Rejent, B.; Kosek, Z.
The results of theoretical, calculation and experimental work associated with the problems of seismic stress of pipings with technologically important water at the Mochovce and Temelin nuclear power plants are discussed. The inner diameter of the piping is 500 to 1600 mm, wall thickness 8 to 12 mm; it is subject to vigorous corrosion, which at the Temelin power plant attains a value of 4.5 mm by the end of the service life (30 years). Discussed are the results of the static strength calculations, of experimental investigation of the properties of the friction pair in the push fit of the piping and of static examination of the loading capacity of the piping shell in the points of the supports. From the earthquake resistance aspect, attention is paid particularly to the vibro-isolation of the piping systems by virtue of friction in the supports. (Z.M.). 11 figs., 6 refs
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold's numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold's-number MHD dynamos
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos
Adequate resistance of materials to corrosion is equally important for classical and for new technologies. This article considers the economic consequences of corrosion damage and, in addition to the long-known GNP orientation, presents a new approach to the estimation of the costs of corrosion and corrosion protection via maintenance and especially corrosion-related maintenance. The significance of ''high-tech'', ''medium-tech'' and ''low-tech'' material and corrosion problems is assessed. Selected examples taken from new technologies in the areas of power engineering, environmental engineering, chemical engineering, and biotechnology demonstrate the great significance of the problems. It is concluded that corrosion research and corrosion prevention technology will never come to an end but will constantly face new problems. Two technologies are of particular interest since they focus attention on new methods of investigation: microelectronics and final disposal of radioactive wastes. The article closes by considering the importance of the transfer of experience and technology. Since the manufacturs and operators of machines and plant do not generally have access to the very latest knowledge, they should be kept informed through advisory services, experimental studies, databases, and further education. (orig.) [de
A. G. Beltov
Full Text Available The article provides an overview of security problems which exist in the mobile devices. The main technologies aimed to protect the phones from various types of attacks are considered. The authors justify the necessity of developing new improved tools and methods to ensure the safety of such devices.
Can imported technologies be socially constructed? Starting from this puzzling question, this essay reflects on the various methodologies with which one can narrate the stories of technology in modern Korea. A focus on technological innovations and how they have been shaped by their societal milieu forces one to leave out a large part of the technological experience, especially when the bulk of the technologies-in-use have been imported from abroad. This poses a serious problem for the history of technology in Korea, a nation that relied heavily on foreign technologies as it went through rapid economic growth in the latter twentieth century.
Sovetov, Boris Y.
Information product qualitative forming and effective use is the aim of any information technology. Information technology as a system provides both computer-aided problem solving for the user and automation of information processes, which in turn support the problem solving process. That's why the information technology methods are the methods for data transmission, processing, and storage. The tools of methodology, mathematics, algorithms, hardware, software, and information are the tools of information technology. We propose to differ between global, basic, and applied information technologies depending on information product significance and characteristics of models, methods, and tools used. The global technology is aimed to use information resources in the social sphere as a whole. The basic technology is oriented on the application sphere (industry, scientific research, design, training). Transition towards new information technology should have in its concern business area model merged with the formal model of problem solving: computing organization based on the data concept; user's intellectual interface development.
Each civilization is faced with an issue of choosing to be for or against life. Likewise, the society we are currently building cannot evade answering the question of on which side it stands, that of life or that of death? Consumptionist and hedonistic lifestyles of a majority of people make the answer to this question still more important. The mass-media do not inform societies about the true scale of havoc wrought both in somatic and psychic dimension in women who submit themselves to abortion. The actual trend is to try to suppress the humane sensitivity and consciousness which rise against lack of respect for the Godbegotten gift of a new life.
Farber, Barry A; Shafron, Gavin; Hamadani, Jaleh; Wald, Emily; Nitzburg, George
Increasingly, young people are using various forms of technology in the service of communicating with others, and many have noted the possibility of various dire consequences of this phenomenon, including sexting, cyberbullying, online harassment, and Internet addiction. In our own survey of over 300 adolescents, we found that texting and face-to-face communication were considered the most "convenient" forms of communication, while face-to-face communication and phone conversations were perceived as most likely to lead to "feeling understood" and "feeling intimate." Face-to-face communication and texting were perceived as most likely to result in feeling regret for sharing too much information. By choosing to communicate through technology, many young people, including our patients, can continue to be social and, at the same time, keep a somewhat safer emotional distance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Singh, S.G.; Tyagi, M.; Desai, D.G.; Singh, A.K.; Tiwari, Babita; Sen, Shashwati; Chauhan, A.K.; Gadkari, S.C.
Device-grade single crystals of technologically important materials for use as scintillators in nuclear radiation detection, lasers and optical devices are grown in Crystal Technology Section of the Technical Physics Division. The expertise has been developed to establish crystal growth processes and design and fabricate crystal growth equipment. In addition, single crystals of new materials to be used in neutron and gamma detection are also being studied and developed currently. The processing, characterization and testing of devices are carried out using in-house facilities as well as in collaboration with other Divisions. (author)
The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members' mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical 'skeleton' of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [de
Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.
This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization
Carlos Alberto Souza
Full Text Available We questioned the traditional practice of Physics teaching interrogating the normal procedures of solving-problem. We pointed the students passivity out, the lack of dialog interaction, the teaching-learning activity isolated from investigation, as responsible for the technological-communication non-mediation in classroom and, consequently, the lack of the problem-dialog in school process. Oriented by the investigation-action conceptions and by the problem-dialog education, we developed, established and evaluated an school object for solving-problem linked in to a teaching-learning virtual environment for the Internet, both with open sources, prioritizing empowered didactic strategies of procedures and abilities which we named as teachinginvestigation- learning in a problem perspective
There is no doubt that technology is important in war. While it is difficult to identify major security issues for which technology is not important, determining just how important is another matter...
Trevelyan, James P.
The global landmine problem came to the attention of researchers in the mid 1990's and by 1997 several advanced and expensive sensor research programs had started. Yet, by the end of 2003, there is little sign of a major advance in the technology available to humanitarian demining programs. Given the motivation and dedication of researchers, public goodwill to support such programs, and substantial research resources devoted to the problem, it is worth asking why these programs do not seem to have had an impact on demining costs or casualty rates. Perhaps there are factors that have been overlooked. This paper reviews several research programs to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. A possible explanation is that researchers have accepted mistaken ideas on the nature of the landmine problems that need to be solved. The paper provides several examples where the realities of minefield conditions are quite different to what researchers have been led to believe. Another explanation may lie in the political and economic realities that drive the worldwide effort to eliminate landmines. Most of the resources devoted to landmine clearance programs come from humanitarian aid budgets: landmine affected countries often contribute only a small proportion because they have different priorities based on realistic risk-based assessment of needs and political views of local people. Some aid projects have been driven by the need to find a market for demining technologies rather than by user needs. Finally, there is a common misperception that costs in less developed countries are intrinsically low, reflecting low rates paid for almost all classes of skilled labour. When actual productivity is taken into account, real costs can be higher than industrialized countries. The costs of implementing technological solutions (even using simple technologies) are often significantly under-estimated. Some political decisions may have discouraged thorough investigation of cost
A brief editorial outlines the concepts and challenges facing the valuation of modular, renewable energy technologies which are covered in a special issue of ''Energy Policy''. The main problem is the narrowness of the traditional discounted cash flow analysis for valuing such projects when some of the benefits (e.g. flexibility, financial risk, reduction in overhead and indirect costs) are not fully recognized at the outset. (UK)
Recupero, Patricia R
Forensic psychiatrists in the 21st century can expect to encounter technology-related social problems for which existing legal remedies are limited. In addition to the inadequate protection of adolescents using social media as outlined by Costello et al., current laws are often poorly suited to remedy problems such as cyberharassment, sexting among minors, and the publication of threatening or harmful communications online. Throughout history, technological developments have often preceded the introduction of new laws or the careful revision of existing laws. This pattern is evident in many of the newer social problems that involve technology, including cyberbullying, online impersonation, and revenge porn. As specialists working at the intersection of human behavior and the law, forensic psychiatrists are uniquely situated to help legal professionals and others understand the impact of internet-related problematic behaviors on victims and, perhaps, to assist in the development of new legal remedies that are better tailored to our increasingly digital society. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
With the move to a greater degree of sophistication in industrial processes has come a need for improved measurement control methods as well as for efficient techniques for investigating process problems. Radioisotope-based technology, because of its unique benefits, is playing an increasing role in assisting mining and industry to satisfy the critical needs for efficiency in investigating process problems. More than twenty years of experience in the application of radioisotope and radiation techniques to the practical problems of industry has resulted in the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa having accumulated both extensive expertise and the facilities to carry out wide-ranging investigations, and to provide a large variety of cost effective services. Some of these are described. 2 figs., 2 ills
Ingraffea, A. R.; Burchell, A.; Howarth, R.; Wilson, A.; Doe, P.; Colborn, T.; Wood, M. C.
Hydraulic fracturing has become synonymous with the new technologies and processes used to develop oil and methane from shale formations. We will address the following important set of problems associated with such development and the role scientists are playing in communicating these to the public. Human Health Consequences: The health consequences of the wide-range of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions associated with methane and oil are not adequately addressed. New evidence about exposure to, and the known and possible health effects of, these toxic hitch hikers will be presented. Methane Emissions: Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, though atmospheric residence is shorter. Methane is emitted through-out the development life-cycle, albeit there is uncertainty over the rate, and short-term effect on global warming. Leakage from Faulty Wells: Multiple industry studies show that about 5 percent of oil and gas wells immediately leak methane and other fluids into the atmosphere and water wells due to integrity issues and increasing rates of leakage over time. With millions of wells drilled worldwide, and millions more expected, this problem is neither negligible nor preventable with current technology. Federal Exemptions and Home Rule: 'Fracking' currently slips through federal environmental statutory law because of an industry-friendly exemption. However, trusts are established in US law and the Public Trust Doctrine provides a basis for courts to enjoin 'fracking' due to the potential impact on beneficiaries of the trust --present and future generations. The public trust designates government as a trustee of crucial resources and imposes a fiduciary obligation on agencies to prevent "substantial impairment" of- and protect access to- clean air, clean water and other natural resources vital for public welfare and survival. Already applied to the realm of ecology, the doctrine is reviewed as a legal and policy toot to protect communities
Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.
Griffin, Richard A.; Fowler, Laura S.
The most overlooked facet of school construction is the dovetailing of permanent construction insurance and technology construction insurance. Advice is provided about technology and technology purchases, highlighting problems associated with costs, copyright infringements, delivery delays, electrical wiring, hardware, student records, vendors,…
An important clinical issue there is determination whether left ventricular damages are reversible or not single photon emission computed tomography and positron computed tomography techniques are shown to provide valuable data in this problem. Article describes basic syndromes connected with left ventricular dysfunction, namely: hibernating myocardium, stunned myocardium and ischemic myocardium preconditioning. (author). 18 refs
The aim of the report is to provide a broad survey of the technological problems imposed on the production of cooling systems by the demands for reduction in the use of chlorofluorocarbons as refrigerants. With regard to industrial research in this area the present situation is clarified and possible future developments are discussed. The influence of CFC gasses on the global environment and international and national legislation within this field are explained. Alternative refrigerants and cooling processes, and ways of reducing refrigerant leakage, are described. It is concluded that currently the use of alternative refrigerants is the policy which is generally accepted, and intensive research is being carried out in this field. R134a should substitute R12 in the cases of household refrigerators and air conditioning, and will soon be commercially available. The use of R22 and ammonia will be extended. This is a practical policy to follow up commercially, whereas the policy of alternative processes presents more problems because they are not so developed and there is less available know-how in this area. The possibilities for hermetic sealing of cooling systems are unrealistic and should anyway be regarded only as a supplement to alternative refrigerants. Within the European Community it is intended to provide standards and regulations in relation to air pollution from refrigerants. (AB) (58 refs.)
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
This is another report in a series of programs dealing with the problems of a technological age. It is assumed that teachers will use both parts of this report. Part I deals with the problems of technology and how it affects our lives. It also discusses the energy crisis created, in part, by technology and deals specifically with coal and…
Hertlein, Katherine M; Webster, Megan
The advances in technology alter the ways we interact with each other. For some, the use of technology can facilitate a relationship; for others, technology can complicate aspects of a relationship. The purpose of this research synthesis is to summarize current research exploring the ways in which technology impacts relationships negatively. Eight studies were reviewed across the following areas: preoperational definitions, sample, methodology, control of extraneous variables, causal influence, generalizability, validity of statistical findings, and conclusions. Implications for authors, researchers, and therapists working with couples and families struggling with technology issues are discussed.
Jensen, Annie Aarup; Lund, Birthe
Introduction of a pedagogical concept, Kubus, in a problem oriented learning context--analysed within the framework of an activity system--indicates what might happen when offering tools tempting to influence and regulate students' learning approach and hereby neglecting the importance of existing habits and values. Introduction of this new…
Lu, Romy Emaas
In 2003, Nicholas Carr published in "Harvard Business Review" his article "IT Doesn't Matter," which rekindled the debate on the strategic importance of information technology (IT). Chief Information Officers (CIOs) of community colleges are now faced with the challenge of seeking the best technology for their institutions. The…
Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.
Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.
This paper outlines the principles of design and operation of conceptual fusion reactors, indicates the level of research funding and activity being proposed at major centres and reviews the major materials problems which have been identified, together with an outline of the experimental techniques which have been suggested for investigating these problems. (author)
Greene, D.L.; Boudreaux, P.R.; Dean, D.J.; Fulkerson, W.; Gaddis, A.L.; Graham, R.L.; Graves, R.L.; Hopson, J.L.; Hughes, P.; Lapsa, M.V.; Mason, T.E.; Standaert, R.F.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Zucker, A.
A wide range of energy technologies appears to be needed for the United States to meet its energy goals. A method is developed that relates the uncertainty of technological progress in eleven technology areas to the achievement of CO 2 mitigation and reduced oil dependence. We conclude that to be confident of meeting both energy goals, each technology area must have a much better than 50/50 probability of success, that carbon capture and sequestration, biomass, battery electric or fuel cell vehicles, advanced fossil liquids, and energy efficiency technologies for buildings appear to be almost essential, and that the success of each one of the 11 technologies is important. These inferences are robust to moderate variations in assumptions.
Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk of three breeds of Algerian dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius ) ... isolated from Algerian dromedary milks that showed potentially important properties suggest that they are good candidate for camels milk processing or other dairy fermentation ...
Zhang Hui; Du Xiangwan
The important way to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons was to control the production and the use of fissile material. In particular, strengthening the control on 'weapon-usable' fissile materials-highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium is essential. The production of HEU and its proliferation problem was mainly discussed. A comprehensive review of the status of various enrichment techniques is presented and the impact of these enrichment processes on the proliferation problem is discussed by the comparison of the characteristics of these techniques. Moreover, various possibilities to produce HEU by an existing facility for the production of LEU and the processes possibly to be chosen for constructing dedicated facility in a country are also analysed. Finally, the safeguards on the enrichment technology and some possible ways to detect the clandestine enrichment process are discussed. (3 tabs., 5 figs.)
Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Ryberg, Thomas
This paper aims to understand how students use technology to enhance their learning in problem-based learning environments. The research methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative studies. The results are based on students’ interviews, a survey and students’ reflections in course......-related blog posts; they show that students have positive perceptions toward using technologies in problem-based learning environments....
The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project seeks to enhance and build on the technology and momentum behind two of the most popular sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis programs used in envi...
Morris, R. F.
Various existing food processing technologies are reviewed in the paper. The benefits, problems and potential prospects of each of the technologies are discussed. The paper will also present new processing techniques including food irradiation and provide an insight into the future trends in food technology
Rosen, Larry; Carrier, Louis M; Miller, Aimee; Rokkum, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Abraham
Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability. In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems. More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems. A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems. Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capelli, R.; Pozzi, G.
It is shown how the same physically appealing method can be applied to find analytic solutions for two difficult and apparently unrelated problems in optics and electrostatics. They are: (i) the diffraction of a plane wave at a perfectly conducting thin half-plane and (ii) the electrostatic field associated with a parallel array of stripes held at…
The general idea developed in this paper from a sociological perspective is that some of the foundational categories on which the debate about privacy, security and technology rests are blurring. This process is a consequence of a blurring of physical and digital worlds. In order to define limits for legitimate use of intrusive digital technologies, one has to refer to binary distinctions such as private versus public, human versus technical, security versus insecurity to draw differences determining limits for the use of surveillance technologies. These distinctions developed in the physical world and are rooted in a cultural understanding of pre-digital culture. Attempts to capture the problems emerging with the implementation of security technologies using legal reasoning encounter a number of problems since law is by definition oriented backwards, adapting new developments to existing traditions, whereas the intrusion of new technologies in the physical world produces changes and creates fundamentally new problems.
An ongoing component of the Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) Program, managed by the US EPA at its Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, is the development and demonstration of new and innovative measurement and monitoring technologies that will be applicable to Superfund site characterization. There are four important roles for monitoring and measurement technologies at Superfund sites: (1) to assess the extent of contamination at a site, (2) to supply data and information to determine impacts to human health and the environment, (3) to supply data to select the appropriate remedial action, and (4) to monitor the success or effectiveness of the selected remedy. The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) has been supporting the development of improved measurement and monitoring techniques in conjunction with the SITE Program with a focus on two areas: Immunoassay for toxic substances and fiber optic sensing for in-situ analysis at Superfund sites
S. V. Denysenko
Full Text Available The peculiarities of modern medicine development connected with the technological and informative singularity are analyzed. The risks of realization of extracorporeal fertilization are examined from positions of development of informative singularity. The warning problems of origin of singularity are discussed on t h e base of t h e newest technologies development.
DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.
The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.
Full Text Available Starting of assumption that the Brazilian literature in general, but mainly the area of Human Resources is based on foreign authors, the aim this paper is promote a reflection about the efficiency of the use of techniques imported from people management in Brazil. The questions revolve around the difference between sociocultural contexts and the implications of the adoption of the basic foreign (stereotype of his birthplace in the Brazilian context, where the "jeitinho brasileiro" is considered unique and exclusive. This environment happened with the "patrimonialismo" as scenario. There is also the possibility of "tropicalização" these models by isomorphism. However, it appears that due to differences contextual and sociocultural leads the techniques of import management to be less effective in Brazil.
Hemorrhagic stroke in children occurs more frequently than is commonly appreciated. There are important differences in the factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke in children when compared with adults. These differences likely play a role in the different outcomes, which tend to worsen with age. In this review, we describe the estimated frequency, clinical presentation, acute management of hemorrhagic stroke, and an overview of rehabilitation techniques. We identify key topics for future b...
Hemorrhagic stroke in children occurs more frequently than is commonly appreciated. There are important differences in the factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke in children when compared with adults. These differences likely play a role in the different outcomes, which tend to worsen with age. In this review, we describe the estimated frequency, clinical presentation, acute management of hemorrhagic stroke, and an overview of rehabilitation techniques. We identify key topics for future basic and clinical research. Findings from future studies will help improve our ability to optimize treatment for and long-term rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:21633104
Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.
Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.
Folan, Lorcan M.; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.
We observe a huge chasm between up-to-date science and undergraduate education. The result of this chasm is that current student interest in undergraduate science is low. Consequently, students who are graduating from college are often unable to take advantage of the many opportunities offered by science and technology. Cutting edge science and technology frequently use the methods learned in undergraduate courses, but up-to-date applications are not normally used as examples or for problems in undergraduate courses. There are many physics problems which contain information about the latest achievements in science and technology. But typically, the level of these problems is too advanced for undergraduates. We created physics problems for undergraduate science and engineering students, which are based on the latest achievements in science and technology. These problems have been successfully used in our courses at the Polytechnic University in New York. We believe that university faculty may suggest such problems in order to provide information about the frontiers of science and technological, demonstrate the importance of undergraduate physics in solving contemporary problems and raise the interest of talented students in science. From the other side, our approach may be considered an indirect way for advertising advanced technologies, which undergraduate students and, even more important, future college graduates could use in their working lives.
Recently, movements to seek various alternatives are becoming more active around the world to resolve urban problems related to energy, water, a greenhouse gas, and disaster by utilizing smart technology system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate service verification aimed at demonstration region applied with actual smart technology in order to raise the efficiency of the service and explore solutions for urban problems. This process must be required for resolving urban problems in the future and establishing `integration platform' for sustainable development. The demonstration region selected in this study to evaluate service verification is `Busan' in Korea. Busan adopted 16 services in 4 sections last year and begun demonstration to improve quality of life and resolve urban environment problems. In addition, Busan participated officially in `Global City Teams Challenge (GCTC)' held by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in USA last year and can be regarded as representative demonstration region in Korea. The result of survey showed that there were practical difficulties as explained below in the demonstration for resolving urban problems by applying smart technology. First, the participation for demonstration was low because citizens were either not aware or did not realize the demonstration. Second, after demonstrating various services at low cost, it resulted in less effect of service demonstration. Third, as functions get fused, it was found that management department, application criteria of technology and its process were ambiguous. In order to increase the efficiency of the demonstration for the rest of period through the result of this study, it is required to draw demand that citizens requires in order to raise public participation. In addition, it needs to focus more on services which are wanted to demonstrate rather than various service demonstrations. Lastly, it is necessary to build integration platform through cooperation
Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María
The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT.
Massa, Nicholas M.; Dischino, Michele; Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach in which students learn by actively and collaboratively solving authentic problems encountered in real-world situations. Research demonstrates that PBL improves students' learning and retention, motivation, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and their ability to skillfully apply knowledge in new and novel situations - skills deemed critical for lifelong learning. In this paper, we present the Photon PBL project, a three-year National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (NSF-ATE) project aimed at developing, in partnership with photonics industry and university partners, a comprehensive series of multimedia PBL instructional materials and training for photonics technology educators from across the US and abroad. Results from first-year pilot testing of multimedia PBL instructional materials, problem development and implementation strategies are detailed.
Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri
This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.
Mueller, U.; Krebs, L.; Rust, K.
The majority of contributions compiled in this report deals with thermal and fluid dynamic problems in nuclear engineering. Especially problems of heat transfer and cooling are represented which may arise during and afer a loss-of-coolant accident both in light water reactors and in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. Papers on the mass transfer in pressurized water, tribological problems in sodium cooled reactors, the fluid dynamics of pulsed column, and fundamental investigations of convective flows supplement these contributions on problems connected with accidents. Furthermore, a keynote paper presents the individual activities relating to the reliability of reactor components, a field recently included in our research program. Technical solutions to special problems are closely connected to the investigations based on experiments. Therefore, several contributions deal with new developments in technology and measuring techniques. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.
At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)
Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos
of modern educational systems. Established pedagogical strategies, such as Problem Based Learning (PBL), are being adapted for online use in conjunction with modern Web 2.0 technologies and tools. However, even though Web 2.0 and progressive social-networking technologies are automatically associated......Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly the so-called Web 2.0, are affecting all aspects of our life: how we communicate, how we shop, how we socialise, and how we learn. Facilitating learning through the use of ICT, also known as eLearning, is a vital part...... with ideals such as collaboration, sharing, and active learning, it is also possible to use them in a very conservative, teacher-centred way limiting thus their impact. In this paper, we present a PBL 2.0 framework, i.e., a framework combining PBL practices with Web 2.0 technologies. More specifically, we (a...
Turbine cooling is the breakthrough technology for gas turbine engines and although the turbine engine and cooling are considered mature technologies, to date they have only achieved about 60 to 70...
Massa, Nicholas; Audet, Richard; Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna; Kehrhahn, Marijke
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational approach whereby students learn course content by actively and collaboratively solving real-world problems presented in a context similar to that in which the learning is to be applied. Research shows that PBL improves student learning and retention, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to skillfully apply knowledge to new situations - skills deemed critical to lifelong learning. Used extensively in medical education since the 1970's, and widely adopted in other fields including business, law, and education, PBL is emerging as an alternative to traditional lecture-based courses in engineering and technology education. In today's ever-changing global economy where photonics technicians are required to work productively in teams to solve complex problems across disciplines as well as cultures, PBL represents an exciting alternative to traditional lecture-based photonics education. In this paper we present the PHOTON PBL project, a National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (NSF-ATE) project aimed at creating, in partnership with the photonics industry and university research labs from across the US, a comprehensive series of multimedia-based PBL instructional resource materials and offering faculty professional development in the use of PBL in photonics technology education. Quantitative and qualitative research will be conducted on the effectiveness of PBL in photonics technician education.
Balint, Tibor S.; Stevens, John
Technological innovation is key to enable future space exploration missions at NASA. Technology development, however, is not only driven by performance and resource considerations, but also by a broad range of directly or loosely interconnected factors. These include, among others, strategy, policy and politics at various levels, tactics and programmatics, interactions between stakeholders, resource requirements, performance goals from component to system level, mission infusion targets, portfolio execution and tracking, and technology push or mission pull. Furthermore, at NASA, these influences occur on varying timescales and at diverse geographic locations. Such a complex and interconnected system could impede space technology innovation in this examined segment of the government environment. Hence, understanding the process through NASA's Planning, Programming, Budget and Execution cycle could benefit strategic thinking, planning and execution. Insights could be gained through suitable models, for example assessing the key drivers against the framework of Wicked Problems. This paper discusses NASA specific space technology innovation and innovation barriers in the government environment through the characteristics of Wicked Problems; that is, they do not have right or wrong solutions, only improved outcomes that can be reached through authoritative, competitive, or collaborative means. We will also augment the Wicked Problems model to account for the temporally and spatially coupled, and cyclical nature of this NASA specific case, and propose how appropriate models could improve understanding of the key influencing factors. In turn, such understanding may subsequently lead to reducing innovation barriers, and stimulating technology innovation at NASA. Furthermore, our approach can be adopted for other government-directed environments to gain insights into their structures, hierarchies, operational flow, and interconnections to facilitate circular dialogs towards
Bishop, Alan R.
The nation's investment in Los Alamos has fostered scientific capabilities for national security missions. As the premier national security science laboratory, Los Alamos tackles: (1) Multidisciplinary science, technology, and engineering challenges; (2) Problems demanding unique experimental and computational facilities; and (3) Highly complex national security issues requiring fundamental breakthroughs. Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) solve national security challenges.
Elena I. Antonova
Full Text Available The technology of preliminary informing is the priority direction of development of information technologies in the customs authorities. Russian model prior information on Maritime transport contains a number of features that distinguish it from world practice. The studied is the possibility of creating a unified information system of state regulatory bodies in the Maritime checkpoints. The article considers one of directions of automation of information interaction between Maritime stakeholders in the conduct of customs and other types of state control with the use of a single information space, based on the then-experimental solutions. Analysis of experience of implementation and operation of the software complex "Portal port" in the region of the Vladivostok customs have helped to identify problems in the application of the technology of preliminary information on Maritime transport. The proposed solutions to these problems provide an opportunity to work on improvement of this technology and to introduce mandatory preliminary notification in all sea checkpoints on the territory of the Russian Federation, will allow to optimize the performance of customs and other state Supervisory authorities at the seaport, us-blame the turnover and will contribute to the development of the far Eastern region as a whole.
White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems
Toepfer, S.; Pfund, A.; Jankowski, L.
The prospective importance is pointed out of data retrieval systems and the necessity of resolving related theoretical, technical, technological and semantic problems, which conditions the further successful development of the said systems. Different types of such systems are presented and characterized, including search languages, data collection, selection, evaluation and verification. The said aspects are related to the OEKFAK ZfI Leipzig system
И В Данилин
Full Text Available Modern innovation policy is formed under strong influence of disruptive technologies con-cepts, which help mobilize support for Science and Technology (S&T policy, structure international S&T cooperation and system, etc. They are also important for the global processes, promising changes in leading powers cohort. This is why disruptive technology concepts are accented by the emerging economics, especially by BRIC nations. A concept of converging (or nano-bio-info-cognitive, also known as NBIC technologies is very illustrative. Being originally a part of the USA nanotechnology policy and transhumanistic discourse, it gradually evolved globally with focus on “Grand Challenges”. But, despite successes of technology convergence since 2000s, concept itself proved to be not fully operational, being mostly a metaphor for rising interdisciplinarity and discipline convergence. Nonetheless its revolutionary potential was meaningful, but linked not to technological, but institu-tional and socio-cultural dimensions. Among them were human capital development, changing logic of S&T organization, reforming S&T policies, formation of new culture and ethics of research and development, systemic development of national innovation systems. These ideas, implicitly present in the NBIC concept, were of a special importance for the emerging economies as key factors for their enforced growth and rising quality of development processes. But these issues were surprisingly weak articulated in NBIC concept. Partly that was the influence of transhumanist discourse with its escape from solving societal challenges by technological change of human self. Not less important was that NBIC were seen by elites as a mean to bypass deep reforms and buildup of innovation institutions. I.e., concepts of disruptive technologies represent a psychological sub-stitute for a really intense development. Uniqueness of NBIC is that it makes this contradiction very visible. As shown in
Peng Yanguang; Yu Chuansong; Ma Mei; Sun Gongxing
There are some problems that Excel data importing to database for our scientific data processing, we introduce a method how to use UML and XML technology design and implementation our system. Because XML technology have flexible data exchange mechanism, so it is appropriate to do it, and it is easy for use that the system of importing data of nuclear analysis experiment has a web browser GUI. Our paper emphasis on the software design method and UML design cases. (authors)
Wells, James E.; Komar, George J.
The first set of Venture-class investigations share the characteristic that the technology should be mature and all investigations must use mature technology that has been modeled or demonstrated in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) >5). Technology Readiness Levels are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. The TRL is used in NASA technology planning. A major step in the level of fidelity of the technology demonstration follows the completion of TRL 5. At TRL 6, a system or subsystem model or prototype must be demonstrated in a relevant environment (ground or space) representative model or prototype system or system, which would go well beyond ad hoc, "patch-cord," or discrete component level breadboarding. These TRL levels are chosen as target objectives for the Program. The challenge for offerors is that they must identify key aspects (uncertainty, multi subsystem complexity, etc) of the TRL estimate that should be properly explained in a submitted proposal. Risk minimization is a key component of the Earth Venture missions. Experiences of prior airborne missions will be shared. The discussion will address aspects of uncertainty and issues surrounding three areas of airborne earth science missions: (1) Aircraft or proposed flight platform -- Expressing the capability of the aircraft in terms of the supporting mission requirements. These issues include airplane performance characteristics (duration, range, altitude, among others) and multiship complexities. (2) Instruments -- Establishing that the instruments have been demonstrated in a relevant environment. Instruments with heritage in prior space missions meet this requirement, as do instruments tested on the ground. Evidence that the instruments have demonstrated the ability to collect data as advertised will be described. The complexity of
Hankins, W.W.; Pennington, J.E.; Barker, L.K.
This report presents a brief review of the state of the art in the automation of decision making and problem solving. The information upon which the report is based was derived from literature searches, visits to university and government laboratories performing basic research in the area, and a 1980 Langley Research Center sponsored conference on the subject. It is the contention of the authors that the technology in this area is being generated by research primarily in the three disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Control Theory, and Operations Research. Under the assumption that the state of the art in decision making and problem solving is reflected in the problems being solved, specific problems and methods of their solution are often discussed to elucidate particular aspects of the subject. Synopses of the following major topic areas comprise most of the report: (1) detection and recognition; (2) planning and scheduling; (3) learning; (4) theorem proving; (5) distributed systems; (6) knowledge bases; (7) search; (8) heuristics; and (9) evolutionary programming.
T. K. Usmanova
Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article is the disclosure of environmental problems and prospects commercialization of intellectual property within development of innovative information technologies in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy, identification of opportunities of forming, organization, financing, management, ownership, commercialization and protection of innovative technologies and intellectual property. Relevance of the chosen subject is caused by the current state of ecology and problems of commercialization of intellectual property in development of innovative information technologies within the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. The existing changes of the current legislation and tendencies of development of the industry of innovative information technologies in field of ecology in the Russian Federation require cardinal review because of its low competitiveness. Ensuring sustainable development of the country directly depends on implementation of innovative information technologies, not only within the sphere of ecology, but also in all industries of the national economy of Russia. Especially important direction of development of innovations is the field of information technologies with its further implementation in innovative productions and provision of services with a focus on protection of ecology and healthcare. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Results: in the process of researching the direction of solving environmental problems, the author studied foreign and Russian programs based on innovative technologies in this field and identified current proposals regarding the practical implementation of partnerships in the form of Public Private Partnerships PPPs
Full Text Available Web 2.0 technologies, such as social networks, wikis, blogs, and virtual worlds provide a platform for collaborative working, facilitating sharing of resources and joint document production. They can act as a stimulus to promote active learning and provide an engaging and interactive environment for students, and as such align with the philosophy of Problem-based Learning. Furthermore, Web 2.0 technologies can provide the tutor or facilitator with an opportunity to scaffold and asses the PBL process. However, whilst it is recognised that technology has an important role in enhancing each step of a PBL exercise, academic staff can be reluctant to use it. This paper provides some illustrative examples of the technologies that have been used to enhance, scaffold and assess PBL and their evaluation by distance learning and on-campus students at the University of Ulster. The benefits and limitations of using technology for both staff and students to support PBL are discussed.
The tritium technology requirements created by the controlled thermonuclear research program to develop a demonstration fusion power reactor by the year 2000 are reviewed. It is found that the majority of the technological advances which are needed to ensure adequate tritium containment in a tritium breeding power reactor need to be demonstrated on a pilot scale by approximately 1983, so that they may be incorporated into EPR-II, the second of two planned experimental power reactors. The most important advances include development of containment materials with permeabilities to tritium well below measured values for stainless steel; large scale, low inventory deuterium-tritium separation systems; and improved monitoring and assay systems. There are less critical requirements for information about the effects of tritium and helium on the mechanical properties of materials, the effects of tritium on biological systems, and data on physical and chemical properties of tritium. Substantial progress needs to be made on these problems early enough to permit possible solutions to be tested on EPR-I. In addition, major improvements in tritium handling equipment are required for EPR-I. Those technological problems for which solutions have not yet been demonstrated by EPR-II must be solved by 1989 if they are to be assured successful application in the demonstration reactor
Despite significant improvements in the last couple of years, women are still under-represented in science and technology, both in the academic and private sector. This is due to a variety of reasons, mostly related to the role allocated to women in modern society as well as pre-existing prejudices that form glass ceilings while encouraging male presence in the workplace. It is also however, a result of information or lack of, which places young women in difficult position of making a career ...
A pratical recursive Monte Carlo method for estimating the importance function distribution, aimed at importance sampling for the solution of deep penetration problems in three-dimensional systems, was developed. The efficiency of the recursive method was investigated for sample problems including one- and two-dimensional, monoenergetic and and multigroup problems, as well as for a practical deep-penetration problem with streaming. The results of the recursive Monte Carlo calculations agree fairly well with Ssub(n) results. It is concluded that the recursive Monte Carlo method promises to become a universal method for estimating the importance function distribution for the solution of deep-penetration problems, in all kinds of systems: for many systems the recursive method is likely to be more efficient than previously existing methods; for three-dimensional systems it is the first method that can estimate the importance function with the accuracy required for an efficient solution based on importance sampling of neutron deep-penetration problems in those systems
Yulish, Noah E; Goldberg, Simon B; Frost, Nickolas D; Abbas, Maleeha; Oleen-Junk, Nick A; Kring, Molly; Chin, Mun Yuk; Raines, Christopher R; Soma, Christina S; Wampold, Bruce E
One explanation for differences in treatment effectiveness for targeted symptoms is that more-effective treatments are more focused on patients' problems than are less-effective treatments. This conjecture was examined meta-analytically. Comparisons of two treatments of adults with anxiety disorders were included. Effect sizes for targeted symptoms, nontargeted symptoms, and global outcomes (e.g., quality of life and well-being) as well as the relative focus on patients' problems and researcher allegiance were coded. Metaregressions were conducted to predict effect sizes from (a) variables related to the focus on patients' problems and (b) researcher allegiance. For symptom measures, the relative focus on patients' problems predicted the relative effectiveness of the treatments, with the expectations created by explanation appearing more predictive than specific therapeutic actions focused on patients' problems, although conclusions about relative importance were difficult to determine given collinearity of predictors. Researcher allegiance also predicted the effects of the comparisons. For global outcomes, both the focus on patients' problems and researcher allegiance seemed to have smaller roles. A focus on patients' problems appears to be important for the reductions of symptoms. Clinical trials comparing treatments need to balance the focus on patients' problems and reduce researcher allegiance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In the article the relevance of media-safety as a socio-pedagogical problems. The introduction of media education in the practice of work of preschool educational institutions, the author identified as one of the strategies for overcoming negative influences of media on the younger generation. The concept of “information security”, “pre-school media education”, “media informational security” and identified the main tasks of media education at the present stage in Ukraine. Determined main problems, the overcoming of which may provide media-safety of preschoolers.Key words: media education, media-safety media, information and communication technology, information security.
Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.
NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.
Connor, Carol McDonald
Children who fail to learn to read proficiently are at serious risk of referral to special education, grade retention, dropping out of high school, and entering the juvenile justice system. Accumulating research suggests that instruction regimes that rely on assessment to inform instruction are effective in improving the implementation of personalized instruction and, in turn, student learning. However, teachers find it difficult to interpret assessment results in a way that optimizes learning opportunities for all of the students in their classrooms. This article focuses on the use of language, decoding, and comprehension assessments to develop personalized plans of literacy instruction for students from kindergarten through third grade, and A2i technology designed to support teachers' use of assessment to guide instruction. Results of seven randomized controlled trials demonstrate that personalized literacy instruction is more effective than traditional instruction, and that sustained implementation of personalized literacy instruction first through third grade may prevent the development of serious reading problems. We found effect sizes from .2 to .4 per school year, which translates into about a 2-month advantage. These effects accumulated from first through third grade with a large effect size (d = .7) equivalent to a full grade-equivalent advantage on standardize tests of literacy. These results demonstrate the efficacy of technology-supported personalized data-driven literacy instruction to prevent serious reading difficulties. Implications for translational prevention research in education and healthcare are discussed.
Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.
Ferry, M.; Hervet, J.
The authors, who belong to the Training Department of the Technicatome Export Division, discuss the problems encountered in training foreign technicians and engineers and the way in which they can be overcome. The paper first lists the various phases in a training programme, which are a grounding in French (the effectiveness of which conditions everything that follows), adaptation of the basic knowledge of the trainees to nuclear problems and the acquisition of the relevant technical vocabulary, and a practical course at the laboratories of the CEA nuclear research centres and the various stages into which it is divided. The paper then discusses the specific difficulties involved in this form of training, such as problems of communication and difference in working practices. Lastly, emphasis is given to some of the more important points governing the success of the training, such as: the development of close collaboration between the requesting organization and the officials responsible for the training: choice of activities in the CEA laboratories (which requires thorough study); formulation of a training programme that enjoys the support of the trainee and stipulates standards by which to judge progress made; creation of an atmosphere of mutual trust between the trainee, his supervisor and the Training Department officials; and, lastly, keeping check on the implementation of the training. (author)
Ambar Sari Dewi
Full Text Available The role of Small Medium Enterprise (SME has been proven to be important in economic development. Many research also believed that the rapid rise of SME’s development caused by Information and Communication Technology (ICT adaption in their business. However, its adoption in developing countries faces several problems. Using Rogers’ (1995 diffusion of innovation theory and Manueli’s et.al (2007 recommendations, this essay will argue that to overcome the problem, a strong cooperation should be taken, interpersonal communication should be use as well as type of ICTs should be chosen wisely, based on specifi needs.
Following on from a study carried out with his colleagues in 2010, Anthony McGrath, Head of Department Adult Nursing and Midwifery, London South Bank University, considers the ongoing problems faced by patients with stomas and the importance of support from stoma care nurses.
Semin, S; Güldal, D
This study investigates recent changes related to the import and export of medical technology and their results in Turkey. Between 1980 and 1993 the number of medical technology imports in Turkey rose, and there was a parallel rise in its ratio to total imports and health expenditures. In contrast the ratio of medical technology exports to total exports decreased significantly in the same period. The liberalization of foreign trade and the changes of health services toward free market policy has caused growing import of medical technology in Turkey.
Holbrook, S M
In this article, the author examines the social and psychological issues raised by infertility and addresses problems resulting from the increasing commercialization of children through adoption practices as well as through the proliferation of new reproductive technologies. The author begins with a discussion of infertility and considers some aspects of adoption, the traditional solution to infertility. Some historical, technical, ethical, psychological, and social aspects of artificial insemination, along with newer developments of surrogacy, such as in vitro fertilization and frozen embryos, also are discussed. Recommendations are suggested for meeting the service needs of people who have problems associated with infertility. Finally, the author stresses the importance of research along with the necessity for social workers to take a leadership role in helping society both to understand the ethical issues related to and to develop enlightened public policy on infertility, adoption, and the new reproductive technologies.
Gromov, B.F.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Martinov, P.N.; Efimov, E.I.
The title topic is discussed, and the activities of nuclides in the target gas system by 1 MW power after 6 months of work are tabulated. The following facts are stressed: Realization of traditional technology based mainly on cover gas replacement, release and feeding of gas mixtures into the loop is complicated and needs developing and applying devices for purification of the gases removed and radiation shielding of these devices at least. Such developments are especially urgent for ADS projects where coolant circulation is intensified by gas lift. Traditional technology is unable to solve a number of problems associated with the elimination of electropositive impurities (Au, Ag, Hg and others) that make a significant contribution to change compound and radio activity of ADS coolants. The task to remove such impurities was not set for traditional nuclear power plants, so that appropriate developments began only recently. New processes that could replace the developed processes have not been revealed in the course of investigations, however there is an opportunity of using new methods of their realization. For example, the processes of purification and regulation of coolant quality using chemically active gases can be implemented without using external gas systems. The solid hydride, metallooxide and other chemical compounds located in the gas volume or in the coolant loops of ADS can be the sources and absorbents of chemically active gas components. Applying to ADS conditions the emphasis of some processes goals can be slightly changed. For example: regulation of dissolved oxygen activity can be performed as well (probably, mainly) for oxygen refining of coolant by means of electronegative impurities transition into solid-phase oxide compounds; gas and coolant filtering can also be performed to localize radioactive impurities in the ADS circuit. Probably, the coolant technology can be employed to solve a number of tasks: to localize radioactive impurities in the
A. N. Rjahovskaja
Full Text Available The article analyzes some problems of the Russian economy, including the problem of import substitution, the possible directions of their solutions, the need to identify priorities and priority sectors in the fi rst place, do not compete on the international market, including the production of construction, housing and agriculture. The analysis of agricultural subsidies in Europe,USA,ChinaandRussia, the necessity of repeated increase in the budget allocated to farmers, reducing the tax burden. Studied some of the features of the investment policy ofRussia, developed areas of its adjustment.
Discussed is the linkage between science, technology, and religious ideas. Tillich's continuum of existentialism, philosophy, and theology and his concepts of the multidimensional unity of life have been used to develop a technology and religion course. Included are the core ethic and basic tenets for STS education. (KR)
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol and drug use, and school-related problems measured by low grade point average (GPA and high school attendance. We also examined potential confounding effects from mental health problems. Although the issue is not new within current literature, the present study has its strengths in a large number of participants and the utilization of registry-based data on school-related functioning. A cross-sectional design is employed in this study using data from a large population-based sample of adolescents, youth@hordaland, in a linkage to official school registry data, and the current study presents data from N = 7,874. The main independent variables were alcohol use and drug use, as well as potential alcohol- and drug-related problems. The dependent variables were registry-based school attendance and grades. All the alcohol- and drug measures included were consistently associated with low GPA (Odds ratios (OR ranging 1.82–2.21, all p < 0.001 and high levels of missed days from school (ORs ranging 1.79–3.04, all p < 0.001 and high levels of hours missed from school (ORs ranging 2.17–3.44, all p < 0.001. Even after adjusting for gender, age, socioeconomic status and mental health problems all the associations between alcohol and illicit drug use and the school-related outcomes remained statistically significant. Increasing number of indications on alcohol/drug-related problems and increasing levels of alcohol consumption were associated with more negative school-related outcomes. The results suggest that alcohol- and drug use, and particularly alcohol/drug-related problems, are important factors for school-related problems independently of mental health problems.
In an environment of rapid and unpredictable change determined and directed by technologies that are constantly changing, the assumption that being technologically literate is the key to being a sustained, contributing life-long learner is well founded. However, technological literacy is seldom referred to or considered in academic arguments as a…
Seedhouse, Paul; Knight, Dawn
There is currently an explosion in the number and range of new devices coming onto the technology market that use digital sensor technology to track aspects of human behaviour. In this article, we present and exemplify a three-stage model for the application of digital sensor technology in applied linguistics that we have developed, namely,…
Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta
technological activities. The estimations show that this is the case in regions characterized by a high overall technological strength. This suggests that related variety facilitates technological diversifications of foreign corporations in regions at the top of the geographic hierarchy......The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign...
Koshizuka, Seiichi; Okamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Shunichi; Morii, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Okajima, Narimitsu
This special feature article consisted of seven reports summarizing discussions at the workshop on 'modeling and simulation technologies' held in early March 2011. These technologies were one of the most important strategic technologies among nuclear basic researches. Simulation technologies and Verification and Validation (V and V), problems of US software used in Japan and light water reactor simulation technology in regulating agency were overviewed. Experts in the area of thermo hydraulics and safety analysis, particle transport analysis and reactor physics and core analysis detailed current state and problems of simulation technologies. Standardization of V and V, development of original computer code and establishment of experimental database with assured accuracy for V and V should be conducted in Japan. (T. Tanaka)
Full Text Available Today trade policy and the politics of protectionism in Italy, for the most part carried out within the EEC, essentially rely on the Community system of customs duties on imported products and variable taxes on agricultural imports. However, there is also a set of domestic trade policy instruments, among which the system of quantitative import restrictions. The present article analyzes the economic, legal and practical aspects of the complex problem of the allocation of import licenses between national operators. In the first part the authors summarize the main differences between quotas and customs duties. The formulas adopted to date in Italy are then re-examined and the criteria used by the other CEE countries are referred to. Finally, the objectives identified as priorities in the field of Public Administration are specified, the main shortcomings of the current system highlighted and some changes proposed. JEL: F13, F15
Iwasaki, S.; Sugiyama, K.
We have discussed the important issues of the technologies which are essential to develop the upgraded (high level) support system for the neutron nuclear data evaluation. However, if we focus to systematized knowledge of the evaluators, which is shallow or deep, and intend to build a cooperative problem solving system between user and machine, the system would be in the extension of the presently developed technologies. An experimental system which can be practically used for the evaluation process would be developed within several years. In order to make the system work efficiently, several data bases and management systems should be prepared; the cross section request data base, the data base for experimental cross sections from the EXFOR file, nuclear model/method/code data bases, and model parameter data base. Development of knowledge acquisition mechanism and natural language interface are very interesting themes in the application of the knowledge engineering technology to the data evaluation, but may be future problems. It is expected that present discussion would provide a useful guidance on the project for the practical system using artificial intelligence technology at JAERI nuclear data center. (author)
Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are
Shepelin, A P; Domotenko, L V; Diatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Aleshkin, V A
The import substitution becomes one of strategic tasks of Russian economy as a result of imposition of economic sanctions on part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other states. The development of structure and technology of production of national import substituted growth mediums permits satisfying needs of laboratory service of Russia inactive storage and to secure appropriate response to occurring challenges and new biological menaces and support bio-security of state at proper level. The presented data concerning substantiation of nomenclature of growth mediums and transport system permit satisfying in fullness the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in growth mediums of national production and to give up of import deliveries without decreasing of quality of microbiological studies.
Full Text Available Almost all the human being real life concerned domains are taking advantage of latest technologies for enhancing their process, procedures and operations. This integration of technological innovations provides ease of access, flexibility, transparency, reliability and speed for the concerned process and procedures. Rapid growth of ICT (Information and Communication Technology and MT (Mobile Technology provides opportunity to redesign and reengineered the human routines? life activities process and procedures. Technology integration and adoption in routine life activities may serves compensatory mechanism to assist the population in different manner such as monitoring older adults and children at homes, provides security assistance, monitoring and recording patients vital signs automatically, controlling and monitoring equipments and devices, providing assistance in shopping, banking and education as well. Disasters happened suddenly, destroy everything indiscriminately. Adoption and integration of latest technologies including ICT and MT can enhance the current disaster management process, procedures and operations. This research study focuses the impacts of latest and emerging technology trends in routine life activities and surrounds their potential strength to improve and enhance disaster management activities. MT is providing a promising platform for facilitating people to enhance their routine life activities. This research argue that integration and adoption of mobile computing in disaster management domain can enhance disaster management activities with promising minimizing error, quick information assembling, quick response based on technology manipulation and prioritizing action.
Hart, P.W.; Wolf, S.W.; Berry, J.B.
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed
In fact, it is rare to find any organization or government institution today that does not make use of digital technology at least in one way or another. The reasons for adopting ICTs are based on the advantages that are associated with modern information technology (IT). On the other hand, the justification for going the IT route ...
Beekum, T. van; Banta, H.D.
Limited resources for health care and increasing health care costs have led to proposals to expand home care services. Presently, home care technology is rather primitive. Its development and use have been largely unplanned. Nonetheless, home care technology is growing in response to obvious needs,
Shafiq, F.; Ahsan, K.; Nadeem, A.
Almost all the human being real life concerned domains are taking advantage of latest technologies for enhancing their process, procedures and operations. This integration of technological innovations provides ease of access, flexibility, transparency, reliability and speed for the concerned process and procedures. Rapid growth of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and MT (Mobile Technology) provides opportunity to redesign and re-engineered the human routines life activities process and procedures. Technology integration and adoption in routine life activities may serves compensatory mechanism to assist the population in different manner such as monitoring older adults and children at homes, provides security assistance, monitoring and recording patients vital signs automatically, controlling and monitoring equipments and devices, providing assistance in shopping, banking and education as well. Disasters happened suddenly, destroy everything indiscriminately. Adoption and integration of latest technologies including ICT and MT can enhance the current disaster management process, procedures and operations. This research study focuses the impacts of latest and emerging technology trends in routine life activities and surrounds their potential strength to improve and enhance disaster management activities. MT is providing a promising platform for facilitating people to enhance their routine life activities. This research argue that integration and adoption of mobile computing in disaster management domain can enhance disaster management activities with promising minimizing error, quick information assembling, quick response based on technology manipulation and prioritizing action. (author)
Hart, P.W.; Wolf, S.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Berry, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed.
Problem based learning (PBL) is offered as an example of a problem-focused and student-centered pedagogical approach that foregrounds the curricular imperatives outlined in the KALPIER Report and provides an innovative educational experience for students. A successful implementation of PBL in a graduate level course in e-commerce illustrates…
The 'human' aspect of risk management as it relates to the problem of gas flaring was discussed in an effort to find an effective strategy for dealing with the problem. The 'human' aspect is important for both public consent and regulatory approval. The discipline of risk communications understands that the main issue is not the level of risk, but its acceptability to the public. The author believes that risk should be defined broadly so that it is not limited only to threats to public health and safety, but also to threats to the environment and quality of life. The five main strategic aspects of risk that influence the public's judgement of the level and acceptability of a risk are when: (1) the risk is created by organizations the public feels they cannot trust, (2) the risk is regarded as having been involuntarily imposed on them, (3) the public feels it has no personal control over project decisions, (4) the risk is viewed as unfair, and (5) the risk is managed by people who appear uncaring. A list of other influential factors was also provided. The ultimate objective of any risk communication strategy would be to enhance the affected public's ability to make an informed decision about the acceptability of the risk to which they are exposed. When dealing with the gas flaring problem, it is important to develop greater consensus of 'how safe is safe enough?' It was emphasized that trust is the most important factor in reducing public anxieties about risk and in strengthening relationships. The development of a strategy that has public support requires continuous stakeholder involvement
Full Text Available Without being creative and finding solutions for various problems of life mankind wouldn’t be what it is today. Problem solving always has been a key ability for development, in the past, the present and it will also be a key for the future. Creative problem solving is one of the most important ways of technical thinking and acting. Therefore, the ability of finding solutions for problems and realizing them is a primary goal for technological education, especially if it is part of a comprehensive school education. It can be assumed that the available resources affect the possibilities and the result of problem solving processes. In terms of technology classes there are numerous resources that aim for the development of pupils’ creative problem solving skills like for instance mechatronic educational environments (MEEs. Unfortunately there is currently no test instrument for rating the influence of these MEEs on the outcome in terms of creative technical problem solving processes. Therefore, we designed a trial for such purpose and tested it in a pilot study: 33 students (9th grade, average age of 15.24 years of comprehensive schools were given a problem, which had to be solved using three different MEEs. Solutions found by the students have been documented and analyzed to identify system characteristics which enhance or inhibit the creative outcome.Key words: Creative problem solving, technology education, mechatronic educational environments, Festo MecLab, Fischertechnik RoboTX, Lego Mindstorms EV3
The overall objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the CIVEX process, in terms of its diversion-proof characteristics and to assess the institutional problems of its deployment in the nuclear fuel cycle. The discussion is oriented towards answering the following questions: 1) Is Civex technically as reliable as its designers claim it is. 2) What are the institutional problems of deploying Civex in the nuclear fuel cycle. 6 refs
Sandars, John; Patel, Rakesh S; Goh, Poh Sun; Kokatailo, Patricia K; Lafferty, Natalie
There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology. The use of illustrative examples of the main educational theories to demonstrate the importance of theories informing the design of interventions using technology. Highlights the use of educational theories for theory-based and realistic evaluations of the use of technology in medical education. An explicit description of the educational theories used to inform the design of an intervention with technology can provide potentially useful insights into why some interventions with technology are more effective than others. An explicit description is also an important aspect of the scholarship of using technology in medical education.
Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues.
In this study, the perceived importance and manageability of teachers on the factors in technology integration were assessed among 407 elementary and secondary schoolteachers. A questionnaire containing 28 items focusing on environmental, personal, social and curricular factors related to technology integration was used. Two sets of data resources…
Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D
Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals.
Gillani, S.T.A.; Butt, N.
Civil engineering projects have greatly benefited from the mechanical excavation of hard rock technology. Mining industry, on the other hand, is still searching for major breakthroughs to mechanize and then automate the winning of ore and drivage of access tunnels in its metalliferous sector. The aim of this study is to extend the scope of drag bits for road headers in hard rock cutting. Various factors that can impose limitations on the potential applications of drag bits in hard rock mining are investigated and discussed along with alternative technology options. (author)
This paper examines the linkage between globalisation as a phenomenon and technology as the catalyst on the state of the agricultural sector in Africa. It is observed that though agriculture is the dominant economic sector in Africa, it is currently facing a food crisis of monumental dimensions. Figures pertaining to food ...
The enumeration of rudimentary technological risks alone shows that the governments of the European states must provide both diagnosis and therapy if the continent is not to degenerate into something between a fully automated chamber of horrors and a sordid refuse dump. Each of the European countries has introduced a great deal of valuable legislation. These laws are clearly inadequate. (DG)
When one talks about science, it is all about facts we know; technology is the practical products of science, but there are certain phenomena, occurrences or incidences that are beyond human comprehension, and therefore cannot be subjected to any empirical investigation. Such are called mysteries, for instance, the ...
Kadembo, Ernest M.
The advent of a continuous innovation and improvement, particularly in respect of information and communications technology has had a huge impact on the quality of life and in education delivery is an open secret. The benefits from exploiting ICT in education are ernomous but there are abuses that have tarnished its use in education. The…
Explains the history of IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) and its evolution into a Web-delivered, interactive software program, which assesses student understanding of curriculum in K-16 classrooms by tracking its application in real-world, problem-solving scenarios. Discusses performance feedback for teachers and students, and offers…
Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T.E.
Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of the increasing market share of wind power on the demand and supply of REE. • The analysis is carried out using a dynamic material flow and stock model and three scenarios for Dy supply. • The supply of Dy from all deposits will likely lead to an oversupply of the total REEs, Nd, La, Ce and Y. • The supply of Dy from critical REE or Dy rich deposits will likely lead to an oversupply of Ce and Y only. • Large quantities of thorium will be co-produced as a result of Dy demand that needs to be managed carefully. - Abstract: Wind power technology is one of the cleanest electricity generation technologies that are expected to have a substantial share in the future electricity mix. Nonetheless, the expected increase in the market share of wind technology has led to an increasing concern of the availability, production capacity and geographical concentration of the metals required for the technology, especially the rear earth elements (REE) neodymium (Nd) and the far less abundant dysprosium (Dy), and the impacts associated with their production. Moreover, Nd and Dy are coproduced with other rare earth metals mainly from iron, titanium, zirconium, and thorium deposits. Consequently, an increase in the demand for Nd and Dy in wind power technology and in their traditional applications may lead to an increase in the production of the host metals and other companion REE, with possible implications on their supply and demand. In this regard, we have used a dynamic material flow and stock model to study the impacts of the increasing demand for Nd and Dy on the supply and demand of the host metals and other companion REE. In one scenario, when the supply of Dy is covered by all current and expected producing deposits, the increase in the demand for Dy leads to an oversupply of 255 Gg of total REE and an oversupply of the coproduced REE Nd, La, Ce and Y. In the second and third scenarios, however, when the supply of Dy is
Swanson, David J.
The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.
Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa
Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…
Scott, Sophia; Koch, Doug
This article focuses on how technology educators can challenge students to "think" about technical problems. A key aspect of success in quality problem solving is understanding learning preferences and problem-solving approaches. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) can be used to assess an individual's ideal way to learn, in essence, a…
Swanson, David J.
The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.
Hechanova, Ma Regina M; Tuliao, Antover P; Teh, Lota A; Alianan, Arsenio S; Acosta, Avegale
This study examined the factors that influence the intent to seek online counseling among overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). A survey among 365 OFWs revealed that problem severity and technology adoption predict intent to use online counseling. Among the three factors of technology adoption, perceived ease in the use of technology and perceived presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use predicted intent to use online counseling. Our hypothesis about the presence of interaction between problem severity and facilitating conditions was supported. Among individuals with low problem severity, those who perceive the presence of organization and technological infrastructure to support use have a higher intent to use online counseling. However, at higher levels of problem severity, the effect of facilitating conditions seems to disappear. These findings highlight the crucial role of preventive online mental health services. The study contributes to theory by integrating the stage model of help-seeking behaviors and technology adoption theory in predicting intent to use online counseling. Specifically, that intent to seek online counseling is affected by the existence and perceived gravity of a problem, moderated by technology adoption factors, particularly facilitating conditions. These have implications on the need to educate potential users on the advantages of counseling and ensure that migrant workers have access to technology and that the technology is easy to use.
Hovanec, G.; Knezevic, D.; Bicanski, J.; Monevski, B.; Milovic, M. (Rudarski Institut, Zemun (Yugoslavia))
Deals with environmental pollution caused by coal fired power plants and by ore mining and ore processing plants in Yugoslavia. Air, land and water pollution by Serbian zinc and copper flotation plants is described. Various technological features of zinc flotation plants and their waste disposal methods as well as copper mines are provided. Measures aimed at reducing land and water pollution recommended by the Mining Institute in Zemun are highlighted. Air, land and water pollution by major Yugoslav power plants is further reviewed. These plants, fired by low grade lignite and brown coal, produce 11 Mt/a of slag and fly ash. Chemical ash properties, features of ash disposal sites and measures for recultivating devastated land in the vicinity of power plants are pointed out. 2 tabs.
To assess the integration of problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course. Problem-based learning (PBL) activities were developed and implemented in place of lectures in a self-care course. Students used technology, such as computer-generated virtual patients and iPads, during the PBL sessions. Students' scores on post-case quizzes were higher than on pre-case quizzes used to assess baseline knowledge. Student satisfaction with problem-based learning and the use of technology in the course remained consistent throughout the semester. Integrating problem-based learning and technology into a self-care course enabled students to become active learners.
Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Lubman, Dan I; Blaszczynski, Alex
New technology is changing the nature of gambling with interactive modes of gambling becoming putatively associated with higher rates of problem gambling. This paper presents the first nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling among Australian adults since 1999 and focuses on the impact of interactive gambling. A telephone survey of 15,006 adults was conducted. Of these, 2,010 gamblers (all interactive gamblers and a randomly selected subsample of those reporting land-based gambling in the past 12 months) also completed more detailed measures of problem gambling, substance use, psychological distress, and help-seeking. Problem gambling rates among interactive gamblers were 3 times higher than for noninteractive gamblers. However, problem and moderate risk gamblers were most likely to attribute problems to electronic gaming machines and land-based gambling, suggesting that although interactive forms of gambling are associated with substantial problems, interactive gamblers experience significant harms from land-based gambling. The findings demonstrate that problem gambling remains a significant public health issue that is changing in response to new technologies, and it is important to develop strategies that minimize harms among interactive gamblers.
Full Text Available In this paper, I report on preservice teachers’ reflections and perceptions on theirproblem-solving process in a technological context. The purpose of the study was to to investigatehow preservice teachers experience working individually in a dynamic geometry environment andhow these experiences affect their own mathematical activity when integrating content (nonroutineproblems and context (technology environment. Careful analysis of participants’ perceptionsregarding their thinking while engaged in problem solving, provided an opportunity to explorehow they explain the emergence of problem solving when working in a dynamic geometryenvironment. The two participants communicated their experience both through the lenses ofthemselves as problem solvers and as future mathematics educators. Moreover, the results of thestudy indicated that problem solving in a technology environment does not necessarily allow focuson decision-making, reflection, and problem solving processes as reported by previous research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background GPs increasingly deal with multiple health problems of their older patients. They have to apply a hierarchical management approach that considers priorities to balance competing needs for treatment. Yet, the practice of setting individual priorities in older patients is largely unexplored. This paper analyses the GPs’ perceptions on important and unimportant health problems and how these affect their treatment. Methods GPs appraised the importance of health problems for a purposive sample of their older patients in semi-structured interviews. Prior to the interviews, the GPs had received a list of their patients’ health problems resulting from a geriatric assessment and were asked to rate the importance of each identified problem. In the interviews the GPs subsequently explained why they considered certain health problems important or not and how this affected treatment. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and quantitative methods. Results The problems GPs perceive as important are those that are medical and require active treatment or monitoring, or that induce empathy or awareness but cannot be assisted further. Unimportant problems are those that are well managed problems and need no further attention as well as age-related conditions or functional disabilities that provoke fatalism, or those considered outside the GPs’ responsibility. Statements of professional actions are closely linked to explanations of important problems and relate to physical problems rather than functional and social patient issues. Conclusions GPs tend to prioritise treatable clinical conditions. Treatment approaches are, however, vague or missing for complex chronic illnesses and disabilities. Here, patient empowerment strategies are of value and need to be developed and implemented. The professional concepts of ageing and disability should not impede but rather foster treatment and care. To this end, GPs need to be able to
This thesis addresses the problem of the limited impact of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) research on health policy and clinical practice. HTA is a type of policy research that aims to provide information concerning medical technologies in order to support health care decision making. Although,
Skoretz, Yvonne M.; Cottle, Amy E.
Meeting International Society for Technology in Education competencies creates a challenge for teachers. The authors provide a problem-based video framework that guides teachers in enhancing 21st century skills to meet those competencies. To keep the focus on the content, the authors suggest teaching the technology skills only at the point the…
Petersen, Richard H.
The objectives of the Institute were: (a) increase participants' content knowledge about aeronautics, science, mathematics, and technology, (b) model and promote the use of scientific inquiry through problem-based learning, (c) investigate the use of instructional technologies and their applications to curricula, and (d) encourage the dissemination of TEI experiences to colleagues, students, and parents.
Chavez, Victor; Stinnett, Regan; Tierney, Robert; Walsh, Steven Thomas
A country's National Innovation Policies (NIP) often center on military, energy or other national security missions. Yet many countries' NIPs have resulted in tremendous societal benefit through both planned and unplanned action not associated with these goals. Socially important technology product
Cho, Vincent; Jimerson, Jo Beth; Wayman, Jeffrey C.
Computer data systems have become a lynchpin to supporting school data use. However, successfully implementing such systems is no easy task. In this case, readers explore the ways in which "technology problems" and "people problems" can be intertwined. The case follows Dr. Molly Winters as she encounters social and…
The technological innovation systems (TIS) framework provides a theory to understand under what conditions technological innovations are successfully developed and implemented. The objective of this dissertation is to further strengthen this TIS intervention framework, which is the part of the TIS
Sibitse M. Tlhapane
Full Text Available Improving teaching and learning methodologies is not just a wish but rather strife for most educational institutions globally. To attain this, the Adelaide Tambo School of Nursing Science implemented a Technology-enhanced Problem-Based Learning methodology in the programme B Tech Occupational Nursing, in 2006. This is a two-year post-basic nursing program. The students are geographically dispersed and the curriculum design is the typically student-centred outcomes-based education. The research question posed by this paper is: How does technology-enhanced problem-based learning enhance student-centred learning, thinking skills, social skills and social space for learners? To answer the above question, a case study with both qualitative and quantitative data was utilised. The participants consisted of all students registered for the subject Occupational Health level 4. The sample group was chosen from willing participants from the Pretoria, eMalahleni and Polokwane learning sites, using the snowball method. This method was seen as appropriate due to the timing of the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire with both open and closed-ended questions. An analyses of the students‟ end of year examination was also done, including a comparison of performances by students on technology enhanced problem-based learning and those on problem-based learning only. The findings revealed that with Technology-enhanced Problem Based Learning (PBL, students‟ critical thinking, problem solving, and social skills improved and that social space was enhanced. This was supported by improved grades in students‟ on Technology-enhanced PBL as compared to those on PBL only.
Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.
Optimal control theory is finding increased application in both theoretical and applied ecology, and it is a central element of adaptive resource management. One of the steps in an adaptive management process is to develop alternative models of system dynamics, models that are all reasonable in light of available data, but that differ substantially in their implications for optimal control of the resource. We explored how the form of the recruitment and survival functions in a general population model for ducks affected the patterns in the optimal harvest strategy, using a combination of analytical, numerical, and simulation techniques. We compared three relationships between recruitment and population density (linear, exponential, and hyperbolic) and three relationships between survival during the nonharvest season and population density (constant, logistic, and one related to the compensatory harvest mortality hypothesis). We found that the form of the component functions had a dramatic influence on the optimal harvest strategy and the ultimate equilibrium state of the system. For instance, while it is commonly assumed that a compensatory hypothesis leads to higher optimal harvest rates than an additive hypothesis, we found this to depend on the form of the recruitment function, in part because of differences in the optimal steady-state population density. This work has strong direct consequences for those developing alternative models to describe harvested systems, but it is relevant to a larger class of problems applying optimal control at the population level. Often, different functional forms will not be statistically distinguishable in the range of the data. Nevertheless, differences between the functions outside the range of the data can have an important impact on the optimal harvest strategy. Thus, development of alternative models by identifying a single functional form, then choosing different parameter combinations from extremes on the likelihood
Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Guerra, Aida; Knoche, Hendrik; Kolmos, Anette; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
In this paper we present different strategies to integrate concerns about sustainability into Information and Communication Technology (ITC) projects by use of problem based learning (PBL) methodology. In alignment with PBL we introduce two different models for problem analysis where students move from a broader theme to a problem formulation designed to fit the time, discipline and theme of study. In the prospect of Education for Sustainable development (ESD) the students are to move from th...
Wang, Ching-Wen; Lin, Po-Chang; Sha, Chyuan
To support employees' work and health, organizations should help employees cope with common problems. Previous studies have focused primarily on work-related problems across multiple industries rather than on evaluating industry-specific issues. Here, two approaches identified common work and non-work employee problems in the technology industry with the strongest correlations with psychosomatic health and life satisfaction. Study 1 used questionnaires to identify the problems that were perceived as the most frequent by lower-level employees (N = 355) working in the technology industry. Study 2 evaluated employees' coping behaviors by analyzing (with permission) counseling records collected from an employee assistance service company (N = 276). Employees reported a variety of problems; work problems were the only problems (of the top 5 problems) reported in both studies. Several problems emerged in the counseling records (e.g., legal issues, career development, family and marriage problems, and emotional problems) but not in the surveys. Future research should apply these observations to develop scales for measuring employee stressors.
Андрей Викторович Иванов
Full Text Available The article focuses on the fact that the need for education is continuous and ongoing process therefore anytime anywhere access to it is becoming a necessity. The need for information is constantly increasing phenomenon. Education should meet the needs of different groups of learners, and therefore, modern information technologies are important to meet this need. Discusses the requirements of society, which consist in the fact that all the members of this society have the necessary level of technological literacy. Thus, increasing access and reducing the cost of education with the aim of achieving the planned quality of education possible to implement cloud-based IT technologies. Sets out the specifics of cloud computing, which imposes special requirements for training in their use, including the management of educational process. Draws conclusions about what information and communication technologies, understanding the capabilities of cloud technologies and their impact on the management efficiency of the education system, are the main prerequisites for the development of professional competence of the head of the educational organization in the field of information technology.
Datt, Sachin; Chunawala, Sugra
The focus of Design and Technology (D&T) education (Wilson & Harris, 2004) has been on designing and making activities and in developing technological capabilities amongst students. Innovation is an important aspect of D&T that helps in creating new products and artefacts to overcome the limitations of existing ones. Problem solving…
Anzai, Toshio; Shibata, Keiichi
The materials for high temperature facilities are usually determined by the heat resistant strength except special corrosive environment. High temperature corrosion has been considered in the case of using low quality fuel which is avoided recently. Even though fuel is clean, high temperature corrosion occurs due to the rise of design temperature and the intake of sea salt particles. There is also one more high temperature corrosion problem on process side that consumes heat energy. The research on high temperature corrosion is important for realizing new energy system such as molten carbonate type fuel cell, pulverized coal-firing supercritical power generation and high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. In this report, the examples experienced actually in a chemical plant are examined, and the possibility of material technology against high temperature corrosion is reviewed. Corrosion phenomena in high temperature environment, the examples of corrosion in the high temperature facilities in a chemical plant and the material technology as the countermeasures for corrosion prevention are reported. (K.I.)
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the technological status of the bulk liquids logistical process at the port of Santos. The main objective is to identify problems encountered in port logistics for the export of ethanol and evaluate their respective technological innovation perspectives. Ethanol exports have increased given international environmental appeals. Within the complex and uncertain environments that contemporary corporations are experiencing, environmental issues have captured global attention. There is an awareness as to the relevance of reducing pollutant emissions to the atmosphere and one of the manners of so doing is by utilising ethanol as a source of propulsion energy fuelling automobile engines. Brazil is one of largest, high quality, ethanol producers in the world and a strong competitor to serve the global market given that the quality of the port logistic infrastructure poses significant impact on exports. Thus, this article proposes to further deepen the theory fundamentals alongside research conducted at companies of South-central Brazil´s sugar alcohol supply chain sector. The study´s analytical model is based on bibliographical research, monitoring and descriptive field surveys at companies within the segment. The article demonstrates that although the logistical process is evolving technologically, further investments in logistic infrastructure is required so as to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage and ensure the feasibility of exports of the Brazilian product.Key words: logistic process, technological innovation and ethanol.
Bocharov, A N; Bityurin, V A; Medin, S A; Naumov, N D; Petrovskiy, V P; Ryabkov, O I; Tatarinov, A V; Teplyakov, I O; Fortov, V E; Balakirev, B A; Golovin, N N; Solomonov, Yu S; Tikhonov, A A; Gryaznov, V K; Iosilevskiy, I L; Evstigneev, N M
Development of novel hypersonic technologies necessarily requires the development of methods for analyzing a motion of hypervelocity vehicles. This paper could be considered as the initial stage in developing of complex computational model for studying flows around hypervelocity vehicles of arbitrary shape. Essential part of the model is a solution to three-dimensional transport equations for mass, momentum and energy for the medium in the state of both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE. One of the primary requirements to the developed model is the realization on the modern heterogeneous computer systems including both CPU and GPU. The paper presents the first results on numerical simulation of hypersonic flow. The first problem considered is three-dimensional flow around curved body under angle of attack. The performance of heterogeneous 4-GPU computer system is tested. The second problem highlights the capabilities of the developed model to study heat and mass transfer problems. Namely, interior heat problem is considered which takes into account ablation of thermal protection system and variation of the surface shape of the vehicle. (paper)
Full Text Available The fast development of ICTs pose new challenges to the European Union and its Member States. Every EU country has its own policies regarding technology transfer, ownership of state e-services, and the possibilities how the state-owned or licensed e-service could be exported. Taking into account the free movement of goods, the EU has created a platform to cooperate and export IT solutions. However, the lack of preparedness of infrastructures, legislation and stakeholders for cross-border exchanges poses a threat to IT transfer and should be taken into consideration in the EU as well. In the coming decades the number of outsourced ICT solutions, strategically important ICT solutions, public services and critically important information exchange platforms developed on behalf of the states, will grow exponentially. Still, digital development is uneven across the EU, they grow at different speeds and the performance is quite splintered. There are legal provisions which are outdated and therefore impede technological cooperation and export of IT solutions. A Member State may restrict the ICT licensing based on national security and policy reasons and the ownership of intellectual property might pose a threat to technology transfer or further development of the IT solution. There are examples of strategically important export of ICT solutions, the experience at which can be expanded to cover other EU Member States. Strong collaboration would enable mutual learning from past experiences along with the opportunities for better use of technology. Parallels can be drawn with military technology transfers, as the policies and legal framework was first developed and mostly used with them.
Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.
The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.
Koo, Dae Seo; Park, Won Seok; Wi, Myung Hwan; Ha, Jae Joo
Eleven technology fields were chosen, which have a relation with the solution of the pending problems of domestic operational nuclear power plants to manage an efficient operation and safe regulation for domestic nuclear power plants. The progressive background, requirements, and performance on the pending problems, 34, of an operation and regulation for domestic nuclear power plants were analyzed with regard to a risk information application, severe accident, PSR of structural materials, underwater monitoring, operation inspection and a fire protection, an instrument aging, metal integrity and steam generator, human technology and a digital I and C, quality assurance, secondary system and a user reliance and mass communications. KAERI's role is to provide a solution to these pending problems of domestic nuclear power plants. KAERI's technology is to be applicable to the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants to raise an operational efficiency and an application frequency of nuclear power plants. In the future, a technology treaty between KAERI and KHNP is to be established to solve the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants. Operation rate of nuclear power plants will also be raised and contribute to the supply of national energy due to this technology treaty.
, both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects......Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included...
This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.
Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies
Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey
Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managersâ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...
Anderson, J.C.; Narus, J.A.; Wouters, M.
In B2B markets, suppliers of nonstrategic products and services tend to assume they have only two options for landing sales: stressing their offerings’ unique characteristics and competing on price. The problem is, the features touted often don’t matter to purchasing managers, and neither do price
Lucht F van der; Jansen J; NsPh; VTV
The exploratory study reported on here investigated the possibilities offered by intersectoral (health) policy. The study consisted of two parts. First, a broad description was given of determinants of five health problems (cancer, Chronic non specific lung disease (CNSLD), heart disease, injury due
van Schoor, Guido; Otten, Johannes D. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; Verbeek, André L. M.
Women aged >75 years are not invited for mammographic screening; if diagnosed with breast cancer, due to their anticipated short-life expectancy, they are expected to die of other causes. To describe the breast cancer health problem in women aged >75 years, we estimated breast cancer incidence in
Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne
This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…
Dewey, Deborah; Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.
Parent-reported information on 159 children with learning or attention problems was obtained using the Parent Ratings of Everyday Cognitive and Academic Abilities (PRECAA) and compared to information from standardized psychometric assessments. The PRECAA was sensitive to group differences among children with reading disabilities, children with…
11, 2006 at Conference of OPCW terms of destruction of the chemical weapon for Russia and USA were prolonged to 5 years, till April, 29, 2012. At all intentions to achieve these terms in the Russian technologies are available a number of technical problems which can complicate works on the CWD. One of them concerns the problems connected to neutralization of reactionary masses of the CWD. In the Russian Federation it is not constructed yet any enterprise for destruction with a full cycle. The question of neutralization of reactionary masses yet does not find the full decision. In this connection there is a threat of that the problem of reactionary masses can appear outside of works on destruction is direct of CW and beyond the framework of 2012. The technical analysis of possible technologies and directions of neutralization of reactionary masses of destruction of lewisite and POS in the Russian technologies of the CWD is carried out. (author)
Story, A; Murad, S; Roberts, W; Verheyen, M; Hayward, A C
The control of tuberculosis (TB) is founded on early case detection and complete treatment of disease. In the UK, TB is concentrated in subgroups of the population in large urban centres. The impact of homelessness, imprisonment and problem drug use on TB control in London is reviewed. A cohort study was undertaken of all patients with TB in Greater London to determine the point prevalence of disease in different groups and to examine risk factors for smear positivity, drug resistance, treatment adherence, loss to follow-up and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). Data were collected on 97% (1941/1995) of eligible patients. The overall prevalence of TB was 27 per 100,000. An extremely high prevalence of TB was seen in homeless people (788/100,000), problem drug users (354/100,000) and prisoners (208/100,000). Multivariate analysis showed that problem drug use was associated with smear positive disease (OR 2.2, pHomelessness was associated with infectious TB (OR 1.6, p = 0.05), multidrug resistance (OR 2.1, p = 0.03), poor adherence (OR 2.5, phomeless people, prisoners and problem drug users collectively comprise 17% of TB cases, 44% of smear positive drug resistant cases, 38% of poorly compliant cases and 44% of cases lost to follow-up. 15% of these patients start treatment on DOT but 46% end up on DOT. High levels of infectious and drug resistant disease, poor adherence and loss to follow-up care indicate that TB is not effectively controlled among homeless people, prisoners and problem drug users in London.
Manzhirov, A. V.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are an exciting area of the modern industrial revolution and have applications in engineering, medicine, electronics, aerospace industry, etc. AM enables cost-effective production of customized geometry and parts by direct fabrication from 3D data and mathematical models. Despite much progress in AM technologies, problems of mechanical analysis for AM fabricated parts yet remain to be solved. This paper deals with three main mechanical problems: the onset of residual stresses, which occur in the AM process and can lead to failure of the parts, the distortion of the final shape of AM fabricated parts, and the development of technological solutions aimed at improving existing AM technologies and creating new ones. An approach proposed deals with the construction of adequate analytical model and effective methods for the simulation of AM processes for fabricated solid parts.
The traditional approach of teaching optimization problems in calculus emphasizes more on teaching the students using analytical approach through a series of procedural steps. However, optimization normally involves problem solving in real life problems and most students fail to translate the problems into mathematic models and have difficulties to visualize the concept underlying. As an educator, it is essential to embed technology in suitable content areas to engage students in construction of meaningful learning by creating a technology-based learning environment. This paper presents the applications of technology-based learning tool in designing optimization learning activities with illustrative examples, as well as to address the challenges in the implementation of using technology in teaching and learning optimization. The suggestion activities in this paper allow flexibility for educator to modify their teaching strategy and apply technology to accommodate different level of studies for the topic of optimization. Hence, this provides great potential for a wide range of learners to enhance their understanding of the concept of optimization.
Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.
Julio César Tovar-Gálvez
Full Text Available The competency-based training of professionals assumes multiple dimensions, within which can be identified clearly and repeatedly the administrative and methodological dimension. That dimension involves the learning of planning and the action strategies, ie the strategic training, which can be achieved through classroom projects. This article presents and analyzes the process of designing and implementing strategies to solve problem situations within the framework of a general chemistry course.
The third International youth scientific school-conference took place 10-13 April 2014 year in Moscow on the basis National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and RAS Lebedev P.N. Physical Institute. The actual scientific problems of current fundamental and applied physics as well as nuclear and physical technologies were discussed. This book of abstracts contains many interesting items devoted problems of theoretical physics and astrophysics, nuclear physics, nanotecnology, laser physics and plasma physics [ru
Full Text Available Supply Chain Management (SCM includes management of materials, products, services, information and financial flows which network of consisting suppliers, manufacturers, logistics service companies and clients. The individual elements of this chain with coordination and integration of each element to perform themselves ensure successful of SCM. Information technology has a very important role in activities for coordination and integration of supply chain. Acceleration of sharing information, simplification and increasing of reliability provide effective use of time in logistics companies, cost savings like effective management ways. In this prepared study which taking into account the positive impact on supply chain of information technologies, it was investigated on the effectiveness of sharing information of supply chain by examining infrastructure of the information technology, ranging from the production of raw materials to the end user in SCM. The results of the analyses by using the structural equation model indicate that the use of information technology in supply chain management enhances the relationship between buyer supplier; the enhancement of such relationship improves the quality, safety, and flexibility of products and reduces the cost of products; as a result, it increases firm performance.
Huesemann, Michael H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))
It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.
Vendelø, Morten Thanning; Constantiou, Ioanna
as an input to the firm's production function that generates a specific return on investment when used appropriately. As such, existing research does not account for the parties' varying interpretations of complex technology. If these interpretations are not revealed and resolved they may decrease customer...... satisfaction and create problems in the efficiency of technology use within the firm. This study investigates the potential of the inquiring dialogue approach for improving information sharing about technology interpretations held by the different parties. An empirical case study of a customised high......Firms involved in contracting and implementation of customised high-tech products face a number of challenges in their relationships with customers because of the underlying variability of complex technologies. Existing research proposes the use of rational decision models and represents technology...
Mayo, L. H.
The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.
The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.
Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents. This qualitative study explores the usefulness of music technology in music therapeutic practice with youth and adolescents. Four music therapist`s reflections on their use of music technologies and on the possibilities, potential and problems of this use are explored through semi-structured intervi...
Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Rueda, Enrique; Hung, Ya-Hui; Danneker, Jeanne
This study compared two approaches for teaching sixth-grade middle school students to solve math problems in math, technology education, and special education classrooms. A total of 17 students with disabilities and 76 students without disabilities were taught using either enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) or text-based instruction coupled with…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design a problem based collaborative learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and examine students’ views about this learning environment. The study was designed as a qualitative research. 36 students who took Object Oriented Programming I-II course from a public university at the department of computer programming participated in the study. During the research process, the Object Oriented Programming I-II course was designed with incorporating different dynamic web technologies (Edmodo, Google Services, and Mind42 and Nelson (1999’s collaborative problem solving method. At the end of the course, there were focus group interviews in regards to the students’ views on a learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and collaborative problem solving method. At the end of the focus group interviews, 4 themes were obtained from the students’ views, including positive aspects of the learning environment, difficulties faced in the learning environment, advantages of the learning environment, and skills gained as a result of the project. The results suggest that problem based collaborative learning methods and dynamic web technologies can be used in learning environments in community colleges.
Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram
The European workplace is challenging VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults' skills to date. The present study (N = 50 369) focuses on gaining insight…
Ioannou, Andri; Vasiliou, Christina; Zaphiris, Panayiotis
In this study, we enhanced a problem-based learning (PBL) environment with affordable, everyday technologies that can be found in most university classrooms (e.g., projectors, tablets, students' own smartphones, traditional paper-pencil, and Facebook). The study was conducted over a 3-year period, with 60 postgraduate learners in a human-computer…
Ünal, Erhan; Çakir, Hasan
The purpose of this study was to design a problem based collaborative learning environment supported by dynamic web technologies and to examine students' views about this learning environment. The study was designed as a qualitative research. Some 36 students who took an Object Oriented Programming I-II course at the department of computer…
Rapid progress in science and technology also changes understanding, wishes and expectations, processes, operations and organisational structures. Such developments positively affect the structure of educational systems as well as learning-teaching activities in instructional environments. The problem of this research is to define managerial…
Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu
Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…
Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.
To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)
The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.
Massa, Nicholas; Dischino, Michele; Donnelly, Judith; Hanes, Fenna
Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach whereby students learn course content by collaboratively solving complex real-world problems and reflecting on their experience. Research shows that PBL improves student knowledge and retention, motivation, problem-solving skills, and the ability to skillfully apply knowledge in new situations. One of the challenges with PBL, however, is that real-world problems are typically open-ended with more than one possible solution, which poses a challenge to educators with regard to assessing student performance. In this paper, we describe an approach to assessing student performance in PBL developed by the Photon PBL Project, a three-year National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (NSF-ATE) project in which eight interdisciplinary multimedia PBL "Challenges" were created in collaboration with photonics industry and university partners for use in high school and college math, science and technology courses. Assessment included measures of content knowledge, conceptual knowledge, problem-solving skills, motivation, self-efficacy, and metacognitive ability. Results from pilot testing at four community college photonics technology programs are presented.
Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan M
As a modern pedagogical philosophy, problem-based learning (PBL) is increasingly being recognized as a major research area in student learning and pedagogical innovation in health sciences education. A new area of research interest has been the role of emerging educational technologies in PBL. Although this field is growing, no systematic reviews of studies of the usage and effects of educational technologies in PBL in health sciences education have been conducted to date. The aim of this paper is to review new and emerging educational technologies in problem-based curricula, with a specific focus on 3 cognate clinical disciplines: medicine, dentistry, and speech and hearing sciences. Analysis of the studies reviewed focused on the effects of educational technologies in PBL contexts while addressing the particular issue of scaffolding of student learning. A comprehensive computerized database search of full-text articles published in English from 1996 to 2014 was carried out using 3 databases: ProQuest, Scopus, and EBSCOhost. Eligibility criteria for selection of studies for review were also determined in light of the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) guidelines. The population was limited to postsecondary education, specifically in dentistry, medicine, and speech and hearing sciences, in which PBL was the key educational pedagogy and curriculum design. Three types of educational technologies were identified as interventions used to support student inquiry: learning software and digital learning objects; interactive whiteboards (IWBs) and plasma screens; and learning management systems (LMSs). Of 470 studies, 28 were selected for analysis. Most studies examined the effects of learning software and digital learning objects (n=20) with integration of IWB (n=5) and LMS (n=3) for PBL receiving relatively less attention. The educational technologies examined in these studies were seen as potentially fit for problem-based health sciences education
Full Text Available The paper in the introductory part underlines some aspects concerning the importance of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management and informs on basic international standards for the processes and stages of life cycle. The second part is focused on definition and main objectives of system life cycle management. The authors subsequently inform on system life cycle stages (in general and system life cycle processes according to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 standard. Following the fact, that life cycle cost (LCC is inseparable part and has direct connection to the life cycle management, the paper contains brief information regarding to LCC (cost categories, cost breakdown structure, cost estimation a.o.. Recently was issued the first part of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management monograph (in Slovak: ”Manažment životného cyklu leteckej techniky I”, written by I.Koblen and S.Szabo. Following this fact and direct relation to the topic of article it is a part of article briefly introduced the content of two parts of this monograph (the 2nd part of monograph it has been prepared for the print. The last part of article is focused on issue concerning main assumptions and conditions for successful application of aviation technology life cycle management in aviation companies, aerospace industry organizations as well as from the relevant stakeholders side.
Rapoport, E. Ya.; Pleshivtseva, Yu. E.
A constructive technology of multi-objective optimization of control of distributed parameter plants is proposed. The technology is based on a single-criterion version in the form of the minimax convolution of normalized performance criteria. The approach under development is based on the transition to an equivalent form of the variational problem with constraints, with the problem solution being a priori Pareto-effective. Further procedures of preliminary parameterization of control actions and subsequent reduction to a special problem of semi-infinite programming make it possible to find the sought extremals with the use of their Chebyshev properties and fundamental laws of the subject domain. An example of multi-objective optimization of operation modes of an engineering thermophysics object is presented, which is of independent interest.
AMEC's GeoMelt technologies offer a unique and highly effective means of destroying organic pollutants while permanently immobilizing radioactive contaminants and heavy metals. The GeoMelt technologies use electricity to melt contaminated soil and waste at temperatures that can reach 2,000 deg. C (3,600 degrees Fahrenheit). The process destroys organic contaminants through pyrolysis and catalytic reactions, while permanently immobilizing hazardous inorganic contaminants and radionuclides in a glassy, rock-like mass. The obsidian-like mass produced by GeoMelt is 10 times stronger than concrete, effectively safeguarding groundwater from contamination for tens of thousands of years. The vitrified mass is unaffected by wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycles and is unsurpassed in leach resistance. Corrosion tests have shown that the GeoMelt product is more durable than granite or marble. Almost Anywhere and Almost Everything GeoMelt equipment is easily transported to site by truck and can be used for in-situ treatment or in an above-ground batch plant. The process accommodates a wide range of mixed wastes and debris, which minimizes the need for handling, sorting and size-reduction activities. Virtually all types of debris can be accommodated, including drums, scrap metal, concrete, boulders, asphalt, wood, tires and plastic. All classes of contaminants are treated by the process, including organics, heavy metals and radioactive materials. GeoMelt has been used to successfully treat a wide range of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxines, pesticides, herbicides, mixed transuranics (TRUs), and a variety of heavy metals. The U.S. Department of Energy spent hundreds of millions of dollars developing vitrification processes for its waste treatment and site remediation needs. The GeoMelt process, originally developed for the DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute, was one result of this undertaking. The process already has been used to treat more than 25
Terlecki, Meredith A.; Ecker, Anthony H.; Buckner, Julia D.
Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with s...
Full Text Available In a globalized world, led and connected by and through technology, gadgets and perpetual and intense technological development, the business environment and the trajectory travelled by entrepreneurs in the process of creation and development of a business, becomes more and more challenging and complex. Continuous innovation has become mandatory and „adaptability” became the keyword for the success of any entrepreneurial actions. In this socio-economic context, an organization must find, through entrepreneurs or managers, the courage to face the uncertainty and be always prepared to adopt radical solutions, so that, can provide sustainability of the business through competitiveness. The purpose of this research started from the need for adaptability and flexibility of the Romanian entrepreneurial environment to the trends in the digital era, in order to maintain the level of competitiveness and to develop sustainably. The objective of this scientific approach is to conduct a qualitative comparative analysis relating to the importance and the impact of new technologies in the development and sustainability of a business. The comparison will be made through the eyes of two main categories of actors in the creation and development of a business namely entrepreneurs and managers from two consecutive generations - generation X (born between 1965 and 1980 and generation Y (born between 1980 and 1995. The methodology used in this study is qualitative research through focus group method, and it aims to be highlighted the changes occurred in leadership and management style of a business/organization, by observing and comparing the two generations' attitudes towards change, towards new, towards the digital component, and the intent of the use of new technologies, and more than that, their impact on the management style.
The end of the Cold War, political revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe, the globalization of commercial markets, and the proliferation of dangerous technologies to many unstable regions present new challenges for the management of strategic technology. Technology controls designed to enhance national security must address the economic costs of such restrictions. In relations with former Cold War adversaries, technology transfer policy must find innovative ways to encourage cooperative problem solving and pluralistic, democratic, and market-oriented reforms. Also, policy must respond to new threats posed by proliferation in a way that recognizes the limits of technology controls and the need to balance US control interests with demands for technologies with legitimate commercial purposes. Recently, US strategic technology policy has reduced barriers that have traditionally impeded the ability of US exporters to do business in the global marketplace, and US policy is evolving to play a cautious but constructive role in East-West relations. To address more effectively the challenge of proliferation, however, policy makers must better coordinate technology controls with US arms, aid, and diplomatic initiatives toward nations and regions of concern. The first steps toward more effective policy will involve breaking down inter-agency barriers domestically and strengthening emerging multilateral institutions. 23 refs.
The end of the Cold War, political revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe, the globalization of commercial markets, and the proliferation of dangerous technologies to many unstable regions present new challenges for the management of strategic technology. Technology controls designed to enhance national security must address the economic costs of such restrictions. In relations with former Cold War adversaries, technology transfer policy must find innovative ways to encourage cooperative problem solving and pluralistic, democratic, and market-oriented reforms. Also, policy must respond to new threats posed by proliferation in a way that recognizes the limits of technology controls and the need to balance US control interests with demands for technologies with legitimate commercial purposes. Recently, US strategic technology policy has reduced barriers that have traditionally impeded the ability of US exporters to do business in the global marketplace, and US policy is evolving to play a cautious but constructive role in East-West relations. To address more effectively the challenge of proliferation, however, policy makers must better coordinate technology controls with US arms, aid, and diplomatic initiatives toward nations and regions of concern. The first steps toward more effective policy will involve breaking down inter-agency barriers domestically and strengthening emerging multilateral institutions. 23 refs
Stoyanov, Slavi; Kirschner, Paul A.
Stoyanov, S., & Kirschner, P. (2007). Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 49-63.
Kandiev, Y.Z.; Zatsepin, O.V.
At RFNC-VNIITF, the PRIZMA code which has been developed for more than 30 years, is used to model radiation transport by the Monte Carlo method. The code implements individual and coupled tracking of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and ions in one dimensional (1D), 2D or 3D geometry. Attendance estimators are used for tallying, i.e., the estimators whose scores are only nonzero from particles which cross a region or surface of interest. Importance sampling is used to make deep penetration and detection calculations more effective. However, its application to reactor analysis appeared peculiar and required further development. The paper reviews methods used for deep penetration and detection calculations by PRIZMA. It describes in what these calculations differ when applied to reactor analysis and how we compute approximated importance functions and parameters for biased distributions. Methods to control the statistical weight of particles are also discussed. A number of test and applied calculations which were done for the purpose of verification are provided. They are shown to agree either with asymptotic solutions if exist, or with results of analog calculations or predictions by other codes. The applied calculations include the estimation of ex-core detector response from neutron sources arranged in the core, and the estimation of in-core detector response. (authors)
Kandiev, Y. Z.; Zatsepin, O. V.
At RFNC-VNIITF a code PRIZMA which has been developed for more than 30 years is used to model radiation transport by the Monte Carlo method. The code implements individual and coupled tracking of neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and ions in 1D, 2D or 3D geometry. Attendance estimators are used for tallying, i.e., the estimators whose scores are only nonzero from particles which cross a region or surface of interest. Importance sampling is used to make deep penetration and detection calculations more effective. However, its application to reactor analysis appeared peculiar and required further development. The paper reviews methods used for deep penetration and detection calculations by PRIZMA. It describes in what these calculations differ when applied to reactor analysis and how we compute approximated importance functions and parameters for biased distributions. Methods to control the statistical weight of particles are also discussed. A number of test and applied calculations which were done for the purpose of verification are provided. They are shown to agree either with asymptotic solutions if exist, or with results of analog calculations or predictions by other codes. The applied calculations include the estimation of ex-core detector response from neutron sources arranged in the core, and the estimation of in-core detector response.
Railsback, S F; Harvey, B C
Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers' understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics such as depth and velocity, temperature, hiding and feeding cover, drift-food supply and predation risk), fish physiology (especially, how food intake and growth vary with hydrodynamics, cover, fish size and temperature) and behaviour. When drift-food concentration was increased over a wide range in 7 year simulations, the simulated population was always food limited. In fact, as food supply increased, the population increased at an increasing rate and consumed a higher percentage of the food supply, apparently because higher food concentrations make more stream area energetically profitable for drift feeders. The behaviour most responsible for this response was activity selection: when food was abundant, fish chose to feed less frequently and more nocturnally, thereby reducing predation mortality so more fish survived longer. These results indicate that the traditional concept of food limitation, that food availability stops limiting population size when it exceeds some threshold level, may not be useful and can be misleading. Results also strongly contradict the concept that a salmonid population is not food limited if the total food supply is greater than the population's consumption. Explicit consideration of adaptive behaviour produced a novel but believable understanding of food effects on salmonid populations. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Igor N. Sheino
Full Text Available The review is devoted to the problems of the development of binary technologies of radiation therapy - neutron and photon-capture therapy of malignant neoplasms. These technologies are based on the principle of “biological” targeting: irradiation of a tumor with pre-delivered special preparations increasing energy release and the relative biological efficiency of primary radiation. The basis of methods, characteristics of sources of external irradiation and used preparations, and stages of development of technologies are described. The development and implementation of binary technologies attract a great number of researchers but are restrained by the shortage of operating sources of epithermal neutrons (reactors, neutron generators based on accelerators and the lack of accurate radiation dosimetry planning systems that takes into account the dynamics and accumulation of drugs in tumors.
Full Text Available We present prediction and variable importance (VIM methods for longitudinal data sets containing continuous and binary exposures subject to missingness. We demonstrate the use of these methods for prognosis of medical outcomes of severe trauma patients, a field in which current medical practice involves rules of thumb and scoring methods that only use a few variables and ignore the dynamic and high-dimensional nature of trauma recovery. Well-principled prediction and VIM methods can provide a tool to make care decisions informed by the high-dimensional patient's physiological and clinical history. Our VIM parameters are analogous to slope coefficients in adjusted regressions, but are not dependent on a specific statistical model, nor require a certain functional form of the prediction regression to be estimated. In addition, they can be causally interpreted under causal and statistical assumptions as the expected outcome under time-specific clinical interventions, related to changes in the mean of the outcome if each individual experiences a specified change in the variable (keeping other variables in the model fixed. Better yet, the targeted MLE used is doubly robust and locally efficient. Because the proposed VIM does not constrain the prediction model fit, we use a very flexible ensemble learner (the SuperLearner, which returns a linear combination of a list of user-given algorithms. Not only is such a prediction algorithm intuitive appealing, it has theoretical justification as being asymptotically equivalent to the oracle selector. The results of the analysis show effects whose size and significance would have been not been found using a parametric approach (such as stepwise regression or LASSO. In addition, the procedure is even more compelling as the predictor on which it is based showed significant improvements in cross-validated fit, for instance area under the curve (AUC for a receiver-operator curve (ROC. Thus, given that 1 our VIM
Baker, D A
Objections to the use of assistive technologies (such as prostheses) in elite sports are generally raised when the technology in question is perceived to afford the user a potentially "unfair advantage," when it is perceived as a threat to the purity of the sport, and/or when it is perceived as a precursor to a slippery slope toward undesirable changes in the sport. These objections rely on being able to quantify standards of "normal" within a sport so that changes attributed to the use of assistive technology can be judged as causing a significant deviation from some baseline standard. This holds athletes using assistive technologies accountable to standards that restrict their opportunities to achieve greatness, while athletes who do not use assistive technologies are able to push beyond the boundaries of these standards without moral scrutiny. This paper explores how constructions of fairness and "normality" impact athletes who use assistive technology to compete in a sporting venue traditionally populated with "able-bodied" competitors. It argues that the dynamic and obfuscated construction of "normal" standards in elite sports should move away from using body performance as the measuring stick of "normal," toward alternate forms of constructing norms such as defining, quantifying, and regulating the mechanical actions that constitute the critical components of a sport. Though framed within the context of elite sports, this paper can be interpreted more broadly to consider problems with defining "normal" bodies in a society in which technologies are constantly changing our abilities and expectations of what normal means.
Taskaev, Vladimir; Taskaeva, Natalia
Authors completed the analysis of the accepted practice of classification of the sawn car bodies in Russia. They conclude that the tools of the Product Range of Foreign Economic Activity do not allow to classify the front and rear parts of the car as goods. Nowadays the participants of foreign economic activity sent the efforts to search for any new way to cut the customs payments. Meanwhile that is not incidental, that during car sale, the sellers specify in their offers not only purely technical characteristics but also the fact that “It is not a Sawn Car”. Thereby the sellers of cars agree that the car, obtained by joint of the sawn parts in the handicraft conditions, have an uncertainty of such important characteristic as safety, and that reduces the consumer properties of the purchase. Many buyers consider unsafe and even impossible to use the car in which such fundamental characteristic as safety is not provided. Therefore, the attempts of customs to carry out any classification of goods in the commodity position 8703 for the increase in collectable customs payments have a negative side as the matters of health and life of future owner of the car are concerned.
Mettas, Alexandros C.; Constantinou, Constantinos C.
This paper presents an innovative way in which university education can help pre-service teachers become better problem-solvers. The central idea is to use the "Technology Fair" as a means for promoting pre-service teachers pedagogical content knowledge about technological problem solving skills. This innovation is supported with results from a…
The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R ampersand D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry
Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian; Pratama, Yogi
This paper has the objective to provide the innovation in information technology in both theoretical and empirical study. Precisely, both aspects relate to the Shortage Mispacking Quality Report (SMQR) Claims in Export and Import in Automotive Industry. This paper discusses the major aspects of Innovation, Information Technology, Performance and Competitive Advantage. Furthermore, In the empirical study of PT. Astra Honda Motor (AHM) refers to SMQR Claims, Communication Systems, Analysis and Design Systems. Briefly both aspects of the major aspects and its empirical study are discussed in the Introduction Session. Furthermore, the more detail discussion is conducted in the related aspects in other sessions of this paper, in particular in Literature Review in term classical and updated reference of current research. The increases of SMQR claim and communication problem at PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor (PT. ADM) which still using the email cause the time of claim settlement become longer and finally it causes the rejected of SMQR claim by supplier. With presence of this problem then performed to design the integrated communication system to manage the communication process of SMQR claim between PT. ADM with supplier. The systems was analyzed and designed is expected to facilitate the claim communication process so that can be run in accordance with the procedure and fulfill the target of claim settlement time and also eliminate the difficulties and problems on the previous manual communication system with the email. The design process of the system using the approach of system development life cycle method by Kendall & Kendall (2006)which design process covers the SMQR problem communication process, judgment process by the supplier, claim process, claim payment process and claim monitoring process. After getting the appropriate system designs for managing the SMQR claim, furthermore performed the system implementation and can be seen the improvement in claim communication
Antonio Eduardo Ramires Santoro
Full Text Available Due to technological advances, new means of obtaining information have been brought up to the field of criminal procedure, among them, the interception of telephone communication. Law 9.296/96 has introduced new actors on to the probative subsystem that play a direct part on the production/gathering of information that may be taken in consideration by the judge. The inexistence of proper procedural regulation that delimitates the manner in which such investigation must be carried out, the defense finds grave difficulty to try and trace the source of the proof. Fearing the risks associated with the production of defective evidence, the present study focuses on the importance of the chain of custody as a mean to track and assure the reliability of set information. With the purpose of knowing the rite to obtain the data through telephone interception and the verifying its credibility, a theoretical-bibliographic study was carried out and combined with an analysis of the statistics on means of investigation of proof provided by the CNJ and, finally, followed by an analysis of the technology systems developed to carry out the interception of communications measure.
Low temperature plasma (LTP) science is unequivocally one of the most prolific areas for varied applications in modern technology. For example, plasma etching technology is essential for reliably and rapidly patterning nanometer scale features over areas approaching one square meter with relatively inexpensive equipment. This technology enabled the telecommunication and information processing revolution that has transformed human society. I explore two concepts in this talk. The first is that the firm scientific understanding of LTP is and has been the enabling feature of these established technological applications. And the second is that LTP technology is poised to contribute to several emerging societal challenges. Beyond the important, ongoing applications of LTP science to problems of materials processing related to energy generation (e.g. thin film solar cell manufacture), there are novel and less well known potential applications in food and agriculture, infection control and medicine. In some cases, the potentially low cost nature of the applications in so compelling that they can be thought of as examples of frugal innovation. Supported in part by NSF and DoE.
Boelens, Ruth; De Wever, Bram; Rosseel, Yves; Verstraete, Alain G; Derese, Anselme
In problem-based learning, a tutor, the quality of the problems and group functioning play a central role in stimulating student learning. This study is conducted in a hybrid medical curriculum where problem-based learning is one of the pedagogical approaches. The aim of this study was to examine which tutor tasks are the most important during the tutorial sessions and thus should be promoted in hybrid (and in maybe all) problem-based learning curricula in higher education. A student (N = 333) questionnaire was used to obtain data about the problem-based learning process, combined with the achievement score of the students on a multiple-choice exam. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of different models (two existing models and a new simplified model) representing the factors of interest and their relationships, in order to determine which tutor characteristics are the most important in the present study. A new simplified model is presented, which demonstrates that stimulation of active and self-directed learning by tutors enhances the perceived case quality and the perceived group functioning. There was no significant effect between the stimulation of collaborative learning and perceived group functioning. In addition, group functioning was not a significant predictor for achievement. We found that stimulating active and self-directed learning are perceived as tutors' most important tasks with regard to perceived case quality and group functioning. It is necessary to train and teach tutors how they can stimulate active and self-directed learning by students.
Martin Adalberto TENA-ESPINOZA-DE-LOS-MONTEROS
Full Text Available This paper describes the process of civic innovation that, based on technological solutions and open initiatives, the civic society’s organization Codeando México suggests for the attention and solution of social and civic problems in Mexico. The Retos Cívicos (Civic Challenges and Retos Públicos (Public Challenges initiatives are addressed and described as experiences of innovation in the implementation of technological strategies for the solution of social and civic problems. A reflection is made on the civic appropriation of the ICTs and its irruption in the processes of innovation, as well as on the impact that the ICTs have in the conformation of a new civic ecosystem. Last, the strategies of Hacking cívico (Civic Hacking and Comunidades Cívicas (Civic Communities that the Codeando México organization promotes as a model for the linkage and civic participation within the frame of civic innovation, are mentioned.
Bada Tayo Abass; Ojediran Ayo
The paper investigated the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Osun State Primary Schools. Questionnaires were administered to 100 primary school teachers. The questionnaires were designed to find out the roles of ICT in teaching and learning and problems associated with its usage in the primary schools. Results showed that the majority of the primary school teachers in Osun State lack the basic skills required for the usage of computer. In addition, the teachers suppor...
Klimov, V. V.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Balandina, A. I.; Kostkina, A. D.
The following paper contains the description of up-to-date technologies in the area of web-services development, service-oriented architecture and the Semantic Web. The paper contains the analysis of the most popular and widespread technologies and methods in the semantic web area which are used in the developed educational course. In the paper, we also describe the problem of teaching students to use these technologies and specify conditions for the creation of the learning and development course. We also describe the main exercise for personal work and skills, which all the students learning this course have to gain. Moreover, in the paper we specify the problem with software which students are going to use while learning this course. In order to solve this problem, we introduce the developing system which will be used to support the laboratory works. For this moment this system supports only the fourth work execution, but our following plans contain the expansion of the system in order to support the leftover works.
Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.
Dyatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Shepelin, A P; Aleshkin, V A
The import substitution becomes one of the strategic tasks of national economy as a result of prolongation of economic sanctions concerning the Russian Federation of part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other countries. It is not proper to be limited in import substitution only by goods because in conditions ofsanctions when access toforeign technologies is complicated Russia is needed to substitute foreign technologies by national designs in faster manner One of directions of effective import substitution is localization of production of laboratory equipment and consumables for clinical and sanitary microbiology on the territory ofthe Russian Federation and countries of Customs union. In Russia, in the field ofdiagnostic of dangerous and socially significant infections, all components for import substitution to implement gene diagnostic, immune diagnostic. bio-sensory and biochip approaches, isolation and storage of live microbial cultures, implementation of high-tech methods of diagnostic are available. At the same time, national diagnostic instrument-making industry for microbiology is factually absent. The few devices of national production more than on 50% consist of import components. The microbiological laboratories are to be equipped only with import devices of open type for applying national components. The most perspective national designs to be implemented are multiplex polimerase chain reaction test-systems and biochips on the basis of national plotters and readers. The modern development of diagnostic equipment and diagnostic instruments requires supplement of national collections of bacterial and viral pathogens and working-through of organizational schemes of supplying collections with strains. The presented data concerning justification of nomenclature of laboratory equipment and consumables permits to satisfy in fill scope the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in devices, growth mediums, consumables of national production
Technology, digital media and popular culture form an important aspect of young children's life-worlds in contemporary post-industrial societies. A problem for early childhood educators is how to most effectively integrate these aspects of children's life-worlds into the provision of play-based learning. Traditionally, research has considered…
Huang, Neng-Tang Norman; Chiu, Li-Jia; Hong, Jon-Chao
The strong humanistic and ethics-oriented philosophy of Confucianism tends to lead people influenced by these principles to undervalue the importance of hands-on practice and creativity in education. GreenMech, a science and technology contest, was implemented to encourage real-world, hands-on problem solving in an attempt to mitigate this effect.…
В. Л. Трушко
Full Text Available A problem of industrial fluxed agglomerates self-destruction in the process of cooling after sintering has been examined. It has been revealed that the main reason of strength degradation is polymorphism of dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 (or short designation С2S: β-Ca2SiO4 ® γ-Ca2SiO4. Ways for increasing the agglomerate strength by physical and crystal-chemical stabilization of the high temperature modification of C2S have been proposed and tested. Physical stabilization of C2S agglomerate is increased with its structure reinforcement due to thickening of walls between large pores that is achieved by increasing height of the sintered layer through improvement of its gas permeability. The task is addressed by substituting the previously used import sintering ore with the polydisperse ore from the Yakovlevo field, which improves the charge pelletizing by 3-4 times and helps to bring the height of the sintered layer and the strength of the domestic agglomerate up to the international best practice standards, while eliminating a need to purchase import high-vacuum exhausters. In practice crystal-chemical stabilization of C2S within iron-ore agglomerate is ensured by adding an opti- mal multicomponent additive in the form of the waste product generated in production of alumina from bauxites, i.e. the red mud, to the initial sinter charge. Thus mechanical strength of agglomerates and pellets is increased by 5-10 % and their hot strength improves by 20-40 %. The productivity of sintering machines and blast furnaces improves by 5-10 %. Specific coke consumption reduces by 2-2.5 %. In production of iron-ore pellets red mud is substituting the import bentonite.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transition period that involves physiological, psychological, and social changes. Emotional problems such as symptoms of anxiety and depression may develop due to these changes. Although many of these problems may not meet diagnostic thresholds, they may develop into more severe disorders and may impact on functioning. However, there are barriers that may make it difficult for adolescents to receive help from health professionals for such problems, one of which is the limited availability of formal psychological therapy. One way of increasing access to help for such problems is through self help technology (i.e. delivery of psychological help through information technology or paper based formats. Although there is a significant evidence base concerning self help in adults, the evidence base is much weaker in adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of self help technology for the treatment of emotional problems in adolescents by conducting a systematic review of randomized and quasi-experimental evidence. Methods Five major electronic databases were searched: Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and CINAHL. In addition, nine journals were handsearched and the reference lists of all studies were examined for any additional studies. Fourteen studies were identified. Effect sizes were calculated across 3 outcome measures: attitude towards self (e.g. self esteem; social cognition (e.g. self efficacy; and emotional symptoms (i.e. depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Meta analysis showed small, non-significant effect size for attitude towards self (ES = -0.14, 95% CI = -0.72 to 0.43, a medium, non-significant effect size for social cognition (ES = -0.49, 95% CI = -1.23 to 0.25 and a medium, non-significant effect size for emotional symptoms (ES = -0.47, 95% CI = -1.00 to 0.07. However, these findings must be considered preliminary, because of the small number of
Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the opinions of teacher candidates in the fourth year of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies department (CEIT on the Problems Experienced by Information Technology (IT Teachers and Suggested Solutions and it has been designed in case study routine taking place within qualitative research tradition and in a longitudinal survey model. The final year IT teacher candidates receiving education in Ankara University Educational Sciences Faculty CEIT department in academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 have formed the study group of the research (N=123. The data obtained in the research by open-end questionnaire have been analysed and interpreted by inductive encoding technique, freuency analysis and descriptive content analysis. At the end of the study carried out, it has been determined that the IT teacher candidates have handled in two sub-dimensions the problems experienced by the IT teachers, these being, problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend and problems regarding the professional lives of IT teachers and suggested solutions in line with these. The leading problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend are that the courses are optional, the courses are grade-free, the course hours are few, the significance of IT not being comprehended very well by the executives, teachers, parents and students, inadequacy of physical means of IT classes and references of the course. And, the main problems regarding professional lives of IT course teachers are the duty, power and responsibility of IT teachers not made clear enough, difficulties in formative teacher practice, course hours which have to be completed by IT teachers not being able to be completed and problem of permanent staff, the courses that must be attended by IT teachers being taugth by teachers from other branches, lack of executives and experts trained from a field to supervise IT and formative teachers. And, the suggested leading
Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P
Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.
Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Dagdilelis, Vassilios
Despite its importance in mathematical problem solving, verification receives rather little attention by the students in classrooms, especially at the primary school level. Under the hypotheses that (a) non-standard tasks create a feeling of uncertainty that stimulates the students to proceed to verification processes and (b) computational…
Sultanova, Z.K.; Kharlamova, N.A.; Aidarkhanova, G.S.; Kudabayev, A.B.; Andropenkov, S.A.; Maltseva, R.M.
Application of recent achievements of nuclear techniques in different applied branches develops in such main directions as radiation-biological technologies under stimulation of plants, sterilization, increasing of storage terms, disinfestation of foodstuff, forage, raw material of animal and vegetable origin, dressing, instruments, which cannot be exposed to thermal and chemical processing. It is of practical interest the irradiation of fruits and berries cuttings, which are of regional importance and been growing in nurseries. This method is already widely introduced into practice as one of efficient methods. Aim of research was the optimal irradiation dose selection for stimulation of currant cuttings gemmas before bedding out. The sorts of black and goldish currants were used in the experiment. Irradiation was conducted in 60 Co gamma-ray source. As the study materials the black currant cuttings of the 'Katyusha' sort and goldish currants of the sort 'Uzbekistanskaya' were used. For each variant 20 cuttings were prepared.Cuttings were bedded out. Drop irrigation was employed. In the sequel agricultural monitoring was carried out. The results of rooting and development of irradiated samples will be presented in report
Cipriano, Pamela F; Bowles, Kathryn; Dailey, Maureen; Dykes, Patricia; Lamb, Gerri; Naylor, Mary
Care coordination and transitional care services are strategically important for achieving the priorities of better care, better health, and reduced costs embodied in the National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy [NQS]). Some of the most vulnerable times in a person’s care occur with changes in condition as well as movement within and between settings of care. The American Academy of Nursing (AAN) believes it is essential to facilitate the coordination of care and transitions by using health information technology (HIT) to collect, share, and analyze data that communicate patient-centered information among patients, families, and care providers across communities. HIT makes information accessible, actionable, timely, customizable, and portable. Rapid access to information also creates efficiencies in care by eliminating redundancies and illuminating health history and prior care. The adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and information systems can enable care coordination to be more effective but only when a number of essential elements are addressed to reflect the team-based nature of care coordination as well as a focus on the individual’s needs and preferences. To that end, the AAN offers a set of recommendations to guide the development of the infrastructure, standards, content, and measures for electronically enabled care coordination and transitions in care as well as research needed to build the evidence base to assess outcomes of the associated interventions.
Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana
Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company
Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana
Full Text Available Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga; Triantafyllidis, George
skills or on the learning experience. This paper presents our experiences on the educational use of motion sensor technologies. Our research was conducted at the department of Medialogy in Aalborg University Copenhagen. Aalborg University applies a problem-based, project-organized model of teaching...... and learning in all its programs. Our approach differs from the aforementioned ones, since we did not develop learning games for students, but we provided students with motion sensors and asked them to use them for their semester projects. Since Medialogy is an interdisciplinary program that combines...... these questions, we are presenting and discussing students’ projects that used motor sensors. Our results show that the experimentation with motor sensor technologies boosted students’ creativity. Students developed computer games, serious games, computer vision applications and investigated new ways...
Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna
Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.
Chang, Sung Pil [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
This paper describes the demonstration of successful fabrication and initial characterization of micromachined pressure sensors and micromachined jets (microjets) fabricated for use in macro flow control and other applications. In this work, the microfabrication technology was investigated to create a micromachined fluidic control system with a goal of application in practical fluids problems, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-scale aerodynamic control. Approaches of this work include : (1) the development of suitable micromachined synthetic jets (microjets) as actuators, which obviate the need to physically extend micromachined structures into an external flow ; and (2) a non-silicon alternative micromachining fabrication technology based on metallic substrates and lamination (in addition to traditional MEMS technologies) which will allow the realization of larger scale, more robust structures and larger array active areas for fluidic systems. As an initial study, an array of MEMS pressure sensors and an array of MEMS modulators for orifice-based control of microjets have been fabricated, and characterized. Both pressure sensors and modulators have been built using stainless steel as a substrate and a combination of lamination and traditional micromachining processes as fabrication technologies.
Bada Tayo Abass
Full Text Available The paper investigated the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in Osun State Primary Schools. Questionnaires were administered to 100 primary school teachers. The questionnaires were designed to find out the roles of ICT in teaching and learning and problems associated with its usage in the primary schools. Results showed that the majority of the primary school teachers in Osun State lack the basic skills required for the usage of computer. In addition, the teachers support the implementation of ICT in primary schools. The results also revealed that using ICT is problematic in Osun State Primary Schools.
Magrabi, Farah; Liaw, Siaw Teng; Arachi, Diana; Runciman, William; Coiera, Enrico; Kidd, Michael R
To identify the categories of problems with information technology (IT), which affect patient safety in general practice. General practitioners (GPs) reported incidents online or by telephone between May 2012 and November 2013. Incidents were reviewed against an existing classification for problems associated with IT and the clinical process impacted. 87 GPs across Australia. Types of problems, consequences and clinical processes. GPs reported 90 incidents involving IT which had an observable impact on the delivery of care, including actual patient harm as well as near miss events. Practice systems and medications were the most affected clinical processes. Problems with IT disrupted clinical workflow, wasted time and caused frustration. Issues with user interfaces, routine updates to software packages and drug databases, and the migration of records from one package to another generated clinical errors that were unique to IT; some could affect many patients at once. Human factors issues gave rise to some errors that have always existed with paper records but are more likely to occur and cause harm with IT. Such errors were linked to slips in concentration, multitasking, distractions and interruptions. Problems with patient identification and hybrid records generated errors that were in principle no different to paper records. Problems associated with IT include perennial risks with paper records, but additional disruptions in workflow and hazards for patients unique to IT, occasionally affecting multiple patients. Surveillance for such hazards may have general utility, but particularly in the context of migrating historical records to new systems and software updates to existing systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein
Computer technology has changed the ways we work, learn, interact and spend our leisure time. Computer technology has changed every aspect of our daily life--how and where we get our news, how we order goods and services, and how we communicate. This study investigates some of the significant issues concerning the use of computer technology…
Georgy A. Kukharev
Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.
Thunem, Atoosa P-J.
Rapid application growth of complex Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in every society and state infrastructure as well as industry has revealed vulnerabilities that eventually have given rise to serious security breaches. These vulnerabilities together with the course of the breaches from cause to consequence are gradually about to convince the field experts that ensuring the security of ICT-driven systems is no longer possible by only relying on the fundaments of computer science, IT, or telecommunications. Appropriating knowledge from other disciplines is not only beneficial, but indeed very necessary. At the same time, it is a common observation today that ICT-driven systems are used everywhere, from the nuclear, aviation, commerce and healthcare domains to camera-equipped web-enabled cellular phones. The increasing interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral aspects of ICT security worldwide have been providing updated and useful information to the nuclear domain, as one of the emerging users of ICT-driven systems. Nevertheless, such aspects have also contributed to new and complicated challenges, as ICT security for the nuclear domain is in a much more delicate manner than for any other domains related to the concept of safety, at least from the public standpoint. This report addresses some important aspects of ICT security that need to be considered at nuclear facilities. It deals with ICT security and the relationship between security and safety from a rather different perspective than usually observed and applied. The report especially highlights the influence on the security of ICT-driven systems by all other dependability factors, and on that basis suggests a framework for ICT security profiling, where several security profiles are assumed to be valid and used in parallel for each ICT-driven system, sub-system or unit at nuclear facilities. The report also covers a related research topic of the Halden Project with focus on cyber threats and
Chan, Engle Angela
While problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching--in an unpredictable clinical setting--has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.
Engle Angela Chan
Full Text Available While problem-based learning (PBL is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching—in an unpredictable clinical setting—has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.
Barry J. Allen
Full Text Available Purpose. Despite the latest technological advances in radiotherapy, cancer control is still challenging for several tumour sites. The survival rates for the most deadly cancers, such as ovarian and pancreatic, have not changed over the last decades. The solution to the problem lies in the change of focus: from local treatment to systemic therapy. The aim of this paper is to present the current status as well as the gaps in radiotherapy and, at the same time, to look into potential solutions to improve cancer control and survival. Methods. The currently available advanced radiotherapy treatment techniques have been analysed and their cost-effectiveness discussed. The problem of systemic disease management was specifically targeted. Results. Clinical studies show limited benefit in cancer control from hadron therapy. However, targeted therapies together with molecular imaging could improve treatment outcome for several tumour sites while controlling the systemic disease. Conclusion. The advances in photon therapy continue to be competitive with the much more expensive hadron therapy. To justify the cost effectiveness of proton/heavy ion therapy, there is a need for phase III randomised clinical trials. Furthermore, the success of systemic disease management lies in the fusion between radiation oncology technology and microbiology.
Jackson, Constance M.
A project was designed to infuse technology education into the first-grade classroom. Students learned bird identification, read fiction about birds, built bird feeders, learned about binoculars through birdwatching, and wrote a book about the experience. (JOW)
... to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN..., software, technology, or services owned or controlled by the Taliban or persons whose property or interests... Taliban is prohibited. ...
Andrea Conte; Marco Vivarelli
This paper discusses the impact of the international transfer of embodied technological change on the employment evolution of skills in a sample of low and middle income countries (LMICs). A large body of literature has already underlined the occurrence of widening wage and employment differentials between skilled and unskilled workers in high-income countries (HICs) (Katz and Autor, 1999). Such empirical evidence is consistent with both trade- and technology-based explanations while these co...
Ruan, Wei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Sun, Jimin; Yao, Linong
More affordable international travel, global trade and commerce, and the exporting of labor have all contributed to international population mobility. Furthermore, population migration leads to the incidence or recurrence of once-controlled diseases. Evidence shows that the popularity of travel can impact health through imported infections and illness. Imported cutaneous myiasis, a type of skin lesion, has attracted the attention of the current authors. This condition often occurs among travelers and it has been reported in several non-endemic countries. However, diagnosis of myiasis and identification of the larvae are difficult. Advances in molecular detection techniques could provide a new way to identify larvae. This study used sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene and morphology to identify the larva infesting the upper arm of a Chinese woman returning from Uganda. The larva was identified as Cordylobia anthropophaga (C. anthropophaga) and the sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession number: KM506761). As foreign interaction increases, imported health problems may become more common in China. Knowledge about various pathogens needs to be increased and molecular methods need to be used to accurately identify those pathogens.
Full Text Available The European workplace is challenging VET adults’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs. So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults’ skills to date. The present study (N=50 369 focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults’ problem-solving skills in TREs across 11 European countries, two main trends can be observed. First, our results show that only a minority of VET adults perform at a high level. Second, there seems to be substantial variation between countries with respect to the proportion of VET adults that can be identified as “at-risk” or “weak” performers. For the future, our findings indicate the variations that can be used as a starting point to identify beneficial VET approaches.
As the popularity of the Internet's World Wide Web exploded in 1994 and 1995, corporations began adopting the browser software called Mosaic (and its derivatives) for their networks. Why? That same software can be used to "surf" the Internet. Since Intranets are easier to maintain and less expensive, they are replacing the more expensive "groupware" applications based on client-server architectures that corporations installed over the past five years. These Intranets are based on widely-available technologies designed for the Internet, not proprietary software designed for a relatively few customers. Organizations with communication networks integrated with their transaction systems and electronic medical records will be more effective in managing health care resources--and more attractive to employers and insurers for managed care contracting.
Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support......Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other...
Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang
Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm?s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...
Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...
Dobrila Rancic Moogk
Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.
Kumar, David Devraj
This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…
"We know that progress depends on discovery, inventions, creativity and design, but we have simply supposed that it happens anyway," de Bono (1999 p. 43). Technology education is ostensibly a foundation for future designers and creative thinking. However evidence of good design or creative thinking in outcomes displayed in school…
Sivin, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.
In response to the rapid growth of computer crime and such illegitimate practices as piracy and fraud, the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement have formed a partnership to promote school programs on the ethical uses of new technologies. This report, the first of the partnership, is designed to…
A complex technology-based problem in visualization and computation for students in calculus is presented. Strategies are shown for its solution and the opportunities for students to put together sequences of concepts and skills to build for success are highlighted. The problem itself involves placing an object under water in order to actually see…
Haff, P. K.
Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids") on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of) form resistance - impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment) and air (dust). The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities), and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The latter property
P. K. Haff
Full Text Available Displacement of mass of limited deformability ("solids" on the Earth's surface is opposed by friction and (the analog of form resistance – impediments relaxed by rotational motion, self-powering of mass units, and transport infrastructure. These features of solids transport first evolved in the biosphere prior to the emergence of technology, allowing slope-independent, diffusion-like motion of discrete objects as massive as several tons, as illustrated by animal foraging and movement along game trails. However, high-energy-consumption technology powered by fossil fuels required a mechanism that could support fast advective transport of solids, i.e., long-distance, high-volume, high-speed, unidirectional, slope-independent transport across the land surface of materials like coal, containerized fluids, minerals, and economic goods. Pre-technology nature was able to sustain regional- and global-scale advection only in the limited form of piggybacking on geophysical flows of water (river sediment and air (dust. The appearance of a mechanism for sustained advection of solids independent of fluid flows and gravity appeared only upon the emergence of human purpose. Purpose enables solids advection by, in effect, simulating a continuous potential gradient, otherwise lacking, between discrete and widely separated fossil-fuel energy sources and sinks. Invoking purpose as a mechanism in solids advection is an example of the need to import anthropic principles and concepts into the language and methodology of modern Earth system dynamics. As part of the emergence of a generalized solids advection mechanism, several additional transport requirements necessary to the function of modern large-scale technological systems were also satisfied. These include spatially accurate delivery of advected payload, targetability to essentially arbitrarily located destinations (such as cities, and independence of structure of advected payload from transport mechanism. The
Horn, Lisa; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
Background It has been suggested that dogs display a secure base effect similar to that found in human children (i.e., using the owner as a secure base for interacting with the environment). In children, this effect influences their daily lives and importantly also their performance in cognitive testing. Here, we investigate the importance of the secure base effect for dogs in a problem-solving task. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a manipulative task, we tested dogs in three conditions, in which we varied the owner's presence and behavior (Experiment 1: “Absent owner”, “Silent owner”, “Encouraging owner”) and in one additional condition, in which the owner was replaced by an unfamiliar human (Experiment 2: “Replaced owner”). We found that the dogs' duration of manipulating the apparatus was longer when their owner was present than absent, irrespective of the owner's behavior. The presence of an unfamiliar human however did not increase their manipulation. Furthermore, the reduced manipulation during the absence of the owner was not correlated with the dog's degree of separation distress scored in a preceding attachment experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our study is the first to provide evidence for an owner-specific secure base effect in dogs that extends from attachment tests to other areas of dogs' lives and also manifests itself in cognitive testing – thereby confirming the remarkable similarity between the secure base effect in dogs and in human children. These results also have important implications for behavioral testing in dogs, because the presence or absence of the owner during a test situation might substantially influence dogs' motivation and therefore the outcome of the test. PMID:23734243
Full Text Available It has been suggested that dogs display a secure base effect similar to that found in human children (i.e., using the owner as a secure base for interacting with the environment. In children, this effect influences their daily lives and importantly also their performance in cognitive testing. Here, we investigate the importance of the secure base effect for dogs in a problem-solving task.Using a manipulative task, we tested dogs in three conditions, in which we varied the owner's presence and behavior (Experiment 1: "Absent owner", "Silent owner", "Encouraging owner" and in one additional condition, in which the owner was replaced by an unfamiliar human (Experiment 2: "Replaced owner". We found that the dogs' duration of manipulating the apparatus was longer when their owner was present than absent, irrespective of the owner's behavior. The presence of an unfamiliar human however did not increase their manipulation. Furthermore, the reduced manipulation during the absence of the owner was not correlated with the dog's degree of separation distress scored in a preceding attachment experiment.Our study is the first to provide evidence for an owner-specific secure base effect in dogs that extends from attachment tests to other areas of dogs' lives and also manifests itself in cognitive testing - thereby confirming the remarkable similarity between the secure base effect in dogs and in human children. These results also have important implications for behavioral testing in dogs, because the presence or absence of the owner during a test situation might substantially influence dogs' motivation and therefore the outcome of the test.
Kler, A. M.; Maximov, A. S.; Epishkin, N. O.
The paper describes the developed method for analyzing technological schemes of thermal power plants based on solving problems of auxiliary linear programming. This method involves solving the linear programming problems to evaluate the effect of supply and removal of heat or material flows of various sizes at different points of the technological scheme of a thermal power plant (TPP). The method effectiveness is demonstrated by the example of the coaldust steam turbine unit with nominal electrical output of 660 MW. As a result of its application, the change of the technological scheme of the unit was found to provide reduction in electricity cost by 0.3%.
Full Text Available This article discusses issues related to the problems of development of light industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, systematize industry regions and analyzes modern management technologies used by small businesses garment industry. The aim of the article is the analysis of the organizational and economic aspects of light industry on the example of clothing companies. The objectives of the article: to sistematize the major regions of the dislocation of light industry: textile, footwear, clothing; to characterize the current state of the apparel industry enterprises; to show the value of small clothing companies; to study the need for the introduction of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS on small sewing factories; to analyze the range of the scientific development of national universities in the study of flexible manufacturing systems and give them a brief description.Methodology. The methodological basis of the paper is the following scientific methods: deduction, comparative and group analysis, desk research. The Results. The result of the study is to identify the main issues and trends in the development of light industry, ordering the placement of the industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, the definition of the most popular management techniques used in small businesses garment industry.Conclusions / significance. The above article analyzes the development of light industry has allowed to identify the main trends and formulate problems for the enterprises. New conditions require the development of small enterprises and the introduction of modern technologies in production processes and management.
The concept of Safety Culture is widely accepted but not very well understood. In this paper I argue that the components of safety culture all hinge on whether the executives in the nuclear plant actually create the climate of trust and openness that the other attributes hinge on. The right kind of executive behaviour is especially important in nuclear plants and sites because of the unique characteristics of nuclear technology. In order to create the climate of trust and openness that is required I explain the concept of Humble Leadership as the essential characteristic needed in nuclear plan executives. (author)
Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the development of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Azerbaijan. In recent years, great advancement in development and improvement of the ICThas been gained in the country, including adoption and implementation of the related state documents, creation of competition in the market of communication technologies as well as mobile operators,spatial enlargement of use of internet through the country’s territory, launch of the national telecommunication satellite, and othernumerous events and significant processes.The progress in establishment of informational environment found its reflection in the higher position of Azerbaijanamong world’s countriesfor the definite indexes.The factors and needed terms responsible for further acceleration of improvement of ICT are shown in the paper.
Full Text Available New technologies can be implemented in clinical rehabilitation processes or to close the gap in health care provision by transferring them to the patients’ home. Successful use can only be achieved under the assumption that the technology is accepted by its users. The involvement of users in iterative development processes is to be shown to increase the quality of health care systems and to prevent refusal. In this review potentials of user acceptance and satisfaction surveys in the development of stroke rehabilitation systems are discussed. The surveys are conducted as a method for improving the ongoing design process of innovative technical systems developed in the BMBF funded project “BeMobil”.
Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank
In the first theoretical paper on joint audits, Deng et al. predict that the audit fees for joint audits will be lower than those from single audits. However, the prediction depends on the combination of audit firms involved in the joint audit and on their technology efficiency as well...... as on the liability involved. This paper is the first to empirically test the predictions. Our findings from Denmark do not indicate any general difference in audit fees when two audit firms – regardless of combination and technology efficiency – conduct the statutory audit compared to a single Big audit firm....... The results indicate the existence of fixed coordination costs in joint audits. We do, however, find higher audit fees in Big-Small joint audits when the Small audit firm has a share of less than 25 per cent. This may reflect free-riding concerns....
Nikula, R. E.
Politicians and hospital management in Sweden and Denmark focus on IT and especially Electronic Patient Record, EPR as a tool for changes that will lead to better economy as well as better quality and service to the patients. These changes are not direct effects of the new medium for patient records but indirect effects due to the possibilities embedded in the new technology. To ensure that the implementation is successful, i.e. leads to changes in organization structure and workflow, we need tools to prepare clinicians and management. The focus of this paper is the individual insight in technology and organization and it proposes a model to assess and categorize the possibilities of individuals and groups to participate in and make an implementation process powerful. PMID:10566426
Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.
The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants
Ghosn, Mohamad G; Shah, Dipan J
Cardiac magnetic resonance has become a well-established imaging modality and is considered the gold standard for myocardial tissue viability assessment and ventricular volumes quantification. Recent technological hardware and software advancements in magnetic resonance imaging technology have allowed the development of new methods that can improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. The advent of a new generation of higher magnetic field scanners can be beneficial to various clinical applications. Also, the development of faster acquisition techniques have allowed mapping of the magnetic relaxation properties T1, T2, and T2* in the myocardium that can be used to quantify myocardial diffuse fibrosis, determine the presence of edema or inflammation, and measure iron within the myocardium, respectively. Another recent major advancement in CMR has been the introduction of three-dimension (3D) phase contrast imaging, also known as 4D flow. The following review discusses key advances in cardiac magnetic resonance technology and their potential to improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and outcomes.
Hinton-Bayre, A D; Noonan, K; Ling, S; Vijayasekaran, S
Paediatric tonsillectomy is a common procedure and one of the first skills acquired by surgical trainees. Post-tonsillectomy bleeding is one of the most significant complications. This study examined post-tonsillectomy bleed rates associated with technology and level of surgical experience. Data were collected on all tonsillectomies performed by surgical consultants (n = 6) and trainees (n = 10) at affiliated hospitals over a nine-month period. Hospital records were audited for post-tonsillectomy bleeding re-admissions and returns to the operating theatre. A total of 1396 tonsillectomies were performed (279 by trainees, 1117 by consultant surgeons). Primary post-tonsillectomy bleed rates were equivalent between trainees and consultants. Secondary bleed rates were significantly greater for trainees (10.0 per cent) compared to consultants (3.3 per cent), as were return to operating theatre rates (2.5 per cent vs 0.7 per cent). Amongst consultants, technology used was not associated with differences in secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding and returns to the operating theatre. Our data suggest that experience of the surgeon may have greater bearing on post-tonsillectomy bleed rates than the technology used.
Vook, F.L.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Blewitt, T.H.; Brown, W.L.; Corbett, J.W.; Crawford, J.H. Jr.; Goland, A.N.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Robinson, M.T.; Seidman, D.N.; Young, F.W. Jr.; Bardeen, J.; Balluffi, R.W.; Koehler, J.S.; Vineyard, G.H.
An APS sponsored study reviewed the state of research and development in radiation effects on materials for the purpose of identifying basic scientific problems which limit progress in energy applications and which could be attacked by physicists, especially those in universities. The field of radiation effects on materials has particular application throughout fission and fusion reactor technology, and the technological problems associated with these reactors were reviewed. Important scientific problem areas discussed included mechanical properties, point defects, voids and dislocations, theory of damage production, charged particle simulation of neutron damage, hydrogen and helium in materials, interaction of surfaces and radiation, insulators, semiconductors, and superconductivity. In addition to many detailed suggestions, the study recommended increased effort on the following most important problem areas: A firm experimental and theoretical base for ion and electron simulation of neutron damage should be established. Increased emphasis should be placed on understanding the effects of impurities on the production, migration, and agglomeration of radiation produced defects, particularly the nucleation and growth of voids and dislocation loops. The experimental and theoretical understanding of mechanical properties as they are affected by point defects and their agglomerates, impurities, and defect-impurity combinations should be established. Experimental and theoretical understanding should be established for the dynamic effects of high flux irradiations such as enhanced diffusion, creep, precipitation, and re-solution. To aid the application of basic science to technology, increased university and laboratory cooperation was recommended
Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas
Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cruse, T. A.; Swedlow, J. L.
During the past year an experimental program in the fracture of advanced fiber composites has been completed. The experimental program has given direction to additional experimental and theoretical work. A synthesis program for designing low weight multifastener joints in composites is proposed, based on extensive analytical background. A number of failed joints have been thoroughly analyzed to evaluate the failure hypothesis used in the synthesis procedure. Finally, a new solution is reported for isotropic and anisotropic laminates using the boundary-integral method. The solution method offers significant savings of computer core and time for important problems.
This publication contains 19 papers on the determination of cross sections relevant for the generation of long-lived radioisotopes through neutron-induced reactions in the neutron range around 14 MeV of importance in D-T fusion reactor technology. Refs, figs and tabs
Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes
This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important
In postindependence Africa new and more efficient strategies were required to support educational expansion. Political independence was accompanied by an increased demand for education to meet the growing labor force needs of the emerging countries in Africa. It was considered that education, as a means for human resource development, was a viable capital investment necessary to support both social and economic development, yet in many African nations, the educational systems and the traditional teaching methods inherited from colonial rule were not adequate to satisfy the increased demand for trained personnel. In response to the need for educational reforms and expansion, governments of many African countries invested heavily in the development of their education systems. During the 1970s it is estimated that Africa spent between 15-20% of the national budget on education. That high level of expenditure was justified by the increased demand for education. The educational expansion efforts also increased shortages of qualified and competent teachers, shortages of adequate equipment, and physical facilities. New strategies and resources with required to solve these increasing problems. Many African countries began to experiment with the use of mass communication technologies to support their educational reform efforts. There was generally consensus that the mass media, particularly radio and television, had certain qualities that could be exploited either to replace or improve conventional methods of teaching. By the late 1960s at least 16 African countries were using educational broadcasting of 1 form or another. International aid agencies, govermental donor agencies, and private foundations in the industrially advanced countries provided the support base for many African countries in their efforts to use radio and television for educational improvement. Most of these efforts failed to make any significant impact on educational development in Africa. Educational
... importer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium Raw (9600) II Poppy... States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA...
... importer of the basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has...
The report gives results of an investigation to determine the effects of uranium imports on the national security. Uranium is essential to the operation of the Navy's nuclear-powered fleet, for nuclear weapon capability and for civilian nuclear energy generation. US utilities imported 43.8 percent of their uranium requirements in 1986 and 51.1 percent in 1987. The report finds that the domestic industry's competitiveness has deteriorated in recent years, due to the easily accessible and richer deposits available elsewhere. The report concludes, however, that in a national security emergency, defense requirements could be met through stockpiles of finished nuclear materials set aside for military needs. Furthermore, civilian requirements could be met through US production, reliable imports, inventories, and tails reprocessing. The report, therefore, finds that uranium is not being imported in such quantities or under such circumstances as to represent a threat to the national security
The purpose of this paper is to describe the regulatory activities carried out in Spain as a result of the design problem occurring in the steam generators during operation of Unit I of the Almaraz nuclear power station. First, a brief introduction is given to the operating history and characteristics of Unit I of Almaraz. Particular attention is paid to the specific licences issued subsequent to commercial operation which place limitations on the operation of the station and to the operational incidents of which the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has been notified. Next, a description is provided of the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN. Three aspects merit particular attention: methodology, evaluation and conclusions. The methodology applied by an importing country is normally based on that of the country of origin of the design, so that the overall evaluation by the NRC has been considered sufficiently representative of aspects specific to the Almaraz power station. In this regard the importance of international collaboration is clearly seen as a principal instrument for performing the evaluation. In the evaluation a distinction is made between general and specific aspects and between inspection programmes and quality assurance requirements. In addition, the conclusions leading to the requirement of the imposition of additional limitations on the operating licence are stated. Apart from the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN, other regulatory activities have been performed over this two-year period. These activities, which include site inspections, audits of the principal supplier company, other independent calculations and so on, are described. Lastly, the paper refers to the lessons learned from the operation of the above-mentioned unit, which are immediately applicable to other Spanish nuclear power stations. (author)
Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife
In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...
Merrild, Hanna; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Bygning 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing on global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate was studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved biomass, in order to study the importance of the system boundary choices. For recycling, the choice of virgin paper manufacturing data is most important, but the results show that also the impacts from the reprocessing technologies fluctuate greatly. For the overall results the choice of the technology data is of importance when comparing recycling including virgin paper substitution with incineration including energy substitution. Combining an environmentally high or low performing recycling technology with an environmentally high or low performing incineration technology can give quite different results. The modelling showed that recycling of paper, from a life cycle point of view, is environmentally equal or better than incineration with energy recovery only when the recycling technology is at a high environmental performance level. However, the modelling also showed that expanding the system to include substitution of fossil fuel energy by production of energy from the saved biomass associated with recycling will give a completely different result. In this case recycling is always more beneficial than incineration, thus increased recycling is desirable. Expanding the system to include forestry was shown to have a minor effect on the results. As assessments are often performed with a set choice of data and a set recycling rate, it is questionable how useful the results from
Prabhu, Shailesh M; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Solanki, Ravi S; Shetty, Gurucharan S; Agarwala, Surenderkumar
Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lung lesions is an important problem in children with acute respiratory distress having a cystic lucent lesion on chest radiograph. To evaluate the imaging findings and complications in cases of congenital cystic lung lesions with chest tube insertion and suggest the role of appropriate imaging for management of these patients. Chest radiographs and CT scans of children with congenital cystic lung lesions who had inadvertent chest tube insertion preoperatively were retrospectively reviewed for imaging appearances and complications. Fifteen patients comprising 10 cases of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and 5 cases of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) were included. Majority of the cases were infants. CCAM was misdiagnosed as complicated pneumatocele (n = 5) and pneumothorax (n = 5), while CLE was misdiagnosed as tension pneumothorax (n = 5) on the chest radiograph findings. Final diagnosis was made on CT and operative findings with histopathology. Complications noted were pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, and infection in cases of CCAM, and change in imaging appearance and pneumothorax in cases of CLE. Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lesions increases the rate of associated complications. Chest CT has a definite role in early diagnosis and deciding appropriate management in these cases
Amanda de Souza Motta
Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.
The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption
Full Text Available Freight Forwarders as an intermediary between exporters and importers are also affected by dwelling time performance. This study aims to identify the problems faced by Freight Forwarders in East Java in the application of dwelling time at the port. The research method is qualitative with descriptive analysis, with in-depth interviews on some Freight Forwarders and Association on Logistics and Forwarder of Indonesia (ALFI. Respondents are chosen through purposive sampling. Here are the results of the study. The problems faced by the forwarders are the delay of NOA (Notice of Arrival and DO (Delivery Order bills from the shipping parties. Overlapping regulations related to the process of export and import documents due to differences of perception among ministries in charge. The next problem is the lack of knowledge of exporters and importers on export and import regulations. There are also problems related to interruption on INSW (Indonesia National Single Window server and CEISA (Customs Excise Information System and Automation. The random system on imported goods after inspection at CEISA, limited importer warehouse, and no needs over imported goods are also the obstacles faced. The other problem is that importers tend to keep stockpile in containers in the depots because security assurance in the depots is much better than in the importer warehouse.
Havnen, Karen Skaale; Jakobsen, Reidar; Stormark, Kjell Morten
The main aim of this article is to explore the association between mental health problems in children placed out-of-home and family risk factors reported as reasons for placement. The sample consisted of 109 Norwegian children aged 6-12 years. Mental health problems were assessed by the Revised Rutter scales reported by the parents and the…
Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Lawrence, G.P.
All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current
Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing
Recent studies on technology have shifted from the emphasis on technology skills alone to integrating pedagogy and content with technology--what Mishra and Koehler (2005) call technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Deeper understanding on how TPACK can be cultivated is needed. This design-based research explored how an improvised,…
Research and deployment priorities for renewable technologies: Quantifying the importance of various renewable technologies for low cost, high renewable electricity systems in an Australian case study
Riesz, Jenny; Elliston, Ben
This study aims to identify research priorities to enable low cost, high renewable power systems. An evolutionary program optimises the mix of technologies in 100% renewable energy portfolios (RE) in the Australian National Electricity Market. Various technologies are reduced in availability to determine their relative importance for achieving low costs. The single most important factor is found to be the integration of large quantities of wind; therefore wind integration is identified as a research priority. In contrast, photovoltaics are found to “saturate” the system at less than 10% of total energy (in the absence of storage or demand management, installation of further photovoltaics does not contribute significant further value). This indicates that policies to promote utility-scale photovoltaics should be considered in partnership with complementary measures (such as demand side participation and storage). Biofuelled gas turbines are found to be important; a complete absence of bioenergy increases costs by AU$20–30/MWh, and even having only 0.1 TWh per year of bioenergy available reduces average costs by AU$3–4/MWh. Limits on the non-synchronous penetration (NSP) are found to be relatively expensive, suggesting a significant research priority around finding alternative approaches to providing synchronous services, such as inertia. Geothermal and concentrating solar thermal technologies do not appear essential as long as sufficient wind and peaking bioenergy is available. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics saturate early, suggesting they need complementary measures. • Biofuelled gas turbines or another peaking technology are important for low costs. • Limits on the non-synchronous penetration are relatively expensive.
This mainly philosophic look ahead to the future highlights a number of developing classes of materials-related mechanics problems on the microscale and the macroscale. Each appears to be of considerable practical importance, intellectually stimulating, and likely to be very difficult. The list includes: the mechanics of response of lightly and heavily damaged structures and microstructures to further loading, the development of design theorems for the microscale and macroscale which contain suitable measures of damage, mechanics guidance for the development and interpretation of the remarkably sensitive and discerning NDE ultrasonic measurements that are now becoming possible for creep and fatigue damage, the mechanics of chemically active solids, and the mechanics of enormous strain rates, strains, stresses and temperatures likely to be encountered in power generation by fusion. The paper closes with attention to the need to capture the essence of reality rather than its full complexity. (orig.)
Lee, Young Ouk
New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.
Duży, Stanisław; Dyduch, Grzegorz; Preidl, Wojciech; Stacha, Grzegorz
Adits played an important role in the hydrotechnical infrastructure for centuries. Initially, they were used mainly to drain wetland and supply water to the population. There were also inherent in the conduct of mining activities. They were used as exploratory, development and supply headings. Their usual function was to drain, ventilate and transport, and after the cessation of mining they became important elements of the hydrotechnical infrastructure in the transformed mining areas. The article presents issues related to the revitalization of the Main Key Hereditary Adit and Friedrich Adit as essential for the areas in which they are located. Both are hydraulic structures with the possibility of adaptation for tourism purposes. The need to consider some technical activities to be undertaken in this type of objects was pointed out, not only including aspects related to their proper protection so that they can continue to safely perform their function, but also to the preservation of their historical values. Due to their age and the method of drilling used in them, those headings are often included in the list of monuments and protected by law.
The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs
原科, 達也; Tatsuya, HARASHINA; 早稲田大学文学学術院社会学コース; Waseda University
This paper examines the possibility of online-based deliberative forums using video-chat technology such as Skype or Facetime. Deliberative forums using face-to-face communication have some problems, which need too much money and time. These problems prevent these forums from being in widespread use. Then online-based deliberative forums can make them easier to organize and consequently increase the amount of them. These merits lead deliberative forums to be more relative and reflexive, becau...
Perejón, Antonio; Romeo, Luis M.; Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Valverde, Jose Manuel
Highlights: • The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology is a potentially low cost and highly efficient postcombustion CO 2 capture technology. • Energy integration and sorbent behavior play a relevant role on the process. • The industrial competitiveness of the process depends critically on the minimization of energy penalties. • It may be used in precombustion capture systems and other industrial processes such as cement production. • Sorbent deactivation must be assessed under realistic conditions involving high CO 2 concentration in the calciner. - Abstract: The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO in gas–solid fluidized bed reactors at high temperature, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO 2 capture. In this manuscript a critical review is made on the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior in the process efficiency. Firstly, the strategies proposed to reduce the energy demand by internal integration are discussed as well as process modifications aimed at optimizing the overall efficiency by means of external integration. The most important benefit of the high temperature CaL cycles is the possibility of using high temperature streams that could reduce significantly the energy penalty associated to CO 2 capture. The application of the CaL technology in precombustion capture systems and energy integration, and the coupling of the CaL technology with other industrial processes are also described. In particular, the CaL technology has a significant potential to be a feasible CO 2 capture system for cement plants. A precise knowledge of the multicyclic CO 2 capture behavior of the sorbent at the CaL conditions to be expected in practice is of great relevance in order to predict a realistic capture efficiency and energy penalty from process simulations. The second part of this manuscript will be devoted to this issue. Particular emphasis is put on the
Fathil Bakir Allami; Mohdsofian Omar-Fauzee; Ishak Sin
The overweight problem in Iraq has been a great issue that needs to be solved by government to ensure a better well-being. The purpose of this paper is to explore the need of the modern technology in physical education in order to overcome the issues of overweight in Iraq. The methodology used in this paper is through library research which focuses on issues of overweight and modern technology application in physical education programs. It can be concluded that the use of modern technology in...
Martin, D.J.; Michaelis, L.A.
This report considers global pollution issues, i.e. emissions which are of significance to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion, and the following technology clusters: alternative fuels, engine technology and vehicle design
Full Text Available This article addresses concerns about the impact of technological development on employment. Over recent centuries, innovation has been a driver of technological development and automation, giving rise to fears of an economic disaster where machines increasingly replace workers and there is high unemployment. Despite claims that the idea of permanently high unemployment caused by technological development, "technological unemployment", is discredited, there is good reason to believe that recent trends make Luddite concerns today more valid.
Full Text Available The issues of forming future primary school teachers’ health-preserving technologies and implementing them into the educational process are discussed in the article. Motivational, information and knowledgeable, and operational and instrumental components are singled out as main ones in teachers’ training. Filling the components takes place during the theoretical training while teaching natural, psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, as well as during practical pedagogical training. One of the main tasks of practical pedagogical training is students’ independent work in school hygiene. Methodological recommendations to the independent work are made by the authors; the list of tasks is given. Doing tasks in school hygiene, students assess hygienic conditions for pupils’ work: determine the air-thermal regime, lighting, room equipment, analyze the working mode of a school and a timetable. Unfavorable social and economic problems in contemporary Ukraine, the difficult ecological situation, overloads of information and intensification of educational process cause the tendencies to schoolchildren’s health impairment. Primary school teacher plays an especially important part in organization of preserving and strengthening children’s health that is caused by young learners’ age peculiarities. Primary school teacher, as a main organizer of the educational process, should systematically and effectively influence his/her pupils’ healthy development. Nowadays the problem of preserving pupils’ health is studied by R. Aizman, H. Zaitsev, V. Kabanov, O. Yazlovetska; the ways of preserving and strengthening pupils’ health through implementing health-preserving technologies are disclosed by A. Akhutina, V. Kovalko, V.Lozynskyi, M. Smirnov; the approaches to organizing the holistic educational process as the basis of forming, preserving and incipiency of pupils’ health are developed by M. Bezrukikh, P. Bohdan, V
Budinski, Natalija; Milinkovic, Dragica
The availability of technology has a big impact on education, and that is the main reason for discussing the use of technologies in mathematical education in our paper. The availability of technology influences how mathematical contents could be presented to students. We present the benefits of learning mathematical concepts through real life…
Schooner, Patrick; Nordlöf, Charlotta; Klasander, Claes; Hallström, Jonas
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2013) defines its views on necessary skills for 21st century citizenship and life-long learning, advocating a generic skillset of literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving in technology-rich environments. Other sources also include critical thinking as a vital 21st Century skill.…
The availability of sophisticated computer programs such as "Wolfram Alpha" has made many problems found in the secondary mathematics curriculum somewhat obsolete for they can be easily solved by the software. Against this background, an interplay between the power of a modern tool of technology and educational constraints it presents is…
In this research, it is aimed to investigate classroom management problems of middle school 6th and 7th grade teachers in traditional and technology-supported classrooms and differences between them. For this purpose the opinions of the students in the 4th grade of Primary Education Department in Faculty of Education of Süleyman Demirel University…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum on students' scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Four hundred and eighty (480) Senior Secondary two science and non-science students were randomly selected from intact classes in six secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of…
Shorikov, A. F.; Butsenko, E. V.
This paper discusses the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. On the basis of network modeling proposed a new economic and mathematical model and a method for solving the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. Network economic and mathematical modeling allows you to determine the optimal time and calendar schedule for the implementation of the investment project and serves as an instrument to increase the economic potential and competitiveness of the enterprise. On a meaningful practical example, the processes of forming network models are shown, including the definition of the sequence of actions of a particular investment projecting process, the network-based work schedules are constructed. The calculation of the parameters of network models is carried out. Optimal (critical) paths have been formed and the optimal time for implementing the chosen technologies of the investment project has been calculated. It also shows the selection of the optimal technology from a set of possible technologies for project implementation, taking into account the time and cost of the work. The proposed model and method for solving the problem of managing investment projects can serve as a basis for the development, creation and application of appropriate computer information systems to support the adoption of managerial decisions by business people.
Full Text Available The role of information technology in modern education has increased significantly over the past two decades . The opportunity to develop an interactive software system with the aim of enhancing fundamental problem-solving skills of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics programs at tertiary institutions is possible with object-oriented programming techniques and multi-dimensional graphic design. The definition of fundamental problem-solving skills includes cognitive functional skills such as logical thinking, conceptualism with prior knowledge, relationship forming and objective analysis. Experiments done for this research indicate that given the right educational tools, cognitive functional skills of learners can be stimulated, developed and enhanced. This, in turn, may lead to an increase in the graduation rates of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics program and ultimately contribute to the reshaping of the educational experience.
Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy sources for urban, household and industrial facilities requires strategies development for seeking new energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill the environment friendly expectations. A lot of attention is devoted to renewable energy sources. One of the most attracting among them is energy production form geothermal sources. At a few meters below the earth’s surface the underground maintains a constant temperature in an approximation through the year allowing to withdraw heat in winter for heating needs and to surrender heat during summer for air-conditioning purposes. Heat pump is a rapidly developing technology for heating and domestic hot water production. Using ground as a heat source, heat exchange is carried out with heat pumps compound to vertical ground heat exchanger tubes that allows the heating and cooling of the buildings utilizing a single unit installation. Heat pump unit provides a high degree of productivity with moderate electric power consumption. In this paper a theoretical performance study of a vapor compression heat pump system with various natural and synthetic refrigerants (HFCs is presented. Operation mode of the heat pump unit was chosen according to European Standard EN14511-2:2007 and EN255-2. An influence of discharge temperature on system performance was evaluated at different boiling temperatures. The comparison of mass flow rate and coefficient of performance for considered refrigerants at constant cooling capacity and condensation temperature was performed.
Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)
Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.
Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara
In typically developing (TD) children, sleep problems have been associated with day-time attentional difficulties. Children with developmental disabilities often suffer with sleep and attention problems, yet their relationship is poorly understood. The present study investigated this association in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Actigraphy and pulse oximetry assessed sleep and sleep-disordered breathing respectively, and attention was tested using a novel visual Continuous Performance Task (CPT).Attentional deficits were evident in both disorder groups. In the TD group, higher scores on the CPT were related to better sleep quality, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and fewer desaturation events. Sleep quality, duration, and SpO2 variables were not related to CPT performance for children with DS and WS.
Maymon, Rebecca; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study.
This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy
Gwilliam, K.M.; Geerlings, H.
This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning
Yates, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
Barak, Moshe; Zadok, Yair
This paper presents a study about learning and the problem solving process identified among junior high school pupils participating in robotics projects in the Lego Mindstorm environment. The research was guided by the following questions: (1) How do pupils come up with inventive solutions to problems in the context of robotics activities? (2)…
von Helversen, Bettina; Karlsson, Linnea; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas
Knowledge about cue polarity (i.e., the sign of a cue-criterion relation) seems to boost performance in a wide range of inference tasks. Knowledge about cue polarity information may enhance performance by increasing (1) the reliance on rule- relative to similarity-based strategies, and (2) explicit knowledge about the relative importance of cues. We investigated the relative contribution of these two mechanisms in a multiple-cue judgment task and a categorization task, which typically differ in the inference strategies they elicit and potentially the explicit task knowledge available to participants. In both tasks participants preferred rule-based relative to similarity-based strategies and had more knowledge about cue importance when cue polarity information was provided. Strategy selection was not related to increases in performance in the categorization task and could only partly explain increases in performance in the judgment task. In contrast, explicit knowledge about the importance of cues was related to better performance in both categorization and judgment independently of the strategy used. In sum, our results suggest that the benefits of receiving cue polarity information may span across tasks, such multiple-cue judgment and categorization, primarily by enhancing knowledge of relative cue importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zeynep Yurtseven Avci; Ellen S. Vasu; Kevin Oliver; Karen Allen Keene; Bonnie Fusarelli
The availability of internet-based technologies and practices are increasing every day for our daily lives. Most of those contemporary technologies have interactive features and provide unique opportunities for today’s learners. Although a growing amount of research focuses on learning with online tools, little known about which features and affordances contribute for effective classroom learning. This study investigates student and teacher perceptions on how students’ mathematics learning wa...
Aswathy Das; Manoj Kumar Sharma; P Thamilselvan; P Marimuthu
Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...
Roza R. Dauletalieva
Full Text Available Teacher’s professional competence development, using information technologies is characterized by the orientation towards flexible change of activity profile and content owing to the change of technologies or market requirements, possibilities to provide trainees with thorough knowledge, eligible for the general and professional culture, rapid adaptation to new specialties and specializations, fleeting nature of training process, providing equality of roles and functions of all the components of instruction system.
Marina Alexeevna Laskovets
Full Text Available The strategy of forming a competitive linguistic space dictates a necessity to use modern IT and means of distance learning while teaching foreign languages to postgraduates of non-linguistics higher learning institutions. The problems of designing, implementation and support of the information security systems in the technologies of distant foreign language teaching become essential in a multidiscipline approach of teaching postgraduates.
Aida Gabeta; Eva Dhimitri
The general picture of the Albanian Agribusiness discovers that it is still separated and with a productivity of a low scale compared with European equivalents. Apart from rapid progress, the total production doesn’t coincide with internal consumption, which is completed from considerable quantities of imported food products. For this reason, the production relatively small needs efficient consolidation processes and effective to the address of the value chain which is based on the capital ga...
Content of the Diploma Thesis:In our seemingly modern world, more than 2 billion people still have no access to modern energy services, relying instead on traditional biomass sources like fuelwood, charcoal and animal dung. This has severe implications for the day-to-day life of the majority of poor people in developing countries because energy is vitally linked to numerous important dimensions of development: economic productivity, health, nutrition, education, gender, agricultural productio...
A country's environmental problems are affected by the level of its economic development, the availability of national resources, and the socio-economic level of this population. Poverty presents special problems for a heavily populated country with limited resources. environmental problems in Pakistan have become serious and should no longer be neglected. These relate air and water pollution particularly in metropolitan and industrial zones, degradation of common property sources which affect the poor adversely due to the degradation of their life support system, threat to biodiversity, inadequate system of solid waste disposal and sanitation with consequent adverse impact on health, infant mortality, birth rate. These problems impose a serious cost on society although it is impossible to comprehend the extent of these on costs. (author)
Podinovski, V. V.
A set of interrelated methods is presented for analyzing multicriteria decision-making problems on the basis of an information on the criteria importance and change of the preferences along their scales. Computer systems of decision-making support, implementing these methods within the methodology
Aleksandra do Socorro da Silva
Full Text Available The published literature reveals several arguments concerning the strategic importance of information and communication technology (ICT interventions for developing countries where the digital divide is a challenge. Large-scale ICT interventions can be an option for countries whose regions, both urban and rural, present a high number of digitally excluded people. Our goal was to monitor and identify problems in interventions aimed at certification for a large number of participants in different geographical regions. Our case study is the training at the Telecentros.BR, a program created in Brazil to install telecenters and certify individuals to use ICT resources. We propose an approach that applies social network analysis and mining techniques to data collected from Telecentros.BR dataset and from the socioeconomics and telecommunications infrastructure indicators of the participants' municipalities. We found that (i the analysis of interactions in different time periods reflects the objectives of each phase of training, highlighting the increased density in the phase in which participants develop and disseminate their projects; (ii analysis according to the roles of participants (i.e., tutors or community members reveals that the interactions were influenced by the center (or region to which the participant belongs (that is, a community contained mainly members of the same region and always with the presence of tutors, contradicting expectations of the training project, which aimed for intense collaboration of the participants, regardless of the geographic region; (iii the social network of participants influences the success of the training: that is, given evidence that the degree of the community member is in the highest range, the probability of this individual concluding the training is 0.689; (iv the North region presented the lowest probability of participant certification, whereas the Northeast, which served municipalities with similar
da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; de Brito, Silvana Rossy; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Rocha, Cláudio Alex Jorge; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa
The published literature reveals several arguments concerning the strategic importance of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions for developing countries where the digital divide is a challenge. Large-scale ICT interventions can be an option for countries whose regions, both urban and rural, present a high number of digitally excluded people. Our goal was to monitor and identify problems in interventions aimed at certification for a large number of participants in different geographical regions. Our case study is the training at the Telecentros.BR, a program created in Brazil to install telecenters and certify individuals to use ICT resources. We propose an approach that applies social network analysis and mining techniques to data collected from Telecentros.BR dataset and from the socioeconomics and telecommunications infrastructure indicators of the participants' municipalities. We found that (i) the analysis of interactions in different time periods reflects the objectives of each phase of training, highlighting the increased density in the phase in which participants develop and disseminate their projects; (ii) analysis according to the roles of participants (i.e., tutors or community members) reveals that the interactions were influenced by the center (or region) to which the participant belongs (that is, a community contained mainly members of the same region and always with the presence of tutors, contradicting expectations of the training project, which aimed for intense collaboration of the participants, regardless of the geographic region); (iii) the social network of participants influences the success of the training: that is, given evidence that the degree of the community member is in the highest range, the probability of this individual concluding the training is 0.689; (iv) the North region presented the lowest probability of participant certification, whereas the Northeast, which served municipalities with similar
Venskutonis, Tadas; Plotino, Gianluca; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Mickevičienė, Lina
To obtain essential information in clinical endodontics, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging can be used in all phases of treatment including diagnosis, treatment planning, during the treatment phase, and through post-treatment assessment and follow-up. The purpose of this article was to review the use of CBCT imaging in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessing the outcome of endodontic complications. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases for the following keywords: tooth root injuries, tooth root radiography, tooth root perforation, tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, endodontic complications, tooth root internal/external resorption, root fractures, and broken instruments. The research was restricted to articles published in English. One hundred twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Currently, intraoral radiography is the imaging technique of choice for the management of endodontic disease, but CBCT imaging appears to have a superior validity and reliability in the management of endodontic diagnosis and complications. Endodontic cases should be judged individually, and CBCT imaging should be considered in situations in which information from conventional imaging systems may not yield an adequate amount of information to allow the appropriate management of endodontic problems. CBCT imaging has the potential to become the first choice for endodontic treatment planning and outcome assessment, especially when new scanners with lower radiation doses will be available. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster
Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Uzoglu, Mustafa
The aim of this study is to explore the problems encountered while teaching force and motion unit in 8th grade science and technology course from teachers' perspectives and offer solutions to eliminate these problems. The study was conducted with 248 science and technology teachers working in 7 regions in Turkey in 2012-2013 academic year.…
Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki
This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.
Locatelli, Francesco; Tucci, Benedetta; Del Vecchio, Lucia
The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide like an unstoppable tsunami. This causes considerable suffering for patients and families and places a severe economic burden also on society, especially when the patient reaches the stage of being in need of renal replacement therapy. Accordingly, a program of prevention and treatment of CKD at its earlier stages is of great importance, also in view of the fact that the general population is getting older and older and is more frequently affected by comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. All these factors increase the likelihood of the development and worsening of CKD. In the meantime, nephrologists have developed new and better strategies to halt or at least slow the progression of CKD. These are based on the prescription to quit smoking and on dietary interventions guaranteeing an adequate calorie, protein, phosphate and sodium intake together with the correction of metabolic acidosis through either the supplementation of sodium bicarbonate or the choice of basic proteins. The treatment of hypertension and proteinuria (when detectable) by means of RAS inhibitors is another important strategy, where partial correction of anemia and statin use may be of help. Other treatments have not proven to be effective or their introduction into clinical practice is still far away.
This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks
Zeynep Yurtseven Avci
Full Text Available The availability of internet-based technologies and practices are increasing every day for our daily lives. Most of those contemporary technologies have interactive features and provide unique opportunities for today’s learners. Although a growing amount of research focuses on learning with online tools, little known about which features and affordances contribute for effective classroom learning. This study investigates student and teacher perceptions on how students’ mathematics learning was impacted by online practice, communication and collaboration tools. The present experimental research has been designed with using qualitative case study method and provides detailed accounts of students' experiences with the technologies along with investigation of the features and affordances of the tools that made them contribute to effective learning.
Brinley, Alaina; Vidlak, Carissa; Davis, Jeffrey R.
Spaceflight is colloquially deemed, the final frontier, or the last area which humans have not yet explored in great depth. While this is true, there are still many regions on Earth that remain isolated from the urban, socially and electronically connected world. Because travelling to space requires a great deal of foresight, engineers are required to think creatively in order to invent technologies that are durable enough to withstand the rigors of the unique and often treacherous environment of outer space. The innovations that are a result of spaceflight designs can often be applied to life on Earth, particularly in the rural, isolated communities found throughout the world. The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) is a collaborative, virtual forum that connects businesses, non-profit organizations, academia, and government agencies to allow for better distribution of ideas and technology between these entities (http://www.nasa.gov/offices/NHHPC). There are many technologies that have been developed for spaceflight that can be readily applied to rural communities on Earth. For example, water filtration systems designed for spaceflight must be robust and easily repaired; therefore, a system with these qualifications may be used in rural areas on Earth. This particular initiative seeks to connect established, non-profit organizations working in isolated communities throughout the world with NASA technologies devised for spaceflight. These technologies could include water purification systems, solar power generators, or telemedicine techniques. Applying innovative, spaceflight technologies to isolated communities on Earth provides greater benefits from the same research dollars, thus fulfilling the Space Life Science motto at Johnson Space Center: Exploring Space and Enhancing Life. This paper will discuss this NHHPC global outreach initiative and give examples based on the recent work of the organization.
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M
Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.
Kim, Mi Ok; Coiera, Enrico; Magrabi, Farah
To systematically review studies reporting problems with information technology (IT) in health care and their effects on care delivery and patient outcomes. We searched bibliographic databases including Scopus, PubMed, and Science Citation Index Expanded from January 2004 to December 2015 for studies reporting problems with IT and their effects. A framework called the information value chain, which connects technology use to final outcome, was used to assess how IT problems affect user interaction, information receipt, decision-making, care processes, and patient outcomes. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Of the 34 studies identified, the majority ( n = 14, 41%) were analyses of incidents reported from 6 countries. There were 7 descriptive studies, 9 ethnographic studies, and 4 case reports. The types of IT problems were similar to those described in earlier classifications of safety problems associated with health IT. The frequency, scale, and severity of IT problems were not adequately captured within these studies. Use errors and poor user interfaces interfered with the receipt of information and led to errors of commission when making decisions. Clinical errors involving medications were well characterized. Issues with system functionality, including poor user interfaces and fragmented displays, delayed care delivery. Issues with system access, system configuration, and software updates also delayed care. In 18 studies (53%), IT problems were linked to patient harm and death. Near-miss events were reported in 10 studies (29%). The research evidence describing problems with health IT remains largely qualitative, and many opportunities remain to systematically study and quantify risks and benefits with regard to patient safety. The information value chain, when used in conjunction with existing classifications for health IT safety problems, can enhance
Pedaste, Margus; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; Raes, Annelies; Wajeman, Claire; Moore, Emily; Girault, Isabelle; Eberle, Julia; Lund, Kristine; Tchounikine, Pierre; Fischer, Frank
Inquiry learning in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) environments has potential to support science learning. The “symbiosis” between teachers and TEL environments is needed and, therefore, virtual assistants should be “taught” based on pedagogical theories. These assistants should be dynamically
S. I. Romanchuk
Full Text Available The paper considers an application of Excel information technologies for optimization of parameters concerning of wire brushing process depending on the requirements to quality of parts’ surface and that ensures their required operational characteristics.
Web 2.0 technologies, such as social networks, wikis, blogs, and virtual worlds provide a platform for collaborative working, facilitating sharing of resources and joint document production. They can act as a stimulus to promote active learning and provide an engaging and interactive environment for students, and as such align with the philosophy…
Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBiervliet, Alan
A questionnaire examining consumer needs, spending, travel, credit options and utilization practices in adaptive/assistive and educational technology was answered by 2,201 Arkansans with disabilities of all ages. This paper focuses on data on respondents with speech impairments, although most respondents reported multiple handicaps. While most…
Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos; Ryberg, Thomas; Buus, Lillian; Peristeras, Vassilios; Lee, Deirdre; Porwol, Lukasz
Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly the so-called Web 2.0, are affecting all aspects of our life: How we communicate, how we shop, how we socialise, how we learn. Facilitating learning through the use of ICT, also known as eLearning, is a vital part of modern educational systems. Established pedagogical…
Ecotoxicology and Env. Safety 1:151-173. 67 TR-477-14-12 FORECAST OF POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGY CHANGES THAT 1AY IMPACT TOXICOLOGICAL TESTING REQUIREMENTS...subjects for many years after exposure. Aside from pharmaceutical compounds, most people are not exposed directly to chemicals, except in occupational
This paper investigates a "grand" educational technology innovation through theoretical lenses inspired by Cervero and Wilson's (1994, 1998) work. Through taking this approach it is possible to show how ideas about the form of the innovation and perceptions of its ultimate "success" or "failure", varied between stakeholder groups. The project was…
Kim, Min Kyu
This is a case describing how technology enhanced learning environments can be used to improve employees' competence development. For this purpose, specific problematic situations in a Korean insurance company are portrayed. These situations demonstrate that everyday life in a workplace provides opportunities for learning and performance…
Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.
Agents interacting on a body of water choose between technologies to catch fish. One is harmless to the resource, as it allows full recovery; the other yields high immediate catches, but low(er) future catches. Strategic interaction in one 'objective'resource game may induce several 'subjective'
Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.
Agents interacting on a body of water choose between technologies to catch fish. One is harmless to the resource, as it allows full recovery; the other yields high immediate catches, but low(er) future catches. Strategic interaction in one ‘objective’ resource game may induce several ‘subjective’
Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li
BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.
Marjolein Simons; Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Rintse van der Werf
This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre Teaching in Multicultural Schools, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The projects main objective is to develop a model for the
Kooten, van O.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.
The world's fresh accessible water situation is deteriorating at a dismal pace. Though the situation is already quite dramatic in Africa, the near future will bring us great problems in Asia as well, considering the pace at which the population is growing and the rise in water use per capita as the
Sox, Harold C
... Rationale, Methods, Problems, and Directions Harold Sox, Susan Stern, Douglas Owens, and Herbert L. Abrams Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from...
Ольга Александровна Прусакова
Full Text Available Within the framework of modern pedagogy and educational practice there have been worked out and realized various theoretical conceptions, theories, educational approaches including humanistic, personality-oriented, activity-oriented, competence-oriented. One of such approaches to education and personality development is the problem-solving approach.
Summary• Overview of optical fibre sensor types(Classified according to operating principles)• Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sensors• Intensity-based sensors• Spectrally-encoded sensors• Propagation-time-encoded sensors• Interferometric sensors• Discussion of how to avoid problems and make practical sensors• Multiplexed and distributed sensors
Goldman, Susan R.; Zech, Linda K.; Biswas, Gautam; Noser, Tom; Bateman, Helen; Bransford, John; Crews, Thaddeus; Moore, Allison; Nathan, Mitchell; Owens, Stephen
Examines mathematics problem solving in a computer software environment using graphical representations of the results of simulations with adolescent students. Discusses the strengths and limitations of inferring goals and plans, the use of verbal protocols, and ways for computer-based learning environments to scaffold acquisition of domain…
Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.
As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify clinical questions and assessments regarded by health care practitioners as important when assessing undifferentiated hand pain or problems in adults aged 50 years and over presenting to primary care. Methods A purposively selected panel of 26 UK-based Health Care Practitioners comprising occupational therapists, physiotherapists, rheumatologists and general practitioners, were invited to take part in a consensus study involving three postal rounds of a Delphi questionnaire with accompanying case scenarios. Participants were asked to generate questions and assessments (round 1, rate their importance (round 2, and vote on which items were most important (round 3. Results Sixteen Health Care Practitioners agreed to participate with 11 completing all three rounds. The first round of the Delphi study generated 156 questions and 143 assessments. After three rounds agreement was reached on the importance of 25 questions and 19 assessments. Questions were weighted towards current symptoms, but also included the history of previous hand problems, self-reported hand function, co-morbidity and general health. Observation and palpation of features predominated in the choice of assessment, but specific tests, grip strength, evaluation of sensation and hand function were also included. Conclusions A pool of clinical questions and assessments were generated by Health Care Practitioners, and those considered most important for assessing older adults presenting with undifferentiated hand pain and hand problems in primary care were identified. Further evaluation is required to establish the reliability and feasibility of using these questions and assessments in primary care. In particular, the relative contribution of these questions and assessments in evaluating the nature and severity of hand problems, assisting diagnosis, indicating appropriate management, and predicting future course requires further investigation.
Full Text Available Numerous experimental studies, including experiments performed by the authors, have shown that the part orientation during layer deposition has a very strong influence on final strength of a product manufactured by additive Fused Deposition Technology. The paper presents the results of tensile, bending and impact strength tests performed on samples of various orientations, made out of ABS material using FDM technology. The results of these tests allowed discovering a unique phenomenon – with the changing orientation, not only the values of strength indexes change, but macroscopic material behavior under load as well. The transition between a “yield point” and “brittle” material usually happens in a certain range of orientation values, named a critical orientation by the authors. The paper indicates supposed ranges of critical orientation for various types of loads.
Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.
The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented
This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.
Full Text Available Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position.
Metcalf, Chris; Lewis, Grace A
.... The OWL Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) is a language to describe the properties and capabilities of Web Services in such a way that the descriptions can be interpreted by a computer system in an automated manner. This technical note presents the results of applying the model problem approach to examine the feasibility of using OWL-S to allow applications to automatically discover, compose, and invoke services in a dynamic services-oriented environment.
Padma, V; Anand, N N; Gurukul, S M G Swaminatha; Javid, S M A Syed Mohammed; Prasad, Arun; Arun, S
Stress is high in software profession because of their nature of work, target, achievements, night shift, over work load. 1. To study the demographic profile of the employees. 2. To access the level of job stress and quality of life of the respondents. 3. To study in detail the health problems of the employees. All employees working in IT and BPO industry for more than two years were included into the study. A detailed questionnaire of around 1000 IT and BPO employees including their personal details, stress score by Holmes and Rahe to assess the level of stress and master health checkup profile were taken and the results were analysed. Around 56% had musculoskeletal symptoms. 22% had newly diagnosed hypertension,10% had diabetes, 36% had dyslipidemia, 54% had depression, anxiety and insomnia, 40% had obesity. The stress score was higher in employees who developed diabetes, hypertension and depression. Early diagnosis of stress induced health problems can be made out by stress scores, intense lifestyle modification, diet advice along with psychological counselling would reduce the incidence of health problems in IT sector and improve the quality of work force.
Full Text Available Stress is high in software profession because of their nature of work, target, achievements, night shift, over work load. 1. To study the demographic profile of the employees. 2. To access the level of job stress and quality of life of the respondents. 3. To study in detail the health problems of the employees. All employees working in IT and BPO industry for more than two years were included into the study. A detailed questionnaire of around 1000 IT and BPO employees including their personal details, stress score by Holmes and Rahe to assess the level of stress and master health checkup profile were taken and the results were analysed. Around 56% had musculoskeletal symptoms. 22% had newly diagnosed hypertension,10% had diabetes, 36% had dyslipidemia, 54% had depression, anxiety and insomnia, 40% had obesity. The stress score was higher in employees who developed diabetes, hypertension and depression. Early diagnosis of stress induced health problems can be made out by stress scores, intense lifestyle modification, diet advice along with psychological counselling would reduce the incidence of health problems in IT sector and improve the quality of work force.
Peters, John S.
This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7
Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.
In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.
Baig, Mirza B.; Ziaeldin, Mohammad S.; Mahler, Robert L.
Environmental problem due to land degradation in the developing countries have been a matter of great cocern for the decades. The rehabilitation of problem land has been through many chemical means and engineering approaches, that have resulted in enhancing the gravity and the magnitude of problems. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of environmental friendly practices to address the salinity issue. the effect of organic manuring (green manure and farmyard manure) or rice was investigated in a field study on a saline-sodic soil of the Saline Agriculture Research Station, Sadhuke, Pakistan. Sesbania was grown as a green manuring crop for two months and then incorporated into soil. farmyard manure (FYM) was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20/ha before the sowing of Sesbania. Rice,Cv. Basmati 385 was used as the indicator/test crop. Results revealed that both paddy and straw yields were significantly improved by the application of sesbina and FYM. Green manure with sesbina improved the paddy and straw yields by 15.4% and 14.5% respectively. Productive tillers were also increased by the application of FYM but difference were not significant between 10 and 20ha/ of FYM application. FYM application also improved the paddy and straw yield significantly. The incrase in paddy yield due to application of 5, 10 and 20/ha of FYM were 6.8%, 24.4% and 37.6% over control, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphprus utilizationn by rice were also significantly improved with the application of green manure. Nitrogen uptake by rice was incresed by 17.8% and that of phosphorus by 21.9% with the green manuring. Nitrogen uptake was significantlty increased by the application of different rates of FYM. Also phosphorus uptake was increased significantly with the application of FYM. (author)
The rise in electrochemical noise (EN) as a corrosion monitoring technique has resulted in unique problems associated with the field application of this method. Many issues relate to the design of the EN probe electrodes. The ability of an electrochemical noise monitoring system to identify and discriminate between localized corrosion mechanisms is related primarily to the capability of the probe to separate the corrosion cell anode from the corresponding cathode. Effectiveness of this separation is largely determined by the details of and the proper design of the probe that is in the environment of interest. No single probe design or geometry can be effectively use in every situation to monitor all types of corrosion. In this paper the authors focus on a case study and probe development history related to monitoring corrosion in an extremely hostile environment using EN. While the ultimate application of EN was and continues to be successful, the case study shows that patience and persistence was necessary to meet and properly implement the monitoring program. Other possible source of problems and frustration with implementing EN are also discussed
Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.
Stem cell technology holds the promise of radically changing medicine through the provision of better disease models; the creation of tissue, cells, and organs for therapeutic uses; and the increased personalisation of healthcare. However, the degree to which any of these developments can be realised in the USA rests upon how effective the regulatory environment is in nurturing the technology to market. This article assesses the regulation in terms of its ability to minimise factors which erode the public interest in developing medical innovations (abuse) and promoting them to the market. This requires an overarching review of patent law (and how it fits with anti-trust and contract law); as well as the general regulation of innovation through ethical review, clinical trials, market authorisation, post-market oversight; government lead regulation of stem cells; and finally incorporating the impact of self-regulation by industry. From this assessment, it becomes possible to appreciate that the optimal system of regulation is reliant upon the gentle tweaking of many factors, rather than the wholesale revision of only a few. It also becomes possible to identify that individual tools of regulation have varying impacts. For example, the patent system may be the most open to abuse by individual companies, but as a regulatory framework it has the most mechanisms for dealing with such abuses. However, the biggest impact upon curtailing abuse derives from the self-regulation of the industry. Conversely, government led regulation is open to abuse from political agendas, but it has the greatest capacity to nurture innovation productively.
Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Caress, R.W.; Catlett, M.M.; Garner, S.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.
Standard alpha detectors are severely limited when monitoring alpha contamination on large surfaces and the inside surfaces of pipes, ducts, and equipment. The Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) system overcomes these problems by detecting the ion pairs created by an alpha particle in ambient air, rather than the alpha particle directly. These ion pairs are transported to a collection grid by either an air current or an electric field and create a small electric current (typically 10 -13 to 10 -14 A) that is read by an electrometer and displayed on a data acquisition system. This method of detection is used to create monitoring systems for both the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning fields
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Calvoso, Lui; Gessini, Paolo; Ferreira, Ivan
Helicon Double Layer Thruster based on plasma expiation along diverging magnetic field lines within similar conditons that can be met in auroral plasma formation. HDLT is sometimes called an Auroral thruster because during the plasma expiation in the cusped magnetic field a current free double layer is formed accelerating ions and a supersonic ion beam. The development fo this type of thruster are been made in several laboratories around the world and tis application for high specific impulce space mission in the solar system is foreseen. Since the beginning of this project we have about 20 undergraduate students working at the laboratory as junior scientist with CNPq schollarships for Scientific Initiation Program called PIBIC. More than 10 graduate students were involved in master and doctoral thesis work related to space science and technology problems concerning the application of plasma space propulsion for satellite and spacecrafts for solar system missions.
Ward, R.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.
The status of the cross sections for production of short-lived radioactivities in the intense high-energy neutron fields associated with D-T fusion reactors is investigated. The main concerns relative to these very radioactive isotopes are with radiation damage to sensitive components such as superconducting magnets, the decay-heat problem and the safety of personnel during operation of the facility. The present report surveys the status of nuclear data required to assess these problems. The study is limited to a few high-priority nuclear reactions which appear to be of critical concern in this context. Other reactions of lesser concern are listed but are not treated in the present work. Among the factors that were considered in defining the relevant reactions and setting priorities are: quantities of the elemental materials in a fusion reactor, isotopic abundances within elemental categories, the decay properties of the induced radioactive byproducts, the reaction cross sections, and the nature of the decay radiations. Attention has been focused on radioactive species with half lives in the range from about 1 second to 15 minutes. Available cross-section and reaction-product decay information from the literature has been compiled and included in the report. Uncertainties have been estimated by examining several sets of experimental as well as evaluated data. Comments on the general status of data for various high-priority reactions are offered. On the basis of this investigation, it has been found that the nuclear data are in reasonably good shape for some of the most important reactions but are unacceptable for others. Based on this investigation, the reactions which should be given the greatest attention are: 16 O(n,p) 16 N, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr, 57 Fe(n,p) 57 Mn, 186 W(n,2n) 185m W, and 207 Pb(n,n') 207m Pb. However, the development of fusion power would benefit from an across-the-board refinement in these nuclear data so that a more accurate quantitative
M. M. Ahmedova
Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to identify the peculiarities of inflation trends in the context of large import dependence, as well as finding the ways to solve the problems of inflation and import dependence. In this connection, the article discusses in detail such issues as the specifics of inflation processes in the context of globalization, the interrelation between inflation and the foreign trade factor, the interrelation between inflation and the exchange rate. The peculiarities of inflation trends, as well as the interrelation between inflation and import dependence, are examined on the example of the economy of the Republic of Tajikistan. The theoretical basis of the study was the work of foreign, in particular Russian and native scientists on inflation issues in an open economy, inflationary tendencies in the context of globalization, the interrelation between inflation and integration processes, as well as the problems of import dependence. The statistical data of the Agency on Statistics under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan - www. stat.tj, the data of the website of the National Bank of the Republic of Tajikistan – www.nbt.tj were used as the information base for the years 2003-2016. Results: The positive and negative influence of the foreign trade factor on the level of inflation in the Republic of Tajikistan has been revealed. The positive effect of the foreign trade factor is the following: in conditions of a significant increase in the incomes of the population and a lack of domestic production potential, the import helps to reduce the large inflationary pressure that arises from the growth of domestic aggregate demand. On the other hand, the import becomes a factor that covers the domestic commodity deficit because the domestic production of the republic still cannot fully meet the aggregate demand for consumer goods. The negative impact can be attributed to the following: in the context of large import
... technology exported from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to July 6, 1999. 545...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... technology exported from the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban prior to July 6, 1999. (a...
Holden, Todd; Gadura, N.; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Tuffour, M.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.
Technologically important extremophiles including oil eating microbes, uranium and rocket fuel perchlorate reduction microbes, electron producing microbes and electrode electrons feeding microbes were compared in terms of their 16S rRNA sequences, a standard targeted sequence in comparative phylogeny studies. Microbes that were reported to have survived a prolonged dormant duration were also studied. Examples included the recently discovered microbe that survives after 34,000 years in a salty environment while feeding off organic compounds from other trapped dead microbes. Shannon entropy of the 16S rRNA nucleotide composition and fractal dimension of the nucleotide sequence in terms of its atomic number fluctuation analyses suggest a selected range for these extremophiles as compared to other microbes; consistent with the experience of relatively mild evolutionary pressure. However, most of the microbes that have been reported to survive in prolonged dormant duration carry sequences with fractal dimension between 1.995 and 2.005 (N = 10 out of 13). Similar results are observed for halophiles, red-shifted chlorophyll and radiation resistant microbes. The results suggest that prolonged dormant duration, in analogous to high salty or radiation environment, would select high fractal 16S rRNA sequences. Path analysis in structural equation modeling supports a causal relation between entropy and fractal dimension for the studied 16S rRNA sequences (N = 7). Candidate choices for high fractal 16S rRNA microbes could offer protection for prolonged spaceflights. BioBrick gene network manipulation could include extremophile 16S rRNA sequences in synthetic biology and shed more light on exobiology and future colonization in shielded spaceflights. Whether the high fractal 16S rRNA sequences contain an asteroidlike extra-terrestrial source could be speculative but interesting.
The electrical performances of semiconductor electronic devices are liable to depend on the structural faults which exist in the starting material, or which are introduced into it by electronic devices fabrication technology. The present work shows some applications of X-ray topography to elucidate these structural defects in silicon. The examination method by X-ray topography is briefly discussed and the experimental set-up described. Results are presented in an analysis of the different types of faults created in silicon during integrated circuits fabrication steps: faults due to material growth, faults due to diffusions and thermal treatments. It will be shown that X-ray topography alone often is not sufficient to give a clear picture of formation and development of several types of faults, but must be assisted by other methods of characterization (chemical revelation, electron transmission microscopy). Finally the advantages of a double crystal diffraction method will be discussed. An apparatus using this method is presently being set up in the laboratory to complete classical X-ray topography. (author) [fr
The Final Proceedings for Small Satellites: New technologies, achievements, problems and prospects for international co-operation in the new millenium, 16 November 1998 - 20 November 1998 This is an interdisciplinary conference...
The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.
Vlasnikov, A. K.
Тезисы 64 международной конференции «ЯДРО-2014» (Фундаментальные проблемы ядерной физики, атомной энергетики и ядерных технологий), БГУ, Минск, 1 – 4 июля 2014 года. The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonon and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spin and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, ...
Hammond, Timothy; Allen, Patricia; Birdsall, Holly
Even the finest state-of-the art preclinical drug testing, usually in primary hepatocytes, remains an imperfect science. Drugs continue to be withdrawn from the market due to unforeseen toxicity, side effects, and drug interactions. The space program may be able to provide a lifeline. Best known for rockets, space shuttles, astronauts and engineering, the space program has also delivered some serious medical science. Optimized suspension culture in NASA's specialized suspension culture devices, known as rotating wall vessels, uniquely maintains Phase I and Phase II drug metabolizing pathways in hepatocytes for weeks in cell culture. Previously prohibitively expensive, new materials and 3D printing techniques have the potential to make the NASA rotating wall vessel available inexpensively on an industrial scale. Here we address the tradeoffs inherent in the rotating wall vessel, limitations of alternative approaches for drug metabolism studies, and the market to be addressed. Better pre-clinical drug testing has the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of one of the most common problems in modern medicine: adverse events related to pharmaceuticals.
Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.
M. S. Akbar
Full Text Available Cultivation of shrimp mostly in unplanned way has been considered as one of the major environmental disasters of Shamnagar. Villagers surrounding the rivers are mainly involved with fish (shrimp cultivation. So, fertile agriculture land has been converted to shrimp cultivation. Conversion of agriculture land to other usage is a common but acute problem for land resources of the country like Bangladesh. Conventional methods for collecting this information are relatively costly and time consuming. Contrarily, Remote Sensing satellite observation with its unique capability to provide cost-effective support in compiling the latest information about the natural resource. Remote sensing, in conjunction with GIS, has been widely applied and been recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use and land cover changes. RapidEye, Landsat8 images were used to identify land use and land cover of the area during the period 2008 and 2015. Google images were used to identify the micro-level land use features of the same period. Multi-spectral classifications using unsupervised and supervised classification were done and results have been compared based on the field investigation. The study reveals that during the period 2008 to 2015 agricultural practice has been reduced from 35 % to 21 % and shrimp cultivation area increased from 38 % to 50 %. Due to the impact of high salinity and salt water intrusion caused by natural disaster, agricultural activities is reduced and farmers have been converted to other practices, as a result shrimp farming is gaining popularity in the area.
Full Text Available This study was done to determine the concentration of heavy metals including Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd and nutrients element Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn in a simple and whole wheat Macaroni in the valid different supermarkets in Tehran. 254 samples from seven Iranian simple Macaroni, four foreign simple Macaroni, and two Iranian whole wheat macaroni were purchased consecutively in 3 seasons of 2015. Results were determined as mean ± SD of dry weight from three replicates in each test. The samples were analyzed by wet digestion method and standardized international protocols were followed for the preparation of material and analysis of mineral and heavy metals contents and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration in milligrams per kilogram of dry matter for Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc were determined. According to the results, the mean contents of Lead in the simple Iranian, imported and Iranian whole wheat Macaroni were 2.897, 3.070 and 0.636, amount of Cadmium were 0.469, 0.620 and 0.920, Copper mean contents were 1.563, 11.866 and 7.085 and finally mean level of Zinc were 16.296, 28.425 and 36.318 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc between in whole wheat and simple macaroni samples has a significant difference (P<0/05. The results revealed that the Lead and Cadmium contents in all studied analyzed pasta samples exceeded limits set for them according to the national standard Iran, International Codex and World Health Organization, while Zinc content was lower and Copper content in imported studied brands was slightly higher.
Leonard, Noelle Regina; Silverman, Michelle; Sherpa, Dawa Phuti; Naegle, Madeline A; Kim, Hyorim; Coffman, Donna L; Ferdschneider, Marcy
An increasing number of mobile app interventions have been developed for problem drinking among college students; however, few studies have examined the integration of a mobile app with continuous physiological monitoring and alerting of affective states related to drinking behaviors. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of Mind the Moment (MtM), a theoretically based intervention for female college students with problem drinking that combines brief, in-person counseling with ecological momentary intervention (EMI) on a mobile app integrated with a wearable sensorband. We recruited 10 non-treatment seeking, female undergraduates from a university health clinic who scored a 3 or higher on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) to participate in this pilot study. Study activities involved an in-person baseline intake and 1 follow-up assessment, 2 in-person alcohol brief intervention counseling sessions, and use of MtM technology components (sensorband and EMI on a mobile app) for approximately 3-4 weeks. The intervention used motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for reducing risks associated with drinking. We used both qualitative and quantitative assessments to measure acceptability of the intervention and feasibility of delivery. Use patterns of the sensorband and mobile app were also collected. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated high levels of acceptability for the MtM intervention. Altogether, participants made reports on the app on 26.7% (78/292) the days the technology was available to them and completed a total of 325 reports with wide variation between participants. Qualitative findings indicated that sensorband-elicited alerts promoted an increase in awareness of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to current environmental stressors and drinking behaviors in theoretically meaningful ways. Specific challenges related to functionality and
The bombardment of alloys, oxides, and halides often leads to marked compositional changes at the surface, and these changes have been attributed to an interplay of mass-dependent effects, chemical bonding, electronic processes, and diffusion. We attempt here to answer the limited question of whether, considering only alloys and oxides, mass or bonding is normally more important. The relevant theory is reviewed and extended, with mass effects being shown to be associated most explicitly with recoil sputtering and bonding effects being shown to be associated with all three of cascade sputtering, thermal sputtering, and surface segregation. As far as experimental examples are concerned, mass correlations are found to be quite unsuccessful, whereas most observations can be understood rather well in terms of bonding. Nevertheless, there is a basic problem in that the cascade component of sputtering, normally judged to be predominant, should give significantly less compositional change than is observed. Thermal sputtering would lead to more significant changes, but there is a new problem that, at least with alloys, the absolute yields are probably rather small. A combination of surface segregation with sputtering would also lead to more significant changes, but it is unclear whether segregation is rapid enough to be important in room-temperature bombardments. (orig.)
Gavva, L. M.; Endogur, A. I.
The mathematical model relations for stress-strain state and for buckling investigation of structurally-anisotropic panels made of composite materials are presented. The mathematical model of stiffening rib being torsioned under one-side contact with the skin is refined. One takes into account the influence of panel production technology: residual thermal stresses and reinforcing fibers preliminary tension. The resolved eight order equation and natural boundary conditions are obtained with variation Lagrange procedure. Exact analytical solutions for edge problems are considered. Computer program package is developed using operating MATLAB environment. The influence of the structure parameters on the level of stresses, displacements, of critical buckling forces for bending and for torsion modes has analyzed.
Full Text Available into account when identifying the most sustainable technological systems in the African context. The study utilised the Delphi technique. The questionnaire of the first round was based on factors identified during a focus group exercise with energy experts...
Šmahelová, M.; Čevelíček, M.; Nehybková, E.; Šmahel, D.; Čermák, Ivo
Roč. 32, říjen (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1041-0236 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eating disorders * technology * treatment * anorexia nervosa * bulimia nervosa Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2016
Šmahelová, M.; Čevelíček, M.; Nehybková, E.; Šmahel, D.; Čermák, Ivo
Roč. 32, říjen (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1041-0236 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eating disorder s * technology * treatment * anorexia nervosa * bulimia nervosa Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2016
Full Text Available The article deals with the importance of L. S. Vygotsky’s paper “The Psychology of Art” in the present time. The shortage of ideal values is the reality of this time that in a certain way arises the issues of children and young people’s cultural evolution. Cultural and historic theory of L. S. Vygotsky touches this problem in a special way. It is the influence of art and culture, psychological and pedagogical processes that is a key element of the personality’s evolution. L. S. Vygotsky’s approach that appeared at a historic period of disturbances in the Soviet state is a fructiferous tree. This tree has a special branch that is an ethical choice between the good and evil.
The present report summarizes the final results of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Activation Cross Section for the Generator of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. The goal of the CRP was to obtain reliable information (experimental and evaluated) for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology. By limiting the scope of the CRP to just 16 reactions it was possible to establish a very effective focus to the joint effort of many laboratories that has led to the generation of a set of valuable new data which provide satisfactory answers to several questions of technological concern to fusion. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs
Full Text Available Manufacturing design of high-precision diamond tool for special applications carried out at V. M Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials of NAS of Ukraine is described. Presented developments open up scientific and technological capabilities of special dress diamond tool production for mechanical engineering and substitution of imported tools at Ukrainian enterprises by home-produced.
Al-Dawaideh, Ahmad Mousa
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) frequently work with people with severe communication disorders who require assistive technology (AT) for communication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the SLPs perceptions of the importance of and ability level required for using AT, and the relationship of AT with gender, level of education,…
Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.
Taking care of thousands of village water supply systems requires a large organization and large financial inputs which most developing countries cannot afford. The author, after having briefly outlined the main points to be considered for the implementation of successful rural water programs, stresses the need to introduce simple, low-cost technologies for supplying safe water to small rural villages. The risk of failure is greatly reduced if there is an active participation of villagers in the various phases of the project. Health education village sanitation and training in the use and repair of equipment are essential for the long life of the water systems.
Emilio CRISOL MOYA
Full Text Available Concept maps have proved to be an efficient tool for learning (Novak & Gowin, 1984 but also without the pretext of making a classification, one could say that has also been found useful to: identify students’ prior knowledge, summarizing what has been learned, note taking, help in the study, plan, build scaffolding for understanding, strengthen educational experiences, improve conditions for effective learning, promote critical thinking, support cooperation and collaboration, organize content (Cañas & Badilla, 2005; Coffey et al., 2003. In this study, we show the opinions concerning the use of Cmap Tools as a tool for making concept maps for their future practice as teachers in primary education, students of second year of teaching at the University of Granada. The research was based on the quantitative perspective, being the instrument used, a questionnaire released by one hand, the students’ opinion on the use of the methodology used: group activity and selfemployment, and the application of the tool Cmap Tools, and collect other personal and academic satisfaction of students involved in this experience. As for the extracted views emphasized that although student teachers feel that using technology in their classes, can be a strategy that promotes the teaching and learning, as claimed on this experience, it is true that students who do not coexist think so, hence it is necessary to strengthen this small percentage use of technological tools in teaching.
Full Text Available Year 2014 was considered by NASA and NOAA hottest year in history. Combined temperature of the atmosphere and oceans has increased overall by 0.68 degrees Celsius, and the devastating effects of climate changes produced irreversible consequences on the sustainability of the planet earth. Increasing the frequency, intensity and complexity of their manifestation caused initiation and development of global policies aimed at mitigating climate change priority, reducing the risk of natural disasters or anthropological costs and negative effects to society and the environment. In order to fulfill the responsibilities assumed by Romania as a member of international bodies is necessary to search and apply new solutions as revolutionary and effective, especially autonomous enabling technology development and improvement of emergency intervention and replacement of emergency autonomous robotic systems. Autonomous robotic systems allow execution of prevention and management of emergencies in areas difficult to reach, hostile life and result in increasing their efficiency.
McMurray, Josephine; Strudwick, Gillian; Forchuk, Cheryl; Morse, Adam; Lachance, Jessica; Baskaran, Arani; Allison, Lauren; Booth, Richard
Intelligent assistive technologies that complement and extend human abilities have proliferated in recent years. Service robots, home automation equipment, and other digital assistant devices possessing artificial intelligence are forms of assistive technologies that have become popular in society. Older adults (>55 years of age) have been identified by industry, government, and researchers as a demographic who can benefit significantly from the use of intelligent assistive technology to support various activities of daily living. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the literature on the importance of the concept of "trust" in the adoption of intelligent assistive technologies to assist aging in place by older adults. Using a scoping review methodology, our search strategy will examine the following databases: ACM Digital Library, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. Two reviewers will independently screen the initial titles obtained from the search, and these results will be further inspected by other members of the research team for inclusion in the review. This review will provide insights into how the concept of trust is actualized in the adoption of intelligent assistive technology by older adults. Preliminary sensitization to the literature suggests that the concept of trust is fluid, unstable, and intimately tied to the type of intelligent assistive technology being examined. Furthermore, a wide range of theoretical lenses that include elements of trust have been used to examine this concept. This review will describe the concept of trust in the adoption of intelligent assistive technology by older adults, and will provide insights for practitioners, policy makers, and technology vendors for future practice. ©Josephine McMurray, Gillian Strudwick, Cheryl Forchuk, Adam Morse, Jessica Lachance, Arani Baskaran, Lauren
Prognostic importance of self-reported traits/problems/strengths and environmental barriers/facilitators for predicting participation outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.
Sherer, Mark; Davis, Lynne C; Sander, Angelle M; Caroselli, Jerome S; Clark, Allison N; Pastorek, Nicholas J
To conduct a systematic review of the prognostic value of self-reported traits/problems/strengths and environmental barriers/facilitators for participation outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Articles published through August 15, 2013, obtained by conducting electronic searches of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases and a review of reference lists of reviewed articles. Reviewed articles were written in English and presented findings on adult humans with TBI, participation outcomes, and ≥ 1 self-reported trait/problem/strength (eg, depression, pain, coping style) and/or ≥ 1 environment barrier/facilitator (eg, social support, family functioning, access to services). Each of the 996 abstracts was examined by 2 reviewers, and those failing to meet all inclusion criteria were excluded. Data were extracted from the 63 retained articles by 2 independent reviewers, who met to resolve any differences in study quality rating or evidence recorded. Study quality was determined using American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria. Conclusions regarding prognostic importance of self-report and environmental barrier/facilitator variables were made using AAN criteria. Conclusions regarding barrier/facilitator variables indicated that access to transportation, access to services, and participation in social interaction were possibly predictive of employment outcome, whereas living arrangements and social support were possibly not predictive of employment outcome. Conclusions regarding self-report variables indicated that the number of postconcussive symptoms, fatigue, and physical competence were probably predictive of employment and need for supervision, whereas self-efficacy was probably not predictive of employment. Subjective well-being, pain, and social interaction were possibly predictive of employment, whereas coping style was possibly not predictive. Although additional investigation is needed, self
Shao Liqin; Ma Junru.
At present, the development of high technology has opened a new chapter in world's history of science and technology. This review describes the great impact of physics on high technology in six different fields (energy technology, new materials, information technology, biotechnology, space technology, and Ocean technology). It is shown that the new concepts and new methods created in physics and the special conditions and measurements established for physics researches not only deepen human's knowledge about nature but also point out new directions for engineering and technology. The achievements in physics have been more and more applied to high technology, while the development of high technology has explored some new research areas and raised many novel, important projects for physics. Therefore, it is important for us to strengthen the research on these major problems in physics
East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the former K-25 site on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. ETTP is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning to support reuse by the private sector. The DOE initiated a re-industrialization program in 1996, forming the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) to provide a means of leasing unused facilities at ETTP to private sector businesses. In 2003 under a changed policy direction, DOE implemented an Accelerated Cleanup Plan to remediate ETTP, as many of the buildings are contaminated with radiological constituents (including enriched uranium) and a variety of hazardous substances. In anticipation of transition of the site to a private sector industrial park and to support a nearby residential development, the City of Oak Ridge has taken title to the fire station and a portion of the utilities on site. Acquisition of the water and wastewater utilities by the city has been challenging. The city has embarked on a three-phase process that will enable it to provide electricity to the site and take ownership of on-site electric utilities. Title transfers of potentially contaminated property require an Environmental Baseline Survey and a Covenant Deferral. Two businesses that lease facilities from CROET desire to own the lightly contaminated buildings that they occupy. To date DOE has not enabled these transfers to take place due to indemnification questions and what company options are regarding the remnant contamination. There is significant potential for heritage tourism attractions at ETTP, including a railway station museum and commemoration of the U-shaped K-25 building. DOE is part of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Decommissioning Network. The site's successes are models for re-utilization of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world. The 'lessons learned' at ETTP enhance IAEA's understanding of the difficulties encountered as nuclear
Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies has accelerated public service delivery through the application of information technologies in the world. In addition to these improvements, as a consequence of the reform efforts in the 2000s, important changes have occurred in the quality and quantity of the duties of local governments. It is expressed that the usage of information technologies for public service provision is making important contribution to local governments to fulfill their duties and responsibilities. In this paper aims the analyze that the usage of information technology during the local services delivery at The Special Provincial Administration of Kırşehir. Survey and interview were used as a method of the field research and additionally, the web site of the institute was analyzed. The results of the survey revealed that it has made progress in the efforts of computerization and web site development. The institute is expected to show progress on online service delivery and online management.
Iglesias Enriquez, Isora
In Cuba post-harvest preservation of onions and garlic for different uses have been performed by irradiation bulbs with a minimal dose range of 80 to 90 Gy of Gamma radiation (Co60 ) at commercial level in the Food Irradiation Plant (PIA) Producto 1 which in 1986 held a nominal activity of 110 000 ci. Results showed that the irradiated products could be preserved up to 8 and 11 months, respectively, resulting un total losses lower than 30 %. Products were stored in a warehouse with forced air distribution system of 22 0C to 32 0C and 70 to 100 % RH, resulting in 30 air changes /hour. An important economic benefit was obtained from this method as compared to other traditional storage methods using controlled temperature chambers ( 1 0C to 3 0C ) to preserve un-irradiated onions an garlic's. It is concluded that the irradiated products could be stored at atmospheric temperature and forced air distribution system resulting in lower losses and energy savings and non-imported product, which to reached more of the 5 dollars millions
Doggett, Sandra L.
After exploring the pros and cons of using various technologies in secondary schools, as well as the development of an Acceptable Use Policy, this book describes how technology affects the role and interaction of media specialists, teachers, students, administrators, and parents. Technology planning tips are given on methods to research trends,…
Proceedings of reports presented on 1.International scientific and technological conference 'Modern problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials', devoted to the 20th anniversary of the Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas (Atyrau, 2000, 18-19 December) are published in 2 volumes. The problems and new methods for prediction of oil and gas as well as different resources in both the coastal lands and the shelf of the Caspian Sea are considered. Scientific problems of drilling and repair of oil and gas wells are highlighted. Results of fundamental and applied studies on problems of oil and oil products processing, its transportation through pipelines with taking into account rheological and physico-chemical properties of oils mining on western fields of the Republic are cited. The points of ecological safety guarantee, reliability of mechanisms and machines operation and others problems are widely discussed
Jardi Besa, X.; Munoz Cervantes, A.
At the onset of nuclear projects in Spain, there was an import of nuclear technology. In a second phase, there was a transfer of technology. Subsequently, there was an adaptation of the technology. In this evolution, comparable to that of other countries, were involved several countries, overcoming the difficulties of human factors involved. The current nuclear projects multinationals have a new difficulty: the different industrial technological environments. This paper will address the organizational challenges of multinational engineering projects, in the type of project and the human factors of the participating companies.
Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David
Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…
This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…
Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua
Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.
Following the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), the IAEA Nuclear Data Section has established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in concentrating on the cross sections for the reactions suggested by the 16th INDC meeting. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the CRP was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 11 to 12 November 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the results under the CRP and the status of long-lived activation cross section data and to fix the future working programme for the CRP. The proceedings contain the progress reports of the CRP and 12 contributed papers presented at the meeting as well as the summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs
Full Text Available Groups of fatty acids (FAs in milk fat can have positive and negative impact on consumer health. Profile of FAs could be influenced by dairy cow nutrition, breed, milk yield level et cetera. The question is what relationships the FAs could have to quality of milk products? Relationships between FAs and their groups to selected milk indicators were studied in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cows (64 bulk milk samples. There were 8 herds in 2-year investigation during winter and summer season. The relationship of saturated FAs (SAFA; 66.22% was significant only to lactose (L content (0.290; P < 0.05. The relationships of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA; 29.21% to milk indicators (MIs were insignificant (P > 0.05. The relationships of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, beneficial for consumer health; 4.53% to MIs were narrower: fat (T, 0.321; P < 0.05; lactose (L, 0.458; P < 0.01; milk alcohol stability (AL, 0.447; P < 0.01; titration acidity (SH, 0.342; P < 0.01; cheese curd quality (KV, 0.427; P < 0.01; milk fermentationability (JSH, 0.529; P < 0.001, streptococci count in yoghurt (Strepto, 0.316; P < 0.05; total count of noble bacteria in yoghurt (CPMUK, 0.314; P < 0.05; streptococci/lactobacilly ratio (StreptoLacto, 0.356; P < 0.01. The relationships of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; markedly beneficial for health; 0.68% to MIs were: T (0.379; P < 0.01; L (–0.542; P < 0.001; AL (0.266; P < 0.05; KV (0.411; P < 0.01; Strepto (0.260; P < 0.05; StreptoLacto (0.270; P < 0.05. The higher CLA levels were connected in this way with: higher fat content; lower lactose content; lower alcohol stability; lower streptococci count in yoghurt; lower streptococci/lactobacilly ratio in yoghurt. The PUFA and CLA representation decreased with L increase. Simultaneously some technological milk properties such as alcohol stability and fermentationability were slightly improved.
Kostousov, Sergei; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry
Problem solving is a critical competency for modern world and also an effective way of learning. Education should not only transfer domain-specific knowledge to students, but also prepare them to solve real-life problems--to apply knowledge from one or several domains within specific situation. Problem solving as teaching tool is known for a long…
Korucu, Agâh Tugrul; Cakir, Hasan
Some of the 21st century proficiencies expected from people are determined as collaborative working and problem solving. One way to gain these proficiencies is by using collaborative problem solving based on social constructivism theory. Collaborative problem solving is one of the methods allowing for social constructivism in the class. In…
Julio César Espín Falcón
Full Text Available El cáncer se presenta como un importante problema de salud, dada la alta morbilidad y mortalidad que produce. Es uno de los procesos más complejos de la naturaleza y resulta el más complicado en la esfera de la medicina por su origen multicausal, la complejidad de sus mecanismos patogénicos y la variedad de formas y tipos que pueden originarse en el ser vivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer información útil y actualizada acerca del cáncer cervicouterino. Esta enfermedad es prevenible y curable y se relaciona con la aparición del cáncer en vagina, cuello uterino, vulva y ano; en las mujeres se ha demostrado que la infección por el virus del papiloma humano es un factor de riesgo para su desarrollo. En la actualidad existen y se comercializan en el mundo dos tipos de vacuna, lo que se considera uno de los mayores avances en la medicina preventiva moderna. La aplicación de estas vacunas profilácticas contra el virus del papiloma humano podría reducir la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino. Esta enfermedad constituye una de las entidades con más impacto y repercusión sobre la salud femenina, particularmente en las mujeres jóvenes. Está considerada una enfermedad emergente desde hace escasos años y sus consecuencias sociales, humanas y económicas lo convierten en un problema importante de salud pública y de la humanidad.Cancer represents an important health problem due to its high morbidity and mortality. It is one of the most complex processes of nature and the most complicated in medicine because of its multiple cause origin, the complexity of its pathogenic mechanisms and the variety of forms and types that may adopt in the subject alive. The objective of this paper was to provide useful and updated information on the uterocervical cancer. This disease is preventable and curable; it is related to the occurrence of cancer in the vagina, the uterine neck, the vulva and the anus. It has been proved that human
African fermented dairy products - Overview of predominant technologically important microorganisms focusing on African Streptococcus infantarius variants and potential future applications for enhanced food safety and security.
Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lamuka, Peter; Renault, Pierre; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lacroix, Christophe; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Fokou, Gilbert; Bonfoh, Bassirou
Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture. Knowledge of microbiota and predominant, technologically important microorganisms is critical in developing products with enhanced quality and safety, as well as sustainable interventions for these products, including Africa-specific starter culture development. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge of technologically-important microorganisms of African fermented dairy products (FDP) and raw milk, taking into consideration novel findings and taxonomy when re-analyzing data of 29 publications covering 25 products from 17 African countries. Technologically-important lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts predominated in raw milk and FDP across Africa. Re-analysis of data also suggests a much wider distribution of Sii and thus a potentially longer history of use than previously expected. Therefore, evaluating the role and safety of African Sii lineages is important when developing interventions and starter cultures for FDP in Africa to enhance food safety and food security. In-depth functional genomics, epidemiologic investigations and latest identification approaches coupled with stakeholder involvement will be required to evaluate the possibility of African Sii lineages as novel food-grade Streptococcus lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by
Background Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals’ interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. Results The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Conclusions Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of
Hu, Xingdi; Dodd, Virginia J; Oliverio, James C; Cook, Robert L
Alcohol misuse remains a major risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) not typically addressed in STD clinic settings. Information and communication technology (ICT) can offer new avenues to deliver evidence-based screening and treatment for problematic drinking, however, few data exists regarding the utilization of ICT among STD clinic attendees with coexisting drinking problems. The objectives of this study are to identify STD clinics attendees with hazardous drinking, to examine socio-demographic factors associated with ICT use, and to explore individuals' interests in engaging in ICT-based health interventions. Cross-sectional questionnaires examining alcohol consumption and ICT use were administered to 396 persons attending two non-urban STD clinics. Descriptive statistics for ICT use were calculated for both hazardous drinkers and the entire sample. Multivariable logistic regression models among hazardous drinkers identified factors significantly associated with use of each kind of ICT. The mean age of the 396 participants was 25 years, 66% were females and 60% were African-Americans. One third of the sample met the criteria of hazardous drinking. ICT use in hazardous drinkers included 94% reporting having internet access at least monthly, 82% reporting having an email account, 85% reporting currently owning a cell phone, and 91% reporting use of any cell phone application. More than two thirds (73%) of hazardous drinkers were willing to play health-related video games during clinic waiting time, slightly higher than the entire sample (69%). Multivariable analyses indicated that younger age were significantly related to monthly internet use, and multifunction cell phone use, while being males and younger age were significantly associated with monthly video game playing. Our study demonstrates commonality of ICT use among STD clinic attendees with hazardous drinking, indicating the viability of using ICT to assist screening and
Full Text Available This article aims to outline in broad terms the importance of the information technologies in teaching a foreign language, which is a crucial element in the development of the student´s autonomy of learning and achievement of communicative competence. The use of technologies provides a framework in which it is possible to integrate at the same time the natural use of language, for communication purposes similar to those that occur in the external world, treatment and teaching language learning processes among which we include the development of reading comprehension, texts and practice with different genres, and applying the most appropriate reading strategies and techniques. To do this we will describe this approach and present an example in actual practice, valid for teaching reading comprehension for economic purposes.
Fico, G; Gaeta, E; Arredondo, M T; Pecchia, L
Successful management of health conditions in older population is determined by strategic involvement of a professional team of careers and by empowering patients and their caregivers to take over a central role and responsibility in the daily management of condition. Identifying, structuring and ranking the most important needs related to these aspects could pave the way for improved strategies in designing systems and technological solutions supporting user empowerment. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study aiming to elicit these needs. Healthcare professionals, working together in the European and Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) initiative, have defined a set of needs and factors that have been organized in two hierarchies around the concepts of patient activation and proactive and prepared care team, defined in the Chronic Care Model. The two hierarchies have been mapped, by a team of experts in computer science, with technologies and solutions that could facilitate the achievement of the identified needs.
Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students’ computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study. PMID:29529039
Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Misfeldt, Morten; Timcenko, Olga
In this article, we present our idea of using a game engine (Unity) to teach Media Technology students mathematics-related concepts. In order to observe how the introduction of a technological tool, namely the game engine, changes the practices in mathematical work, we adopted the anthropological...
Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…
Oude Weernink, C E; Sweegers, L; Relou, L; van der Zijpp, T J; van Hoof, J
Modern healthcare, including nursing home care, goes together with the use of technologies to support treatment, the provision of care and daily activities. The challenges concerning the implementation of such technologies are numerous. One of these emerging technologies are location technologies (RTLS or Real-Time Location Systems). that can be utilized in the nursing home for monitoring the use and location of assets. This paper describes a participatory design study of RTLS based on context mapping, conducted in two nursing home organizations. Rather than investigating the technological possibilities, this study investigates the needs and wishes from the perspective of the care professional. The study identified semantic themes that relate to the practicalities of lost and misplaced items in the nursing home, as well as latent themes that cover the wishes regarding technology in the nursing homes. The organizational culture and building typology may play a role in losing items. The participants in this study indicated that RTLS can provide a solution to some of the challenges that they encounter in the workplace. However, the implementation of new technologies should be done with care and should be integrated into existing ICT systems in order to minimize additional training and posing a burden on the workload.
Feig, Chiara; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Simon, Judit; Mayer, Susanne
Although Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is increasingly used to support evidence-based decision-making in health care, several barriers and facilitators for the use of HTA have been identified. This best-worst scaling (BWS) study aims to assess the relative importance of selected barriers and facilitators of the uptake of HTA studies in Austria. A BWS object case survey was conducted among 37 experts in Austria to assess the relative importance of HTA barriers and facilitators. Hierarchical Bayes estimation was applied, with the best-worst count analysis as sensitivity analysis. Subgroup analyses were also performed on professional role and HTA experience. The most important barriers were 'lack of transparency in the decision-making process', 'fragmentation', 'absence of appropriate incentives', 'no explicit framework for decision-making process', and 'insufficient legal support'. The most important facilitators were 'transparency in the decision-making process', 'availability of relevant HTA research for policy makers', 'availability of explicit framework for decision-making process', 'sufficient legal support', and 'appropriate incentives'. This study suggests that HTA barriers and facilitators related to the context of decision makers, especially 'policy characteristics' and 'organization and resources' are the most important in Austria. A transparent and participatory decision-making process could improve the adoption of HTA evidence.
In this paper the author gave a personal account from an ''Eldorado kid'' whose father worked at the local plant of Port Hope, to a small businessman concerned by the stigma attached nationally to his home place. Starting inn 1976, nightly news reports of contaminated houses, schools and ravines transformed the town into ''the radioactive hotbed of the country''. The management of the conflict situation is then analyzed. The author recalled the multi-phased process of resolving the waste issue. The issue was felt to represent a stigma problem more than a health problem. (A.L.B.)
Adriana Maria da Silva Barbosa Batista
Full Text Available A partir da distinção entre material concreto definido e material concreto indefinido, examinou-se como diferentes suportes concretos de representação influenciam a resolução de problemas de divisão e de multiplicação. Quarenta crianças de 8 anos resolveram os mesmos problemas. Às crianças do Grupo 1 (concreto indefinido foram disponibilizadas fichas plásticas; e às do Grupo 2 (concreto definido objetos que tinham relação com os referentes das quantidades presentes no enunciado dos problemas (jarros e flores, carrinhos e caixas. O material concreto definido favoreceu a compreensão das relações lógico-matemáticas, facilitando o desempenho e o uso de procedimentos apropriados, o mesmo não ocorrendo com o material concreto indefinido. Concluiu-se que a compreensão da criança é influenciada pelos suportes de representação e que nem todo material concreto tem o mesmo efeito sobre a resolução de problemas, sendo necessário considerar, além de seu caráter manipulativo, a relação entre os referentes das quantidades e o material disponibilizado.This study examines how different types of concrete materials (specific and non-specific influence children's comprehension when solving multiplication and division problems. Forty 8-year-old children were divided into two groups, and asked to solve the same problems. The children in Group 1 (non-specific were given plastic tokens. The children in Group 2 (specific were given objects which had a direct relation to the referents of the quantities mentioned in the problems (e.g., vases and flowers, toy cars and boxes. The specific concrete materials favoured performance and the use of more appropriate procedures than non-specific concrete materials. The conclusion was that the child's comprehension is influenced by the representational support available to him/her, and that not all concrete materials have the same effect on problem solving. It is necessary to consider not only the
Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.
In problem-based learning students are responsible for their own learning process, which becomes evident when they must act independently, for example, when selecting literature resources for individual study. It is a matter of debate whether it is better to have students select their own literature
Proposals for Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 (SFP) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced Reduction Emission Technologies (Propositions de solutions aux problemes lies a l’utilisation de F-34 (SFP) et de diesel a haute teneur en soufre pour le materiel terrestre disposant de technologies avancees de reduction des emissions)
MEMORANDUM TM-AVT-ET-073 Proposals for Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 ( SFP ) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced...Reduction Emission Technologies (Propositions de solutions aux problèmes liés à l’utilisation de F-34 ( SFP ) et de diesel à haute teneur en soufre...Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 ( SFP ) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced Reduction Emission Technologies
Miranda-Casas, A; Marco-Taverner, R; Soriano-Ferrer, M; Melià de Alba, A; Simó-Casañ, P
Different procedures have demonstrated efficacy to teach cognitive and metacognitive strategies to problem solving in mathematics. Some studies have used computer-based problem solving instructional programs. To analyze in students with learning disabilities the efficacy of a cognitive strategies training for problem solving, with three instructional delivery formats: a teacher-directed program (T-D), a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program, and a combined program (T-D + CAI). Forty-four children with mathematics learning disabilities, between 8 and 10 years old participated in this study. The children were randomly assigned to one of the three instructional formats and a control group without cognitive strategies training. In the three instructional conditions which were compared all the students learnt problems solving linguistic and visual cognitive strategies trough the self-instructional procedure. Several types of measurements were used for analysing the possible differential efficacy of the three instructional methods implemented: solving problems tests, marks in mathematics, internal achievement responsibility scale, and school behaviours teacher ratings. Our findings show that the T-D training group and the T-D + CAI group improved significantly on math word problem solving and on marks in Maths from pre- to post-testing. In addition, the results indicated that the students of the T-D + CAI group solved more real-life problems and developed more internal attributions compared to both control and CAI groups. Finally, with regard to school behaviours, improvements in school adjustment and learning problems were observed in the students of the group with a combined instructional format (T-D + CAI).
Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs
Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood
Maria das Graças da Costa
Full Text Available A farinha de trigo possui variadas aplicações na indústria de alimentos, apresentando um importante papel no aspecto econômico e nutricional da alimentação humana. Sabe-se, que as características nutricionais e tecnológicas da farinha de trigo sofrem interferência direta das condições de cultivo, colheita, secagem e armazenamento dos grãos de trigo utilizados como matéria-prima. Este estudo objetivou avasliar a qualidade tecnológica de amostras de grãos de trigo nacionais e importados, bem como de amostras de farinhas produzidas a partir destes grãos, através da análise de parâmetros físico-químicos (umidade, cinzas, glúten úmido, número de quedas e peso hectolitro e da farinografia (absorção de água, tempo de desenvolvimento e estabilidade. As análises físico-químicas mostraram diferenças significativas (p Wheat flour has a wide range of applications in the food industry, with an important economic and nutritional role in the human diet. It is known that the nutritional and technological aspects of wheat flour depend on the cultivation, harvesting, drying and storage conditions of the wheat grains used as raw material. This research aimed at analyzing the technological quality of samples of national and imported wheat grains, as well as of flour samples obtained from them. For this, physical-chemical (moisture, wet gluten, mineral content, falling number, hectoliter weight and farinographic (water absorption, development time, stability analyses were carried out. Physical-chemical analyses showed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the mineral content, wet gluten and falling number of the imported and national grain samples, and also among the flour samples obtained from them. Moisture was the only physical-chemical parameter that did not present a significant difference (p < 0.05 among the national and imported samples. Imported wheat grains and their flours presented higher values for wet gluten (28
Problem gambling is an increasingly common problem in Australia. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in ensuring that problem gambling is detected and treated. We review the clinical issues associated with the detection and treatment of problem gambling. At any one time 1% of the adult Australian population satisfy the clinical criteria for problem gambling; a further 4% are at a significant risk. Problem gambling frequently presents with other serious mental health conditions. There are several guidelines from the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Medical Association that recommend GP involvement in screening for problem gambling. Simple one-item tools are available for that purpose. GP screening and referral for problem gambling addresses the currently very low rates of treatment. Effective and durable psychological treatments are available for the treatment of problem gambling including cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing.
The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....
Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da
increases students’ motivation and improves their performance resulting in better grades when comparing with traditional teaching methods. Engineering curriculums at AAU are organised in projects (i.e. problem-based) and courses (i.e. lecture-based). However, there are no systematic studies evaluating how....... A possible area for curriculum improvement, consisting in changing the project content at the first years of bachelor, is also evaluated. The results show that the projects have consistently higher grades than courses and a lower failure rate. The students agree that PBL improves the learning of technical......Bachelor and Master degrees at Aalborg University (AAU) use problem-based learning (PBL) as teaching philosophy, where students learn by solving real authentic problems from day 1 until graduation. Besides developing the needed knowledge, skills and competencies, it is also claimed that PBL...
Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.
A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)
Fantz, Todd D.; De Miranda, Michael A.; Siller, Thomas J.
With the rapid advances in civilization, technological breakthroughs, and a globally growing workforce, there is a strong need for engineers capable of working in the 21st century environment (Galloway, "The 21st century engineer: A proposal for engineering education reform." ASCE, Washington DC 2008). To help increase the quality and quantity of…
This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research
Role of information technology (IT) in public health, India (problems & prospects): Role of information communication technology (ICT) in disease surveillance under Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP).
Sharma, Rajeev; Luthra, Pallavi; Karad, Amit; Dhariwal, A C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv
Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proven to be a strong public health tool. Keeping the future need of country and building National Disease Surveillance System, Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by Hon'ble Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004. It is a decentralized, State based surveillance program in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. One of the major components of the project is the - use of Information Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data besides distance education and video conferencing. A network of 800 sites across India has been established through Satellite, Broadband and High end Video conferencing equipments. The network is managed by a team of data managers and data entry operators at all state surveillance units and district surveillance units respectively. The network was proven to be extremely useful to respond to the current influenza A H1N1 pandemic. It is proposed to extend the network to cover private sector and provide convergence with other National Health Programs.
This report discusses the following topics: brief description of the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program; descriptions of representative waste burials at each site; ongoing, planned, or potential remediation; known or anticipated remediation problems; potential applications for robotics in the remediation of Oak Ridge Reservation landfills
Students regularly struggle with mathematical tasks, particularly those concerning non-routine problems in geometry. Although educators would like for their learners to transfer their knowledge to non-routine and real-life situations, students run into a number of difficulties. The goal of this exploratory study was to analyze three participants'…
Schmitz, Susanne; McCullagh, Laura; Adams, Roisin; Barry, Michael; Walsh, Cathal
Decisions on reimbursement of health interventions in many jurisdictions are informed by health technology assessments (HTAs). Historically, the focus of these has often been cost effectiveness or cost utility, while other criteria were considered informally. More recently, there has been an increasing interest in the formal incorporation of additional criteria using multi-criteria decision analysis. Such an approach has not yet formally been part of decision-making policy in Ireland. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that cost effectiveness is not the only criterion influencing reimbursement decisions in Ireland. Furthermore, the aim is to reveal criteria that may have informally influenced reimbursement decisions in the past. A list of potential criteria was identified based on the literature, national guidelines and experience of the national HTA agency. Information on each of these criteria was sought for every assessment conducted in Ireland up to July 2015. A logistic regression was fitted to the data to identify influential parameters. Model selection was performed using the Bolasso method. Thirteen criteria were considered in the analysis. Two members of the HTA review team assessed the performance of the interventions against these criteria. Model selection suggests that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and quality of evidence could be important drivers of reimbursement recommendations in Ireland. Less important drivers suggested include the year of assessment, the level of uncertainty, as well as safety and tolerability. The analysis demonstrates that recommendations for or against the reimbursement of technologies in Ireland are not only driven by cost effectiveness. This highlights the need for more formal inclusion of criteria in the process, to improve transparency and ensure consistency.
More than 40 years ago, three laboratories were established to take on scientific responsibility for the nation`s nuclear weapons - Los Alamos, Sandia, and Livermore. This triad of laboratories has provided the state-of-the-art science and technology to create America`s nuclear deterrent and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and to ensure that the weapons are safe, secure, and reliable. These national security laboratories carried out their responsibilities through intense efforts involving almost every field of science, engineering, and technology. Today, they are recognized as three of the world`s premier research and development laboratories. This report sketches the history of the laboratories and their evolution to an integrated three-laboratory system. The characteristics that make them unique are described and some of the major contributions they have made over the years are highlighted.
Full Text Available Presents the generalized data about the information technologies capabilities in the system of scientific-methodical maintenance of sport training. The directions of efficiency increasing of training to technique of junior wrestler's motor actions are identified. The structure and capabilities of designed computer program "Champion" are presented. The prospective of innovation approaches to training of basic technique of junior wrestler's motor actions is identified.
Lebedev, A. A.; Ivanova, E. G.; Komleva, V. A.; Klokov, N. M.; Komlev, A. A.
The considered method of learning the basics of microelectronic circuits and systems amplifier enables one to understand electrical processes deeper, to understand the relationship between static and dynamic characteristics and, finally, bring the learning process to the cognitive process. The scheme of problem-based learning can be represented by the following sequence of procedures: the contradiction is perceived and revealed; the cognitive motivation is provided by creating a problematic situation (the mental state of the student), moving the desire to solve the problem, to raise the question "why?", the hypothesis is made; searches for solutions are implemented; the answer is looked for. Due to the complexity of architectural schemes in the work the modern methods of computer analysis and synthesis are considered in the work. Examples of engineering by students in the framework of students' scientific and research work of analog circuits with improved performance based on standard software and software developed at the Department of Microelectronics MEPhI.
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Kanter, Andrew S; Borland, Rob; Barasa, Mourice; Iiams-Hauser, Casey; Velez, Olivia; Kaonga, Nadi Nina; Berg, Matt
The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability when implementing eHealth systems, and to illustrate this through case studies, where possible. The sources used to inform this chapter draw from the implementation and evaluation of the eHealth Program in the context of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). As the eHealth Team was tasked to deploy an eHealth architecture, the Millennium Villages Global-Network (MVG-Net), across all 14 of the MVP sites in sub-Saharan Africa, the team not only recognized the need for standards and uniformity but also realized that context would be an important factor. Therefore, the team decided to utilize open source solutions. The MVP implementation of MVG-Net provides a model for those looking to implement informatics solutions across disciplines and countries. Furthermore, there are valuable lessons learned that the eHealth community can benefit from. By sharing lessons learned and developing an accessible, open source eHealth platform, we believe that we can more efficiently and rapidly achieve the health-related and collaborative Millennium Development Goals.
Nilsson, Lina; Hofflander, Malin; Eriksén, Sara; Borg, Christel
A challenge when groups from different disciplines work together in implementing health information technology (HIT) in a health-care context is that words often have different meanings depending upon work practices, and definition of situations. Accessibility is a word commonly associated with HIT implementation. This study aimed to investigate different meanings of accessibility when implementing HIT in everyday work practice in a health-care context. It focused on the perspective of nurses to highlight another view of the complex relationship between HIT and information in a health-care context. This is a qualitative study influenced by institutional ethnographic. District nurses and student nurses were interviewed. The results indicate that when implementing HIT accessibility depends on working routines, social structures and patient relationship. The findings of the study suggest that interaction needs to take on a more important role when implementing HIT because people act upon words from the interpreted meaning of them. Symbolic interactionism is proposed as a way to set a mutual stage to facilitate an overall understanding of the importance of the meaning of words. There is a need for making place and space for negotiation of the meaning of words when implementing HIT in everyday work practice.
Borland, Rob; Barasa, Mourice; Iiams-Hauser, Casey; Velez, Olivia; Kaonga, Nadi Nina; Berg, Matt
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the importance of using open source technologies and common standards for interoperability when implementing eHealth systems and illustrate this through case studies, where possible. The sources used to inform this paper draw from the implementation and evaluation of the eHealth Program in the context of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP). As the eHealth Team was tasked to deploy an eHealth architecture, the Millennium Villages Global-Network (MVG-Net), across all fourteen of the MVP sites in Sub-Saharan Africa, the team recognized the need for standards and uniformity but also realized that context would be an important factor. Therefore, the team decided to utilize open source solutions. The MVP implementation of MVG-Net provides a model for those looking to implement informatics solutions across disciplines and countries. Furthermore, there are valuable lessons learned that the eHealth community can benefit from. By sharing lessons learned and developing an accessible, open-source eHealth platform, we believe that we can more efficiently and rapidly achieve the health-related and collaborative Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:22894051
Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C; Guell, Cornelia
Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and 'cascading.' Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of individuals needing to take
Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia
Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of
Alexander A. Galushkin
Full Text Available In this article author examines some of the issues of information and communication technologies in the activity of enterprise structures of education and science. During study author analyzes views of some eminent scientists, with formulate their own point of view. The study emphasizes that the introduction of information products in the deeper stages of the structure of education and science, implementing educational programs, as a rule, is facing a number of serious difficulties. In conclusion, the author cites 3 evidence-based conclusions.
Full Text Available The paper, after a short introduction to measurement units in general and to the present international system of units (SI: Système International des Unités, deals with a digest of the basics of the proposed new SI:2018 and of its differences compared with the present SI. The latter issue also involves a review of some problems still unresolved in the last draft, concerning: the role of the constants of physics in the system and their role in the conceptual construction of this international standard; the method employed for using the relevant experimental data, and related statistical issues; finally, the implications for science of the New SI implementation. The consequences for and new duties of the national metrology institutes and practitioners are illustrated, involving the future conformity of the present standards and a possible hierarchy between countries that would result from the new definition, in contrast with certain principles of the Convention du Mètre.
Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.
Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.
Billings, R.; Crowley, J.; Moran, R.
This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community
MacGillivray, Andrew; Jeffrey, Henry; Wallace, Robin
The technological trajectory is the pathway through which an innovative technology develops as it matures. In this paper we model the technological trajectory for a number of energy technologies by analysing technological change (characterised by unit-level capacity up-scaling) and diffusion (characterised by growth in cumulative deployed capacity) using sigmoidal 5 Parameter Logistic (5PL) functions, observed and reported as a function of unit deployment. Application of 5PL functions allows inference of technology development milestones, such as initiation of unit-level up-scaling or industry growth, with respect to the number of unit deployments. This paper compares the technological trajectory followed by mature energy technologies to that being attempted by those in the nascent wave and tidal energy sectors, particularly with regards to unit deployment within a formative phase of development. We identify that the wave and tidal energy sectors are attempting to bypass a formative phase of technological development, which is not in line with technological trajectories experienced by historic energy technologies that have successfully diffused into widespread commercial application, suggesting that demand-pull support mechanisms are premature, and a need for technology push focused policy support mechanisms is vital for stimulating economically sustainable development and deployment of wave and tidal stream energy. - Highlights: • Technology up-scaling should take place after a formative phase of development. • Ocean energy technologies are attempting to bypass a formative phase. • Unit up-scaling has taken place prior to successful technology demonstration. • The cost of the formative phase may be insurmountable using MW-scale technology. • A shift in the research, development and innovation environment is necessary.
Антон Юрьевич Петров
Full Text Available In the article the author analyses the problem of improving technical equipment of the Russian agriculture at the outset of the Stolypin agrarian reforms. The author shows contradictions between different governmental bodies of the Russian empire over the issue of the sources of supply of agricultural machinery for the Russian rural population (import or domestic production. It becomes clear, that after 1907 the Russian government took no special measures to restrict import of foreign agricultural machinery to Russia. Instead a new policy of direct support of the Russian agricultural machine-building industry was accepted (extension of credit from the Bank of Russia, awarding a bonus for the agricultural machines manufactured in Russia etc.. The article poses a problem of import substitution tendencies in the above-mentioned industry.
Nijland, Nicol; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia; Boer, Henk; Steehouder, Michaël F; Seydel, Erwin R
Prior studies have shown that many patients are interested in Internet-based technology that enables them to control their own care. As a result, innovative eHealth services are evolving rapidly, including self-assessment tools and secure patient-caregiver email communication. It is interesting to explore how these technologies can be used for supporting self-care. The aim of this study was to determine user-centered criteria for successful application of Internet-based technology used in primary care for supporting self-care. We conducted scenario-based tests combined with in-depth interviews among 14 caregivers and 14 patients/consumers to describe the use of various self-care applications and the accompanying user problems. We focused on the user-friendliness of the applications, the quality of care provided by the applications, and the implementation of the applications in practice. Problems with the user-friendliness of the self-care applications concerned inadequate navigation structures and search options and lack of feedback features. Patients want to retrieve health information with as little effort as possible; however, the navigation and search functionalities of the applications appeared incapable of handling patients' health complaints efficiently. Among caregivers, the lack of feedback and documentation possibilities caused inconvenience. Caregivers wanted to know how patients acted on their advice, but the applications did not offer an adequate feedback feature. Quality of care problems were mainly related to insufficient tailoring of information to patients' needs and to efficiency problems. Patients expected personalized advice to control their state of health, but the applications failed to deliver this. Language (semantics) also appeared as an obstacle to providing appropriate and useful self-care advice. Caregivers doubted the reliability of the computer-generated information and the efficiency and effectiveness of secure email consultation
Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil; Lim, Ming K
The exploitation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for tracking and archiving the properties of structural construction components could be a potentially innovative disruption for the construction sector. This is because RFID can stimulate the reuse of construction components and reduce their wastage, hence addressing sustainability issues in the construction sector. To test the plausibility of that idea, this study explores the potential pre-conditions for RFID to facilitate construction components reuse, and develops a guidance for promoting their redistribution back to the supply chain. It also looks at how integrating RFID with Building Information Modelling (BIM) can possibly be a valuable extension of its capabilities, providing the opportunity for tracked components to be incorporated into new structures in an informed, sound way. A preliminary assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the RFID technology is presented in order to depict its current and future potential in promoting construction components' sustainable lifecycle management, while emphasis has been laid on capturing their technical, environmental, economic and social value. Findings suggest that the collection of the right amount of information at the design-construction-deconstruction-reuse-disposal stage is crucial for RFID to become a successful innovation in the construction sector. Although a number of limitations related to the technical operability and recycling of RFID tags seem to currently hinder its uptake for structural components' lifecycle management, future technological innovations could provide solutions that would enable it to become a mainstream practice. Taken together these proposals advocate that the use of RFID and its integration with BIM can create the right environment for the development of new business models focused on sustainable resource management. These models may then unlock multiple values that are otherwise dissipated in
Yentsch, C. S.
There are two chromophylls which, if sensed remotely from high altitude, would revolutionize the ability to survey large areas of the world's oceans. The chromophylls of importance are: the photosynthetic pigments of plankton algae and a group of organic materials frequently termed dissolved yellow substances. These are derived from plants and carried into the ocean by fresh water inflow. The attenuation of light by phytoplankton is characterized by two distinctive bands (450, 675 nm) which represent absorption by chloroplastic pigments. Yellow substances are characterized by a strong ultraviolet absorption which tails over into the visible region. It is emphasized that chlorophyll determination could be a unique technique for estimating the extent of eutrophication in coastal waters, and that a high altitude observer equipped with temperature, chlorophyll and yellow substance sensors has the possibility of detecting the magnitude of eutrophication and its sources by using laser induced fluorescent devices.
Bakirov, M.; Povarov, V.
In contrast to conventional approaches used for diagnostics (i.e. when inspection results are used as data for numerical calculative strength analysis) the specific feature of the new proposed approach consists in a fact that the approach is based on application of the 'inverse problem' principle. As regards to implementation of the proposed new approach, first of all a detailed numerical calculative finite-element model of the monitored equipment must be developed. Results of preliminary calculations allow to make reasonable selection of definite installation places and types of control sensors intended for more effective and precise work of the calculative model. As a rule, the control sensors are high-temperature strain gauges, temperature probes, pressure, acceleration and displacement sensors, as well as acoustic-emission and ultrasonic sensors used for monitoring of actual defectiveness kinetics in the zone of potential damaging. All the sensors work in the on-line mode during several years of operation, the optimal frequency of data records is selected, all recorded data after prompt processing are transferred to the finite-element calculative modulus for strength calculations of a monitored zone. Software for strength calculation must be based on an individual calculative code, since it should also work in the on-line mode. Comprehensible strength analysis in conjunction with obtained results of defectiveness kinetics monitoring allow not only to foresee the most unfavorable scenario resulting to damaging, but also to have a possibility for prompt analysis and elaboration of compensating measures allowing to reduce operational loadings. In the report the results of development and practical application of the new approach at NPPs and corresponding technology are presented. (author)
... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.
Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of converting organic waste into energy using biogas technology to address sanitation problems in peri-urban suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe.These suburbs with an estimated population of 156.975 are unique in that they are not connected to the Harare main water sewer system. A baseline survey was conducted to determine the quantity of biodegradable human and kitchen waste (N=60. Biodigester sizing and costing was done for various scenarios mainly household standalone, single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. In addition potential biogas conversion to electricity was done for single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. This was followed by a cost benefit analysis of employing combined suburbs biogas technology. A combined suburbs centralised biogas model was found to be the most feasible scenario producing 7378 m3 of biogas per day with electricity production capacity of 384 kW .There was a potential of wood savings of 6129 tonnes/year, paraffin savings of 2.556 tonnes/year and greenhouse benefits of 980 tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions/ year and which would attract U$2940 from carbon credits sales per year. The study recommended the adoption of the biogas technology because of its potential toaddress both economic and sanitation challenges being faced by local authorities in developing countries particularly, improved hygienic conditions, energy supply chronic epidemics and sewerreticulation.
Full Text Available Since 2013, the authors’ Japanese team in the Department of Science Education at Shizuoka University has held trials of STEM Education in informal fields as participatory action research (e.g., Science museum in Shizuoka, Lifelong Learning Center in Fujieda City, and STEM Summer camp for the preparation for implementing STEM education in public schools and for proposing science education reform in a Japanese context. Problems in preparing STEM lessons include numerous new instructional materials and programs and emerging specialized schools. In addition, while most of these initiatives address one or more of the STEM subjects separately, there are increasing calls for emphasizing connections between and among the subjects (Honey, Pearson and Schweingruber, 2014. Unfamiliar problems for Japanese teachers are, What is Engineering? What is Design? and How can they be implemented in lessons? While gathering STEM learning materials to implement in their STEM Summer Camp, the authors noticed a pattern with which to develop a STEM lesson and developed a template “T-SM-E” in reference to prior STEM studies. After the STEM Summer Camp, the authors introduced the model in the pre-service teacher preparation program. As a result, the authors received suggestions about how teachers can develop integrated STEM lessons, how undergraduate (UG teachers can implement it in their lessons, and how teachers can assess student learning in their STEM lessons. From standard based student assessments and reflections written by the UG teachers, the authors found that it was difficult for the UG teachers to include technology in their lessons, and their assessment also indicated that the students did not show performance proficiency in technology. The authors discuss this existing problem in the Japanese education system.
Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...... for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect......Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which problems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widely...
Gomez Cobo, A.
The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth
Full Text Available As students of the 21st century enter into higher education, faculty's pedagogical styles and delivery methods must evolve to address the rapidly changing needs and skills of the students and society. One such method is through the use of web-based course management delivery systems and interactive software. Web-based interactive course management tools are relatively new educational phenomena. In the therapeutic and rehabilitative exercise curriculums this powerful new instrument may be utilized to enhance cognitive comprehension of basic theories, definitions, and applications. In addition, this web-based interactive tool may also function as a virtual assistant for the learning and mastery of various psychomotor skills necessary in the clinic. Incorporating and utilizing the various computer technologies, allows for the necessary foundational cognitive building outside the traditional classroom while creating a more inclusive environment inside the classroom for a deeper and richer problem-based learning exercise. In the rehabilitation settings it is not only important that the student understands the material but that they also develop the necessary critical thinking skills for appropriate application of the theoretical knowledge. It has been shown that incorporating problem-based learning into a curriculum is an effective way to improve an individual's critical thinking skills. In the model careful planning and implementation was needed to develop an interactive web-based instrument that serves all students in the class regardless of their learning style or rate of comprehension.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress after adjusting for social support. Methods A random sample of 4,000 persons aged 65 years or more living at home in Oslo was drawn. Questionnaires were sent by post, and the total response was 2,387 (64%. Psychological distress was assessed using Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10 and social support with the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3. A principal component analysis (PCA included all items of social support and psychological distress. Partial correlations were used, while associations were studied by logistic regression. Results After adjusting for socio-demographics and somatic health problems, we reported a statistically significant association between psychological distress and social support: “Number of close friends”, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; “Concern and interest”, OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84. A strong association between lack of social support and psychological distress, irrespective of variables adjusted for, indicated a direct effect. The associations between psychological distress and physical impairments were somewhat reduced when adjusted for social support, particularly for hearing, whereas the associations between somatic diagnoses and psychological distress were more or less eliminated. Income was found to be an independent determinant for psychological distress. Conclusions Lack of social support and somatic health problems were associated with psychological distress in elders. Social support acted as a
Dündar, Sahin; Güvendir, Meltem Acar; Kocabiyik, Oya Onat; Papatga, Erdal
The present study was conducted first to identify which school subjects were most liked, most important, and most difficult, as well as least liked, least important and easiest as perceived by elementary school students and second to explore the reasons why students most/least liked, considered as most/least important, and considered as most…
Al Zou'bi, Abdallah S.; Al-Onizat, Sabah
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of using information technology and communications' means in the academic education from the perspective of Al-Balqa Applied University's students. And to achieve this goal, the researchers prepared and developed a questionnaire as a tool of the study including 26 items. The population of the study,…
Buran Anna; Nizkodubov Gavriil; Pryahin Ilya
The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for rese...
Colas, Javier; Guillen, Alejandra; Moreno, Rafael
There is no doubt that the contribution of the Health Care Technologies to the tremendous evolution on Medicine since mid XX century has been one of its most important pillars. At the same time the innovation has been sometimes accused of been the root of the increase in the Health Care expenditure to support the Health of the society. Actually, when the Health Care Systems are focusing not only on the critical processes but on the continuum of the disease, the application of innovation to the chronic diseases and, more specifically, in the Cardiovascular ones (specially the Cardiac Insufficiency), represents a great challenge for care givers, patients and the Health Care Systems as their treatment requires continuous medical care and patient self management. The key for establishing this continuity of care in an efficient way is based in the concept of "Anticipation". This is the only way to avoid the burden of the continuous re-hospitalizations of this kind of patients. The engagement of patients in the adoption of healthy lifestyles with a positive impact in the progression of their diseases is fundamental to avoid the appearance of chronic complications or co-morbidities. Only with these assumptions the Innovation on Health Care Technologies will become part of the solution of the sustainability of the Health Care expenditure for the society. This paper present the keys for making the innovation efficient understanding the transversal of the Health Care processes.
The importance of quantitative measurement methods for uveitis: laser flare photometry endorsed in Europe while neglected in Japan where the technology measuring quantitatively intraocular inflammation was developed.
Herbort, Carl P; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur
Laser flare photometry (LFP) is an objective and quantitative method to measure intraocular inflammation. The LFP technology was developed in Japan and has been commercially available since 1990. The aim of this work was to review the application of LFP in uveitis practice in Europe compared to Japan where the technology was born. We reviewed PubMed articles published on LFP and uveitis. Although LFP has been largely integrated in routine uveitis practice in Europe, it has been comparatively neglected in Japan and still has not received FDA approval in the USA. As LFP is the only method that provides a precise measure of intraocular inflammation, it should be used as a gold standard in uveitis centres worldwide.
Mark S. Hoddle
Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.
Smith, Nanette R.
The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can
Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to
Reflection About the Relation Between Internet and State in Contemporary Societies: The Importance of a Proper Regulation that Comprehends the Dynamic of Technological Development and Appreciates Fundamental Rights
Matheus Fernando de Arruda e Silva
Full Text Available The article makes a reflection, of transdisciplinary character and hypothetic-deductive reasoning line, about the relation between Internet and State in contemporary societies. The objective is to demonstrate that the Internet is not a simply mean of mass dissemination of information and needs a proper regulation, in view of the dynamics of technological development and emphasis on appreciating the Fundamental Rights, already provided in both the domestic and international legal system, in a way to avoid a regulation that can configure a meaning of exception state that admits the violation of the users’ rights on behalf of State sovereignty.
Tukker, A.; Koning, A.de; Wood, R.; Moll, S.; Bouwmeester, M.C.
Environmentally extended input output (EE IO) analysis is increasingly used to assess the carbon footprint of final consumption. Official EE IO data are, however, at best available for single countries or regions such as the EU27. This causes problems in assessing pollution embodied in imported
Yapa, L S
The author rejects neo-Malthusian concepts of population problems in developing countries and develops the hypothesis that overpopulation exists where people lack the basic means of subsistence or suffer massive unemployment, both symptoms of dependent capitalism according to the author. Population problems are analyzed in the context of divisions among social classes and resource utilization based on these divisions. The need for developing societies to gain independence from imported technology is stressed.
Innovative developments in science and technology require a thorough knowledge of applied mathematics, particularly in the field of differential equations and special functions. These are relevant in modeling and computing applications of electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, e.g. in photonics and nanotechnology. The problem of solving partial differential equations remains an important topic that is taught at both the undergraduate and graduate level. Separable Boundary-Value Problems in Physics is an accessible and comprehensive treatment of partial differential equations i
N. G. Kurakova
Full Text Available The article explores key issues in reaching a balance of funding resources, needed for fulfilling strategic goals for scientific-technological development ofRussia. Shared forecasts predict that in 2016, Russia's share of the global budget for Research and Development (R&D will amount to less than 2%, whereas the share of only three countries – the USA, China and Japan, will amount to 55,6%. The six leading countries investing heavily state funded in R&D in 2016, will be theUSA,China,Japan,Germany,South KoreaandIndia. The accumulative share of investments in R&D in 2016, will amount to 68,5%. Comparing the investment volumes of leading countries',Russia's expected national investment in R&D might be non-competitive. It is noted that the needed resources for increasing volumes of state funding in Russian scientific-technological field in the midterm perspective are already exhausted. Therefore, the single opportunity for reaching the goal of Russian President's Order № 599 for increasing internal spending on R&D, so it amounts 1,77% of GDP is to dramatically increase the volume of extra-budgetary financing in the domestic R&D sector. Special attention is paid to the disproportion of the budget spending on R&D and the number of people employed in R&D, which leads toRussiahaving one of the lowest indicators among developed countries for «internal expenditure on R&D per researcher». It is concluded that without a clear strategic answer to the posed question about how the Russian industrial sector will be able to increase internal spending on R&D from current 1,15% to 1,77% and how will it accommodate the 4th biggest corpus of scientists in the world in the processes of reindustrialization of the country, strategic targets for becoming a global technological leader risk to remain in the status of «ambitious goals».
Philip A. Araman
Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...
Duoss, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This is the September 2017 edition of the LLNL, Science and Technology Review. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.
Gimba, R. W.; Hassan, A. M.; Yaki, A. A; Chado, A. M.
It has been observed that students shy away from the study of Science and Technology even though Science and Technology occupies a central position in the development of the nation. This shows the negative attitude and poor performance of students in Science and Technology. This has prompted the research into teachers and students' perceptions of…
Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. Appendix D: Standard Error Tables. First Look. NCES 2014-008
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
This paper provides Appendix D, Standard Error tables, for the full report, entitled. "Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008." The full report presents results of the Program…
Alessandra Vasconcelos Gallon
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to describe the network of relationships and identify the importance of these relationships to the organizational performance of small ITBs incubated in the perception of entrepreneurs. Therefore, the research was exploratory, with qualitative method in the first part and descriptive, using a quantitative method in the continuation. Data were collected through a script with open questions and two structured questionnaires. The manager of the incubator and entrepreneurs from 14 residents were ITBs social subjects respondents. Component analysis of the relationship network of ITBs was to: (i examine the characteristics of the network of relationships of ITBs incubated by a statement of means-ends relationships, related by links of influence, and (ii note that there are line between efforts to meet the goals set by both ITBs incubated, as the incubator, and the importance of achieving these objectives for the improvement of organizational performance of ITBs.
Alessandra Vasconcelos Gallon
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to describe the network of relationships and identify the importance of these relationships to the organizational performance of small ITBs incubated in the perception of entrepreneurs. Therefore, the research was exploratory, with qualitative method in the first part and descriptive, using a quantitative method in the continuation. Data were collected through a script with open questions and two structured questionnaires. The manager of the incubator and entrepreneurs from 14 residents were ITBs social subjects respondents. Component analysis of the relationship network of ITBs was to: (i examine the characteristics of the network of relationships of ITBs incubated by a statement of means-ends relationships,related by links of influence, and (ii note that there are line between efforts to meet the goals set by both ITBs incubated, as the incubator, and the importance of achieving these objectives for the improvement of organizational performance of ITBs.
No import of biofuels to Sweden for energy production existed before 1991. That year, import of wood chips from Latvia and olive wastes (pits) from the Mediterranean region started, with volumes corresponding to 100 GWh each. This fuels were used in district heating plants, with converted coal boilers. The price was about 120 SEK/MWh (∼ 18 USD/MWh) at the plant. Small amounts of wood pellets were imported from Poland, Canada and Denmark, totalling less than 100 GWh. This fuel was used by small heating centrals and the import was caused by a shortage of swedish pellets. Potentially important export countries, if a large scale biofuel use starts in Sweden, are Russia, the Baltic states, USA, and Canada. Technical possibilities for converting coal-fired boilers to biofuel firing are discussed in a four page section of this paper. (2 refs., 2 tabs.)
Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard
Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...
Advanced technology offers significant potential benefit to the nuclear industry. Improvements can be anticipated in plant performance, reliability, and overall plant safety as well as reduced life cycle costs. Utilizing artificial intelligence and expert systems, robotics, advanced instruments and controls, and modularization technologies can enhance plant operations and provide new insights and perspectives to plant risk and thus focus resources to areas of importance. Plant reliability, operability, availability, accident interdiction and limitation, and plant recovery are expected to improve. However, utilizing these technologies is not an automatic process. In addition to the actual costs associated with developing and implementing the technologies, operator training and acceptance represents a potential significant problem. Traditional plant operators have little or no experience with computer technology. There has already been some difficulty getting nuclear plant operators to accept and use the new technologies that have been implemented to accept and use the new technologies that have been implemented thus far
... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...
... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...
Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments
The Frederick National Laboratory develops and applies advanced, next-generation technologies to solve basic and applied problems in the biomedical sciences, and serves as a national resource of shared high-tech facilities.
P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); Gallagher, M. (Marcus)
textabstractWe consider a scalable problem that has strong ties with real-world problems, can be compactly formulated and efficiently evaluated, yet is not trivial to solve and has interesting characteristics that differ from most commonly used benchmark problems: packing n circles in a square
Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.
Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman
This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The long term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the U.S. will depend upon maintaining high capacity factors, avoiding nuclear safety issues and reducing operating costs. The slow progress in the construction on new nuclear power plants has placed in increased importance on maintaining the output of the current fleet of nuclear power plants. Recently expanded natural gas production has placed increased economic pressure on nuclear power plants due to lower cost competition. Until recently, power uprate projects had steadily increased the total output of the U.S. nuclear fleet. Errors made during power plant upgrade projects have now removed three nuclear power plants from the U.S. fleet and economic considerations have caused the permanent shutdown of a fourth plant. Additionally, several utilities have cancelled power uprate projects citing economic concerns. For the past several years net electrical generation from U.S. nuclear power plants has been declining. One of few remaining areas where significant improvements in plant capacity factors can be made is in minimizing the duration of refueling outages. Managing nuclear power plant outages is a complex and difficult task. Due to the large number of complex tasks and the uncertainty that accompanies them, outage durations routinely exceed the planned duration. The ability to complete an outage on or near
Brusic, Sharon A.; And Others
This booklet presents an overview of Mission 21, a project that promotes technological literacy in the elementary school classroom. Funded since 1985, Mission 21 has enabled graduate research associates and Virginia teachers to write and field test a technology education program for children in grades 1 through 6. Over 30 elementary teachers in 11…
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related to renewable energy technologies and students' problem solving skills. Two purposefully selected Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science teachers were included in the study. Each teacher taught one class about RET in a lecture-based environment (control) and another class in a DRL environment (treatment), for a total of four classes of students (n=128). This study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, control-group design. The initial hypothesis that the treatment group would have a significant gain in knowledge of STEM concepts related to RET and be better able to solve problems when compared to the control group was not supported by the data. Although students in the DRL environment had a significant gain in knowledge after instruction, posttest score comparisons of the control and treatment groups revealed no significant differences between the groups. Further, no significant differences were noted in students' problem solving abilities as measured by scores on a problem-based activity and self-reported abilities on a reflective questionnaire. This suggests that the DRL environment is at least as effective as the lecture-based learning environment in teaching AP Environmental Science students about RET and fostering the development of problem solving skills. As this was a small scale study, further research is needed to provide information about effectiveness of DRL environments in promoting students' knowledge of STEM concepts and problem-solving skills.
Describes the creation of an innovative problem-solving course for middle school teachers (based on the LEGO Mindstorms Robotic Invention System) intended to use a combination of logic, hands-on experience, and a modicum of trial and error to help middle school students identify the processes behind effectively solving problems. (SR)
Galvan, Cesare Giuseppe.
Two kinds of problems follow from the development of nuclear technology: its use in (diversion to) armaments, and its dangers for the population. Both arise as social phenomena: technology can be diverted to military aims; and installations require specific measures in order not to expose human life to danger. The diffusion of this technology required a series of tentative solutions for such problems. Its history constitutes our first part. The second part aims at understanding the dynamics, which led to the diffusion of such a technology in the capitalist world. The concept of subsumption (especially of its realization) is suited to interpret the meanings of the social interests, which led content ro this diffusion. Subsumption is found between labor and capital, but also between society and state. At both levels, it shows that there was some social meaning in the diffusion of nuclear technology notwithstanding its problems. 590 refs
Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.
... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...
This collection comprises the materials of the VI International Conference 'Shelter' Object', 15 years: today and future'. The topics of this issue's works cover the results of 15-year operation of the Shelter Object and investigations of conditions of its nuclear-, radiation- and general technical safety, procedures of monitoring of fuel-containing material conditions, building structures, problems of object's conversion into an ecologically safe system, preparation of technologies for radwaste (RW) management, working out of procedures using the remotely controlled facilities for diagnostics, prospecting of complicated in access Shelter Object premises, RW retrieval and management, etc. A very important role play the works aimed at the upgrade of radiation safety, protection of public and environment
Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur
Nielsen Anette Søgaard
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Over the years, several studies have tried to identify barriers to seeking treatment for alcohol problems. Lack of information about treatment availability has been identified as a barrier, but what kind of information do individuals in treatment for alcohol problems find should be available before treatment start and what information can wait until later?
Political and economical importance of the transfer of nuclear technologies to less developed countries is examined. Energy needs of the world create the necessity of technology transfer. Three levels are distinguished: 1) Basic elements of cooperation are agreed between the two Governments, 2) scientific cooperation and 3) industrial cooperation. Technology transfer is more than mere technology export. Limitations of nuclear technology transfer are: the lack of infrastructure, the high price of a nuclear power station but above all the problem of proliferation. In conclusion the solution of international problems of nuclear energy is the concept of cooperation on the basis of equal rights
Nilcéia Aparecida Maciel Pinheiro
Full Text Available Ressalta-se a importância do enfoque Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS perante os questionamentos críticos e reflexivos acerca do contexto científico-tecnológico e social e, em especial, sua relevância para o Ensino Médio. Os pressupostos do movimento CTS têm se ampliado em toda sociedade brasileira, principalmente na área educacional. Dentro da proposta da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (LDB, configurada nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCNEMs, percebe-se a relevância de aproximar o aluno da interação com a ciência e a tecnologia em todas as dimensões da sociedade, oportunizando a ele uma concepção ampla e social do contexto científico-tecnológico.We aim to highlight the importance of the STS view as a driving force of critical and reflexive questions about scientific, technological and social contexts, and also, to emphasize its relevance to High School. The STS movement has spread throughout our society and, specially, has gained more and more followers in the educational area. Inside the Guidelines Law of the National Education (LDB proposal, designed in the National Curriculum Parameters for Secondary Education (PCNEMS, we noticed the importance of bringing the student closer to the interaction between science and technology in societal dimensions, considering their reciprocal relation, giving the students a wide and social conception of the scientific and technological context.
Vogt, Ramona L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, Ken B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotta, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meissner, Caryn N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we focus on science and technology research to ensure our nation’s security. We also apply that expertise to solve other important national problems in energy, bioscience, and the environment. Science & Technology Review is published eight times a year to communicate, to a broad audience, the Laboratory’s scientific and technological accomplishments in fulfilling its primary missions. The publication’s goal is to help readers understand these accomplishments and appreciate their value to the individual citizen, the nation, and the world.
Food-borne illness typically occurs due to contamination of food products with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens. Unfortunately, it takes several weeks to identify the source of such contamination, possibly due to lack of a central database system that is ...
Himi, Yasuji (Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki, (Japan))
The history of environmental pollution changed with development of industrial technology and the facts that new technology always generated new pollution are explained, and necessity of Total Emission Control is emphasized. As the actual facts, those were introduced that the hydrogen chloride hazard at the initial stage of alkaline industry with the important meaning of ammonia-soda process as the solution of it, dust hazard by cement industry at its beginning in Japan and Cottrell precipitator technology for its solution, various hazards accompanied with metal refining industry. Discrepancy of view points between production technology and environmental science are explained and importance of technology belonging to the boundary domain between them was emphasized. However, it was indicated that present solutions were depend upon recovery technology and had a possibility to generate new pollution by recovered materials. For the reason, necessity of study on the interaction among chemical industries was proposed from the view of solution for byproduct with environmental pollution problem. 48 refs., 2 figs.
Nijland, N.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Steehouder, M.F.; Seydel, E.R.
Background: Prior studies have shown that many patients are interested in Internet-based technology that enables them to control their own care. As a result, innovative eHealth services are evolving rapidly, including self-assessment tools and secure patient-caregiver email communication. It is
Ha, Jung Woo; Lee, Jae Kee; Kim, Jong Kyung
Radiation shielding analysis in nuclear engineering fields is an important technology which is needed for the calculation of reactor shielding as well as radiation related safety problems in nuclear facilities. Moreover, the design technology required in high level radioactive waste management and disposal facilities is faced on serious problems with rapidly glowing nuclear industry development, and more advanced technology has to be developed for tomorrow. The main purpose of this study is therefore to build up the self supporting ability of technology development for the radiation shielding analysis in order to achieve successive development of nuclear industry. It is concluded that basic shielding calculations are possible to handle and analyze by using our current technology, but more advanced technology is still needed and has to be learned for the degree of accuracy in two-dimensional shielding calculation. (Author)
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...
Archibald, Robert B.
This technical report presents a summary of three distinct projects: (1) Measuring economic benefits; (2) Evaluating the SBIR program; and (3) A model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. the first project deals with the Technology Applications Group (TAG) at NASA Langley Research Center. The mission of TAG is to assist firms interested in commercializing technologies. TAG is a relatively new group as is the emphasis on technology commercialization for NASA. One problem faced by TAG and similar groups at other centers is measuring their effectiveness. The first project this summer, a paper entitled, 'Measuring the Economic Benefits of Technology Transfer from a National Laboratory: A Primer,' focused on this measurement problem. We found that the existing studies of the impact of technology transfer on the economy were conceptually flawed. The 'primer' outlines the appropriate theoretical framework for measuring the economic benefits of technology transfer. The second project discusses, one of the programs of TAG, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. This program has led to over 400 contracts with Small Business since its inception in 1985. The program has never been evaluated. Crucial questions such as those about the extent of commercial successes from the contracts need to be answered. This summer we designed and implemented a performance evaluation survey instrument. The analysis of the data will take place in the fall. The discussion of the third project focuses on a model for evaluating changes in support for science and technology. At present several powerful forces are combining to change the environment for science and technology policy. The end of the cold war eliminated the rationale for federal support for many projects. The new- found Congressional conviction to balance the budget without tax increases combined with demographic changes which automatically increase spending for some politically popular programs