and biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Gonzalez, Carla; Vieira, Rute; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2011-04-15

    Toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in wastewaters and sewages released from industries and/or urban areas. When discharged untreated to stream waters, they can be a problem to human health. This work represents the first attempt to use PAH and metal concentrations in aquatic moss transplants together with land-use information to identify water pollution sources in urban areas. To do this, the moss Fontinalis antipyretica was collected from a natural stream and transplanted to four different streams in a densely populated area of Lisbon, Portugal. After three months of exposure, mosses were collected and analyzed for metals and for the 16 priority PAHs recommended by the U.S. EPA. Urban streams seem to have a scattered contamination of 6-ring PAHs. Correlations among land-use, metal concentrations, and PAH concentrations indicated that areas occupied by activities of tertiary and industrial sectors had higher PAH concentrations in transplanted mosses, mainly for the sum of the 16 EPA-PAHs and for the 2-, 3- and 5-ringed PAHs, than areas occupied by urban and wooded areas. These PAHs were associated with enhanced Zn and Cu and land use activities that linked the sites to high traffic density. Industrial land use influences PAH concentration in water up to 1000 m of distance from the stream, whereas tertiary sector land use influences it up to 500 m.

  8. Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

    2010-03-15

    Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed.

  9. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  10. Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Richard; Hong, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    -on-investment. The portfolio model, now known as the Land-Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), provided the framework for the development of the Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0 software (LUPM v1.0). The software provides a geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling tool for evaluating alternative risk-reduction mitigation strategies for specific natural-hazard events. The modeler uses information about a specific natural-hazard event and the features exposed to that event within the targeted study region to derive a measure of a given mitigation strategy`s effectiveness. Harnessing the spatial capabilities of a GIS enables the tool to provide a rich, interactive mapping environment in which users can create, analyze, visualize, and compare different

  11. Climate technology transfer at the local, national and global levels: analyzing the relationships between multi-level structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema Abissa, Fisseha; Tessema Abissa, Fisseha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationships between multi-leveled decision structures for climate technology transfer through an analysis of top-down macro-policy and bottom-up micro-implementation. It examines how international climate technology transfer policy under the UNFCCC filters down to the

  12. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa: Reshaping a city through land use modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow, however, the change in land use only gets observed many years later. As such, it is difficult for policy and decision makers to observe and quantify the implications...

  13. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  14. Collecting, analyzing and assessing big land use data: Results from the cropland capture game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, C.; Sturn, T.; Fritz, S.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Fuss, S.; Perger, C.; Duerauer, M.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a number of tools for assessing the socioeconomic benefit of Earth Observation such as quantifying the monetary benefit of improved land cover information for mitigation policies. Recently, IIASA has been assessing the benefit of an improved global carbon observation system in the GEOCARBON Project. Because traditional ground-based land cover validation is expensive, IIASA has developed crowdsourcing projects such as Geo-Wiki which to contribute to land-cover validation. A recent activity is the 'Cropland Capture' game which can be played in a browser or mobile device. It can be downloaded or played online at http://www.geo-wiki.org/games/croplandcapture/. In the game, players see an image (from a satellite or ground-based camera) and are asked if they see any cropland in it. They can answer "yes", "no" or "maybe" if they are unsure. The game had over 3,000 players who made about 4,500,000 classifications on 190,000 unique images. The benefits delivered by crowdsourcing relative to conventional data acquisition depends critically on the quality of the data received. Players' rating quality was compared by assessing their agreement with the crowd, consistency on images rated more than once, and agreement with expert validators. These metrics were compared with one another and with potential predictors of user quality: the total number of images rated by a player, and their professional background in land-cover science. Individual users' agreement with the crowd and self-agreement were highly positively correlated. The frequency of admitting uncertainty about an image was a good measure of user caution, showing a negative relationship with self-contradiction rate. Many users were more reliable in either identifying cropland or non-cropland, and these two skills were uncorrelated. Overall, user reliability increased with number of images rated, although among the top decile of users, this trend was reversed. Surprisingly, professional background had little influence on quality of ratings. We explore implications of these results for assessing potential benefits of user contributed data in the context of differential user quality and compare this with conventional data collection methods.

  15. Mixed land use and walkability: Variations in land use measures and relationships with BMI, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B; Yamada, Ikuho; Smith, Ken R; Zick, Cathleen D; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X

    2009-12-01

    Few studies compare alternative measures of land use diversity or mix in relationship to body mass index. We compare four types of diversity measures: entropy scores (measures of equal distributions of walkable land use categories), distances to walkable destinations (parks and transit stops), proxy measures of mixed use (walk to work measures and neighborhood housing ages), and land use categories used in entropy scores. Generalized estimating equations, conducted on 5000 randomly chosen licensed drivers aged 25-64 in Salt Lake County, Utah, relate lower BMIs to older neighborhoods, components of a 6-category land use entropy score, and nearby light rail stops. Thus the presence of walkable land uses, rather than their equal mixture, relates to healthy weight.

  16. Assessing Ecological Impacts According to Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, W.; Jeong, S. G.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Land use patterns have changed by human activities, and it has affected the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. In particular, the conversion of forests into other land use has caused environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. The evaluation of species and their habitat can be preferentially considered to prevent or minimize the adverse effects of land use change. The objective of study is identifying the impacts of environmental conditions on forest ecosystems by comparing ecological changes with time series spatial data. Species distribution models were developed for diverse species with presence data and time-series environmental variables, which allowed comparison of the habitat suitability and connectivity. Habitat suitability and connectivity were used to estimate impacts of forest ecosystems due to land use change. Our result suggested that the size and degree of ecological impacts are were different depending on the properties of land use change. The elements and species were greatly affected by the land use change according to the results. This study suggested that a methodology for measuring the interference of land use change in species habitat and connectivity. Furthermore, it will help to conserve and manage forest by identifying priority conservation areas with influence factor and scale.

  17. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calum Brown

    Full Text Available The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.

  18. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.

  19. Land Use on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasner, Frederick L.; Mikami, Clinton D.

    2003-01-01

    A hierarchical land-use classification system for Hawaii was developed, and land use on the island of Oahu was mapped. The land-use classification system emphasizes agriculture, developed (urban), and barren/mining uses. Areas with other land uses (conservation, forest reserve, natural areas, wetlands, water, and barren [sand, rock, or soil] regions, and unmanaged vegetation [native or exotic]) were defined as 'other.' Multiple sources of digital orthophotographs from 1998 and 1999 were used as source data. The 1998 island of Oahu land-use data are provided in digital format at http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?oahu_lu98 for use in a Geographic Information System (GIS), at 1:24,000-scale with minimum mapping units of 2 hectares (4.9 acres) area and 30-meters (98.4 feet) feature width. In 1998, a total of 59,195 acres (15.4 percent) of the island of Oahu were classified as agricultural land use; 98,663 acres (25.7 percent) were classified as developed; 1,522 acres (0.4 percent) were classified as barren/mining; and 224,331 acres (58.5 percent) were classified as other. An accuracy assessment identified 98 percent accuracy for all land-use classes. In windward (moister) areas, dense vegetation and canopy cover along with rapid recolonization by vegetation potentially obscured land use from photo-interpretation. While in leeward (drier) areas, sparse vegetative cover and slower vegetation recolonization may have resulted in more frequent recognition of apparent land-use patterns.

  20. Land use allocation model considering climate change impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Yoon, E. J.; Song, Y. I.

    2017-12-01

    In Korea, climate change adaptation plans are being developed for each administrative district based on impact assessments constructed in various fields. This climate change impact assessments are superimposed on the actual space, which causes problems in land use allocation because the spatial distribution of individual impacts may be different each other. This implies that trade-offs between climate change impacts can occur depending on the composition of land use. Moreover, the actual space is complexly intertwined with various factors such as required area, legal regulations, and socioeconomic values, so land use allocation in consideration of climate change can be very difficult problem to solve (Liu et al. 2012; Porta et al. 2013).Optimization techniques can generate a sufficiently good alternatives for land use allocation at the strategic level if only the fitness function of relationship between impact and land use composition are derived. It has also been noted that land use optimization model is more effective than the scenario-based prediction model in achieving the objectives for problem solving (Zhang et al. 2014). Therefore in this study, we developed a quantitative tool, MOGA (Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm), which can generate a comprehensive land use allocations considering various climate change impacts, and apply it to the Gangwon-do in Korea. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are the most popular optimization technique to address multi-objective in land use allocation. Also, it allows for immediate feedback to stake holders because it can run a number of experiments with different parameter values. And it is expected that land use decision makers and planners can formulate a detailed spatial plan or perform additional analysis based on the result of optimization model. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program (Project number: 2014001310006)"

  1. Modelling and optimization of land use/land cover change in a developing urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Gao, Fei; He, Junchao; Ren, Xinxin; Xi, Weijin

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on hydrological processes and water resources are mainly reflected in changes in runoff and pollutant variations. Low impact development (LID) technology is utilized as an effective strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban catchment. In this study, the impact of LUCC on runoff and pollutants in an urbanizing catchment of Guang-Ming New District in Shenzhen, China, were quantified using a dynamic rainfall-runoff model with the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Based on the simulations and observations, the main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the catchment runoff and pollutant variations with LUCC, (2) to select and optimize the appropriate layout of LID in a planning scenario for reducing the growth of runoff and pollutants under LUCC, (3) to assess the optimal planning schemes for land use/cover. The results showed that compared to 2013, the runoff volume, peak flow and pollution load of suspended solids (SS), and chemical oxygen demand increased by 35.1%, 33.6% and 248.5%, and 54.5% respectively in a traditional planning scenario. The assessment result of optimal planning of land use showed that annual rainfall control of land use for an optimal planning scenario with LID technology was 65%, and SS pollutant load reduction efficiency 65.6%.

  2. The urban public space betterment and land use sustainability Under the human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Ji, Yanning

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the differences between Chinese and western public life and environmental behavior habits. Identify specific needs for Chinese urban public Spaces. At the same time, the paper analyzes the problems related to urban construction in China, including micro-land use, transportation and urban pattern. The solution of Chinese urban public space layout is proposed and the prospects of sustainable urban public space. Urban betterment are prospected in the future.

  3. Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Villero, Daniel; Brotons, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate change impacts that are based on the optimal thermal environment and average latitu...

  4. Negative Impacts of Human Land Use on Dung Beetle Functional Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E.; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in ...

  5. Dynamic study of land-use in Yining City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangping; Wei, Lu

    2009-10-01

    Based on models of land-use, the paper analyzes urban sprawl from the macroscopic to the micro level, predicts the demand for construction land in the city expansion, and presents the law between total amount of urban land demand and urban space expansion. Then by combining the data with current urban land and natural resources round the city, the paper appraises the rationality of the developed-land which will have changed their use-nature, to appraisal the feasibility and utilization ratio of the undeveloped land and nature resource which will be developed in nearly future, find out the irrationality that may appear in the urban space expanding, thus restrain through planning and policy. With the rapid develop of western regions in recent years, different with the eastern coastal zone; the western city is beginning its own urbanization process. Yili Prefecture, as the window of the development of western regions, is expected to see fast development within a few years. Meanwhile, to Yili Prefecture, the topographical ground form condition is complicated, the natural resources is extremely abundant, once it is destroyed will cause irretrievable losses. Under this background, how to handle the relation between city's development and natural environment and resources well, taking the urban development path that can be constant becomes the important subject that we can't avoid. So this paper uses linear regression mode and dynamics, offer valuable reference for smooth development of the city.

  6. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  7. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  8. Hydrological responses of a watershed to historical land use evolution and future land use scenarios under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quilbé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed runoff is closely related to land use but this influence is difficult to quantify. This study focused on the Chaudière River watershed (Québec, Canada and had two objectives: (i to quantify the influence of historical agricultural land use evolution on watershed runoff; and (ii to assess the effect of future land use evolution scenarios under climate change conditions (CC. To achieve this, we used the integrated modeling system GIBSI. Past land use evolution was constructed using satellite images that were integrated into GIBSI. The general trend was an increase of agricultural land in the 80's, a slight decrease in the beginning of the 90's and a steady state over the last ten years. Simulations showed strong correlations between land use evolution and water discharge at the watershed outlet. For the prospective approach, we first assessed the effect of CC and then defined two opposite land use evolution scenarios for the horizon 2025 based on two different trends: agriculture intensification and sustainable development. Simulations led to a wide range of results depending on the climatologic models and gas emission scenarios considered, varying from a decrease to an increase of annual and monthly water discharge. In this context, the two land use scenarios induced opposite effects on water discharge and low flow sequences, especially during the growing season. However, due to the large uncertainty linked to CC simulations, it is difficult to conclude that one land use scenario provides a better adaptation to CC than another. Nevertheless, this study shows that land use is a key factor that has to be taken into account when predicting potential future hydrological responses of a watershed.

  9. Quantitative analysis and simulation of land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Zeng, Yongnian; Zou, Bin; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Deyong; Peng, Jianchao

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China, using Longgang City as a case study. The region has pioneered the nation in economic development and urbanization process. Tremendous land use changes have been witnessed since the economic reform in 1978. Land use changes are analyzed and simulated by using stochastic cellular automata model, land use trajectories analysis, spatial indices and multi-temporal TM images of Longgang City (TM1987, TM1991, TM1995, TM1999, TM2003, TM2005) in order to understand how urbanization has transformed the non-urban land to urban land and estimate the consequent environment and ecological impacts in this region. The analysis and simulation results show that urban land continues to sprawl along road and fringe of towns, and concomitant to this development is the loss of agricultural land, orchards and fish ponds. This study provides new evidence with spatial details about the uneven land development in the Pearl River Delta.

  10. THE USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGIES IN ANALYZING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN GREEN SPACES IN KIGALI CITY, RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rwanyiziri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was assessing the challenges and opportunities for managing Green Spaces (GS of the Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC. To find out the GS classes and their threats, the land use classes were identified using GIS technologies. Its output was completed by the field visit, questionnaire survey, informal interviews and desk review of the existing environmental and biodiversity policies and laws. The land use assessment has shown that the built up areas is the most predominant and occupies 74.3%, while the green spaces occupy only 25.3% of the total areas of Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC. Among the GS classes identified in UPKC, wetlands occupy about 62.6% of the total area of the GS, forests 25%, gardens that are combination of the road side trees, the roundabouts, and playgrounds occupy 12.4% of the total area of GS while the seasonal and perennial crops areas are not significant in the city. In addition, results have shown that GS play different roles in the city among others, the beautification of the city, the air purification and refreshment, waste water treatment, heat reduction, mind refreshment; act as habitat, food and corridors for a good number of animal, etc. Even though there is no specific law or policy to the urban GS management and protection, the Government of Rwanda (GoR has put in place a good number of opportunities that take them into consideration. Those include, (1 the governmental policies such as Environmental Policy, Biodiversity Policy, and Forest Policy; (2 the laws such as Organic Environmental Law and, (3 the plans such the master plans for the three districts that make Kigali City. Despite these opportunities, the management of GS in Kigali City is still facing some challenges that the Kigali City authorities are still trying to address. Those include the lack of policies on GS management, low level of awareness on GS management among local people, and the demographic pressure particularly caused by the

  11. Harmonized Global Land Use for Years 1500 -2100, V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: These data represent fractional land use and land cover patterns annually for the years 1500 - 2100 for the globe at 0.5-degree (~50-km) spatial...

  12. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Mishenin; I. Yarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with arguments that the most effective mechanism for greening use of land resources is to increase the level of social and environmental responsibility. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use are formed.

  13. Ecological Footprint Policy? Land Use as an Environmental Indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Grazi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: This article argues that policies aimed at sustainability need to address the spatial dimensions of environmental problems and their solutions. In particular, spatial configurations of economic activities deserve attention, which means addressing land use, infrastructure, trade, and

  14. Effects of land use on taxonomic and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hevia, Violeta; Carmona, Carlos P.; Azcárate, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change is the major driver of biodiversity loss. However, taxonomic diversity (TD) and functional diversity (FD) might respond differently to land-use change, and this response might also vary depending on the biotic group being analysed. In this study, we compare the TD and FD of four......: the sampling unit scale and the site scale. Land-use intensity effects on TD and FD were quite different and highly varied among the four biotic groups, with no single clear pattern emerging that could be considered general for all organisms. Additive partitioning of species diversity revealed clear...... contrasting patterns between TD and FD in the percentage of variability observed at each spatial scale. While most variability in TD was found at the larger scales, irregardless of organism group and land-use type, most variability in FD was found at the smallest scale, indicating that species turnover among...

  15. Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, De Adriana; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Albrecht, Matthias; Basset, Yves; Bates, Adam; Blake, Robin J.; Boutin, Céline; Bugter, Rob; Connop, Stuart; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Darvill, Ben; Diekötter, Tim; Dorn, Silvia; Downing, Nicola; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Felicioli, Antonio; Fonte, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert; Franzén, Markus; Goulson, Dave; Grass, Ingo; Hanley, Mick E.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Jauker, Birgit; Kessler, Michael; Knight, M.E.; Kruess, Andreas; Lavelle, Patrick; Féon, Le Violette; Lentini, Pia; Malone, Louise A.; Marshall, Jon; Pachón, Eliana Martínez; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Morales, Carolina L.; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Nilsson, Sven G.; Öckinger, Erik; Osgathorpe, Lynne; Parra-H, Alejandro; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Richards, Miriam H.; Roulston, Tai; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schellhorn, Nancy A.; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tonietto, Rebecca K.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Verboven, Hans A.F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Verhulst, Jort; Westphal, Catrin; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Purvis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically

  16. Experiments in globalization, food security and land use decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.; Murray-Rust, D.; van Vliet, J.; Alam, S. J.; Verburg, P.H.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often

  17. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  18. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  19. A comprehensive scoring system to measure healthy community design in land use plans and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Kristin M; Kaplan, Marina; Walling, Lee Ann; Miller, Patricia P; Crist, Gina

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive land use plans and their corresponding regulations play a role in determining the nature of the built environment and community design, which are factors that influence population health and health disparities. To determine the level in which a plan addresses healthy living and active design, there is a need for a systematic, reliable and valid method of analyzing and scoring health-related content in plans and regulations. This paper describes the development and validation of a scoring tool designed to measure the strength and comprehensiveness of health-related content found in land use plans and the corresponding regulations. The measures are scored based on the presence of a specific item and the specificity and action-orientation of language. To establish reliability and validity, 42 land use plans and regulations from across the United States were scored January-April 2016. Results of the psychometric analysis indicate the scorecard is a reliable scoring tool for land use plans and regulations related to healthy living and active design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) scores showed strong inter-rater reliability for total strength and comprehensiveness. ICC scores for total implementation scores showed acceptable consistency among scorers. Cronbach's alpha values for all focus areas were acceptable. Strong content validity was measured through a committee vetting process. The development of this tool has far-reaching implications, bringing standardization of measurement to the field of land use plan assessment, and paving the way for systematic inclusion of health-related design principles, policies, and requirements in land use plans and their corresponding regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatiotemporal Land Use Change Analysis Using Open-source GIS and Web Based Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yusryzal Wan Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal changes are very important information to reveal the characteristics of the urbanization process. Sharing the information is beneficial for public awareness which then improves their participation in adaptive management for spatial planning process. Open-source software and web application are freely available tools that can be the best medium used by any individual or agencies to share this important information. The objective of the paper is to discuss on the spatiotemporal land use change in Iskandar Malaysia by using open-source GIS (Quantum GIS and publish them through web application (Mash-up. Land use in 1994 to 2011 were developed and analyzed to show the landscape change of the region. Subsequently, web application was setup to distribute the findings of the study. The result show there is significant changes of land use in the study area especially on the decline of agricultural and natural land which were converted to urban land uses. Residential and industrial areas largely replaced the agriculture and natural areas particularly along the coastal zone of the region. This information is published through interactive GIS web in order to share it with the public and stakeholders. There are some limitations of web application but still not hindering the advantages of using it. The integration of open-source GIS and web application is very helpful in sharing planning information particularly in the study area that experiences rapid land use and land cover change. Basic information from this study is vital for conducting further study such as projecting future land use change and other related studies in the area.

  1. Land-use systems and resilience of tropical rain forests in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romero, Arturo; Oropeza-Orozco, Oralia; Galicia-Sarmiento, Leopoldo

    2004-12-01

    Land-cover types were analyzed for 1970, 1990 and 2000 as the bases for determining land-use systems and their influence on the resilience of tropical rain forests in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico. Deforestation (DR) and mean annual transformation rates were calculated from land-cover change data; thus, the classification of land-use change processes was determined according to their impact on resilience: a) Modification, including land-cover conservation and intensification, and b) Conversion, including disturbance and regeneration processes. Regeneration processes, from secondary vegetation under extensive use, cultivated vegetation under intensive use, and cultivated or induced vegetation under extensive use to mature or secondary vegetation, have high resilience capacity. In contrast, cattle-raising is characterized by rapid expansion, long-lasting change, and intense damages; thus, recent disturbance processes, which include the conversion to cattle-raising, provoke the downfall of the traditional agricultural system, and nullify the capacity of resilience of tropical rain forest. The land-use cover change processes reveal a) the existence of four land-use systems (forestry, extensive agriculture, extensive cattle-raising, and intensive uses) and b) a trend towards the replacement of agricultural and forestry systems by extensive cattle-raising, which was consolidated during 1990-2000 (DR of evergreen tropical rain forest = 4.6%). Only the forestry system, which is not subject to deforestation, but is affected by factors such as selective timber, extraction, firewood collection, grazing, or human-induced fire, is considered to have high resilience (2 years), compared to agriculture (2-10 years) or cattle-raising (nonresilient). It is concluded that the analysis of land-use systems is essential for understanding the implications of land-use cover dynamics on forest recovery and land degradation in tropical rain forests.

  2. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  3. Does Personality Matter? Applying Holland's Typology to Analyze Students' Self-Selection into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…

  4. Advantages of using ‘omics’ technologies and bioinformatics for analyzing the impact of pathogens on sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the history of American sugarbeet production, research has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of new diseases, and sugarbeet scientists have used the technologies available to improve disease management and crop yield in the face of the emerging disease pressures. Many traditional...

  5. Influence of land use configurations on river sediment pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2017-10-01

    Land use is an influential factor in river sediment pollution. However, land use type alone is found to be inadequate to explain pollutant contributions to the aquatic environment since configurations within the same land use type such as land cover and development layout could also exert an important influence. Consequently, this paper discusses a research study, which consisted of an in-depth investigation into the relationship between land use type and river sediment pollution by introducing robust parameters that represent configurations within the primary land use types. Urban water pollutants, namely, nutrients, total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals were investigated in the study. The outcomes show that higher patch density and more diverse land use development forms contribute relatively greater pollutant loads to receiving waters and consequently leading to higher sediment pollution. The study outcomes are expected to contribute essential knowledge for creating robust management strategies to minimise waterway pollution and thereby protect the health of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamism of Transportation and Land Use Interaction in Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rajesh J.; Katti, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    Transportation in urban areas is highly complex and the urban transport system is intricately linked with urban form and spatial structure. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, notably in high density areas. The spatial separation of human activities which creates the need for travel and goods transport is the underlying principle of transport analysis and forecasting. To understand the complex relationships between transportation and land use and to help the urban planning process, several models have been developed. Many theories, models are developed by different authors on land use and transportation interaction, which clearly indicate that change in land use transformation have a greater impact on transportation. Similarly, introducing new transportation facility or strengthening of existing transport facility makes an impact on the abutting land. In cities like Delhi, Navi Mumbai, Ahmedabad, introducing of new mass transport system or strengthening of existing transportation system had given greater impact on surrounding development. In this Paper the major theoretical approaches to explain the two-way interaction of land use and transport in metropolitan areas are summarized. The paper also reviews research on the two-way interaction between urban land use and transport, i.e. the location and mobility responses of private actors (households and firms, travelers) to changes in the urban land use and transport system at the urban regional level.

  7. Methods for land use impact assessment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perminova, Tataina, E-mail: tatiana.perminova@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sirina, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.sirina@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Laratte, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.laratte@utt.fr [Research Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainability, University of Technology of Troyes, CNRS UMR 6281, 12 Rue Marie Curie CS 42060, F-10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Baranovskaya, Natalia, E-mail: natalya.baranovs@mail.ru [Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Rikhvanov, Leonid, E-mail: rikhvanov@tpu.ru [Department of Geoecology and Geochemistry, Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Many types of methods to assess land use impact have been developed. Nevertheless a systematic synthesis of all these approaches is necessary to highlight the most commonly used and most effective methods. Given the growing interest in this area of research, a review of the different methods of assessing land use impact (LUI) was performed using bibliometric analysis. One hundred eighty seven articles of agricultural and biological science, and environmental sciences were examined. According to our results, the most frequently used land use assessment methods are Life-Cycle Assessment, Material Flow Analysis/Input–Output Analysis, Environmental Impact Assessment and Ecological Footprint. Comparison of the methods allowed their specific features to be identified and to arrive at the conclusion that a combination of several methods is the best basis for a comprehensive analysis of land use impact assessment. - Highlights: • We identified the most frequently used methods in land use impact assessment. • A comparison of the methods based on several criteria was carried out. • Agricultural land use is by far the most common area of study within the methods. • Incentive driven methods, like LCA, arouse the most interest in this field.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF Land use and land protection IN DANGEROUS EROSION AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tymoshevskyi

    2017-05-01

    properties of the land for future generations. Providing an integrated approach to planning land use and protection, including protection of soil in the context of sustainable development is one of the basic key of "Agenda XXI", "Strategy for sustainable development of Ukraine - 2020" and "Sustainable development of Ukraine during 2016-2030". In the context of a new climate agreement established by Paris conference where marked action by conservation and increasing absorbent of greenhouse gases, an important role as a ground like controller carbon and nitrogen cycles. High capacity for carbon sequestration are degraded soils in the process of restoring their properties. Potential of soil for absorption and retention of carbon can be increased by soil-reproduction techniques, including erosion control measures. Land management is quite a tool that has evolved to a multi-role that should provide a basis for decision-making in all areas related with land and land use. Therefore, development and implementation of land management projects of land use and protection can be and should be the basis for the implementation of safety land use in dangerous erosion agricultural landscapes. These projects will provide slowing and stopping anthropogenically accelerated erosion processes from one hand, and ensure efficient economic activity from other. Land management projects should include land zoning for allotment of eco-technology groups of arable land, according to which a decision on further land use and development of agricultural landscapes and placing shelterbelts, which should be an essential component of landscapes. Therefore, for safety land use in dangerous erosion agricultural landscapes consider the following: the differential use of agricultural land depending of soil cover and relief; observance of safe slope drainage of runoff; meadow slopes along drainage channels; shelterbelts placement systems for water and wind regulatory.

  9. New Estimates of Land Use Intensity of Potential Bioethanol Production in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheshgi, H. S.; Song, Y.; Torkamani, S.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate potential bioethanol land use intensity (the inverse of potential bioethanol yield per hectare) across the United States by modeling crop yields and conversion to bioethanol (via a fermentation pathway), based on crop field studies and conversion technology analyses. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to estimate the potential yield of four crops - corn, Miscanthus, and two variants of switchgrass (Cave-in-Rock and Alamo) - across the U.S.A. landscape for the 14-year period from 1999 through 2012, for the case with fertilizer application but without irrigation. We estimate bioethanol yield based on recent experience for corn bioethanol production from corn kernel, and current cellulosic bioethanol process design specifications under the assumption of the maximum practical harvest fraction for the energy grasses (Miscanthus and switchgrasses) and a moderate (30%) harvest fraction of corn stover. We find that each of four crops included has regions where that crop is estimated to have the lowest land use intensity (highest potential bioethanol yield per hectare). We find that minimizing potential land use intensity by including both corn and the energy grasses only improves incrementally to that of corn (using both harvested kernel and stover for bioethanol). Bioethanol land use intensity is one fundamental factor influencing the desirability of biofuels, but is not the only one; others factors include economics, competition with food production and land use, water and climate, nitrogen runoff, life-cycle emissions, and the pace of crop and technology improvement into the future.

  10. Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interests in weekend trips are increasing, but few have studied how they are affected by land use. In this study, we analyze the relationship between compact land use characteristics and trip time in Seoul, Korea by comparing two research models, each of which uses the weekday and weekend data of the same travelers. To secure sufficient numbers of subjects and groups, full random coefficients multilevel models define the trip as level one and the neighborhood as level two, and find that level-two land use characteristics account for less variation in trip time than level-one individual characteristics. At level one, weekday trip time is found to be reduced by the choice of the automobile as a travel mode, but not by its ownership per se. In addition, it becomes reduced if made by high income travelers and extended to travel to quality jobs. Among four land use characteristics at level two, population density, road connectivity, and subway availability are shown to be significant in the weekday model. Only subway availability has a positive relationship with trip time and this finding is consistent with the level-one result that the choice of automobile alternatives increases trip time. The other land use characteristic, land use balance, turns out to be a single significant land use variable in the weekend model, implying that it is concerned mainly with non-work, non-mandatory travel.

  11. Life Cycle Inventory Modelling of Land Use Induced by Crop Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2008-01-01

    The actual land use consequences of crop consumption are not very well reflected in existing life cycle inventories. The state of the art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is produced, and consequently the inventories do...... establishment of a link between crop demand and technological development. Through this approach, life cycle inventories for crops reflecting the actual land use consequences of consumption can be established. Further work (based on the methodological framework in this study) will address the practical...... falling at a global scale and are projected to decline further. At the same time, crop yields per hectare are continuously increasing. This indicates that drivers other than crop demand have a strong influence on technological development in crop production. Economic modelling in combination...

  12. The Land-Use Legacy Effect: Groundwater mechanisms behind ecosystem responses to land use/cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. L.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    While many studies have linked land use/land cover (LULC) to aquatic ecosystem responses, only a few have linked the dynamics of changing LULC to water quality through a mechanistic understanding of flow paths and travel times. The Huron River Watershed, along with most of the rest of of Michigan has undergone extensive LULC change over the past century, shifting from a primarily agricultural to a suburban landscape, and includes sites that cover a range of historical LULC trajectories. We coupled a multi-temporal GIS database of LULC data (circa 1800, 1880, 1938, 1955, 1968, 1978, 1995, and 2006) with a model of groundwater flow paths to create a "Legacy Map" of LULC for each 109x109m model cell in the study area. We then investigate relationships between time-varying LULC and lake water chemistry, ranging from nutrients to conservative ions, using multiple linear regression over a range of spatial scales. Our study illustrates that there are large areas where there may be a temporal mismatch between LULC of the current landscape and LULC expressed in the lake via water chemistry. Specifically, watershed areas that have long groundwater pathways may be delivering water more representative of historical LULC than current LULC. Moreover, some water chemistry variables (SRP, Cl, Na) have stronger links to current LULC and others (NH4) have a stronger link to legacy LULC. This study highlights the important role that "groundwatersheds" play in linking the landscape to aquatic systems. We then zoom out to apply this concept to Michigan's Lower Peninsula to show the extent that groundwatersheds and surface watersheds are also spatially mismatched. These two perspectives suggest a need to consider both groundwater legacies and groundwatersheds in nutrient management and watershed planning.

  13. Co-evolution of transportation and land use : modeling historical dependencies in land use and transportation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The interaction between land use and transportation has long been the central issue in urban and regional planning. Models of such : interactions provide vital information to support many public policy decisions, such as land supply, infrastructure p...

  14. Collect, analyze and data base for building up the investment reports of Center for Nuclear Science and Technology construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quang Minh; Tran Chi Thanh; Cao Dinh Thanh; Mai Dinh Trung; Hoang Sy Than; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Trinh Van Giap; Le Ba Thuan; Vu Tien Ha

    2014-01-01

    Following the Contract No.19/HD/NVCB dated July 10, 2013 signed by the President of Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VINATOM), an additional ministerial Project was approval by the Decision No. 526/QD-VNLNT dated July 8, 2013 by the VINATOM President in order to implement an important task for VINATOM. This project was implemented by the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST) in Hanoi as management organization and VINATOM as the owner of project results. Main objectives of this Project are to support national budget for implementing to collected the general report from previous projects which are relevant to CNEST and new research reactor, IAEA guidance documents, documents provided by ROSATOM in seminars in 2010, 2012 and 2013, report from expert visits of Ministry of Science and Technology and completed the general report about the construction project of CNEST. (author)

  15. Examining the Relationships between Watershed Urban Land Use and Stream Water Quality Using Linear and Generalized Additive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ah Hwang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although close relationships between the water quality of streams and the types of land use within their watersheds have been well-documented in previous studies, many aspects of these relationships remain unclear. We examined the relationships between urban land use and water quality using data collected from 527 sample points in five major rivers in Korea—the Han, Geum, Nakdong, Younsan, and Seomjin Rivers. Water quality data were derived from samples collected and analyzed under the guidelines of the Korean National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program, and land use was quantified using products provided by the Korean Ministry of the Environment, which were used to create a Geographic Information System. Linear models (LMs and generalized additive models were developed to describe the relationships between urban land use and stream water quality, including biological oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorous (TP. A comparison between LMs and non-linear models (in terms of R2 and Akaike’s information criterion values indicated that the general additive models had a better fit and suggested a non-linear relationship between urban land use and water quality. Non-linear models for BOD, TN, and TP showed that each parameter had a similar relationship with urban land use, which had two breakpoints. The non-linear models suggested that the relationships between urban land use and water quality could be categorized into three regions, based on the proportion of urban land use. In moderate urban land use conditions, negative impacts of urban land use on water quality were observed, which confirmed the findings of previous studies. However, the relationships were different in very low urbanization or very high urbanization conditions. Our results could be used to develop strategies for more efficient stream restoration and management, which would enhance water quality based on the degree of urbanization in watersheds. In

  16. Analyzing the effect of technology-based intervention in language laboratory to improve listening skills of first year engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Pasupathi, Madhumathi

    2012-01-01

    First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroomlectures in English. This article reports an exploratory study that aimed to find out whether the listening competences of students improved when technology was deployed in language laboratory. It ...

  17. Land-use and climate effects on soil respiration quantified with a landscape sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use change alters the magnitudes and variability of soil respiration (Rs). However, the importance of ecosystem and landscape drivers of Rs remain poorly understood from an empirical and mechanistic standpoint and likely vary across climate gradients. To address this knowledge gap we asked, what regulates the spatial and temporal variation of Rs across a human dominated region? From a landscape perspective, climate and land-use are hypothesized to be key drivers of Rs. From a soil physiological perspective, variability in temperature, moisture, and substrate availability regulate Rs. According to an inverse metabolic activity hypothesis, systems with higher metabolic activity will have less temporal variability in Rs than those with lower rates. Alternatively, soil substrate availability may drive sensitivity of Rs to water inputs. To quantify variability in Rs and test hypotheses of its regulation we deployed an Rs sensor network beginning in November 2013 with nodes distributed across three land-use types - lawn, agriculture, and wildland - at three sub-regions spanning a coastal to inland to desert climate gradient (total 9 sites, 3 land-uses x 3 sub-regions). At each node we are measuring soil Rs using the flux gradient approach, which includes soil state CO2 sensors, temperature, and moisture measured at three depths and at five minute intervals. We analyzed the data for the winter sampling period, which is southern California's rainy season. The mean of Rs was lowest at the coastal and highest in the desert sub-regions for both lawn (3.99 and 4.7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and wildland (0.23 and 0.49 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) land-uses. Rs was the highest in the inland sub-region for agricultural land-uses (4.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). Lawn and wildland land-uses had increasing coefficient of variation in Rs across the coastal to desert climate gradient, while agriculture had decreasing variation. Sites that had higher mean fluxes and soil organic matter, a proxy for

  18. Internal Migration and Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Middle Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana KC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The movement of rural households from remote uplands to valley floors and to semiurban and urban areas (internal migration is a common phenomenon in the middle mountain districts of Nepal. Understanding the causes and effects of internal migration is critical to the development and implementation of policies that promote land use planning and sustainable resource management. Using geospatial information technologies and social research methods, we investigated the causes and effects of internal migration on land use and land cover patterns in a western mountain district of Nepal between 1998 and 2013. The results show a decreasing number of households at high elevations (above 1400 m, where an increase in forest cover has been observed with a consequent decrease in agricultural land and shrub- or grassland. At lower elevations (below 1400 m, forest cover has remained constant over the last 25 years, and the agricultural land area has increased but has become geometrically complex to meet the diverse needs and living requirements of the growing population. Our findings indicate that internal migration plays an important role in shaping land use and land cover change in the middle mountains of Nepal and largely determines the resource management, utilization, and distribution patterns within a small geographic unit. Therefore, land use planning must take an integrated and interdisciplinary approach rather than considering social, environmental, and demographic information in isolation.

  19. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Social dilemmas and individual/group coordination strategies in a complex rural land-use game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Barrios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening ongoing bottom-up capacity building processes for local and sustainable landscape-level governance is a multi-dimensional social endeavor. One of the tasks involved – participatory rural land use planning – requires more understanding and more awareness among all stakeholders regarding the social dilemmas local people confront when responding to each other’s land-use decisions. In this paper we will analyze and discuss a version of our game SIERRA SPRINGS that is simple to play for any stakeholder that can count to 24, yet entails a complex-coordination land use game – with an extensive and yet finite set of solutions – which can mimic in a stylized form some of the dilemmas landowners could confront in a landscape planning process where there livelihoods are at stake. The game has helped researchers and players observe and reflect on the individual coordination strategies that emerge within a group in response to these stylized dilemmas. This paper (1 develops a game-theoretical approach to cooperation, competition and coordination of land uses in small rural watersheds, (2 describe the goal, rules and mechanics of the game, (3 analyzes the structure of each farms’ solution set vs. the whole watershed’s solution set, (4 derives from them the coordination dilemmas and the risk of coordination failure, (5 describes four individual coordination strategies consistently displayed by players; mapping them in a plane we have called Group-Level Coordination Space, and (6 discusses the strengths, limitations and actual and potential uses of the game both for research and as an introductory tool for stakeholders involved in participatory land use planning.

  1. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  2. Coupling Cellular Automata Land Use Change with Distributed Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, L.; Duffy, C.

    2017-12-01

    There has been extensive research on LUC modeling with broad applications to simulating urban growth and changing demographic patterns across multiple scales. The importance of land conversion is a critical issue in watershed scale studies and is generally not treated in most watershed modeling approaches. In this study we apply spatially explicit hydrologic and landuse change models and the Conestoga Watershed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) partitions the water balance in space and time over the urban catchment, the coupled Cellular Automata Land Use Change model (CALUC) dynamically simulates the evolution of land use classes based on physical measures associated with population change and land use demand factors. The CALUC model is based on iteratively applying discrete rules to each individual spatial cell. The essence the CA modeling involves calculation of the Transition Potential (TP) for conversion of a grid cell from one land use class to another. This potential includes five factors: random perturbation, suitability, accessibility, neighborhood effect, inertia effects and zonal factors. In spite of simplicity, this CALUC model has been shown to be very effective for simulating LUC leading to the emergence of complex spatial patterns. The components of TP are derived from present land use data for landuse reanalysis and for realistic future land use scenarios. For the CALUC we use early-settlement (circa 1790) initial land class values and final or present-day (2010) land classes to calibrate the model. CALUC- PIHM dynamically simulates the hydrologic response of conversion from pre-settlement to present landuse. The simulations highlight the capability and value of dynamic coupling of catchment hydrology with land use change over long time periods. Analysis of the simulation uses various metrics such as the distributed water balance, flow duration curves, etc. to show how deforestation, urbanization and

  3. Human land-use change impacts rainfall seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic land-use change has profoundly changed the Earth's terrestrial water cycle. Studies of how land-use change induced modifications in terrestrial evaporation alters atmospheric moisture content and subsequent precipitation (i.e.., moisture recycling) have primarily focussed on the annual mean impacts. However, the functioning of agriculture and ecosystems are often dependent on the onset, length, and magnitude of the growing season rainfall. Hence, rainfall seasonality is of crucial importance. Here, we (1) analyse how humans have altered rainfall seasonality through land-use change induced modification of moisture recycling, (2) investigate the mechanisms for the rainfall seasonality changes, and (3) discuss how downwind regions may be affected by rainfall seasonality changes. We model human land-use change effects (including irrigation) on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. We find that changes in rainfall seasonality is considerably stronger than changes to mean annual precipitation, and is accentuated in locations downwind to significant land-use changes. In particular, we associate sustained rainfall season downwind with land-use types that favour transpiration. This effect is explained by the long residence time of transpiration in both the unsaturated zone and the atmosphere, in contrast to interception and soil evaporation. Our results shed light on the human influence of hydrological systems both locally and at large distances, and which may have crucial implications for agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. These insights are important in a time of both rapid land-use and climate change.

  4. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  5. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  6. Impact of Land Use on PM2.5 Pollution in a Representative City of Middle China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiou Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been suggested as an approach to mitigate PM2.5 pollution. However, there are only a few researches analyzing the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution. This paper employed land use regression (LUR models and statistical analysis to explore the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution in urban areas. Nanchang city, China, was taken as the study area. The LUR models were used to simulate the spatial variations of PM2.5 concentrations. Analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were employed to study the PM2.5 concentration variances among five different types of urban functional zones. Multiple linear regression was applied to explore the PM2.5 concentration variances among the same type of urban functional zone. The results indicate that the dominant factor affecting PM2.5 pollution in the Nanchang urban area was the traffic conditions. Significant variances of PM2.5 concentrations among different urban functional zones throughout the year suggest that land use types generated a significant impact on PM2.5 concentrations and the impact did not change as the seasons changed. Land use intensity indexes including the building volume rate, building density, and green coverage rate presented an insignificant or counter-intuitive impact on PM2.5 concentrations when studied at the spatial scale of urban functional zones. Our study demonstrates that land use can greatly affect the PM2.5 levels. Additionally, the urban functional zone was an appropriate spatial scale to investigate the impact of land use type on PM2.5 pollution in urban areas.

  7. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and

  8. Impact of Land Use on PM2.5Pollution in a Representative City of Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Zhaofeng

    2017-04-26

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM 2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been suggested as an approach to mitigate PM 2.5 pollution. However, there are only a few researches analyzing the effect of land use on PM 2.5 pollution. This paper employed land use regression (LUR) models and statistical analysis to explore the effect of land use on PM 2.5 pollution in urban areas. Nanchang city, China, was taken as the study area. The LUR models were used to simulate the spatial variations of PM 2.5 concentrations. Analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were employed to study the PM 2.5 concentration variances among five different types of urban functional zones. Multiple linear regression was applied to explore the PM 2.5 concentration variances among the same type of urban functional zone. The results indicate that the dominant factor affecting PM 2.5 pollution in the Nanchang urban area was the traffic conditions. Significant variances of PM 2.5 concentrations among different urban functional zones throughout the year suggest that land use types generated a significant impact on PM 2.5 concentrations and the impact did not change as the seasons changed. Land use intensity indexes including the building volume rate, building density, and green coverage rate presented an insignificant or counter-intuitive impact on PM 2.5 concentrations when studied at the spatial scale of urban functional zones. Our study demonstrates that land use can greatly affect the PM 2.5 levels. Additionally, the urban functional zone was an appropriate spatial scale to investigate the impact of land use type on PM 2.5 pollution in urban areas.

  9. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-lin Luo

    Full Text Available As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 μm to 5.749 μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U>D sand (U>D sand and D silt>D silt(U>D sand>D sand(U, respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies.

  10. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

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    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  11. Mapping ecosystem services for land use planning, the case of Central Kalimantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  12. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, James T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Homans, D. David

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%–4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species.

  13. Plant-trait-based modeling assessment of ecosystem-service sensitivity to land-use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Fabien; Lavorel, Sandra; Thuiller, Wilfried; Davies, Ian

    2007-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the continued provision of essential ecosystem services is vulnerable to land-use change. Yet, we lack a strong scientific basis for this vulnerability as the processes that drive ecosystem-service delivery often remain unclear. In this paper, we use plant traits to assess ecosystem-service sensitivity to land-use change in subalpine grasslands. We use a trait-based plant classification (plant functional types, PFTs) in a landscape modeling platform to model community dynamics under contrasting but internally consistent land-use change scenarios. We then use predictive models of relevant ecosystem attributes, based on quantitative plant traits, to make projections of ecosystem-service delivery. We show that plant traits and PFTs are effective predictors of relevant ecosystem attributes for a range of ecosystem services including provisioning (fodder), cultural (land stewardship), regulating (landslide and avalanche risk), and supporting services (plant diversity). By analyzing the relative effects of the physical environment and land use on relevant ecosystem attributes, we also show that these ecosystem services are most sensitive to changes in grassland management, supporting current agri-environmental policies aimed at maintaining mowing of subalpine grasslands in Europe.

  14. Land use and water quality degradation in the Peixe-Boi River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wendell de Freitas Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped the land use and land cover of the catchment area of the Peixe-Boi River watershed, in northeast Pará, in order to identify conflicts of land use in the permanent preservation areas, and to relate them to water quality. We used LISS-3 sensor imagery from the Resourcesat satellite with a spatial resolution of 23.5 m for supervised classification of land use and land cover based on 22 training samples. Water quality was determined based on 28 sampling points in drainage network. The relationship between human disturbance and water quality was analyzed based on observations of land use changes using satellite imagery and in situ collection of water samples. The results show that 46% of the permanent preservation areas have conflicted uses, especially with respect to urban squatters, exposed soil and, most notably, pasture, with over 84 % of the area in conflict. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen reaching 2.14 mg L-1 and pH of 5.12 were observed in some sampling points. These values are below the fresh water standards set by Resolution 357/05 of CONAMA. The poorest water quality may be related to irregular use and occupation of areas within the permanent preservation areas. There is therefore an urgent need to develop a plan for the sustainable use and occupation of catchment area land in the Peixe-Boi River watershed in order to restore the environment and improve water quality.

  15. The effect of land use change on water quality: A case study in Ciliwung Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Setiawan, Yudi; Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Effendi, Hefni

    2017-01-01

    Ciliwung is the biggest river in Jakarta. It is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. It flows from Bogor Regency and crosses Bogor City, Depok City, and Jakarta before finally flowing into Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. The water quality in Ciliwung River has degraded. Many factors affect water quality. Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Ciliwung Watershed based on the water quality monitoring data and remote sensing data in 2010 and 2014. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The result can provide scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  16. Response Characteristics of Soil Fractal Features to Different Land Uses in Typical Purple Soil Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743μm to 5.749μm for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 μm. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is Dclayfractal dimension (Dvi) are higher than the corresponding parameter values from the United States Department of Agriculture (Dvi(U)). The correlation study between the volume domain fractal dimension and the soil properties shows that the intensity of correlation to the soil texture and soil organic matter has the order as: Dsilt>Dsilt(U)>Dsand (U)>Dsand and Dsilt>Dsilt(U)>Dsand>Dsand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the Dsilt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies. PMID:25856376

  17. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone.

  18. Mapping Ecosystem Services for Land Use Planning, the Case of Central Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  19. Land use mediates riverine nitrogen export under the dominant influence of human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binhui; Chang, Scott X.; Lam, Shu Kee; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing

    2017-09-01

    Riverine nitrogen (N) export is a crucial process that links upstream and downstream ecosystems and coastal zones. However, the driving forces of riverine N export that is closely related to water N pollution are still not well understood. In this study, we used a mass balance approach to quantify the sources of N discharge and analyzed the effect of land use composition on riverine N export, taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case study. We found that the total reactive N discharge to rivers in Zhejiang increased from 0.22 to 0.26 Tg yr-1 from 2000 to 2015. At the watershed scale, our estimate of N export agrees well with the monitored riverine N concentration in the eight major watersheds in Zhejiang. Direct discharge of domestic wastewater and effluents from wastewater treatment plants are dominant sources of riverine N export, followed by agricultural non-point sources. Although riverine N export increases with the increasing proportion of urban and agricultural land uses, we did not find any relationship between land use change and changes in riverine N export. This suggests that the dominant factor affecting riverine N export should be human activities (e.g. wastewater discharge and fertilization level), while land use only mediates riverine N export.

  20. [New method for analyzing pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Qu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Qing-Guo

    2013-09-01

    Study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines is one of the key issues for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Having introduced the monoclonal antibody technology into the study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines, the author prepared the immunoaffinity chromatography column by using monoclonal antibodies in active components of traditional Chinese medicines, so as to selectively knock out the component from herbs or traditional Chinese medicine compounds, while preserving all of the other components and keeping their amount and ratio unchanged. A comparative study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was made to explicitly reveal the correlation between the component and the main purpose of traditional Chinese medicines and compounds. The analysis on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies is a new method for study pharmacodynamic material basis in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines. Its results can not only help study material basis from a new perspective, but also help find the modern scientific significance in single herb or among compounds of traditional Chinese medicines.

  1. Is urbanization eco-friendly? An energy and land use cross-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, X.; Ji, Xi; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization imposes complicated and heterogeneous impacts on ecosystems. With the purpose of reflecting the comprehensive influence of urbanization on the ecosystem, we choose the ecological footprint to represent the ecosystem's integrated change and distinguish low-income, middle-income and high-income countries to reflect the nonlinear impact. This paper uses both static and dynamic STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) models to analyze 72 countries at different income levels during the 1980–2008 period. The results show that the overall ecological elasticity of urbanization at the global level is negative. Specifically, results suggest urbanization, associated to increased income, to have eco-friendly potential in terms of decreased ecological footprint. To explain such results, this paper answers two questions: Why does urbanization show ecological protection effects? Why does a more pronounced protection effect seem associated to increased income levels? Improved market mechanism, increased resource use efficiency as well as increased environmental awareness in urban areas associated to increased income levels are likely to support an eco-friendly urbanization process. Burden-shift to low-income countries also needs to be taken into account, in order to avoid policies that increase wellbeing locally at the expenses of far-away areas. - Highlights: • Ecological effects of urbanization are estimated. • Ecological footprint is used to represent the integrated change related to energy and land use. • Static and dynamic STIRPAT models are employed for regression. • The reasons for the ecological protection effect of urbanization are analyzed. • The heterogeneity of urban structure and function across income levels is discussed.

  2. Understanding Land Use Impacts on Groundwater Quality Using Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; Masarik, K.; Masterpole, D.; Johnson, B.; Piette, S.

    2017-12-01

    Chippewa County, in western Wisconsin, has a unique historical set of groundwater quality data. The county conducted extensive groundwater sampling of private wells in 1985 (715 wells) and 2007 (800 wells). In 2016, they collaborated with UW-Extension and UW-Stevens Point to evaluate the current status of groundwater quality in Chippewa County by sampling of as many of the previously studied wells as possible. Nitrate was a primary focus of this groundwater quality inventory. Of the 744 samples collected, 60 were further analyzed for chemical indicators of agricultural and septic waste, two major sources of nitrate contamination. Wells for nitrate source analysis were selected from the 2016 participants based upon certain criteria. Only wells with a Wisconsin Unique Well Number were considered to ensure well construction information was available. Next, an Inverse Distance Weighting tool in ESRI ArcMap was used to assign values categorizing septic density. Two-thirds of the wells were selected in higher density areas and one-third in lower density areas. Equally prioritized was an even distribution of nitrate - N concentrations, with 28 of the wells having nitrate - N concentrations higher than the drinking water standard of 10 mg/L and 32 wells with concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/L. All wells with WUWN and nitrate - N concentrations greater than 20 mg/L were selected. The results of the nitrate source analyses will aid in determining temporal changes and spatial relationships of groundwater quality to soils, geology and land use in Chippewa County.

  3. Effects of land use and climate change on ecosystem services in Central Asia's arid regions: A case study in Altay Prefecture, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Li, Bo; Hou, Ying; Bi, Xu; Zhang, Xinshi

    2017-12-31

    The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of different land use and climate change conditions on ES. The results show that the area of forest and bare land decreased in Altay Prefecture. In contrast, the area of grassland with low coverage and cropland increased. The climate of this area presented an overall warming-wetting trend, with warming-drying and cooling-wetting phenomena in some areas. Soil conservation in the mountain zone, water yield in the oasis zone, and sand fixation in the desert zone all decreased under the influence of land use change alone. The warming-drying trend led to decreased water yield in the oasis zone and increased wind erosion in the desert zone. Based on the results, we recommend that local governments achieve sustainable use of ES by planting grasslands with high coverage in the oasis zone, increasing investment in agricultural science and technology, and establishing protected areas in the mountain and desert zones. The methodology in our study can also be applied to other regions with a MODS structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Drivers of Households’ Land-Use Decisions: A Critical Review of Micro-Level Studies in Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hettig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews 91 recent empirical and theoretical studies that analyzed land-use change at the farm-household level. The review builds on a conceptual framework of land-use change drivers and conducts a meta-analysis. Results show that the conversion of forests into cultivated land or grassland, mainly used for agriculture or ranching, are most frequently analyzed. Only a small number of studies consider the transition of wetlands for agriculture and few cases deal with the conversion from agriculture into protected zones. Moreover, interactions between drivers add to the complexity of land-use change processes. These interrelationships are conditioned by institutions and policies. In particular, the market-oriented reforms adopted by many developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s seem to have had an important role in altering land use, while impacts of more recent policies need to be better explored. Many studies rely on small samples and face problems of internal validity. Despite these weaknesses, the literature points at micro-level economic growth, for example in income and capital endowments, as a strong catalyst of human induced land-use change. However, the review suggests that—across the different studies and cases—there is considerable heterogeneity in the relationship between these factors and land-use change.

  5. China Land-Use Change Simulation Under Climate Mitigation Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, N.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Future land-use change responses to human activities and plays a significant role in the whole earth system. Land use data in most climatic models are static which result in a decreased accuracy of evaluation of human activities and also largely lower the efficiency of policy makers. After the RCP scenarios came out, the land use change trends in China for the near future were rarely shown. This paper provides a method to simulate the future land use change in China based on climate mitigation scenarios. The MCD12Q1 product of MODIS and HYDE32 data are combined to make the base land use maps for China of 2005 and 2010. Totally four scenarios are made according to the Chinese national land use overall plan outlines and the statistic data from GCAM. Driving factors from social-economic, ecologic and spatial location aspects are considered including GDP, population density, temperature, precipitation, dominant soil type, elevation, slope, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to cities. Simulation is then carried out in 14 agricultural-zones desperately with Dyna-CLUE. Each scenario reflects seperate effects of human activities on land use change. Plan scenario represents the stage of a high speed of urban expansion. Under the condition that urban area would not largely change, the other three GCAM scenarios mainly discuss the situations focused on the change of vegetation cover. We find that: (1)The urban area expands largely in Plan scenario, and G2.6 gets the most forest and crop area which shows environment-friendly human activities to the ecologic balance (Figure 1a,1b). (2) Compare to the 2010 land use map, forest increases mainly happen in the northeast China and central plains region under the G2.6 scenario. However, urban expansion under the Plan scenario occurs not in the Yangtze River Delta or Pearl River Delta economic region but in the second or third developed level cities such as Wuhan, Jinan, and Nanchang (Figure1c,1d). (3)The kappa value

  6. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  8. Modeling Land-Use Decision Behavior with Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Aalders

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to incorporate and manage the different drivers of land-use change in a modeling process is one of the key challenges because they are complex and are both quantitative and qualitative in nature. This paper uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN to incorporate characteristics of land managers in the modeling process and to enhance our understanding of land-use change based on the limited and disparate sources of information. One of the two models based on spatial data represented land managers in the form of a quantitative variable, the area of individual holdings, whereas the other model included qualitative data from a survey of land managers. Random samples from the spatial data provided evidence of the relationship between the different variables, which I used to develop the BBN structure. The model was tested for four different posterior probability distributions, and results showed that the trained and learned models are better at predicting land use than the uniform and random models. The inference from the model demonstrated the constraints that biophysical characteristics impose on land managers; for older land managers without heirs, there is a higher probability of the land use being arable agriculture. The results show the benefits of incorporating a more complex notion of land managers in land-use models, and of using different empirical data sources in the modeling process. Future research should focus on incorporating more complex social processes into the modeling structure, as well as incorporating spatio-temporal dynamics in a BBN.

  9. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce

  10. Accounting for time-dependent changes in GHG emissions in the Ribeiro appellation (NW Spain): Are land use changes an important driver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Otero, Marta; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental profile of a wine appellation was assessed for a 20 year period. • LUCs and LCA methods were linked to assess the GHG emissions in the appellation. • Winegrowing operations and land use were monitored up to the gate of the winery. • Different trends were found depending on the period assessed. • Demographic and social changes triggered changes in the carbon stocks. - Abstract: Land use changes (LUCs) constitute a crucial source of environmental impact in production systems, which are mostly associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This circumstance is especially important for the agricultural sector, since these imply an important proportion of the total GHG emissions occurring worldwide. Wine and grape production is a key sector in Spain, representing the largest surface area at European level. In the past decades, important wine related LUCs have been observed due to changes in farming methods/type, number of Denominations of Origin, and the establishment of larger wineries that have enhanced exports. The current study presents a temporally based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of the Ribeiro appellation in NW Spain, in which the gradual changes in the land use, as well as the technological improvements are analyzed in detail in order to understand how the environmental profile of this specific wine producing area has shifted in the past two decades (i.e., from 1990 to 2009). On the one hand, phenomena such as afforestation and agricultural intensification are analyzed throughout the appellation to estimate the impact due to GHG emissions linked to LUCs, based on IPCC standards. On the other hand, trends linked to technological improvements, operational changes, such as changes in the use and management of plant protection agents or fertilizers or the change in the energy sources for machinery on the vineyards, were assessed in detail

  11. Analyzing the Effect of Technology-Based Intervention in Language Laboratory to Improve Listening Skills of First Year Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Madhumathi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroomlectures in English. This article reports an exploratory study that aimed to find out whether the listening competences of students improved when technology was deployed in language laboratory. It also investigated the opinions of the students about using teacher-suggested websites for acquiring listening skills. The results of the study indicated that the use of technology in a language laboratory for training students in listening competences had reduced the anxiety of the students when listening to English. Further, there was a significant improvement on the part of students in acquiring listening skills through technology-based intervention.Muchos estudiantes de ingeniería de primer año en India tienen problemas con sus habilidades de escucha en inglés; experimentan ansiedad al momento de escuchar conferencias en inglés, pese a que provienen de colegios donde se sigue un modelo bilingüe para enseñar materias desde la primariahasta la secundaria. Con el objetivo de averiguar si las competencias de escucha de los estudiantes mejoran cuando se introduce la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas, se realizó un estudio exploratorio en el que se tuvieron en cuenta las opiniones de los estudiantes acerca del uso de sitios web sugeridos por el docente para adquirir habilidades de escucha. Los resultados indican que el uso de la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas reduce la ansiedad de los estudiantes al momento de escuchar conferencias en inglés y que progresan significativamente en sus habilidades de escucha.

  12. Land-use legacies in the forest structure of silvopastoral oak woodlands in the Eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    Eastern Mediterranean silvopastoral oak woodlands have been greatly damaged through forest conversion, illegal lumbering, overgrazing, and forest fires. The aim of this study was to assess land-use changes and the legacies that they have imprinted on the forest structure of Quercus macrolepis and accompanying Quercus pubescens and Quercus cerris woodlands on Lesvos Island, Greece. The size-structures of adult oak populations were analyzed as indicators of long-term oak regeneration, while sho...

  13. Land Use Change over the Amazon Forest and Its Impact on the Local Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Llopart; Michelle Simões Reboita; Erika Coppola; Filippo Giorgi; Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha; Diego Oliveira de Souza

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important anthropogenic influences on climate is land use change (LUC). In particular, the Amazon (AMZ) basin is a highly vulnerable area to climate change due to substantial modifications of the hydroclimatology of the region expected as a result of LUC. However, both the magnitude of these changes and the physical process underlying this scenario are still uncertain. This work aims to analyze the simulated Amazon deforestation and its impacts on local mean climate. We used t...

  14. LAND-USE DECISION MAKING, UNCERTAINTY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND REFORM IN ACRE, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewigs, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    From 1970 to 1999, almost 700,000 families were settled through land reform programs in Brazil. However, lot turnover contributed to re-concentration of land and to the limited success of these programs. This dissertation explores land-use decision-making in an aging land reform settlement in the Amazon. It focuses on how farmers respond to limited access to the information and to opportunities that are typical of the frontier context. I analyze the interactions among variables affecting fami...

  15. Changes in Carbon Emissions in Colombian Savannas Derived From Recent Land use and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, A.; Sarmiento, A.

    2007-12-01

    The global contribution of carbon emissions from land use dynamics and change to the global carbon (C) cycle is still uncertain, a major concern in global change modeling. Carbon emission from fires in the tropics is significant and represents 9% of the net primary production, and 50% of worldwide C emissions from fires are attributable to savanna fires. Such emissions may vary significantly due to differences in ecosystem types. Most savanna areas are devoted to grazing land uses making methane emissions also important in savanna ecosystems. Land use change driven by intensification of grazing and cropping has become a major factor affecting C emission dynamics from savanna regions. Colombia has some 17 MHa of mesic savannas which have been historically burned. Due to changes in market demands and improved accessibility during the last 20 years, important areas of savannas changed land use from predominantly extensive grazing to crops and intensive grazing systems. This research models and evaluates the impacts of such land use changes on the spatial and temporal burning patterns and C emissions in the Orinoco savannas of Colombia. We address the effects of land use change patterns using remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, ecosystem mapping products, and spatial GIS analysis. First we map the expansion of the agricultural frontier from the 1980s-2000s. We then model the changes in land use from the 1980s using a statistical modeling approach to analyze and quantify the impact of accessibility, ecosystem type and land tenure. We calculate the effects on C emissions from fire regimes and other sources of C based on patterns and extent of burned areas in the 2000s for different savanna ecosystem types and land uses. In the Llanos the fire regime exhibits a marked seasonal variability with most fire events occurring during the dry season between December-March. Our analysis shows that fire frequencies vary consistently between 0.6 and 2.8 fires.yr-1 per 2

  16. Farm Household Preferences and Evaluation of Land Use Change Policies for Agro-Forestry Plantations in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia : a Choice Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitompul, R.F.; Brouwer, R.; Sopaheluwakan, J.; van Beukering, P.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey for the analysis of choice experiment were made to 360 farmers in three selected villages in Central Kalimantan Province. The objective is to analyze the current land use and to observe the perception of farmers on converting part of their land use for bioenergy plantation. The

  17. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Ecosystem Service Values of a Reclamation Farm in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fanghua; Lai, Xuehui; Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Yiming; Wei, Xinfeng; Song, Kaiyu

    2012-11-01

    Intensive agricultural development can change land use, which can further affect regional ecosystem services and functions. With the rapid growth of the population and the national demand for food, the northeast of China, which is located in the high latitudes, has experienced four agricultural developments since the 1950s. The original wetlands of this area were developed for farmland. The evaluation of ecosystem services is conducted to reveal the ecosystem status and variable trends caused by land reclamation. The aim of this study is to provide scientific basis for environmental management and for the sustainable development of agriculture in Northeast China. With GIS-RS technology, a typical farm was chosen to analyze variations in the ecosystem service value in response to land use changes during the study period. The total ecosystem service value of the farm decreased from 7523.10 million Yuan in 1979 to 4023.59 million Yuan in 2009 with an annual rate of -1.6 % due to the decreasing areas of woodland and wetland. The increased areas of cropland, water area and grassland partly offset the loss of the total value, but the loss was still greater than the compensation. Waste treatment and climate regulation were the top two service functions with high service values, contributing to approximately 50 % of the total service value. The spatial difference of the ecosystem service value also was analyzed. The wetlands located in the central and northeastern sections of the farm changed significantly. From the aspect of ecosystem service value, the wetland and water area should be conserved, as they have the highest value coefficients. The accuracy of the value coefficient, however, needs to be studied further in future research.

  18. Benefits of collaborative and comparative research on land use change and climate mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Gong, Peng

    2016-04-01

    The world's two largest economies are also the latest greenhouse gas emitters. The United States is committed to reduce the net greenhouse gas emission by 28% below the 2005 level by 2025. Similarly China also announced significant climate mitigation steps at the Paris climate convention. These policy plans will require actions including reduction of GHG emissions as well as protection of carbon stored in biologic pools and increase of carbon sequestration by the natural ecosystems. Major drivers of ecosystem carbon sequestration and protection of existing carbon resources include land use, disturbances, and climate change. Recent studies indicate that vegetated ecosystems in the United States remain as a carbon sink but the sink is weakening due to increased disturbances (such as wildfire and harvesting) and aging of forests. Unique land use policies in China such as large-scale afforestation in the recent decades have reportedly led to significant increase in total forest area and aboveground biomass, although it is not clear to what degree the increase has translated to strengthened net uptake of atmospheric CO2 and the rate of sequestration by vegetated ecosystems. What lessons can we draw from different land management and land use practices in the U.S. and China that can benefit scientific advances and climate mitigation goals? Research conducted collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey and China Ministry of Science and Technology has led to improved techniques for tracking and modeling land use change and ecosystem disturbances and improved understanding of consequences of different land use change and management practices on ecosystem carbon sequestration capacities.

  19. The Land Use Planning Imperative: Applying Carbon Emissions Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Havens, G.

    2007-12-01

    Reversing global warming is the defining crisis of the 21st century and must be dealt with, in part, by reinventing the built environment. Current land use and planning frameworks are not aligned with scientific models which can aid in the reversal of carbon emissions at the local and regional scale. The disjunction between land use planning and the scientific methodologies for calculating the impacts of climate change beg for a stronger union between climate change science and land use planning. Buildings account for approximately 35 percent of the U.S. carbon emissions while the transportation sector accounts for approximately 27 percent (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). To adopt energy efficiency measures and hence reduce carbon dioxide emissions at a site, city, or regional scale, land use planners and climate scientists must integrate their expertise to influence policy with precision and accuracy. Land use planners have influence over the design of the built environment in municipalities and institutions such as colleges and universities. In many ways, college and university campuses are microcosms of the land use patterns established historically; they demonstrate a lack of coordinated land use planning across the entire continent that is extremely dependent on the automobile and fossil fuels. Climate models predict that the average temperature at the Earth's surface could increase from 2.5 to 10.4ºF above 1990 levels by the end of this century (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Further, it is estimated that the country will have to construct an additional 213 billion square feet of built space by the year 2030 to accommodate the increasing population. Planning and design will dictate the degree to which land use change will exacerbate trends of global warming. It commands an integration of the methodology to calculate carbon emissions with the science

  20. Response of atmospheric CO2 to changes in land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.W.; Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter examines how different histories of CO 2 release from past changes in land use influence the simulation of past and future changes in atmospheric CO 2 . The authors first simulate past change in atmospheric CO 2 using reconstructed histories of land-use CO 2 release from a historical-ecological model of land-use change and CO 2 release. They examine the impact of each history on the coincidence between simulated and observed atmospheric CO 2 . They then compare these CO 2 release histories, and their contribution to coincidence or noncoincidence of simulation and observation, with histories reconstructed by deconvolution of the atmospheric CO 2 record. They conclude by exploring the implications of these deconvolved reconstructions for the simulation of future changes in atmospheric CO 2

  1. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210...... that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1831.1...

  2. Land Use Change and Global Adaptations to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Juliá

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the World Trade Model with Climate Sensitive Land (WTMCL to evaluate possible future land-use changes associated with adaptations to climate change in a globalized world. In this approach, changes in regional agricultural production, which are based on comparative advantage, define patterns of land use change in agriculture in all regions of the world. We evaluate four scenarios that combine assumptions about future increases in food demand and future changes in land endowments of different productivities associated with climatic conditions: each scenario generates distinct patterns of regional specialization in the production of agricultural commodities and associated land-use change. The analysis also projects future food availability under the simulated conditions and the direction of likely changes in prices of the major agricultural commodity groups.

  3. Soil erosion evaluation in a rapidly urbanizing city (Shenzhen, China) and implementation of spatial land-use optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Bo

    2015-03-01

    land with a steep slope, and (3) the protection of agricultural land. Three Pareto-optimal solutions are presented and analyzed for comparison. GA-based MOO is found able to solve the multi-objective land-use problem in Shenzhen by making a tradeoff among competing objectives. The outcome is alternative choices for decision-makers and planners.

  4. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs

  5. Modelling land use change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, Simon; Mijic, Ana; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a "hot spot" of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land use change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. This work aims to construct a monthly time series dataset of land use change for the period 1966 to 2007 for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality and availability of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) modelling framework, recoded in the R programming language to overcome limitations of the original interface. Non-spatial estimates of land use area published by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for the study period, available on an annual, district-wise basis, are used as a direct model input. Land use change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. The dataset will provide an essential input to a high-resolution, physically-based land-surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land use change on regional climate.

  6. BECCS and Sustainable Land-Use in Mitigation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in the future socio-economic scenarios to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative fossil fuel emissions in the end of the 21st century. Large scale use of BECCS implies certain amount of additional production of biofuels, which could potentially cause substantial carbon emissions from the land-use change. Developing sustainable low carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications involving the large scale BECCS. In this study, we use a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model to evaluate effects of land-use change in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative fossil fuel emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target used in CMIP5 future climate change analysis. We also run a global crop model to examine BECCS attainability in the land-use scenario with a consideration of future fertilizer and irrigation use options. In the evaluation, we consider the deployment of bioenergy with both first-generation and second-generation biofuels. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crop production would not be sufficient to achieve the required BECCS of RCP2.6 scenario even in the high fertilizer and irrigation use cases. It would require more than doubling the area for bioenergy crops production around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large scale land-use changes that emit significant amount of carbon from deforestation. To reduce the potential land-use change emissions, optimal use of second-generation biofuel crops are discussed.

  7. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  8. Urban land-use and respiratory symptoms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R; Belanger, Kathleen D; Leaderer, Brian P; Bell, Michelle L

    2011-07-01

    Children's respiratory health has been linked to many factors, including air pollution. The impacts of urban land-use on health are not fully understood, although these relationships are of key importance given the growing populations living in urban environments. We investigated whether the degree of urban land-use near a family's residence is associated with severity of respiratory symptoms like wheeze among infants. Wheeze occurrence was recorded for the first year of life for 680 infants in Connecticut for 1996-1998 from a cohort at risk for asthma development. Land-use categories were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. The fraction of urban land-use near each subject's home was related to severity of wheeze symptoms using ordered logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level data including smoking in the household, race, gender, and socio-economic status. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure was estimated using integrated traffic exposure modeling. Different levels of urban land-use intensity were included in separate models to explore intensity-response relationships. A buffer distance was selected based on the log-likelihood value of models with buffers of 100-2000 m by 10 m increments. A 10% increase in urban land-use within the selected 1540 m buffer of each infant's residence was associated with 1.09-fold increased risk of wheeze severity (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.16). Results were robust to alternate buffer sizes. When NO(2), representing traffic pollution, was added to the model, results for urban land-use were no longer statistically significant, but had similar central estimates. Higher urban intensity showed higher risk of prevalence and severity of wheeze symptoms. Urban land-use was associated with severity of wheeze symptoms in infants. Findings indicate that health effect estimates for urbanicity incorporate some effects of traffic-related emissions, but also involve other factors. These may include differences in housing

  9. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  10. Land Use Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Urban Crime: A Case Study of Szczecin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sypion-Dutkowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper falls into a common field of scientific research and its practical applications at the interface of urban geography, environmental criminology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The purpose of this study is to identify types of different land use which influence the spatial distribution of a set of crime types at the intra-urban scale. The originality of the adopted approach lies in its consideration of a large number of different land use types considered as hypothetically influencing the spatial distribution of nine types of common crimes, geocoded at the address-level: car crimes, theft of property—other, residential crimes, property damage, commercial crimes, drug crimes, burglary in other commercial buildings, robbery, and fights and battery. The empirical study covers 31,319 crime events registered by the Police in the years 2006–2010 in the Polish city of Szczecin with a population ca. 405,000. Main research methods used are the GIS tool “multiple ring buffer” and the “crime location quotient (LQC”. The main conclusion from this research is that a strong influence of land use types analyzed is limited to their immediate surroundings (i.e., within a distance of 50 m, with the highest concentration shown by commercial crimes and by the theft of property—other crime type. Land use types strongly attracting crime in this zone are alcohol outlets, clubs and discos, cultural facilities, municipal housing, and commercial buildings. In contrast, grandstands, cemeteries, green areas, allotment gardens, and depots and transport base are land use types strongly detracting crime in this zone.

  11. Realizing the child's perspective: An exploration of sixth-graders' ideas about land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan Shao-Chang

    Given the rapid rate of urbanization in the U.S., it is important to explore children's conceptions of land use and to understand children's relationships to the environment. In addition, the school is an important source of environmental information where curriculum and instruction play critical roles in shaping children's ideas. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate children's conceptions of land use in the context of an environmental science class. This was a naturalistic study conducted with 13 sixth-graders and their teacher in West-central Indiana. A social constructivist framework was utilized to steer data collection and to guide interpretation. Qualitative methods such as interviews, drawings and photograph journals were used to elicit children's ideas and field notes provided a rich description of the learning environment. Data were analyzed inductively and coded using case-specific criteria to organize and interpret data on an emergent basis. It was found that children in this study did not view humans as part of the environment. Land use was conceptualized as a human activity for human benefit, that is, children's conceptions of land use were framed by an anthropocentric worldview. Furthermore, children's conceptions of land use-related outcomes were negative and limited to large-scale, visible forms of environmental impacts. Environmental science instruction did not change these ideas; in fact, they were reinforced by the school curriculum. These findings suggest that exploring and applying the fundamental nature of children's ideas in environmental education and research is essential to the development of a land ethic as well as an environmentally literate citizenry.

  12. Land-use and fire drive temporal patterns of soil solution chemistry and nutrient fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Karin; Meyer, Stefanie; Crecelius, Anna C; Schubert, Ulrich S; Tischer, Alexander; Michalzik, Beate

    2017-12-15

    Land-use type and ecosystem disturbances are important drivers for element cycling and bear the potential to modulate soil processes and hence ecosystem functions. To better understand the effect of such drivers on the magnitude and temporal patterns of organic matter (OM) and associated nutrient fluxes in soils, continuous flux monitoring is indispensable but insufficiently studied yet. We conducted a field study to elucidate the impact of land-use and surface fires on OM and nutrient fluxes with soil solution regarding seasonal and temporal patterns analyzing short (Linear mixed model analyses exhibited that mean annual DOM and POM fluxes did not differ between the two land-use types, but were subjected to strong seasonal patterns. Fire disturbance significantly lowered the annual soil solution pH in both land-uses and increased water fluxes, while DOC fluxes remained unaffected. A positive response of POC and S to fire was limited to short-term effects, while amplified particulate and dissolved nitrogen fluxes were observed in the longer run and co-ocurred with accelerated Ca and Mg fluxes. In summary, surface fires generated stronger effects on element fluxes than the land-use. Fire-induced increases in POM fluxes suggest that the particulate fraction represent a major pathway of OM translocation into the subsoil and beyond. With regard to ecosystem functions, pasture ecosystems were less prone to the risk of nutrient losses following fire events than the forest. In pastures, fire-induced base cation export may accelerate soil acidification, consequently exhausting soil buffer systems and thus may reduce the resilience to acidic depositions and disturbances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Land use dynamics in favorable and unfavorable areas of southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkner, Jessica; Ahlrichs, Jan; Knopf, Thomas; Scholten, Thomas; Kühn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Since the Neolithic Revolution and the beginning of agriculture in central Europe about 7.500 a ago human influence on the environment is increasing. Human activities created a cultural landscape during the Holocene, which led to quasi-natural relief formation. Colluvial deposits are the correlate sediments of human induced soil erosion on slopes and depict an excellent archive for land use and landscape history. The present study combines pedological, archaeological and palynological knowledge with AMS 14C and luminescence datings to build up a chronostratigraphy of colluvial deposits, thereby allowing the reconstruction of past land use and settlement dynamics in the Baar and the Black Forest (SW Germany). Compared with Black Forest the Baar is a favorable area for agricultural land use, where seven main phases of colluvial deposition could be detected. Increased colluviation, and thus land use intensity, took place during the younger Neolithic ( 3700 BCE), the early to middle Bronze Age ( 1400 BCE), the Iron Age ( 500 BCE), the Roman Empire ( 200 CE) and in three phases from the High Middle Ages onwards ( 1100 CE, 1300 CE, 1600 CE). The Black Forest low mountain range is an unfavorable area characterized by low temperatures, high precipitation and steep slopes. Nevertheless, human influence dates back to the Neolithic in the Black Forest. Minor colluvial deposition phases were detected before the Middle Ages and increased formation of colluvial deposits during the High Middle Ages ( 1100 CE) and the Modern Times (>1500 CE). This colluvial stratigraphy shows an intense land use of the Black Forest area from the Middle Ages onwards. The different land use dynamics in the Baar area compared to the Black Forest will be discussed against the paleoenvironmental conditions reconstructed from different archives. It is to analyze whether climate was the main determining factor for the settlement pattern in time and space or if there were other factors responsible. Such

  14. Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jiyong; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Patel, Pralit L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2013-04-13

    This chapter explores uncertainty in future scenarios of energy, land use, emissions and radiative forcing that span the range in the literature for radiative forcing, but also consider uncertainty in two other dimensions, challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. We develop a set of six scenarios that we explore in detail including the underlying the context in which they are set, assumptions that drive the scenarios, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), used to produce quantified implications for those assumptions, and results for the global energy and land-use systems as well as emissions, concentrations and radiative forcing. We also describe the history of scenario development and the present state of development of this branch of climate change research. We discuss the implications of alternative social, economic, demographic, and technology development possibilities, as well as potential stabilization regimes for the supply of and demand for energy, the choice of energy technologies, and prices of energy and agricultural commodities. Land use and land cover will also be discussed with the emphasis on the interaction between the demand for bioenergy and crops, crop yields, crop prices, and policy settings to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  16. Unprecedented rates of land-use transformation in modeled climate change mitigation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. A.; Field, C. B.; Lobell, D. B.; Sanchez, D.; Mach, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) generate climate change mitigation scenarios consistent with global temperature targets. To limit warming to 2°, stylized cost-effective mitigation pathways rely on extensive deployments of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (CDR) technologies, including multi-gigatonne yearly carbon removal from the atmosphere through bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and afforestation/reforestation. These assumed CDR deployments keep ambitious temperature limits in reach, but associated rates of land-use transformation have not been evaluated. For IAM scenarios from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, we compare rates of modeled land-use conversion to recent observed commodity crop expansions. In scenarios with a likely chance of limiting warming to 2° in 2100, the rate of energy cropland expansion supporting BECCS exceeds past commodity crop rates by several fold. In some cases, mitigation scenarios include abrupt reversal of deforestation, paired with massive afforestation/reforestation. Specifically, energy cropland in solution to the climate challenge.

  17. Potential synergies between existing multilateral environmental agreements in the implementation of land use, land-use change and forestry activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Annette; Schneider, Uwe A.; Montanarella, Luca

    2007-01-01

    There is potential for synergy between the global environmental conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification: changes in land management and land use undertaken to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions can simultaneously deliver positive outcomes for conservation of biodiversity, and mitigation of desertification and land degradation. However, while there can be complementarities between the three environmental goals, there are often tradeoffs. Thus, the challenge lies in developing land use policies that promote optimal environmental outcomes, and in implementing these locally to promote sustainable development. The paper considers synergies and tradeoffs in implementing land use measures to address the objectives of the three global environmental conventions, both from an environmental and economic perspective. The intention is to provide environmental scientists and policy makers with a broad overview of these considerations, and the benefits of addressing the conventions simultaneously

  18. The Association between Land-Use Distribution and Residential Patterns: the Case of Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran GOLDBLATT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of GIS and the availability of high resolution geographic data have improved our ability to investigate the residential segregation in cities and to identify the temporal changes of the spatial phenomena. Using GIS, we have quantitatively and visually analyzed the correspondence between land-use distribution and Arab residential patterns and their changes in the period between 1983 and 2008 in five mixed Arab-Jewish Israeli cities. Results show a correspondence between the dynamics of Arab/Jewish residential patterns and the spatial distribution of various land-uses. Arab residential patterns diffused faster towards areas with relatively inferior land-uses than towards areas with more attractive land-uses, in which a gentrification process occurred. Moreover, large-scale non-residential land-uses act as spatial partitions that divide between Arab and Jewish residential areas. Understanding the association between the urban environment and residential patterns can help in formulating an appropriate social and spatial policy concerning planning of land-uses and design of the built environment in mixed cities.

  19. Application of scenario analysis and multiagent technique in land-use planning: a case study on Sanjiang wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Ni, Shi-Jun; Kong, Bo; He, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Pan, Xin; Xia, Chao-Xu; Li, Xuan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Land-use planning has triggered debates on social and environmental values, in which two key questions will be faced: one is how to see different planning simulation results instantaneously and apply the results back to interactively assist planning work; the other is how to ensure that the planning simulation result is scientific and accurate. To answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether and how a bridge can be built between qualitative and quantitative approaches for land-use planning work and to find out a way to overcome the gap that exists between the ability to construct computer simulation models to aid integrated land-use plan making and the demand for them by planning professionals. The study presented a theoretical framework of land-use planning based on scenario analysis (SA) method and multiagent system (MAS) simulation integration and selected freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a case study area. Study results showed that MAS simulation technique emphasizing quantitative process effectively compensated for the SA method emphasizing qualitative process, which realized the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative land-use planning work, and then provided a new idea and method for the land-use planning and sustainable managements of land resources.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  1. Application of Scenario Analysis and Multiagent Technique in Land-Use Planning: A Case Study on Sanjiang Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use planning has triggered debates on social and environmental values, in which two key questions will be faced: one is how to see different planning simulation results instantaneously and apply the results back to interactively assist planning work; the other is how to ensure that the planning simulation result is scientific and accurate. To answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether and how a bridge can be built between qualitative and quantitative approaches for land-use planning work and to find out a way to overcome the gap that exists between the ability to construct computer simulation models to aid integrated land-use plan making and the demand for them by planning professionals. The study presented a theoretical framework of land-use planning based on scenario analysis (SA method and multiagent system (MAS simulation integration and selected freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a case study area. Study results showed that MAS simulation technique emphasizing quantitative process effectively compensated for the SA method emphasizing qualitative process, which realized the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative land-use planning work, and then provided a new idea and method for the land-use planning and sustainable managements of land resources.

  2. Change of Land Use Patterns in the Areas Close to the Airport Development Area and Some Implicating Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokporn Swangjang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of land use change in the suburbs near Suvarnabhumi International Airport, with a focus on land use patterns before and during airport development. According to geographic information system (GIS, land use patterns are categorized into three main groups, namely intensive urban development land, areas developed under environmental conditions, and natural land. Steps of land use changes, land use planning and related factors concerning number of population, dwelling units and factories were analyzed. In the short term, urban development dramatically increases by 39.97% whereas the areas developed under environmental conditions decreased by 37.52%, with significant correlation (P < 0.05. The natural land which is typically grassland and watercourses changed insignificantly (P > 0.05. Urbanization of the areas where the airport is located increased between 10.07% and 15.57%. The changes of land use comply with the Integrated Town and Country Planning. The areas where urbanization is small are under the area designated as the green area. Urban expansion is mainly a result of increase in residential areas which is closely related to number of population. Such changes indicate a need for more effective urban development planning and management to conserve environmental quality.

  3. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  4. Effects of urban land-use change on biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Diane E. Pataki; Kenneth T. Belt; Peter M. Groffman; John Hom; Lawrence E. Band

    2007-01-01

    Urban land-use change, the conversion of agricultural recand natural ecosystems to human settlements, has become an important component of global change. Virtually all of the projected increase in the world's population is expected to occur in cities so that by the year 2007 more than half of the global population is expected to live in urban areas (United Nations...

  5. Modeling biofuel expansion effects on land use change dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Ethan; Inman, Daniel; Kunstman, Benjamin; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Macknick, Jordan; Zhang Yimin; Peterson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for crop-based biofuels, in addition to other human drivers of land use, induces direct and indirect land use changes (LUC). Our system dynamics tool is intended to complement existing LUC modeling approaches and to improve the understanding of global LUC drivers and dynamics by allowing examination of global LUC under diverse scenarios and varying model assumptions. We report on a small subset of such analyses. This model provides insights into the drivers and dynamic interactions of LUC (e.g., dietary choices and biofuel policy) and is not intended to assert improvement in numerical results relative to other works. Demand for food commodities are mostly met in high food and high crop-based biofuel demand scenarios, but cropland must expand substantially. Meeting roughly 25% of global transportation fuel demand by 2050 with biofuels requires >2 times the land used to meet food demands under a presumed 40% increase in per capita food demand. In comparison, the high food demand scenario requires greater pastureland for meat production, leading to larger overall expansion into forest and grassland. Our results indicate that, in all scenarios, there is a potential for supply shortfalls, and associated upward pressure on prices, of food commodities requiring higher land use intensity (e.g., beef) which biofuels could exacerbate. (letter)

  6. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Cai, Ming

    2003-05-29

    The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural areas, but the results differ significantly depending on whether population data or satellite measurements of night light are used to classify urban and rural areas. Here we use the difference between trends in observed surface temperatures in the continental United States and the corresponding trends in a reconstruction of surface temperatures determined from a reanalysis of global weather over the past 50 years, which is insensitive to surface observations, to estimate the impact of land-use changes on surface warming. Our results suggest that half of the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range is due to urban and other land-use changes. Moreover, our estimate of 0.27 degrees C mean surface warming per century due to land-use changes is at least twice as high as previous estimates based on urbanization alone.

  7. Climate and land-use change in wetlands: A dedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2017-01-01

    Future climate and land-use change may wreak havoc on wetlands, with the potential to erode their values as harbors for biota and providers of human services. Wetlands are important to protect, particularly because these provide a variety of ecosystem services including wildlife habitat, water purification, flood storage, and storm protection (Mitsch, Bernal, and Hernandez 2015). Without healthy wetlands, future generations may become increasingly less in harmony with the sustainability of the Earth. To this end, the thematic feature on climate and land-use change in wetlands explores the critical role of wetlands in the overall health and well-being of humans and our planet. Our special feature contributes to the understanding of the idea that the health of natural ecosystems and humans are linked and potentially stressed by climate change and land-use change (Horton and Lo 2015; McDonald 2015). In particular, this special issue considers the important role of wetlands in the environment, and how land-use and environmental change might affect them in the future.

  8. The transformation of urban industrial land use: A quantitative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of cities around the world today owe their land use growth to the rapid development of industrial areas. The spatial structure of industrial distribution in cities shape urban spatial morphology linking with land use, transportation, economic activities, and housing. Meanwhile, growth and expansion of city population and land use reconfigure the spatial structure of industrial distribution. Research into urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process may help urban planners and decision makers understand the land use and population dynamics of a city. Genetic algorithms are believed to be one kind of the promising methods to simulate this dynamic process. In this paper, we propose a novel method to simulate urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process in Shanghai, China. The results show that along with increasing urban land price over time, industries are going to move outward from the city center. However, the maximum profit of a firm tends to decrease, which could lead industrial factories to move beyond city boundary. The analysis of the current industrial spatial distribution in Shanghai indicates that, when land price in a city rises above a specific threshold, new government policies and other competitive advantages need to be enacted if the city wants to retain industrial firms within the city boundary.

  9. Land use planning and chemical sites. Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Carsten D.

    2000-01-01

    enabling the users to generate alternatives, select the preferred ones and peruse efficient solutionsboth in terms of the implied land use patterns and the corresponding consequences. Study material has been gathered from planning cases in Sweden, Denmark and Greece. The work described in this report has...... received financial support through the CECEnvironment and Climate Programme (contract no. ENV4-CT96-0241)....

  10. 217 THE LAND USE ACT AND EQUITY FACTOR IN PROPERTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    the paper examines the provisions of the Land Use Act on property tax in line with normative principles ... required funds, government demand contributions from its citizens in form of taxes, levies, charges and tariffs ..... inheritance and/or population growth and the consequent pressure on land.38 It approaches these issues.

  11. Land Use, Environmental Stressors, and Water Resources: Degradation to Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, including those in this special issue. We identify stages, which characterize i...

  12. Agricultural land use doubled sediment yield of western China's rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. H.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Neilson, T. B.; Rood, D. H.; Martin, J.; Hill, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, increase soil erosion rates on the scale of hillslopes and small drainage basins; however, the effects of these changes on the sediment load in larger rivers is poorly quantified, with a few studies scattered globally, and only 10 data points in the world's most populous nation, China. At 20 different sites in western China, we compare contemporary (1945-1987) fluvial sediment yield data collected daily over 4 to 26 years (median = 19 years) to long-term measures of erosion (sediment generation) based on new isotopic measurements of in situ 10Be in river sediments. We find that median sediment transport at these sites exceeds background sediment generation rates by a factor of two (from 0.13 to 5.79 times, median 1.85 times) and that contemporary sediment yield is statistically significantly different from long-term sediment yield (p land use is directly and significantly proportional to the ratio of contemporary sediment yield to long term sediment generation rates (Spearman correlation coefficient rho = 0.52, p land use (rho = 0.58, p land use has significantly increased sediment supply to rivers in western China, likely increasing turbidity and decreasing ecosystem services such as fisheries.

  13. The linkages between land use change, land degradation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use changes in East Africa have transformed land cover to farmlands, grazing lands, human settlements and urban centers at the expense of natural vegetation. These changes are associated with deforestation, biodiversity loss and land degradation. A synthesis of results of long term research by an interdisciplinary ...

  14. Prediction of spatial distribution for some land use allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... 15772 Afr. J. Biotechnol. results are limited only on mean value for specific classes. It is evident that the expression of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different land uses in the form of a numerical quantity such as the general average is not adequate, even with optimum sampling, because.

  15. Louisiana comprehensive planning information system. [computerized land use mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P. W.; Schwertz, E.

    1975-01-01

    A statewide computerized land use mapping system is reported that uses polygons to identify inventories from aerial photography by employing the USGS classification system. In addition, the system provides soil, population, and housing census data as well as economic indicators that can be useful in relating to the overall system.

  16. Land use conflict between crop and livestock producers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the implications of property rights on land use conflict resolution between crop farmers and nomads in the guinea savannah zone of Nigeria and the methods of resolving the conflicts. Primary data were obtained from 200 randomly selected crop farmers and 75 nomadic Fulani's in four states within the ...

  17. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  18. Quantitative analysis of selected land-use systems with sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de J.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Land-use systems with sunflower were quantified using a dynamic crop-growth simulation model for calculating the biophysical production potential and water-limited production potential.

    Crop data were collected in 1993 and 1994 in field experiments with three varieties of sunflower

  19. Improvement of the agricultural land use information system structure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordiuzha

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with most informative land and cadastral indicators reflecting the state of the land plot for agricultural purposes, and the systematization is held. Ranking of leading indicators in the management of land resources and the costs of their preparation has been performed. Organizational arrangements on improving the structure of the information system of agricultural land use are justified.

  20. Tool development to understand rural resource users' land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    table-top role-playing game that will help researchers and stake- .... games; White et al. 2010, Akkerman and Bakker 2011) are used in conjunction to help stakeholders navigate the complexities of a landscape in transition, and explore the multiple ...... in the modelling of land-use decisions in an agent-based simulation.

  1. Climate variability effects on agriculture land use and soil services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is occurring around the world and impacts the ability to produce agricultural crops because of changing land use patterns and variation in production among years. Temperature and precipitation are the two climatic variables exerting the largest impact on agriculture production because...

  2. land use and cover change in pastoral systems of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The current land use and cover changes have delineated mobility as a coping strategy to drought, contributed to degradation of rangelands, reduced the resilience of pastoral systems to drought and increased their vulnerability to climate change. Farm based water and forage conservation should be enhanced to sustain ...

  3. Effect of Land Use and Transportation Infrastructure on Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.

    2011-01-01

    This research studies the relationship between land uses and infrastructure on residential burglary. The objective was to assess which theory is better at explaining residential burglary: -the “awareness space,‿ which states that crime takes place at edges or along paths on the way to work, school,

  4. Population, conservation, and land use change in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max J. Pfeffer; John W. Schlelhas; Stephen D. DeGloria; Jorge Gomez

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of population density on land use allocation and change. We are especially interested in the management of fallow areas that have come under increasing pressure given restrictions imposed by the creation of protected areas like national parks. It is argued that these restrictions to reduce deforestation create a relative scarcity of land,...

  5. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the Eastern Himalayas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) will manage the project and provide support and capacity building to the three teams. The aim is to better understand the links between land use transition and human health in mountain habitats and jointly design a program for better managing the ...

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study area was done manually through on-screen digitization in ESRI ArcGIS 10.1. The major land use/cover types identified in the study sites were built up area, vegetation and farms. It was found that since the two study sites are both fast growing urban communities, most of the land was used for human habitation, hence, ...

  7. Do aquatic macroinvertebrate communities respond to land-use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to the effects of various land uses were investigated in 2010–2013 in the Wilge River, a tributary of the Olifants River, South Africa. The catchment area is characterised by agricultural, mining and industrial activities, which potentially contribute to the river's deteriorating water ...

  8. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the pattern of land use/land cover change in the Lower Ogun River Basin between 1984 and 2012. Two sets of topographical maps, a Landsat-5 TM image of 1984, Landsat-7 ETM+ of 2000 and a Google Earth image of 2012 were used for the study. The topographical maps and satellite images were ...

  9. Agricultural land-use change and disappearance of farmlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four imageries (Landsat MSS 1980, Landsat TM 1990, Landsat ETM+ 2005 and Nigeria Sat X 2012) used were classified and compared to understand the rate and extent of agricultural land-use change during the different periods. The findings revealed that the study area experienced a significant reduction in

  10. Preliminary study Hultsfred. Land use and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars; Carlsson, Rumar; Gustafsson, Anna

    2000-03-01

    Localisation of a repository in the Hultsfred area is discussed from land use and environmental impact points of view. The ground installations are supposed to create the most important impacts. Areas which should be protected from exploitation are pointed out. Other areas more or less well suited when considering environmental impacts are discussed

  11. The dwindling role of population pressure in land use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a contemporary coupled human-environmental system on a small island in the South West Pacific. It describes the historical change of the resource management strategies, notably the agricultural land use, in this former subsistence system. Our conceptual mindset draws on Boseru...

  12. Meat consumption, production and land use : model implementation and scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses simulations with the LEITAP model about opportunities to reduce land use as a consequence of changing meat consumption and production. In order to be able to generate plausible simulation results, the LEITAP model had to be adjusted. These changes are discussed in the first

  13. Land use change in Ohio, 1952 to 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Wharton Eric H.; Wharton Eric H.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical report on trends of major land uses in Ohio from 1952 to 1979. The relationship between the decline in farm area and increase in forest land is emphasized. The losses of wood fiber attributable to clearing forest land between 1968 and 1979 are also estimated.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban settlements account for only two percent of the Earth's land surface. However, over half of the world's population resides in cities (United Nations, 2001). The quantitative evidences presented here showed that there were drastic changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of land use/land cover. As an overall ...

  15. Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of degraded lands under rain fed and partially irrigated conditions. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Land use determinants of small mammals abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season ...

  17. Response of benthic invertebrate communities to a land use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical land use farming (e.g., tea, maize, cabbage) have significant impacts on the benthic invertebrate assemblages of highland streams in Nigeria. However, not all crop and plantation streams had highly impacted communities because some have wider riparian buffer zones. This study further highlight the importance of ...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along the Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    occur through several human activities such as lumbering, farming, mining, construction and other activities that disturb the ... diseases may occur more readily in areas exposed by Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC), especially in ... Then images were projected from the Accra Ghana Grid to the Ghana Meter Grid.

  19. Effects of population density on agricultural land use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined agricultural land use and productivity with particular reference to its effects on population density in the Nsukka Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study involved distribution of questionnaires to 96 respondents, with only 60 being valid. Majority of the respondents had farms of between one ...

  20. Participatory land use planning for community based forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory land use planning for community based forest management in South-Eastern Nigeria. FE Bisong, A Animashaun. Abstract. No Abstract. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 4 () 2007: pp.329-347. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Influence of Land use Intensity and Weed Management Practice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of land use intensity and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, growth and characterization of weed species were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The study was conducted on three pieces of land with known cropping history, laid out as randomized complete ...

  2. Soil erosion as a driver of land-use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Govers, G.; Kosmas, C.; VanAcker, H.; Oost, van K.; Rounsevell, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although much research has been carried out on the crop productivity response to soil erosion, little is known about the role of soil erosion as a driver of land-use change. Given, however, the some-times large erosion-induced reductions in crop yields, it appears likely that erosion has a strong

  3. Spatial Relationships of Urban Land Use, Soils and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soils are the basic and most important resources of any people. Differences in soil's physical and chemical properties are related to the spatial distribution of land uses. Most of these human activities generate toxic substances that are transported considerable distances away from source and become accumulated in soils, ...

  4. Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil elements in a city landscape of north China. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Legumes played an important role in stimulating the growth and reproduction of various soil microbial populations, accordingly promoting the microbial catabolic activity.

  5. Gender differences in land-use decisions: shaping multifunctional landscapes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villamor, G.B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Djanibekov, U.; Chiong-Javier, E.; Catacutan, D.

    2014-01-01

    While decision-making processes of land managers drive land-use change and affect the provision of ecosystems services, there is no concrete understanding of whether gender specificity in decision-making influences the multifunctionality of landscapes. We distinguish eleven elements in a typical

  6. Sustainable Land Use Evaluation on Steep Landscapes and Flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific criteria arc stipulated and recommendations made for sustainable management of landscapes in Ghana. Yet, evaluation is scarcely conducted to determine whethcr real performance or land-use strategics arc meeting expected standards of sustainability. The paper reports on an evaluation study conducted on a ...

  7. Integrating land use and transport knowledge in strategy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Brömmelstroet, M.; Bertolini, L.

    2010-01-01

    There is broad and growing consensus regarding the central place of integrated Land Use and Transport (LUT) strategy development in establishing more efficient and sustainable urban environments. However, empirical evidence shows that such integration is hard to achieve in daily planning practice,

  8. Implications of changing land uses on physical environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the attendant problems as well as implications of changing land uses on physical environment in Calabar Municipality, the capital city of Cross River State in Nigeria. The study adopted the systematic random sampling technique in the administration of questionnaires. The sample size for ...

  9. Determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Leeuw, G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mostly, aerosol properties are poorly understood because the aerosol properties are very sparse. The first workshop on the determination of atmospheric aerosol properties over land using satellite measurements is convened in Bremen, Germany. In this workshop, the topics of discussions included a

  10. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  11. Sustainable agriculture and agricultural land use intensification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post studies had indicated that population pressure, soil fertility, spatial location and land tenure are among the dominant factors that influence agricultural land use intensification in a number of regions. The present study carried out in Egbado Division of Ogun State in Nigeria showed that these factors (or their proxies) are ...

  12. Land use planning for forest catchment of Arasbaran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdar Dargahi, M.; Makhdoum, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, land use planning for six hydrological units (296690 ha) of Arasbaran forest catchment (N W of Iran in Azerbaijan) has been conducted. The main objectives of the plan were to promote sustainable use, to increase living conditions, and enhance environmental conservation in the region. First, ecological and socio-economic resources were surveyed and mapped (scale 1:50000). Then data analysis and integration with system analysis approach were performed. As a result, 3556 micro-ecosystems were mapped. Ecological capability of mapping unit (MU) was evaluated for: agriculture, range management, forestry, eco tourism and conservation with the aid of specified ecological models. Finally with coordination of socioeconomic data and ecological capability of MU, priority of land uses with qualitative-analogous method was established. At the end, map of land use planning for six hydrological units was depicted for management purposes. The results show that %5.38 of allocated land use is suitable for irrigation farming, %1.32 for dry farming, %17.43 for range management, %15.17 for protected forestry, %2.13 for forest plantation, %28.47 for extensive eco tourism, %0.01 for intensive eco tourism and finally %30.09 for conservation

  13. Working landscapes: the future of land use policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Miller; Thomas E. Sheridan; Susan Charnley; Christy Plumer; Jim Lyons; Tom Martin

    2015-01-01

    The history of land use in the American West has traditionally been one of conflict, but the divisive relationships between ranchers, foresters, land management agencies, recreational users, and conservationists are transforming. Grassroots coalitions have developed among unlikely allies. Together, they are advocating for management approaches that incorporate local...

  14. Response of Oncomelania snail distribution on land use in Sichuan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of Oncomelania snail distribution on land use in Sichuan, China. Q Sun, Z Peng, J Zhang, J Jiang. Abstract. Schistosomiasis is one of the four major infectious diseases that require prevention and control in China. It is mainly distributed along the middle and downstream areas of the Yangtze River and some hilly ...

  15. Spatial Variations of Values of Residential Land Use in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    There exist literature on urban land use values and environmental planning. They are research works on ..... Age, marital status, educational attainment and income are discovered to possess high degree of correlation ..... Abeokuta Express Way, Agege Motor Road, Progress College Road and Abiodun Onitiri Avenue. 4.

  16. Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Hortipastoral based land-use systems were developed for sub-tropical degraded lands in the central India under rain fed and partially irrigated conditions through long term trials (1991-98) at the Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (India). Under rain fed condition, jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) ...

  17. Land use, worker heterogeneity and welfare benefits of public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, Coen N.; Ossokina, Ioulia V.; de Groot, Henri L.F.

    2018-01-01

    We show that investments in public goods change the optimal land use in their vicinity, leading to additional welfare benefits. This occurs through two sorting mechanisms. First, availability of public goods leads to higher population densities. Second, population groups sort according to their

  18. Pollution, contamination and future land use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M; Shukla, S; Jeitner, C; Ramos, R; Tsipoura, Nellie; Donio, M

    2008-10-01

    Scientists interested in contamination normally deal only with pollution itself, not with people's perceptions of pollution or the relationship between pollution and land use. The overall objective of this article was to examine the relationship between people's perceptions of pollution and their views on future land use. People were interviewed at an Earth Day Festival near the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, New York. On an open-ended question, people thought that BNL should be left as it is, or maintained as a preserve, park or conservation area, or used for environmental research. Almost no one thought that it should be used for housing or industrial purposes. When asked to rate a list of possible future land uses, maintaining BNL as a National Environmental Research Park for research and for recreation were rated the highest (nuclear storage was rated the lowest). This was consistent with the subjects' views that pollution was the greatest concern about BNL. The congruence between perceptions about concerns or problems and future land use preferences suggests a unified view of management of contaminated sites, such as BNL, at least among a group of people whose environmental interests were evident by their presence at the event.

  19. The implications of land use/cover dynamics on resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ENVI 4.3, Global Mapper 15 and ArcGis 10.2. Maps were generated to show changes in land use/cover which were transposed into tables and bar graphs to show the magnitude of changes, percentage of change and the rate of change.

  20. Land use and climate change impacts on runoff and soil erosion at the hillslope scale in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anache, Jamil A A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Srivastava, Anurag; Wendland, Edson C

    2018-05-01

    Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change. We performed the model calibration using a 5-year dataset (2012-2016) of observed runoff and soil loss in four different land uses (wooded Cerrado, tilled fallow without plant cover, pasture, and sugarcane) in experimental plots. Selected soil and management parameters were optimized for each land use during the WEPP model calibration with the existing field data. The simulations were conducted using the calibrated WEPP model components with a 100-year climate dataset created with CLIGEN (weather generator) based on regional climate statistics. We obtained downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections, and runoff and soil loss were predicted with WEPP using future climate scenarios for 2030, 2060, and 2090 considering different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The WEPP model had an acceptable performance for the subtropical conditions. Land use can influence runoff and soil loss rates in a significant way. Potential climate changes, which indicate the increase of rainfall intensities and depths, may increase the variability and rates of runoff and soil erosion. However, projected climate changes did not significantly affect the runoff and soil erosion for the four analyzed land uses at our location. Finally, the runoff behavior was distinct for each land use, but for soil loss we found similarities between pasture and wooded Cerrado, suggesting that the soil may attain a sustainable level when the land management follows conservation

  1. Land Use Allocation Based on a Multi-Objective Artificial Immune Optimization Model: An Application in Anlu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoya Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is a multi-objective optimization problem under the land use supply and demand constraints in a region. In order to obtain a better sustainable multi-objective LUA optimization solution, the present study proposes a LUA model based on the multi-objective artificial immune optimization algorithm (MOAIM-LUA model. The main achievements of the present study are as follows: (a the land-use supply and demand factors are analyzed and the constraint conditions of LUA optimization problems are constructed based on the analysis framework of the balance between the land use supply and demand; (b the optimization objectives of LUA optimization problems are defined and modeled using ecosystem service value theory and land rent and price theory; and (c a multi-objective optimization algorithm is designed for solving multi-objective LUA optimization problems based on the novel immune clonal algorithm (NICA. On the basis of the aforementioned achievements, MOAIM-LUA was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in Anlu County, China. Compared to the current land use situation in Anlu County, optimized LUA solutions offer improvements in the social and ecological objective areas. Compared to the existing models, such as the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, experimental results demonstrate that the model designed in the present study can obtain better non-dominated solution sets and is superior in terms of algorithm stability.

  2. Analysis of relationships between land surface temperature and land use changes in the Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jicai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xu, Fuxiang; Gao, Meng

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzed land use and land cover changes and their impact on land surface temperature using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor imagery of the Yellow River Delta. Six Landsat images comprising two time series were used to calculate the land surface temperature and correlated vegetation indices. The Yellow River Delta area has expanded substantially because of the deposited sediment carried from upstream reaches of the river. Between 1986 and 2015, approximately 35% of the land use area of the Yellow River Delta has been transformed into salterns and aquaculture ponds. Overall, land use conversion has occurred primarily from poorly utilized land into highly utilized land. To analyze the variation of land surface temperature, a mono-window algorithm was applied to retrieve the regional land surface temperature. The results showed bilinear correlation between land surface temperature and the vegetation indices (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Adjusted-Normalized Vegetation Index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Generally, values of the vegetation indices greater than the inflection point mean the land surface temperature and the vegetation indices are correlated negatively, and vice versa. Land surface temperature in coastal areas is affected considerably by local seawater temperature and weather conditions.

  3. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Pabst, H.; Mnyonga, J.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and below-ground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests), two sustainably used (homegardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystems was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Leaves, branches and remaining residues were separated and analyzed for C and nutrient contents. The annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall seasonality, exhibiting a large peak towards the end of the dry season (August-October). This peak decreased at higher elevations with decreasing rainfall seasonality. Macronutrients (N, P, K) in leaf litter increased at mid elevation (2100 m a.s.l.) and with land-use intensity. Carbon content and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Na) however, were unaffected or decreased with land-use intensity. While leaf litterfall decreased with elevation, total annual input was independent of climate. Compared to natural forests, the nutrient cycles in agroforestry ecosystems were accelerated by fertilization and the associated changes in dominant tree species.

  4. Effective radiative forcing from historical land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy; Betts, Richard A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Jones, Chris D.; Jones, Gareth S.

    2017-06-01

    The effective radiative forcing (ERF) from the biogeophysical effects of historical land use change is quantified using the atmospheric component of the Met Office Hadley Centre Earth System model HadGEM2-ES. The global ERF at 2005 relative to 1860 (1700) is -0.4 (-0.5) Wm-2, making it the fourth most important anthropogenic driver of climate change over the historical period (1860-2005) in this model and larger than most other published values. The land use ERF is found to be dominated by increases in the land surface albedo, particularly in North America and Eurasia, and occurs most strongly in the northern hemisphere winter and spring when the effect of unmasking underlying snow, as well as increasing the amount of snow, is at its largest. Increased bare soil fraction enhances the seasonal cycle of atmospheric dust and further enhances the ERF. Clouds are shown to substantially mask the radiative effect of changes in the underlying surface albedo. Coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations forced only with time-varying historical land use change shows substantial global cooling (d T = -0.35 K by 2005) and the climate resistance (ERF/d T = 1.2 Wm-2 K-1) is consistent with the response of the model to increases in CO2 alone. The regional variation in land surface temperature change, in both fixed-SST and coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations, is found to be well correlated with the spatial pattern of the forced change in surface albedo. The forcing-response concept is found to work well for historical land use forcing—at least in our model and when the forcing is quantified by ERF. Our results suggest that land-use changes over the past century may represent a more important driver of historical climate change then previously recognised and an underappreciated source of uncertainty in global forcings and temperature trends over the historical period.

  5. Land-use change and global climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitz, V.

    2004-03-01

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO 2 rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO 2 rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO 2 . Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  7. Peri-urban futures: Scenarios and models for land use change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provides insight + surprising solutions for the dramatic field of peri-urbanisation in Europe Introduces innovative tools for planners, scientists and lay-persons allowing to analyze the impact of peri-urbanisation onto sustainable development Has unique maps showing EU-periurbanisation effects...... on a pan-European level Has a conclusive didactic approach + text structure (e.g. inserts, boxes ...) Presently, peri-urbanisation is one of the most pervasive processes of land use change in Europe with strong impacts on both the environment and quality of life. It is a matter of great urgency...... to determine strategies and tools in support of sustainable development. The book synthesizes the results of PLUREL, a large European Commission funded research project (2007-2010). Tools and strategies of PLUREL address main challenges of managing land use in peri-urban areas. These results are presented...

  8. Historical Image Registration and Land-Use Land-Cover Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Jao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical aerial images are important to retain past ground surface information. The land-use land-cover change in the past can be identified using historical aerial images. Automatic historical image registration and stitching is essential because the historical image pose information was usually lost. In this study, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm was used for feature extraction. Subsequently, the present study used the automatic affine transformation algorithm for historical image registration, based on SIFT features and control points. This study automatically determined image affine parameters and simultaneously transformed from an image coordinate system to a ground coordinate system. After historical aerial image registration, the land-use land-cover change was analyzed between two different years (1947 and 1975 at the Tseng Wen River estuary. Results show that sandbars and water zones were transformed into a large number of fish ponds between 1947 and 1975.

  9. Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sherba, Jason T.; Dick Cameron,

    2015-01-01

    Human land use will increasingly contribute to habitat loss and water shortages in California, given future population projections and associated land-use demand. Understanding how land-use change may impact future water use and where existing protected areas may be threatened by land-use conversion will be important if effective, sustainable management approaches are to be implemented. We used a state-and-transition simulation modeling (STSM) framework to simulate spatially-explicit (1 km2) historical (1992-2010) and future (2011-2060) land-use change for 52 California counties within Mediterranean California ecoregions. Historical land use and land cover (LULC) change estimates were derived from the Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program dataset and attributed with county-level agricultural water-use data from the California Department of Water Resources. Five future alternative land-use scenarios were developed and modeled using the historical land-use change estimates and land-use projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. Spatial land-use transition outputs across scenarios were combined to reveal scenario agreement and a land conversion threat index was developed to evaluate vulnerability of existing protected areas to proximal land conversion. By 2060, highest LULC conversion threats were projected to impact nearly 10,500 km2 of land area within 10 km of a protected area boundary and over 18,000 km2 of land area within essential habitat connectivity areas. Agricultural water use declined across all scenarios perpetuating historical drought-related land use from 2008-2010 and trends of annual cropland conversion into perennial woody crops. STSM is useful in analyzing land-use related impacts on water resource use as well as potential threats to existing protected land. Exploring a range of alternative, yet plausible, LULC change impacts will help to better inform resource

  10. Provision of a draft version for standard classification structure for information of radiation technologies through analyzing their information and derivation of its applicable requirements to the information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Yoo, Ji Yup; Shin, Woo Ho; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Radiation technology is the one for developing new products or processes by applying radiation or for creating new functions in industry, research and medical fields, and its application is increasing consistently. For securing an advanced technology competitiveness, it is required to create a new added value by information consumer through providing an efficient system for supporting information, which is the infrastructure for research and development, contributed to its collection, analysis and use with a rapidity and structure in addition to some direct research and development. Provision of the management structure for information resources is especially crucial for efficient operating the system for supporting information in radiation technology, and then a standard classification structure of information must be first developed as the system for supporting information will be constructed. The standard classification structure has been analyzed by reviewing the definition of information resources in radiation technology, and those classification structures in similar systems operated by institute in radiation and other scientific fields. And, a draft version of the standard classification structure has been then provided as 7 large, 25 medium and 71 small classifications, respectively. The standard classification structure in radiation technology will be developed in 2015 through reviewing this draft version and experts' opinion. Finally, developed classification structure will be applied to the system for supporting information by considering the plan for constructing this system and database, and requirements for designing the system. Furthermore, this structure will be designed in the system for searching information by working to the individual need of information consumers.

  11. Provision of a draft version for standard classification structure for information of radiation technologies through analyzing their information and derivation of its applicable requirements to the information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Yoo, Ji Yup; Shin, Woo Ho; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radiation technology is the one for developing new products or processes by applying radiation or for creating new functions in industry, research and medical fields, and its application is increasing consistently. For securing an advanced technology competitiveness, it is required to create a new added value by information consumer through providing an efficient system for supporting information, which is the infrastructure for research and development, contributed to its collection, analysis and use with a rapidity and structure in addition to some direct research and development. Provision of the management structure for information resources is especially crucial for efficient operating the system for supporting information in radiation technology, and then a standard classification structure of information must be first developed as the system for supporting information will be constructed. The standard classification structure has been analyzed by reviewing the definition of information resources in radiation technology, and those classification structures in similar systems operated by institute in radiation and other scientific fields. And, a draft version of the standard classification structure has been then provided as 7 large, 25 medium and 71 small classifications, respectively. The standard classification structure in radiation technology will be developed in 2015 through reviewing this draft version and experts' opinion. Finally, developed classification structure will be applied to the system for supporting information by considering the plan for constructing this system and database, and requirements for designing the system. Furthermore, this structure will be designed in the system for searching information by working to the individual need of information consumers

  12. A Land System representation for global assessments and land-use modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2012-10-01

    Current global scale land-change models used for integrated assessments and climate modeling are based on classifications of land cover. However, land-use management intensity and livestock keeping are also important aspects of land use, and are an integrated part of land systems. This article aims to classify, map, and to characterize Land Systems (LS) at a global scale and analyze the spatial determinants of these systems. Besides proposing such a classification, the article tests if global assessments can be based on globally uniform allocation rules. Land cover, livestock, and agricultural intensity data are used to map LS using a hierarchical classification method. Logistic regressions are used to analyze variation in spatial determinants of LS. The analysis of the spatial determinants of LS indicates strong associations between LS and a range of socioeconomic and biophysical indicators of human-environment interactions. The set of identified spatial determinants of a LS differs among regions and scales, especially for (mosaic) cropland systems, grassland systems with livestock, and settlements. (Semi-)Natural LS have more similar spatial determinants across regions and scales. Using LS in global models is expected to result in a more accurate representation of land use capturing important aspects of land systems and land architecture: the variation in land cover and the link between land-use intensity and landscape composition. Because the set of most important spatial determinants of LS varies among regions and scales, land-change models that include the human drivers of land change are best parameterized at sub-global level, where similar biophysical, socioeconomic and cultural conditions prevail in the specific regions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Understanding three decades of land use changes and a cloudburst in Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Tonini, Marj; Vulliez, Cindy; Sanjaya, Devkota; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    This paper details an extreme rainfall event, or cloudburst (315 mm/ 24 hours) which occurred on July 29-30, 2015 in the Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal, three months after the April 25, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The event triggered over 170 landslides and debris flows, caused 8 deaths and considerable damage to livelihoods. The fatal debris flow started from one of the numerous rural roads, which have proliferated exponentially over the past decades. In addition to mapping landslides due to this extreme rainfall event, our study sought to document and analyze underlying natural and human land use factors that may have impacted the occurrence of landsliding (Vulliez et al submitted). To do so, our study analyzed land cover/ land use changes for the period 1979-2016 based on an interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images, combined with ground truthing. We studied how land use / land cover changes have resulted in a shift of active erosion zones from overgrazing around streams and forests to an exponential number of small failures along unplanned earthen rural roads, or "bulldozer roads". With several hundred small failures documented along roadsides (Leibundgut et al., 2016) as compared to only 14 landslides prior to 2015 extreme rainfall event - and none triggered by the 2015 earthquake - roads are thus a major driver of active erosion zones and small failures in the watershed. More effective management of the current unsustainable mode of rural road construction is required to reduce further environmental and economic impacts on vulnerable populations in Nepal. Leibundgut, G., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Jaboyedoff, M., Derron, M-H., Penna, I. Nguyen, L. (2016). Rural earthen roads impact assessment in Phewa watershed, Western region, Nepal. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2016) 3:13. DOI 10.1186/s40677-016-0047-8 Vulliez, C, Tonini, M., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Derron, M-H, Jaboyedoff, M. (submitted) Land use changes, landslides and roads in the

  14. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land

  15. Political ecology of land use change in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novira, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Indonesia had once around 10% of the world's rain forest. Many accuse shifting cultivation and poverty to be responsible to tropical deforestation and land use change. Without denying the importance of these factors, this paper tries to see the problem from a different angel. Massive deforestation first took place when the Dutch colonials decided to develop coffee, tea and later rubber and oil palm plantation in the late 19th century. During the Independence Era, land use change can be divided into 3 periods: 1950 - 1975 period of agricultural expansion, mainly government program; 1975 - 1990 period of commercial logging concession, mainly private concession with government's endorsement; and 1990 to date period of land use change to cash crop, settlement, and business area, a more complex process involving private company, government program and endorsement, and personal action. The first two periodization shows clearly that land use change in Indonesia has a strong connection to political decision and power at certain period of time, which also influenced by international market tendencies at the given period. The last period has actually not so much difference. This paper seeks to explain land use change in Indonesia especially in the last period of 1990 to present. This period can be divided again into 3 sub-periods: later New Order Era, early Reformation Era, and the Regional Autonomy Era. The case study was conducted in Labuhan Batu Utara District of North Sumatera. Semi-structured interview was done with various actors in different levels. It is argued that government's policies and arrangements along with government's reaction to international market and politics plays a substantially important role in land use change. In the first sub-period (1990 - 1998), it is the fading power of Suharto's regime that increases farmers' courage to violate the strict prohibition of rice field conversion to other uses. Another important factor is the introduction of

  16. Crop intensification, land use, and on-farm energy-use efficiency during the worldwide spread of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Pedro; Fernández, Roberto J

    2018-03-06

    We analyzed crop production, physical inputs, and land use at the country level to assess technological changes behind the threefold increase in global crop production from 1961 to 2014. We translated machinery, fuel, and fertilizer to embedded energy units that, when summed up, provided a measure of agricultural intensification (human subsidy per hectare) for crops in the 58 countries responsible for 95% of global production. Worldwide, there was a 137% increase in input use per hectare, reaching 13 EJ, or 2.6% of the world's primary energy supply, versus only a 10% increase in land use. Intensification was marked in Asia and Latin America, where input-use levels reached those that North America and Europe had in the earlier years of the period; the increase was more accentuated, irrespective of continent, for the 12 countries with mostly irrigated production. Half of the countries (28/58), mainly developed ones, had an average subsidy >5 GJ/ha/y (with fertilizers accounting for 27% in 1961 and 45% in 2014), with most of them (23/28) using about the same area or less than in 1961 (net land sparing of 31 Mha). Most of the remaining countries (24/30 with inputs <5 GJ/ha/y), mainly developing ones, increased their cropped area (net land extensification of 135 Mha). Overall, energy-use efficiency (crop output/inputs) followed a U-shaped trajectory starting at about 3 and finishing close to 4. The prospects of a more sustainable intensification are discussed, and the inadequacy of the land-sparing model expectation of protecting wilderness via intensified agriculture is highlighted.

  17. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  18. WORLD EXPERIENCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION LAND USE AND PROTECTIONTAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE REQUIREMENTS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. Sviridova

    2016-10-01

    . By tools include: a political system; b planning of land use; c the economic and legal methods of state regulation of land relations and land market; d guarantee of land ownership, land ownership and land use, taxation of land. By supporting tools include: a the registration of rights to land, b land cadastre the arrangements for evaluation, accounting and inventory of land use and others. For the improvement of the economic levers offer: 1 to work out mechanisms refund agrarian agricultural land ownership and land use using innovative technologies for the conservation and protection of soil; 2 simplify the subsidies, grants, benefits for land users at the expense of local budgets (from the land tax and compensation of losses of agricultural and forestry production; 3 Improve mechanisms to stimulate rational land use. In addition, it is believed that it should be the private owners of the major organizations that implement environmental policy for the protection of land and carrying out effective environmental management due to their ownership or land use. Therefore, at the state level need to develop a program to encourage private sector agricultural producers.

  19. Quantitative analysis of land use and land cover changes from the multi-temporal remote sensing data in the Bosten Lake Basin, Chinese Tian Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, A.; Wang, L. M.; Yan, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y. X.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes of land use and land cover (LUCC) in Bosten Lake Basin from 1985 to 2015 were analyzed, based on the 3S technology and four periods of remote sensing images in 1985, 1998, 2008 and 2015. The driving force of the LUCC was analyzed quantitatively using principal component analysis (PCA) method. The results showed that there was a wide change of LUCC in the Bosten Lake Basin in the past 30 years. During this periods, natural grassland decreased with a rate of 62.6 km2/a, while cultivated land and residential land increased with a rate of 28.9 km2/a. The rapid expansion of cultivated land was the result of natural grassland and unused land reclamation. Meanwhile, other land use types changed slightly. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the LUCC change was result of the interaction of human activity (social and economic factors) and natural environmental changes (climate change). Therefore, it is necessary to consistently improve the natural environment of Bosten Lake Basin. This study can provide stable basis of the theory and practice for sustainable development of Bosten Lake Basin.

  20. The Implications of Future Food Demand on Global Land Use, Land-Use Change Emissions, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Luckow, P.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.; Eom, J.; Kim, S.; Moss, R.; Patel, P.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, cropland accounted for approximately 10% of global land area. The amount of cropland needed in the future depends on a number of factors including global population, dietary preferences, and agricultural crop yields. In this paper, we explore the effect of various assumptions about global food demand and agricultural productivity between now and 2100 on global land use, land-use change emissions, and climate using the GCAM model. GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated, global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. For this analysis, we look at the effect of alternative socioeconomic pathways, crop yield improvement assumptions, and future meat demand scenarios on the demand for agricultural land. The three socioeconomic pathways explore worlds where global population in 2100 ranges from 6 billion people to 14 billion people. The crop yield improvement assumptions range from a world where yields do not improve beyond today's levels to a world with significantly higher crop productivity. The meat demand scenarios range from a vegetarian world to a world where meat is a dominant source of calories in the global diet. For each of these scenarios, we find that sufficient land exists to feed the global economy. However, rates of deforestation, bioenergy potential, land-use change emissions, and climate change differ across the scenarios. Under less favorable scenarios, deforestation rates, land-use change emissions, and the rate of climate change can be adversely affected.

  1. A Comparison of Two Land Use Simulation Models under the RCP4.5 Scenario in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The land use simulation model is an important tool to analyze the land use/land cover change (LUCC, which plays a key role in influencing the global warming. However, there have been very few global LUCC simulation models, especially the models that can be used to analyze the interaction among the socioeconomic development, climate change, and LUCC. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM and the GTAP-AEZ model are two models that take account of the influence of social economy and climate change at the global scale, but they may have some parameter errors due to the rough parameter setting. This study aims to compare the simulation results obtained with the GCAM model and GTAP-AEZ model and optimize their parameters according to the specific conditions of China. First, we simulated the land use structure in China in 2010 with the two models and compared the simulation results with the real one. Second, we calibrated these parameters of models according to the China’s national conditions and implemented the simulation again. The result indicates that the calibrated GCAM can provide more accurate simulation result of land use, which can provide significant reference information for the land use planning and policy formulation to mitigate the climate change in China.

  2. Incorporating land-use requirements and environmental constraints in low-carbon electricity planning for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Torn, Margaret S; Williams, James H

    2015-02-17

    The land-use implications of deep decarbonization of the electricity sector (e.g., 80% below 1990 emissions) have not been well-characterized quantitatively or spatially. We assessed the operational-phase land-use requirements of different low-carbon scenarios for California in 2050 and found that most scenarios have comparable direct land footprints. While the per MWh footprint of renewable energy (RE) generation is initially higher, that of fossil and nuclear generation increases over time with continued fuel use. We built a spatially explicit model to understand the interactions between resource quality and environmental constraints in a high RE scenario (>70% of total generation). We found that there is sufficient land within California to meet the solar and geothermal targets, but areas with the highest quality wind and solar resources also tend to be those with high conservation value. Development of some land with lower conservation value results in lower average capacity factors, but also provides opportunity for colocation of different generation technologies, which could significantly improve land-use efficiency and reduce permitting, leasing, and transmission infrastructure costs. Basing siting decisions on environmentally-constrained long-term RE build-out requirements produces significantly different results, including better conservation outcomes, than implied by the current piecemeal approach to planning.

  3. Monitoring and Predicting Land-use Changes and the Hydrology of the Urbanized Paochiao Watershed in Taiwan Using Remote Sensing Data, Urban Growth Models and a Hydrological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Lin, Yun-Bin; Wang, Yen-Tan; Hong, Nien-Ming

    2008-02-04

    Monitoring and simulating urban sprawl and its effects on land-use patterns andhydrological processes in urbanized watersheds are essential in land-use and waterresourceplanning and management. This study applies a novel framework to the urbangrowth model Slope, Land use, Excluded land, Urban extent, Transportation, andHillshading (SLEUTH) and land-use change with the Conversion of Land use and itsEffects (CLUE-s) model using historical SPOT images to predict urban sprawl in thePaochiao watershed in Taipei County, Taiwan. The historical and predicted land-use datawas input into Patch Analyst to obtain landscape metrics. This data was also input to theGeneralized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model to analyze the effects of futureurban sprawl on the land-use patterns and watershed hydrology. The landscape metrics ofthe historical SPOT images show that land-use patterns changed between 1990-2000. TheSLEUTH model accurately simulated historical land-use patterns and urban sprawl in thePaochiao watershed, and simulated future clustered land-use patterns (2001-2025). TheCLUE-s model also simulated land-use patterns for the same period and yielded historical trends in the metrics of land-use patterns. The land-use patterns predicted by the SLEUTHand CLUE-s models show the significant impact urban sprawl will have on land-usepatterns in the Paochiao watershed. The historical and predicted land-use patterns in thewatershed tended to fragment, had regular shapes and interspersion patterns, but wererelatively less isolated in 2001-2025 and less interspersed from 2005-2025 compared withland-use pattern in 1990. During the study, the variability and magnitude of hydrologicalcomponents based on the historical and predicted land-use patterns were cumulativelyaffected by urban sprawl in the watershed; specifically, surface runoff increasedsignificantly by 22.0% and baseflow decreased by 18.0% during 1990-2025. The proposedapproach is an effective means of enhancing land-use

  4. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  5. River water quality changes in New Zealand over 26 years: response to land use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Jason P.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Owsley, Braden; Davies-Colley, Robert J.; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E.

    2017-02-01

    Relationships between land use and water quality are complex with interdependencies, feedbacks, and legacy effects. Most river water quality studies have assessed catchment land use as areal coverage, but here, we hypothesize and test whether land use intensity - the inputs (fertilizer, livestock) and activities (vegetation removal) of land use - is a better predictor of environmental impact. We use New Zealand (NZ) as a case study because it has had one of the highest rates of agricultural land intensification globally over recent decades. We interpreted water quality state and trends for the 26 years from 1989 to 2014 in the National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN) - consisting of 77 sites on 35 mostly large river systems. To characterize land use intensity, we analyzed spatial and temporal changes in livestock density and land disturbance (i.e., bare soil resulting from vegetation loss by either grazing or forest harvesting) at the catchment scale, as well as fertilizer inputs at the national scale. Using simple multivariate statistical analyses across the 77 catchments, we found that median visual water clarity was best predicted inversely by areal coverage of intensively managed pastures. The primary predictor for all four nutrient variables (TN, NOx, TP, DRP), however, was cattle density, with plantation forest coverage as the secondary predictor variable. While land disturbance was not itself a strong predictor of water quality, it did help explain outliers of land use-water quality relationships. From 1990 to 2014, visual clarity significantly improved in 35 out of 77 (34/77) catchments, which we attribute mainly to increased dairy cattle exclusion from rivers (despite dairy expansion) and the considerable decrease in sheep numbers across the NZ landscape, from 58 million sheep in 1990 to 31 million in 2012. Nutrient concentrations increased in many of NZ's rivers with dissolved oxidized nitrogen significantly increasing in 27/77 catchments, which we

  6. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  7. Quantifying Ancient Maya Land Use Legacy Effects on Contemporary Rainforest Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Hightower

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human land use legacies have significant and long-lasting ecological impacts across landscapes. Investigating ancient (>400 years legacy effects can be problematic due to the difficulty in detecting specific, historic land uses, especially those hidden beneath dense canopies. Caracol, the largest (~200 km2 Maya archaeological site in Belize, was abandoned ca. A.D. 900, leaving behind myriad structures, causeways, and an extensive network of agricultural terraces that persist beneath the architecturally complex tropical forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR enables the detection of these below-canopy archaeological features while simultaneously providing a detailed record of the aboveground 3-dimensional canopy organization, which is indicative of a forest’s ecological function. Here, this remote sensing technology is used to determine the effects of ancient land use legacies on contemporary forest structure. Canopy morphology was assessed by extracting LiDAR point clouds (0.25 ha plots from LiDAR-identified terraced (n = 150 and non-terraced (n = 150 areas on low (0°–10°, medium (10°–20°, and high (>20° slopes. We calculated the average canopy height, canopy openness, and vertical diversity from the LiDAR returns, with topographic features (i.e., slope, elevation, and aspect as covariates. Using a PerMANOVA procedure, we determined that forests growing on agricultural terraces exhibited significantly different canopy structure from those growing on non-terraced land. Terraces appear to mediate the effect of slope, resulting in less structural variation between slope and non-sloped land and yielding taller, more closed, more vertically diverse forests. These human land uses abandoned >1000 years ago continue to impact contemporary tropical rainforests having implications related to arboreal habitat and carbon storage.

  8. Planning TOD with land use and transport integration: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herika Muhamad Taki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transit Oriented Development (TOD implementation in urban development is globally adopted by many countries in the world in a rapid manner. However, the city and regional acute problems is still propagating. An in-depth study to examine this problem is required. Thus, this paper review various study related to the integration of land use and transport with TOD. The subject of the paper will be described as follow: Method, criteria and indicators of TOD'S research, Reviewing the strategic plan and the public transport plan in the worldwide, and Cross-continent comparison of integration planning. In conclusion, practice and integration of TOD through land use and transportation is an alternative solution in acquiring the objective of the master plan and to solve urban issues such as urban congestion, reduce travel time, and car dependency.

  9. Incorporation of Trees in Smallholder Land Use Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    , Indonesia. The four papers included in the thesis specifically address the following issues. 1. The types of agroforestry practiced, in order to characterize their differences in basic structure, management and associated crop plant diversity, and the problem of classifying them into a specific land......-use category (i.e. agriculture or forestry). 2. The economic and social potential of agroforestry systems and the barriers to their widespread adoption, as a land use alternative to swidden cultivation, which may potentially help protect local forest. 3. The trade-offs between income and tree cover when...... agricultural systems, in order to assess the economic potential of agroforestry systems that may also help protect local forest, the barriers to their widespread adoption, and how the landscape approaches (land sharing and land sparing) work best in the study sites in eastern Bangladesh and West Java...

  10. Survey study of Blekinge county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Blekinge county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  11. Survey study of Uppsala county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Uppsala county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  12. Survey study of Soedermanland county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Soedermanland county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  13. Survey study of Vaesternorrland county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Vaesternorrland county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  14. Survey study of Stockholm county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Stockholm county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  15. Survey study of Norrbotten county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Norrbotten county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out

  16. Natural and Industrial Disasters : Land Use and Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Grislain-Letrémy; Bertrand Villeneuve

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization in exposed areas increases the cost of disasters. For industrial risks, potential victims raise firms’ liabilities. For natural risks, overexposure by some undermines mutualization. Land use policy (particularly exclusion zones) and insurance shape urbanization, but their efficiency is limited by hazard-map precision. Map-based discrimination being politically sensitive, we identify an operation of map redrawing that increases the welfare of all. Climate change and population grow...

  17. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  18. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... satellite images were digitally processed using ILWIS 3.2™ software and exported to ArcGIS 9.3™ for further processing and ... annual rates of 8.26, 4.66 and 2.81%, respectively, while water bodies also decreased at an annual rate of 0.17%. ... urban land uses are direct indications of social and economic ...

  19. Environmental assessment of spatial plan policies through land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on scenario analysis to compare the environmental effects of different spatial plan policies in a range of possible futures. The study aimed at contributing to overcome two limitations encountered in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for spatial planning: poor exploration of how the future might unfold, and poor consideration of alternative plan policies. Scenarios were developed through what-if functions and spatial modeling in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and consisted in maps that represent future land uses under different assumptions on key driving forces. The use of land use scenarios provided a representation of how the different policies will look like on the ground. This allowed gaining a better understanding of the policies' implications on the environment, which could be measured through a set of indicators. The research undertook a case-study approach by developing and assessing land use scenarios for the future growth of Caia, a strategically-located and fast-developing town in rural Mozambique. The effects of alternative spatial plan policies were assessed against a set of environmental performance indicators, including deforestation, loss of agricultural land, encroachment of flood-prone areas and wetlands and access to water sources. In this way, critical environmental effects related to the implementation of each policy were identified and discussed, suggesting possible strategies to address them. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: ► The method contributes to two critical issues in SEA: exploration of the future and consideration of alternatives. ► Future scenarios are used to test the environmental performance of different spatial plan policies in uncertainty conditions. ► Spatially-explicit land use scenarios provide a representation of how different policies will look like on the ground.

  20. Survey study of Kalmar county. Land use and transport infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Lars

    1998-12-01

    This study gives a survey of the land use interests in Kalmar county, Sweden, and of transport infrastructure in forms of harbour, railways and roads. The aim of the study is to outline the existing potential of the county for hosting an underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. Specific areas of interest for siting are not selected in this study, but areas clearly unsuited are pointed out