WorldWideScience

Sample records for technologically important materials

  1. Strategic materials: Technologies to reduce US import vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Three nations, South Africa, Zaire, and the U.S.S.R., account for over half of the world's production of chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum group metals. These metals are essential in the production of high-temperature alloys, steel and stainless steel, industrial and automotive catalysts, electronics, and other applications that are critical to the U.S. economy and the national defense. With minor exceptions, there is no domestic mine production of any of the four metals. Government actions to assure secure supplies of metals critical to the United States have been limited largely to reliance on the national defense stockpile to ensure the availability of materials required for national defense in time of war, leaving it to the free market to provide a diversity of suppliers for the industrial economy. An overall strategy to reduce U.S. reliance on uncertain sources of supply of strategic materials should be based on a combination of three technical approaches: increase the diversity of the world supply of strategic metals through the development of promising deposits; decrease demand for strategic metals through the implementation of improved manufacturing processes and recycling of strategic materials from scrap and waste; and identify and test substitute materials for current applications and develop new materials with reduced strategic material content for future applications.

  2. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  3. Materials and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gockel, E.; Simon, J.

    1998-01-01

    New materials and the processes for their economical fabrication and use are the factors which drive innovation in totally different fields of technology, such as energy engineering, transport, and information. But they also open up new fields of technology such as micro systems or medicine technology. Five out of a total of twelve articles are separately listed in the ENERGY database [de

  4. Development of technologically important crystals and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.G.; Tyagi, M.; Desai, D.G.; Singh, A.K.; Tiwari, Babita; Sen, Shashwati; Chauhan, A.K.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Device-grade single crystals of technologically important materials for use as scintillators in nuclear radiation detection, lasers and optical devices are grown in Crystal Technology Section of the Technical Physics Division. The expertise has been developed to establish crystal growth processes and design and fabricate crystal growth equipment. In addition, single crystals of new materials to be used in neutron and gamma detection are also being studied and developed currently. The processing, characterization and testing of devices are carried out using in-house facilities as well as in collaboration with other Divisions. (author)

  5. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  6. Mechanics for materials and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Robert; Murashkin, Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    This book shows impressively how complex mathematical modeling of materials can be applied to technological problems. Top-class researchers present the theoretical approaches in modern mechanics and apply them to real-world problems in solid mechanics, creep, plasticity, fracture, impact, and friction. They show how they can be applied to technological challenges in various fields like aerospace technology, biological sciences and modern engineering materials.

  7. Materials and technology in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike

    2012-08-01

    An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.

  8. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  9. Nuclear technology and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Current and expected problems in the materials of nuclear technology are reviewed. In the fuel elements of LWRs, cladding waterside corrosion, secondary hydriding and pellet-cladding interaction may be significant impediments to extended burnup. In the fuel, fission gas release remains a key issue. Materials issues in the structural alloys of the primary system include stress-corrosion cracking of steel, corrosion of steam generator tubing and pressurized thermal shock of the reactor vessel. Prediction of core behavior in severe accidents requires basic data and models for fuel liquefaction, aerosol formation, fission product transport and core-concrete interaction. Materials questions in nuclear waste management and fusion technology are briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALITY IN AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    MORARU MARIA; DUMITRU FRANCA

    2012-01-01

    In the context of globalization the need of information becomes more and more important. The information dominate the economical life of entities, the access to information being an absolute necessary condition for the business success. The auditors issue a kind of warranty certificate concerning the information contained in the financial or non/financial statements. The work makes a study of the determination method of materiality, of its importance in the audit process, it presents the rela...

  11. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  12. Raw materials for new technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuersten, M. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany, F.R.)) (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 10 lectures given at the fifth international symposium on mineral resources held on October 19-21, 1988 in Hannover (FRG). The papers deal with the following subjects: 1. Advanced materials and the economy (J.P. Clark); 2. New materials: Research trends and technological impacts (H. Czichos); 3. High-Tech ceramics - new materials bring new prospects (G. Petzow); 4. BRITE-EURAM - international materials research for a future-oriented industry (summary) (J. G. Wurm); 5. The rare-earth industry, problems and prospects (summary) (P. Falconnet); 6. Precious metals in and for new technologies (H.-G. Bachmann); 7. Deposits of rare metals (F.W. Wellmer); 8. Alloys of the traditional metals and their future (summary) (H. Hauck et al.); 9. Minor metals - elements of increasing importance (U. Kerney); 10. Starting materials for advanced ceramics - production and properties (G. Franz; G. Schwier). (orig./MM) With 103 figs.; 36 tabs.

  13. Advanced baffle materials technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Vonbenken, C. J.; Halverson, W. D.; Evans, R. D.; Wollam, J. S.

    1991-10-01

    Optical sensors for strategic defense will require optical baffles to achieve adequate off-axis stray light rejection and pointing accuracy. Baffle materials must maintain their optical performance after exposure to both operational and threat environments. In addition, baffle materials must not introduce contamination which would compromise the system signal-to-noise performance or impair system mission readiness. Critical examination of failure mechanisms in current baffle materials are quite fragile and contribute to system contamination problems. Spire has developed technology to texture the substrate directly, thereby, removing minute, fragile interfaces subject to mechanical failure. This program has demonstrated that ion beam texturing produces extremely dark surfaces which are immune to damage from ordinary handling. This technology allows control of surface texture feature size and hence the optical wavelength at which the surface absorbs. The USAMTL/Spire program has produced dramatic improvements in the reflectance of ion beam textured aluminum without compromising mechanical hardness. In simulated launch vibration tests, this material produced no detectable contamination on adjacent catcher plates.

  14. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    -specialists, who are interested in learning more about how technological ceramic materials and artificial minerals are made. Finally, the author assumes that the reader is familiar with the basic principles and concepts of materials chemistry (or at least has access to such knowledge), such as; thermodynamic......The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric......? This book attempts to address this problem by offering the reader clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of fifteen inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties; on a laboratory scale. The materials and chemical syntheses have been...

  15. BWR mechanics and materials technology update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical results obtained from a variety of important programs underway at General Electric's Nuclear Engineering Division. The principal objective of these programs is to qualify and improve BWR product related technologies that fall broadly under the disciplines of Applied Mechanics and Materials Engineering. The paper identifies and deals with current technical issues that are of general importance to the LWR industry albeit the specific focus is directed to the development and qualification of analytical predictive methods and criteria, and improved materials for use in the design of the BWR. In this paper, specific results and accomplishments are summarized to provide a braod perspective of technology advances. Results are presented in sections which discuss: dynamic analysis and modeling; fatigue and fracture evaluation; materials engineering advances; and flow induced vibration. (orig.)

  16. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  17. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  18. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  19. Ionized cluster beam technology for material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Toshinori

    1997-01-01

    The most suitable kinetic energy range of ionized materials in film formation and epitaxial growth is from a few eV to a few hundreds eV, especially, less than about 100eV, when ions are used as a host. The main roles of ions in film formation are the effects due to their kinetic energy and the electronic charge effects which involve the effect to active film formation and the effect acceleration of chemical reactions. Therefore, it is important to develope the technology to transport large volume of a flux of ionized particles with an extremely low incident energy without any troubles due to the space charge effects and charge up problems on the surface. This is the exact motivation for us to have been developing the Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) technology since 1972. By ICB technology materials (actually wide varieties of materials such as metal, semiconductor, magnetic material, insulator, organic material, etc.) are vaporized and ejected through a small hole nozzle into a high vacuum, where the vaporized material condenses into clusters with loosely coupled atoms with the sizes about from 100 to a few 1000 atoms (mainly 100-2000 atoms) by supercondensation phenomena due to the adiabatic expansion in this evaporation process through a small hole nozzle. In the ICB technology an atom in each cluster is ionized by irradiated by electron shower, and the ionized clusters are accelerated by electric field onto a substrate. The ionized clusters with neutral clusters impinged onto a substrate are spreaded separately into atoms migrating over the substrate, so that the surface migration energy of the impinged atoms, that is, surface diffusion energy are controlled by an incident energy of a cluster. In this report the theoretical and also experimental results of ICB technology are summarized

  20. `Technology for Advanced Treatment of High Melting Point Metal-Based Material,` local research and development of important technology for fiscal 1997. Development of materials creation technology for high efficiency power generator components; 1997 nendo juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. `Koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu` (kokoritsu hatsuden`yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Efforts are made for the creation of high melting point metal-base materials to replace the currently-used Ni-base superalloys for the turbine to withstand higher operating temperatures. The main efforts made in fiscal 1997 are outlined. As in fiscal 1996, Nb-base solution alloys, in which solution reinforcement elements such as Mo and W are alloyed, are manufactured by button arc melting and tested for mechanical properties and texture/characteristics. In the designing and evaluation for a strongest Nb-base composite material, Nb-base composite materials are manufactured by use of particle dispersion-strengthening attained by addition of intermetallic compounds or elements to contribute to the formation of oxides, carbides, or nitrides. Nb-base composite materials may also be manufactured by use of eutectic-strengthening attained by utilizing crystallization in the process of coagulation. The resultant Nb-base composite materials are evaluated for their dynamic characteristics at high temperatures. In the development and evaluation of technologies for creating Nb-base materials for high-temperature components, larger specimens as heavy as several kg are tested in line with small specimens for basic studies, and the results are utilized for alloy designing for high-temperature materials. 50 refs., 97 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggert R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess “what is critical” to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  2. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R.

    2017-07-01

    Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess "what is critical" to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  3. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  4. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  5. Advances in superconducting materials and electronics technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    Technological barriers blocking the early implementation of ceramic oxide high critical temperature [Tc] and LHe Nb based superconductors are slowly being dismantled. Spearheading these advances are mechanical engineers with diverse specialties and creative interests. As the technology expands, most engineers have recognized the importance of inter-disciplinary cooperation. Cooperation between mechanical engineers and material and system engineers is of particular importance. Recently, several problems previously though to be insurmountable, has been successfully resolved. These accomplishment were aided by interaction with other scientists and practitioners, working in the superconductor research and industrial communities, struggling with similar systems and materials problems. Papers published here and presented at the 1990 ASME Winter Annual Meeting held in Dallas, Texas 25-30 November 1990 can be used as a bellwether to gauge the progress in the development of both ceramic oxide and low temperature Nb superconducting device and system technologies. Topics are focused into two areas: mechanical behavior of high temperature superconductors and thermal and mechanical problems in superconducting electronics

  6. Weapons for Strategic Effect How Important is Technology?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Colin

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that technology is important in war. While it is difficult to identify major security issues for which technology is not important, determining just how important is another matter...

  7. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  8. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  9. Materials technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne is actively involved in the research and development of new materials research and development (R ampersand D). Five new materials technologies have been identified for commercial potential and are presented in this paper as follows: (1) nanophase materials, (2) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of ceramics, (3) superconductivity developments and technology transfer mechanisms, and (4) COMMIX computer code modeling for metal castings, and (5) tribology using ion-assisted deposition (IAB). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Material Technology for Vortex Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Oda, S.; Michikami, O.; Terashima, T.

    High-T_c superconductor (HTSC) thin films are typically grown by mean of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), sputtering or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This chapter reviews recent progress in the thin film growth technologies of HTSCs.

  11. Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology. FOREWORD. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, great inroads were made in further development of established materials by improved and novel processing routes. It was also a period of discovery of a range of new materials such as high temperature ...

  12. Advanced Materials and Nano technology for Sustainable Energy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Z.; Wu, Ch.H.; Zhu, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is the material foundation of human activities and also the single most valuable resource for the production activities of human society. Materials play a pivotal role in advancing technologies that can offer efficient renewable energy solutions for the future. This special issue has been established as an international foremost interdisciplinary forum that aims to publish high quality and original full research articles on all aspects of the study of materials for the deployment of renewable and sustainable energy technologies. The special issue covers experimental and theoretical aspects of materials and prototype devices for sustainable energy conversion, storage, and saving, together with materials needed for renewable energy production. It brings together stake holders from universities, industries, government agents, and businesses that are involved in the invention, design, development, and implementation of sustainable technologies. The research work has already been published in this special issue which discusses comprehensive technologies for wastewater treatment, strategies for controlling gaseous pollutant releases within chemical plant, evaluation of FCC catalysis poisoning mechanism, clean technologies for fossil fuel use, new-type photo catalysis material design with controllable morphology for solar energy conversion, and so forth. These studies describe important, intriguing, and systematic investigations on advanced materials and technologies for dealing with the key technologies and important issues that continue to haunt the global energy industry. They also tie together many aspects of current energy transportation science and technology, exhibiting outstanding industrial insights that have the potential to encourage and stimulate fresh perspectives on challenges, opportunities, and solutions to energy and environmental sustainability

  13. Emerging Materials Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation which results in a predominantly tetragonal material. Y2O3 or CeO2 also lowers the temperature at which...aircraft and/or spacecraft, but is expected to contribute in other fields. NKK used the doctor blade process to prepare green sheets from slurry made of

  14. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  15. Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Curtis, John A; Greenberg, Michael I

    2009-05-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known as "technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials," often called TENORM. The existence of TENORM results in an increased risk for human exposure to radioactivity. Workers in TENORM-producing industries may be occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. TENORM industries may release significant amounts of radioactive material into the environment resulting in the potential for widespread exposure to ionizing radiation. These industries include mining, phosphate processing, metal ore processing, heavy mineral sand processing, titanium pigment production, fossil fuel extraction and combustion, manufacture of building materials, thorium compounds, aviation, and scrap metal processing. A search of the PubMed database ( www.pubmed.com ) and Ovid Medline database ( ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) was performed using a variety of search terms including NORM, TENORM, and occupational radiation exposure. A total of 133 articles were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. Seventy-three peer-reviewed articles were chosen to be cited in this review. A number of studies have evaluated the extent of ionizing radiation exposure both among workers and the general public due to TENORM. Quantification of radiation exposure is limited because of modeling constraints. In some occupational settings, an increased risk of cancer has been reported and postulated to be secondary to exposure to TENORM, though these reports have not been validated using toxicological principles. NORM and TENORM have the potential to cause important human health effects. It is important that these adverse health effects are evaluated using the basic principles of toxicology, including the magnitude and type of exposure, as well as threshold and dose response.

  16. What are green materials and technologies?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : green materials and technologies for new and existing buildings could considerably reduce CO(sub2) emissions while simultaneously improving indoor and outdoor air quality, social welfare, energy security, and ecological goods and services....

  17. RAW MATERIAL DEWATERING ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture transfer schemes and mechanisms of capillary-porous materials dehydration are considered. Mechanical, thermal and diffusive mechanisms for different moisture linkage forms are analyzed, driving forces and velocity coefficients of processes are estimated. Availability of dehydration in microwave frequencies range field is shown. A new generalized complex that takes into account a specificity of micro- and nanokinetics of moisture transfer in products is proposed. The explanation of barodiffusive moisture transfer process mechanism in a product is shown. The results of experimental researches, in which specific energy of 1,9 MJ per 1 kg of removed moisture is reached, are shown. The tests results of the band dryer with microwave and infrared energy generators are presented.

  18. Technology transfer and international development: Materials and manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Policy oriented studies on technological development in several relatively advanced developing countries were conducted. Priority sectors defined in terms of technological sophistication, capital intensity, value added, and export potential were studied in Brazil, Venezuela, Israel, and Korea. The development of technological policy alternatives for the sponsoring country is assessed. Much emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamics of the sectors through structured interviews with a large sample of firms in the leading manufacturing and materials processing sectors.

  19. Emerging Materials Technologies That Matter to Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    A brief overview of emerging materials technologies. Exploring the weight reduction benefit of replacing Carbon Fiber with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Polymer Composites. Review of the benign purification method developed for CNT sheets. The future of manufacturing will include the integration of computational material design and big data analytics, along with Nanomaterials as building blocks.

  20. Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Tailored materials and innovative designs of products are the key drivers in many modern technologies such as communication ... has been discussed employing the terms “freedom” and “fashion”. He emphasizes that in order to get the .... predictability in material performance. Current trends in processing of medium and.

  1. Materials science and technology strained-layer superlattices materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P; Willardson, R K; Pearsall, Thomas P

    1990-01-01

    The following blurb to be used for the AP Report and ATI only as both volumes will not appear together there.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting material with applications in integrated electro-optics and electronics. Edited by a pioneer in the field, Thomas Pearsall, this volume offers a comprehensive discussion of strained-layer superlattices and focuses on fabrication technology and applications of the material. This volume combines with Volume 32, Strained-Layer Superlattices: Physics, in this series to cover a broad spectrum of topics, including molecular beam epitaxy, quantum wells and superlattices, strain-effects in semiconductors, optical and electrical properties of semiconductors, and semiconductor devices.****The following previously approved blurb is to be used in all other direct mail and advertising as both volumes will be promoted together.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting ...

  2. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items

  3. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  4. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  5. Preparing technicians for engineering materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.; Metzloff, Carlton H.

    1990-01-01

    A long held principle is that for every engineer and scientist there is a need for ten technicians to maximize the efficiency of the technology team for meeting needs of industry and government. Developing an adequate supply of technicians to meet the requirements of the materials related industry will be a challenge and difficult to accomplish. A variety of agencies feel the need and wish to support development of engineering materials technology programs. In a joint effort among Battelle Laboratories, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Northwest College and University Association for Science (NORCUS), the development of an engineering materials technology program for vocational programs and community colleges for the Pacific Northwest Region was recently completed. This effort has implications for a national model. The model Associate of Applied Science degree in Engineering Materials Technology shown provides a general structure. It purposely has course titles which need delimiting while also including a core of courses necessary to develop cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills with the underlining principles of math, science and technology so students have job entry skills, and so that students can learn about and adapt to evolving technology.

  6. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  7. LTA structures and materials technology. [airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles will utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity will include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  8. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  9. Materials technology applied to nuclear accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthell, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The continuing requests for both shaped and flat, very low areal density metal foils have led to the development of metallurgical quality, high strength products. Intent of this paper is to show methods of forming structures on various substrates using periodic vapor interruptions, alternating anodes, and mechanical peening to alter otherwise unacceptable grain morphology which both lowers tensile strength and causes high stresses in thin films. The three technologies, physical vapor deposition, electrochemistry, and chemical vapor deposition and their thin film products can benefit from the use of laminate technology and control of grain structure morphology through the use of materials research and technology

  10. Reference Materials: Critical Importance to the Infant Formula Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2017-09-01

    Infant formula is one of the most regulated foods in the world. It has advanced in complexity over the years as a result of numerous research innovations. To ensure product safety and quality, analytical technologies have also had to advance to keep pace. Given the rigorous performance demands expected of these methods and the ever-growing array of complex matrixes, there is the potential for gaps to exist in current Official MethodsSM and other recognized international methods for infant formula and adult nutritionals. Food safety concerns, particularly for infants, drive the need for extensive testing by manufacturers and regulators. The net effect is the potential for an increase in time- and resource-consuming regulatory disputes. In an effort to mitigate such costly activities, AOAC INTERNATIONAL, under the direction of the Infant Formula Council of America-a trade association of manufacturers and marketers of formulated nutritional products-agreed to establish voluntary consensus Standard Method Performance Requirements, and, ultimately, to identify and publish globally recognized, fit-for-purpose standard methods. To accomplish this task, nutritional reference materials (RMs), representing all major commercially available nutritional formulations, were (and continue to be) a critical necessity. In this paper, various types of RMs will be defined, followed by review and discussion of their importance to the infant formula industry.

  11. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  12. Summary: Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 28; Issue 1-2. Summary: Frontiers in Materials Science and Technology. Baldev Raj K Bhanu Sankara Rao. Volume 28 Issue 1-2 February-April 2003 pp 5-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/028/01-02/0005-0015 ...

  13. Technology and assessment of neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.T.; Murgatroyd, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    The present review assesses more recent developments in the technology and application of those absorber materials which are considered to be established or to have shown potential in reactor control. Emphasis is placed on physical, chemical and metallurgical properties and upon irradiation behaviour. (author)

  14. Radiation technology of improved quality materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of materials production from metals and alloys with high operational properties is developed. The technology is based on use of radiation methods in powder metallurgy. Use of radiation processing allows to improve technological conditions of sintering. It is established, that in certain regimes the sintering temperature is decreasing from 1200 deg C up to 950 deg C in the result of radiation processing of stainless steel powders . According to the processing regimes it is possible load reduction by powder pressing on 15-20 % and sintering time in to 1,5 - 2 times . The radiation methods give possibility to produce high qualitative goods from cheap powder materials without use energy-intensive processes and prolonged processing of finished products

  15. The Strategic Importance of Information Technology in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Romy Emaas

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, Nicholas Carr published in "Harvard Business Review" his article "IT Doesn't Matter," which rekindled the debate on the strategic importance of information technology (IT). Chief Information Officers (CIOs) of community colleges are now faced with the challenge of seeking the best technology for their institutions. The…

  16. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  17. The importance of advancing technology to America's energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Boudreaux, P.R.; Dean, D.J.; Fulkerson, W.; Gaddis, A.L.; Graham, R.L.; Graves, R.L.; Hopson, J.L.; Hughes, P.; Lapsa, M.V.; Mason, T.E.; Standaert, R.F.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Zucker, A.

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of energy technologies appears to be needed for the United States to meet its energy goals. A method is developed that relates the uncertainty of technological progress in eleven technology areas to the achievement of CO 2 mitigation and reduced oil dependence. We conclude that to be confident of meeting both energy goals, each technology area must have a much better than 50/50 probability of success, that carbon capture and sequestration, biomass, battery electric or fuel cell vehicles, advanced fossil liquids, and energy efficiency technologies for buildings appear to be almost essential, and that the success of each one of the 11 technologies is important. These inferences are robust to moderate variations in assumptions.

  18. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Social Construction of Imported Technologies: Reflections on the Social History of Technology in Modern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub

    2017-01-01

    Can imported technologies be socially constructed? Starting from this puzzling question, this essay reflects on the various methodologies with which one can narrate the stories of technology in modern Korea. A focus on technological innovations and how they have been shaped by their societal milieu forces one to leave out a large part of the technological experience, especially when the bulk of the technologies-in-use have been imported from abroad. This poses a serious problem for the history of technology in Korea, a nation that relied heavily on foreign technologies as it went through rapid economic growth in the latter twentieth century.

  20. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  1. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-10-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation.

  2. Strategies and technologies for nuclear materials stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.; Hanson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for future nuclear materials management and utilization from proliferation and long-term waste perspectives is described. It is aimed at providing flexible and robust responses to foreseeable nuclear energy scenarios. The strategy also provides for a smooth transition, in terms of technology development and facility implementation, to possible future use of breeder reactor technology. The strategy incorporates features that include minimization of stocks of separated plutonium; creation of a network of secure interim, retrievable storage facilities; and development and implementation of a system of Integrated Actinide Conversion Systems (IACS) aimed at near and far-term management of plutonium and other actinides. Technologies applicable to such IACS concepts are discussed as well as a high-level approach for implementation

  3. Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologically important properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk of three breeds of Algerian dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius ) ... isolated from Algerian dromedary milks that showed potentially important properties suggest that they are good candidate for camels milk processing or other dairy fermentation ...

  4. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  5. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  6. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J.P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness

  7. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  8. 50th Anniversary Celebration: 46th Sagamore Army Materials Research Conference on Advances and Needs in Multi-Spectral Transparent Materials Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James M; McCauley, James W

    2008-01-01

    ... technology issues of critical importance to the U.S. Army community. The 46th Sagamore Army Materials Research Conference continued this tradition with a focus on Advances and Needs in Multi-Spectral Transparent Materials Technology...

  9. Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials Recent Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of inorganic and metallic nanotubular materials. It cover a wide variety of nanotubular materials excluding carbon nanotubes, ranging from metal oxides, sulfides and nitrides such as titanium oxide, tungsten sulfide, and boron nitride, as well as platinum and other noble-metals to unique nanotubes consisting of water, graphene or fullerene. Based on their structural and compositional characteristics, these nanotubular materials are of importance for their potential applications in electronic devices, photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanothermometers, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, sensors, and reinforcing fillers for plastics, among others. Such materials are also having a great impact on future developments, including renewable-energy sources as well as highly efficient energy-conversion and energy-saving technologies. This book will be of particular interest to experts in the fields of nanotechnology, material science ...

  10. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  11. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  12. Measurement and monitoring technologies are important SITE program component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    An ongoing component of the Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) Program, managed by the US EPA at its Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, is the development and demonstration of new and innovative measurement and monitoring technologies that will be applicable to Superfund site characterization. There are four important roles for monitoring and measurement technologies at Superfund sites: (1) to assess the extent of contamination at a site, (2) to supply data and information to determine impacts to human health and the environment, (3) to supply data to select the appropriate remedial action, and (4) to monitor the success or effectiveness of the selected remedy. The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) has been supporting the development of improved measurement and monitoring techniques in conjunction with the SITE Program with a focus on two areas: Immunoassay for toxic substances and fiber optic sensing for in-situ analysis at Superfund sites

  13. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G

    1979-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  14. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  15. Advanced power plant materials, design and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, D. (ed.) [Newcastle University (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute

    2010-07-01

    The book is a comprehensive reference on the state of the art of gas-fired and coal-fired power plants, their major components and performance improvement options. Selected chapters are: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant design and technology by Y. Zhu, and H. C. Frey; Improving thermal cycle efficiency in advanced power plants: water and steam chemistry and materials performance by B. Dooley; Advanced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas separation membrane development for power plants by A. Basile, F. Gallucci, and P. Morrone; Advanced flue gas cleaning systems for sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury emissions control in power plants by S. Miller and B.G. Miller; Advanced flue gas dedusting systems and filters for ash and particulate emissions control in power plants by B.G. Miller; Advanced sensors for combustion monitoring in power plants: towards smart high-density sensor networks by M. Yu and A.K. Gupta; Advanced monitoring and process control technology for coal-fired power plants by Y. Yan; Low-rank coal properties, upgrading and utilisation for improving the fuel flexibility of advanced power plants by T. Dlouhy; Development and integration of underground coal gasification (UCG) for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by M. Green; Development and application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by B. McPherson; and Advanced technologies for syngas and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from fossil-fuel feedstocks in power plants by P. Chiesa.

  16. Radiation technology for immobilization of bioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the Agency's coordinated research programme on ''Application of Radiation Technology in Immobilization of Bioactive Materials'', the third and final research coordination meeting was held at Beijing University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 15-18 June 1987. The present publication compiles all presentations made at the meeting. Fundamental processes for the immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, cells and drugs were developed and established using gamma radiation, electron beams and plasma discharge. Applications of various biofunctional components, immobilized by radiation techniques in different processes, were studied. A range of backbone polymers has been examined together with various monomers. Coupling procedures have been developed which are relevant to our particular requirements. Enzymes of various types and characteristics have been immobilized with considerable efficiency. The immobilized biocatalysts have been shown to possess significant activity and retention of activity on storage. There appears to be a high degree of specificity associated with the properties of the immobilised biocatalysts, their activity and the ease of their preparation. Novel additives which lower the total radiation dose in grafting have been discovered and their value in immobilization processes assessed. Potential applications include: medical (diagnostic, therapeutic), and industrial processes (fermentation, bioseparation, etc.). Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Alves, E.; Grime, G.W.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxford scanning proton microprobe was used to study SiC fibres, SiC/SiC ceramic composites and Be pebbles, which are some of the most important materials for fusion technology. For the SiC materials, although the results reveal a high degree of homogeneity and purity in the composition of the fibres, some grains containing heavy metals were detected in the composites. Rutherford backscattering analysis further allowed establishing that at least some of these grains are not on the surface of the material but rather distributed throughout the bulk of the SiC composites. The two different types of Be pebbles analysed also showed very different levels of contaminants. The information obtained with the microbeam analysis is confronted with the one resulting from the broad beam PIXE and RBS analysis

  18. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  19. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the United States without... spread of pests via wood packaging material from Canada. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...

  20. Proceedings of the international workshop on spallation materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L.K.; Ullmaier, H. [comps.

    1996-10-01

    This document contains papers which were presented at the International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology. Topics included: overviews and thermal response; operational experience; materials experience; target station and component design; particle transport and damage calculations; neutron sources; and compatibility.

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on spallation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Ullmaier, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains papers which were presented at the International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology. Topics included: overviews and thermal response; operational experience; materials experience; target station and component design; particle transport and damage calculations; neutron sources; and compatibility

  2. Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    L. Novakova-Marcincinova; J. Novak-Marcincin

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Mod...

  3. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  4. 2. International workshop on spallation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsughi, F.; Mansur, L.K.; Sommer, W.F.; Ullmaier, H.

    1997-11-01

    This document contains 25 papers consisting an abstract prepared by the authors, followed by copies of the presentation viewgraphs used by speakers. The topics were: Target options for SINQ; Overview of the NSNS target system; ISIS target and moderator materials; Trispal project; JHF N-ARENA; Design, load conditions and manufacturing aspect of the ESS MERCURY TARGET unit; Radiation damage simulatiion to measure recoil spectra distribution; Radiation damage calculation to spallation neutron source materials; Hadron-induced neutron production in Pb and U targets from 1-5 GeV; Proton beam effects on W rods, surface cooled by water; Corrosion and fatigue behavior of metals and alloys in high radiation fields; compability of materials with mercury for NSNS target system; Research activities at PSI on structural materials for spallation neutron source; The accelerator production of tritium materials reserach program and Los Alamos National Laboratory; Experimental program on irradiation effects in structural materials of the Trispal project; First pulsed power materials test at Livermore; Plan of thermal shock fracture test at JAERI; Is there a hydrogen problem in target materials in high-power spatllation source?; Materials consideration for the NSNS target; Materials durability issures in spallation neutron source applications; Post-irradiation investigations at the FZJ; Microstructure and hardening of steels containing high helium concentrations; Tensile properties and microstructure of the F82H ferritic-martensitic steel after irradiation in the PIREX facility

  5. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  6. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  7. The Importance of Cooling Technology in Propulsion and Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auxier, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Turbine cooling is the breakthrough technology for gas turbine engines and although the turbine engine and cooling are considered mature technologies, to date they have only achieved about 60 to 70...

  8. Material of Geographic Import in the National Anthropological Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, James R.

    Presenting specific examples of the manuscripts, cartographic materials, and pictorial materials found in the National Anthropological Archives, this paper describes Archive holdings (in such areas as archeology, linguistics, physical anthropology, and various branches of ethnology) which are dated from 1850 to the present and are representative…

  9. School Construction and Technology...A Few Important Pointers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Richard A.; Fowler, Laura S.

    2001-01-01

    The most overlooked facet of school construction is the dovetailing of permanent construction insurance and technology construction insurance. Advice is provided about technology and technology purchases, highlighting problems associated with costs, copyright infringements, delivery delays, electrical wiring, hardware, student records, vendors,…

  10. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek P.; Rapacz-Kmita A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP) is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing....

  11. Structural materials for the next generation of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Marcel Hubert

    1996-01-01

    1. Overview of advanced technologies; i.e. aerospace-aeronautics; automobile; energy technology; accelerator engineering etc. and the need for new structural materials. 2. Familiarisation with polymers, metals and alloys, structural ceramics, composites and surface engineering. The study of modern materials processing, generation of a materials data base, engineering properties includind NDE, radiation damage etc. 3. Development of new materials for the next generation of technologies; including the spin-off of materials developed for space and military purposes to industrial applications. 4. Materials selection for modern accelerator engineering. 5. Materials research in Europe, USA and Japan. Material R & D programmes sponsored by the European Union and the collaboration of CERN in EU sponsored programmes.

  12. Program strategy document for the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1979-07-01

    A multiyear program plan is presented which describes the program of the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center (TIC) at Sandia Laboratories. The work element plans, along with their corresponding work breakdown structures, are presented for TTC activities in the areas of Technology and Information Center, Systems Development, Technology, and Institutional Issues for the years from 1979 to 1985

  13. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Materials for intermediate temperature applications are considered, taking into account possibilities regarding the use of prealloyed powder processing to obtain superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. Materials for high temperature application are also discussed. Attention is given to oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (ODS), ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, ODS + gamma prime alloys, and composites. A description is presented of various approaches for providing environmental protection.

  14. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  15. Life prediction technology of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Norio

    1992-01-01

    There is empirically the time limit of use in all industrial plants and components. By defining the loss of functions as the expiration of life, if the forecast of life time or residual life of plants and components can be done, a very useful means becomes available for safety and economical efficiency. The life of plants is controlled by the occurrence and extension of defects in materials, and by the life of the material which is placed under most severe condition. Such severe condition is the environment of use itself with high temperature, corrosive environment, load, vibration and so on. The forecast of material life is to quantitatively grasp the damage behavior of materials under such condition, and to carry out the time control of the functions of plants by defect control. The time dependence of material damage such as fatigue damage, creep damage and corrosion damage is discussed. The forecast of material life by empirical knowledge and theoretical inference and the forecast of residual life are explained. Finally, the forecast of the life time of light water reactors is described as those constructed in initial period approach their design life. (K.I.)

  16. Physics of radiation damage and radiation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This issue of 'Problems in Atomic Science and Technology', on the 'Physics of Radiation Damage and Radiation Materials Technology', is a collection of 24 papers on the effects on or processes in materials due to their irradiation by neutrons, ions in the energy range from a few tens of keV to several MeV (deuterium, helium, oxygen), and electrons. Included are studies on radiation damage of materials, on ion implantation, thermonuclear reactor materials testing, fast-particle energy loss ramifications for fusion reaction rates in materials, and biological radiation effects

  17. New materials and technology for cell immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, G J; Kell, D B

    1991-06-01

    The choice of support materials for immobilizing cells is rapidly expanding. The literature that has appeared over the past year suggests that hydrogels will remain the first choice for the forseeable future, even though they are associated with many widely recognized problems. There is increasing interest in the use of tougher polymeric materials, and especially of inorganic ceramic supports. However, the most suitable cell support can be selected only after the process or form of reactor in which it is to be used has been assessed.

  18. Export and import provisions for nuclear materials and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsch, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with 1) statutory requirements for export and import licensing of nuclear reactors and fuels; 2) regulations and procedures to issuance of exportlicenses; 3) environmental impact of export licensing; 4) licensing of reactor equipment; 5) recent restrictions on imports and exports of nuclear fuels. (RW) [de

  19. Importance diagrams - a novel presentation of the response of a material to neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Activation of fusion materials following neutron irradiation is of great technological importance, especially in the study of safety and environmental impacts. Currently, activation calculations are performed for a particular neutron spectrum, appropriate to a region in a particular fusion device, which makes it difficult to extract generic information. The present work gives details of a method to present the dominant nuclides for the radiological responses or an irradiated material in a fashion that is independent of the neutron spectrum and almost independent of the flux. The importance diagrams show regions in the decay time versus neutron energy space where a nuclide contributes >50% of the response. The importance diagrams for pure iron and SS316 are described, and it is noted that the shapes of the various regions vary very little with the total neutron flux. Variation of the diagrams with irradiation time occurs at short decay times in a systematic fashion. The use of the diagrams in a realistic spectrum relies on an expansion, which while not generally true, does hold approximately for many of the nuclides of interest. The diagrams are therefore a valuable summary of the universal, device-independent, response of the materials, and when combined with pathway information give a comprehensive description of activation for that material. (orig.)

  20. Materials problems associated with fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    This paper outlines the principles of design and operation of conceptual fusion reactors, indicates the level of research funding and activity being proposed at major centres and reviews the major materials problems which have been identified, together with an outline of the experimental techniques which have been suggested for investigating these problems. (author)

  1. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  2. FY97 Materials & Processes Technology Area Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    preproduction ability. Concentrator with Refractive verdsion engines. Trimarc is "--To meet 1700*F - 2800*F Linear Element Technology). 40% lighter than...graph- can also be used as acuators for tios of 1986 engine per- ite foams for structures. ailerons, flaps and landing gear formance baseline...Aerial Aluminum Garnet SCARLET - Solar Concentrator Vehicle Ni - Nickel with Refractive Linear Ele- UHF - Ultra High Frequency NLO - Nonlinear Optical or

  3. 'Beautiful' unconventional synthesis and processing technologies of superconductors and some other materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badica, Petre; Crisan, Adrian; Aldica, Gheorghe; Endo, Kazuhiro; Borodianska, Hanna; Togano, Kazumasa; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Sakka, Yoshio; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2011-02-01

    Superconducting materials have contributed significantly to the development of modern materials science and engineering. Specific technological solutions for their synthesis and processing helped in understanding the principles and approaches to the design, fabrication and application of many other materials. In this review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between the general and particular synthesis concepts. The analysis is mostly based on our studies where some unconventional technologies were applied to different superconductors and some other materials. These technologies include spray-frozen freeze-drying, fast pyrolysis, field-assisted sintering (or spark plasma sintering), nanoblasting, processing in high magnetic fields, methods of control of supersaturation and migration during film growth, and mechanical treatments of composite wires. The analysis provides future research directions and some key elements to define the concept of 'beautiful' technology in materials science. It also reconfirms the key position and importance of superconductors in the development of new materials and unconventional synthesis approaches.

  4. 'Beautiful' unconventional synthesis and processing technologies of superconductors and some other materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Badica, Adrian Crisan, Gheorghe Aldica, Kazuhiro Endo, Hanna Borodianska, Kazumasa Togano, Satoshi Awaji, Kazuo Watanabe, Yoshio Sakka and Oleg Vasylkiv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting materials have contributed significantly to the development of modern materials science and engineering. Specific technological solutions for their synthesis and processing helped in understanding the principles and approaches to the design, fabrication and application of many other materials. In this review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between the general and particular synthesis concepts. The analysis is mostly based on our studies where some unconventional technologies were applied to different superconductors and some other materials. These technologies include spray-frozen freeze-drying, fast pyrolysis, field-assisted sintering (or spark plasma sintering, nanoblasting, processing in high magnetic fields, methods of control of supersaturation and migration during film growth, and mechanical treatments of composite wires. The analysis provides future research directions and some key elements to define the concept of 'beautiful' technology in materials science. It also reconfirms the key position and importance of superconductors in the development of new materials and unconventional synthesis approaches.

  5. Importance of ultrasonic holography as imaging technique of material faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, V.

    1978-01-01

    In ultra-sound testing of thick-wall components the reconstruction of shape and position of material faults stands in the foreground. Ultra-sound holography allows imaging of this kind. The principle of this technique is to completely measure the amount and phase of a sound field arising from the fault location on the surface of the material-piece. The quantity is measured as a complex quantity. To accomplish this, ultra-sound holography works with monochromatic burst-signals. The recording of phase and amplitude formation can be made optically by means of a film carrier as well as numerically in a computer. Corresponding to this fact the reconstruction takes place by means of a laser beam or by means of mathematical formalisms in the computer. Both the methods are realized today and are applied in destruction-free testing. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Liquid crystals. Oligomeric and polymeric materials for soft photonic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Marcus James

    2002-01-01

    The current pace of today's information technologies might lead the casual observer to believe that this is all new. However the reality is that, as with most things, this is really a long evolution of processes based on tried, tested and re-adapted techniques. This thesis represents 12 years of predominantly technology driven research and covers a whole range of characterising, evaluating and fabricating devices based on liquid crystalline systems. Firstly polymer liquid crystals are discussed with respect to the fabrication of a flexible substrate display based on standard printing techniques and this is shown to have improved display viewing properties over a standard polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device. Following on from this work is presented that involves the production of regular grid arrays in isotropic polymers that are used as control structures in nematic liquid crystal systems. This progresses onto a now patented device that allows the production of robust ferroelectric devices based on PDLC technology. Whilst the development of production techniques is important for the advancement of devices it would not be possible to keep up the pace without continued research into the basic liquid crystalline systems. The final chapter reviews work currently under supervision of the author based on flexoelectric effects in symmetric bimesogens. These materials possess responses times of the order of ∼100μs with an effective optic axis switching angle that is linear with the applied field and can be in well in excess of 90 deg. (author)

  7. Integrated modelling in materials and process technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    Integrated modelling of entire process sequences and the subsequent in-service conditions, and multiphysics modelling of the single process steps are areas that increasingly support optimisation of manufactured parts. In the present paper, three different examples of modelling manufacturing...... processes from the viewpoint of combined materials and process modelling are presented: solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron, integrated modelling of spray forming and multiphysics modelling of friction stir welding. The fourth example describes integrated modelling applied to a failure analysis...

  8. Technology development for nuclear material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Choi, Hyoung Nae; Park, Ho Jun.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron yields from 19 F(α,n) 22 Na reaction of uranium neutron interaction with uranium-bass materials, and the characteristics of shielded neutron assay probe have been studied. On the basis of the above examination, U-235 enrichment in UF 6 cylinders like model 30B and model 48Y was measured by the reaction and U-235 contents in the containers by non-destructive total passive neutron assay method. Total measurement efficiency as a result was found to be 6.44 x 10 -4 and 1.25 x 10 -4 for model 30B and model 40Y UF 6 cylinder, respectively. The uncertainty of measured enrichment as compared to Tag value obtained from chemical analysis approached about 5 % of relative error at 95 % confidence interval. In the follow-up action for the previously developed (1988) computer system of nuclear material accounting the error searching and treatment routine in accordance with code 10, of IAEA and respective facility attachment has been added to easing the burden of manual error correction by operator. In addition, the procedure for LEMUF calculation has been prepared to help bulk facility operators evaluating MUF in the period of material balance. (author)

  9. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...

  10. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  11. Recycle Materials Potential of Imported Used Vehicles in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent years, most developing countries have resorted to importing of used vehicles as a means of solving acute/shortage of transportation facilities. Some of these vehicles are so dilapidated that they never serve any purpose before finding their way to the junkyards and refuse dumps. This paper seeks to quantify the ...

  12. recycle materials potential of imported used vehicles in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In the recent years, most developing countries have resorted to importing of used vehicles as a means of solving acute/shortage of transportation facilities. Some of these vehicles are so dilapidated that they never serve any purpose before find- ing their way to the junkyards and refuse dumps. This paper seeks to ...

  13. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Materials and Components Technology Division (MCT) provides a research and development capability for the design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs related to nuclear energy support the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR): life extension and accident analyses for light water reactors (LWRs); fuels development for research and test reactors; fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology; and safe shipment of hazardous materials. MCT Conservation and Renewables programs include major efforts in high-temperature superconductivity, tribology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and thermal sciences. Fossil Energy Programs in MCT include materials development, NDE technology, and Instrumentation design. The division also has a complementary instrumentation effort in support of Arms Control Technology. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the database

  14. Research Tools and Materials | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Tools can be found in TTC's Available Technologies and in scientific publications. They are freely available to non-profits and universities through a Material Transfer Agreement (or other appropriate mechanism), and available via licensing to companies.

  15. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The Materials and Components Technology Division (MCT) provides a research and development capability for the design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs related to nuclear energy support the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR): life extension and accident analyses for light water reactors (LWRs); fuels development for research and test reactors; fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology; and safe shipment of hazardous materials. MCT Conservation and Renewables programs include major efforts in high-temperature superconductivity, tribology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and thermal sciences. Fossil Energy Programs in MCT include materials development, NDE technology, and Instrumentation design. The division also has a complementary instrumentation effort in support of Arms Control Technology. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the database.

  16. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  17. Industrial benefits and future expectations in materials and processes resulting from space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed as applied to the field of materials science. Advances made in processing include improved computer techniques, and structural analysis. Technology transfer is shown to have an important impact potential in the overall productivity of the United States.

  18. The Importance of Technology Readiness in NASA Earth Venture Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James E.; Komar, George J.

    2009-01-01

    The first set of Venture-class investigations share the characteristic that the technology should be mature and all investigations must use mature technology that has been modeled or demonstrated in a relevant environment (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) >5). Technology Readiness Levels are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. The TRL is used in NASA technology planning. A major step in the level of fidelity of the technology demonstration follows the completion of TRL 5. At TRL 6, a system or subsystem model or prototype must be demonstrated in a relevant environment (ground or space) representative model or prototype system or system, which would go well beyond ad hoc, "patch-cord," or discrete component level breadboarding. These TRL levels are chosen as target objectives for the Program. The challenge for offerors is that they must identify key aspects (uncertainty, multi subsystem complexity, etc) of the TRL estimate that should be properly explained in a submitted proposal. Risk minimization is a key component of the Earth Venture missions. Experiences of prior airborne missions will be shared. The discussion will address aspects of uncertainty and issues surrounding three areas of airborne earth science missions: (1) Aircraft or proposed flight platform -- Expressing the capability of the aircraft in terms of the supporting mission requirements. These issues include airplane performance characteristics (duration, range, altitude, among others) and multiship complexities. (2) Instruments -- Establishing that the instruments have been demonstrated in a relevant environment. Instruments with heritage in prior space missions meet this requirement, as do instruments tested on the ground. Evidence that the instruments have demonstrated the ability to collect data as advertised will be described. The complexity of

  19. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  20. The Holistic Perception of Information Technology and The Importance on the Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Erdi̇l

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management (SCM includes management of materials, products, services, information and financial flows which network of consisting suppliers, manufacturers, logistics service companies and clients. The individual elements of this chain with coordination and integration of each element to perform themselves ensure successful of SCM. Information technology has a very important role in activities for coordination and integration of supply chain. Acceleration of sharing information, simplification and increasing of reliability provide effective use of time in logistics companies, cost savings like effective management ways. In this prepared study which taking into account the positive impact on supply chain of information technologies, it was investigated on the effectiveness of sharing information of supply chain by examining infrastructure of the information technology, ranging from the production of raw materials to the end user in SCM. The results of the analyses by using the structural equation model indicate that the use of information technology in supply chain management enhances the relationship between buyer supplier; the enhancement of such relationship improves the quality, safety, and flexibility of products and reduces the cost of products; as a result, it increases firm performance.

  1. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-03-10

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  2. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  3. Technology development in materials working for nuclear sector and its consequences for the Brazilian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volta, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The technology transfer model adopted in materials development for Brazilian nuclear sector is described. Materials are very important for the industrial development and the National nuclear program has contributed with others areas, for example, metallurgical, siderurgical, equipment sectors, etc. Grafenrheinfeld Power Plant is used like reference plant for Angra-1, a Brazilian nuclear power plant. (M.V.M.)

  4. Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

  5. MaTech - the BMFT ''new materials'' materials research program - 1994 annual report about new materials for innovative information technology, energy technology, traffic engineering, medical engineering and production engineering applications, and about general materials research and new fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillack, D.; Gilbert, I.; Runte, S.

    1995-01-01

    This annual report gives a survey of projects supported within the framework of the Matfo and Ma-Tech programs. These projects focus on research into materials for innovative: 1. information technology, 2. energy technology, 3. traffic engineering, 4. medical engineering, and 5. production engineering applications and on 6. general materials research and new fields. The descriptions of individual projects indicate project goals and work schedules, names of important sub-contractors, and total costs and the funds contributed by BMFT. Information added in an annex includes inter alia a list of publications, lectures, contracts, or patents resulting from project activities in the year 1994. (MM) [de

  6. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  7. Transports of delight how technology materializes human imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring book shows how the spiritual side of life, with its thoughts, feelings, and aspirations, is intimately bound up with our material technologies. From the wonder of Gothic Cathedrals, to the quiet majesty of lighter than air flight, to the ultimate in luxury of the north Atlantic steamers, Peter Hancock explores how these sequential heights of technology have enabled our dreams of being transported to new and uncharted realms to become reality. Sometimes literally, sometimes figuratively, technology has always been there to make material the visions of our imagination. This book shows how this has essentially been true for all technologies from Stonehenge to space station. But technology is far from perfect. Indeed, the author argues here that some of the most public and tragic of its failures still remain instructive, emblematic, and even inspiring. He reports on examples such as a Cathedral of the Earth (Beauvais), a Cathedral of the Seas (Titanic), and a Cathedral of the Air (Hindenburg) and t...

  8. Young women in science and technology: The importance of choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadi, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in the last couple of years, women are still under-represented in science and technology, both in the academic and private sector. This is due to a variety of reasons, mostly related to the role allocated to women in modern society as well as pre-existing prejudices that form glass ceilings while encouraging male presence in the workplace. It is also however, a result of information or lack of, which places young women in difficult position of making a career ...

  9. Mechanics of materials an introduction to engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavami, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    This book, framed in the processes of engineering analysis and design, presents concepts in mechanics of materials for students in two-year or four-year programs in engineering technology, architecture, and building construction, as well as for students in vocational schools and technical institutes. Using the principles and laws of mechanics, physics, and the fundamentals of engineering, Mechanics of Materials: An Introduction for Engineering Technology will help aspiring and practicing engineers and engineering technicians from across disciplines—mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical—apply concepts of engineering mechanics for analysis and design of materials, structures, and machine components. The book is ideal for those seeking a rigorous, algebra/trigonometry-based text on the mechanics of materials. This book also: ·       Elucidates concepts of engineering mechanics in materials, including stress and strain, force systems on structures, moment of inertia, and shear and bending moments...

  10. Tritium interactions of potential importance to fusion reactor systems: technology requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The tritium technology requirements created by the controlled thermonuclear research program to develop a demonstration fusion power reactor by the year 2000 are reviewed. It is found that the majority of the technological advances which are needed to ensure adequate tritium containment in a tritium breeding power reactor need to be demonstrated on a pilot scale by approximately 1983, so that they may be incorporated into EPR-II, the second of two planned experimental power reactors. The most important advances include development of containment materials with permeabilities to tritium well below measured values for stainless steel; large scale, low inventory deuterium-tritium separation systems; and improved monitoring and assay systems. There are less critical requirements for information about the effects of tritium and helium on the mechanical properties of materials, the effects of tritium on biological systems, and data on physical and chemical properties of tritium. Substantial progress needs to be made on these problems early enough to permit possible solutions to be tested on EPR-I. In addition, major improvements in tritium handling equipment are required for EPR-I. Those technological problems for which solutions have not yet been demonstrated by EPR-II must be solved by 1989 if they are to be assured successful application in the demonstration reactor

  11. Third-Generation Display Technology: Nominally Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Display technology is reshaping the consumer, business, government, and even not-for-profit markets in the midst of the digital convergence, coupled with recent smart phones led by Apple, Inc. First-Generation (1G display technology was dominated by the Cathode Ray Tubes, followed by Liquid Crystal Display and Plasma in 2G. A radically innovative shift as a disruptive technology is expected to follow in 3G to utilize virtually any transparent material, which wirelessly connects to portable access points. This paper studies the feasibility of the 3G Display Technology (DT with Technology S-Curves, and presents possible business models and technology strategies which may be generated from it. Additional subsets of business models may be derived for a wide range of industry applications.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC and A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former

  13. Nanomodified composite magnetic materials and their molding technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshkov, I.; Gao, Q.; Govor, G.; Sakova, A.; Timoshkov, V.; Vetcher, A.

    2018-05-01

    Advanced electro-magnetic machines and systems require new materials with improved properties. Heterogeneous 3D nanomodified soft magnetic materials could be efficiently applied. Multistage technology of iron particle surface nanomodification by sequential oxidation and Si-organic coatings will be reported. The thickness of layers is 0.5-5 nm. Compaction and annealing are the final steps of magnetic parts and components shaping. The soft magnetic composite material shows the features: resistivity is controlled by insulating coating thickness and equals up to ρ =10-4 Ωṡm for metallic state and ρ =104 Ωṡm for insulator state, maximum magnetic permeability is μm = 2500 and μm = 300 respectively, induction is up to Bm=2.1 T. These properties of composite soft magnetic material allow applying for transformers, throttles, stator-rotor of high-efficient and powerful electric machines in 10 kHz-1MGz frequency range. For microsystems and microcomponents application, good opportunity to improve their reliability is the use of nanocomposite materials. Electroplating technology of nanocomposite magnetic materials into the ultra-thick micromolds will be presented. Co-deposition of the soft magnetic alloys with inert hard nanoparticles allows obtaining materials with magnetic permeability up to μm=104, magnetic induction of Bs=(0.62-1.3) T. Such LIGA-like technology will be applied in MEMS to produce high reliable devices with advanced physical properties.

  14. Functional materials for sustainable energy technologies: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-01-01

    The critical topic of energy and the environment has rarely had such a high profile, nor have the associated materials challenges been more exciting. The subject of functional materials for sustainable energy technologies is demanding and recognized as a top priority in providing many of the key underpinning technological solutions for a sustainable energy future. Energy generation, consumption, storage, and supply security will continue to be major drivers for this subject. There exists, in particular, an urgent need for new functional materials for next-generation energy conversion and storage systems. Many limitations on the performances and costs of these systems are mainly due to the materials' intrinsic performance. We highlight four areas of activity where functional materials are already a significant element of world-wide research efforts. These four areas are transparent conducting oxides, solar energy materials for converting solar radiation into electricity and chemical fuels, materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and hydrogen storage materials. We outline recent advances in the development of these classes of energy materials, major factors limiting their intrinsic functional performance, and potential ways to overcome these limitations.

  15. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  16. Systems analysis for materials control and accountancy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, T.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Charak, I.; Persiani, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to upgrade Materials Control and Accountancy (MCandA) technology over the flows of special nuclear materials throughout the DOE complex of fuel cycles. The program focus is to develop a ''Management Tool'' for decision support in evaluating MCandA upgrades, and invalidating the MCandA aspects of the Master Safeguards and Security Agreements (MSSA) effectiveness. The approach is the computerization of the nuclear materials flow charts, identification of key measurement locations in the production and product fuel cycle, and construct data information processing at each measurement location. The program is to provide the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) with a timely management decision support system in planning MCandA safeguards technology upgrades over the nuclear materials production and product cycles

  17. Enabling Dissimilar Material Joining Using Friction Stir Scribe Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadyay, Piyush; Kleinbaum, Sarah; Carlson, Blair; Boettcher, Eric; Ruokolainen, Robert

    2017-04-05

    One challenge in adapting welding processes to dissimilar material joining is the diversity of melting temperatures of the different materials. Although the use of mechanical fasteners and adhesives have mostly paved the way for near-term implementation of dissimilar material systems, these processes only accentuate the need for low-cost welding processes capable of joining dissimilar material components regardless of alloy, properties, or melting temperature. Friction stir scribe technology was developed to overcome the challenges of joining dissimilar material components where melting temperatures vary greatly, and properties and/or chemistry are not compatible with more traditional welding processes. Although the friction stir scribe process is capable of joining dissimilar metals and metal/polymer systems, a more detailed evaluation of several aluminum/steel joints is presented herein to demonstrate the ability to both chemically and mechanically join dissimilar materials.

  18. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials...... and the processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Further, the current pace of materials product development ensures that using these objects to focus...... teaching encourages and demands constant modernisation of the course and the materials being presented. A consideration of material and process selection for components in a modern product can be a dynamic starting point for a course on materials science and engineering; providing inspiration and showing...

  19. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  20. Applying cinematic materials at geography lessons with suggestopedic educational technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Салімон

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use of cinematic materials, especially materials from feature films as one of the best means to assimilate the information on the lessons with suggestopedic educational technology. Scientific research of this method including on geography  essons, have been analyzed. Modern pupils study, learn and grow under the influence of communication technologies, so they require a rapid response and adaptation to modern conditions, as well as other interests, a special motivation in training. Feature films, like nothing else, captivates the modern youth, so there is an opportunity to use the screen art for educational purposes and effect of the suggestopedic influence allows pupils to perceive a large amount of information. The use of cinematic materials with suggestopedic educational technology on geography lessons belongs to audiovisual learning tools, giving the opportunity to acquire different modern motivating knowledge. After analyzing suggestive teaching methods, the results of these methods application have been presented, the essence of cinematic materials use as audiovisual learning tools, especially materials from feature films, on suggestopedic lessons and feasibility of their use in the educational process have been described. The authors propose to focus on artistic learning tools or means of art, as a special type of vacated (released stimulating didactical art, that reveals the spare capacity in education and improves memorization and understanding of the studied material when using cinematic materials on geography lessons with suggestopedic educational technology. Methodical recommendations for the suggestopedic lesson using cinematic materials for the topic «Major relief forms of dry land of the Earth. Mountains» in the general geographic course have been suggested.

  1. Enriching Information Technology Course Materials by Using Youtube

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon Andretti

    2017-01-01

    IT offers some benefits and collaborations in various sectors. This research focuses on exploring higher education subjects via social technology, YouTube. YouTube is the world largest video based contents application in the world. Current learning materials are not only in text and images, but included video contents. This research enriching students learning materials may involving YouTube as learning sources. The study observed 118 sophomore students in computer science faculty. The result...

  2. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This division has the purpose of providing a R and D capability for design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs are in support of the Integral Fast Reactor, life extension for light water reactors, fuels development for the new production reactor and research and test reactors, fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology, safe shipment of hazardous materials, fluid mechanics/materials/instrumentation for fossile energy systems, and energy conservation and renewables (including tribology, high- temperature superconductivity). Separate abstracts have been prepared for the data base.

  3. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This division has the purpose of providing a R and D capability for design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs are in support of the Integral Fast Reactor, life extension for light water reactors, fuels development for the new production reactor and research and test reactors, fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology, safe shipment of hazardous materials, fluid mechanics/materials/instrumentation for fossile energy systems, and energy conservation and renewables (including tribology, high- temperature superconductivity). Separate abstracts have been prepared for the data base

  4. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  5. Friction, Fretting and Wear: Emerging Materials and Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, fatigue and wear of metals, alloys and polymers continue to challenge scientists and engineers. Friction, fracture and ... rough floors; and, finally, marvellous technological diversity of emerging materials in the new millennium demonstrates exciting advances in micro/nanoengineering. The diversity of applications ...

  6. Assessment of research needs for wind turbine rotor materials technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1991-01-01

    ... on Assessment of Research Needs for Wind Turbine Rotor Materials Technology Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks Page inserted. accidentally typesetting been have may original the from errors not...

  7. Reforming Current Legislation On the Import and Export of Research Materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Voinov; Sh. A. Dzhabrailov; I. B. Khlebnikov

    2014-01-01

    The current procedure for importing and exporting materials for research and development activity prevents their prompt delivery, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of research and development activity conducted by Russian scientific and educational organizations. A simplified procedure for importing and exporting research materials (issuing a uniform permit required for importing and exporting research materials into and from the Russian Federation) is proposed at the legislative...

  8. Physics of radiation damage and radiation materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Materials of the meeting ''Nuclear power in Ukraine'' are published in the present issue. The meeting was held i Alushta, 28 September - 3 October 1993. Important issues of nuclear power development in Ukraine are considered, including creation of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear safety and economics. Part of materials are devoted to discussing projects of advanced reactors

  9. Overview of materials technologies for space nuclear power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Ott, L. J.; Ingersoll, D. T.; Ellis, R. J.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of different space nuclear systems are currently being evaluated as part of the DOE Special Purpose Fission Technology program. The near-term subset of systems scheduled to be evaluated range from 50 kWe gas-, pumped liquid metal-, or liquid metal heat pipe-cooled reactors for space propulsion to 3 kWe heat pipe or pumped liquid metal systems for Mars surface power applications. The current status of the materials technologies required for the successful development of near-term space nuclear power and propulsion systems is reviewed. Materials examined in this overview include fuels (UN, UO2, UZrH), cladding and structural materials (stainless steel, superalloys, refractory alloys), neutron reflector materials (Be, BeO), and neutron shield materials (B4C,LiH). The materials technologies issues are considerably less demanding for the 3 kWe reactor systems due to lower operating temperatures, lower fuel burnup, and lower radiation damage levels. A few reactor subcomponents in the 3 kWe reactors under evaluation are being used near or above their engineering limits, which may adversely affect the 5 to 10 year lifetime design goal. It appears that most of these issues for the 3 kWe reactor systems can be accommodated by incorporating a few engineering design changes. Design limits (temperature, burnup, stress, radiation levels) for the various materials proposed for space nuclear reactors will be summarized. For example, the temperature and stress limits for Type 316 stainless steel in the 3 kWe Na-cooled heat pipe reactor (Stirling engine) concept will be controlled by thermal creep and CO2 corrosion considerations rather than radiation damage issues. Conversely, the lower operating temperature limit for the LiH shield material will likely be defined by ionizing radiation damage (radiolysis)-induced swelling, even for the relatively low radiation doses associated with the 3 kWe reactor. .

  10. An analysis of results of measuring the speed passing through a material in a technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The process approach requires a smoothness and continuity for each individual technological /production process. From the viewpoint of ownership of each process a required input into the process technical and operation parameters for a required output of the process is important. From the viewpoint of monitoring a concrete process, the material entering the process having a temperature required by technological instruction is important.The speed of transition of a material through the technological mechanism should be constant and a product from the process should have required internal and external parameters. The speed is critical for the technological process. When using a measurement, values of speed are obtained, can be analysed from the point of view of variation in time and normality. For a comparison of real and required values, the box plot was prepared. The capability indexes were counted and the „overlaps” of tolerance interval for the required value of speed were compared.

  11. CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory technical review 2003-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This technical review described research activities of the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, whose mandate is to develop and deploy technologies that improve aspects of producing and using products derived from minerals and metals. During the reporting period, 126 reports for clients were published and the lab participated in 15 national and international consortia. The Advanced Concrete Technology Program was reviewed. The Advanced Materials Technologies Program was discussed, and recent advances in the hydroforming of tubes and corrosion protection techniques for magnesium used in automobiles were presented. A review of the Sustainable Casting Program was presented. New materials for the mining industry were discussed, as well as issues concerning lost-foam casting. Details of the Efficient Metal Production Program were provided and new galvanized TRIP steel and metal inert gas welding processes were outlined. New additions to the Infrastructure Reliability Program included intelligent systems for pipeline infrastructure reliability; software for corrosion control; and risk management of pipelines. Additions to the Certifying Agency for Non-Destructive Testing included a new certification of X-Ray Fluorescence operators and revisions to the non-destructive testing qualification and certification of personnel. New patents developed by the laboratory included a hydrogen sensor using a solid hydrogen ion conducting electrolyte; reinforcement preform for the production of magnesium composite and other metal matrix composite materials; a rechargeable battery electrode testing device; a sulfide biosensor; and a bio-corrosion probe. During the 2 year review period, staff received 13 national and international awards. An outline of major facilities and equipment was presented, as well as details of new materials for use by the transportation sector. Advances in concrete and other construction materials were outlined, as well as metallurgical process improvements. A

  12. The growing dependency in health care. Recent changes in medical technology imports and exports in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, S; Güldal, D

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates recent changes related to the import and export of medical technology and their results in Turkey. Between 1980 and 1993 the number of medical technology imports in Turkey rose, and there was a parallel rise in its ratio to total imports and health expenditures. In contrast the ratio of medical technology exports to total exports decreased significantly in the same period. The liberalization of foreign trade and the changes of health services toward free market policy has caused growing import of medical technology in Turkey.

  13. Aspects regarding manufacturing technologies of composite materials for brake pad application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, A. L.; Hepuţ, T.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.

    2018-01-01

    Current needs in road safety, requires the development of new technical solutions for automotive braking system. Their safe operation is subject to following factors: concept design, materials used and electronic control. Among the factors previously listed, choice of materials and manufacturing processes are difficult stage but very important for achieving technical performance and getting a relatively small cost of constituting parts of brake system. The choice is based on the promotion of organic composite material, popular in areas where the weight of materials plays an important role. The brake system is composed of many different parts including brake pads, a master cylinder, wheel cylinders and a hydraulic control system. The brake pads are an important component in the braking system of automotive. These are of different types, suitable for different types of automotive and engines. Brake pads are designed for friction stability, durability, minimization of noise and vibration. The typology of the brake pads depends on the material which they are made. The aim of this paper is to presents the manufacturing technologies for ten recipes of composite material used in brake pads applications. In this work will be done: choosing the constituents of the recipes, investigation of their basic characteristics, setting the proportions of components, obtaining the composite materials in laboratory, establishing the parameters of manufacturing technology and technological analysis.

  14. Update on Monitoring Technologies for International Safeguards and Fissile Material Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croessmann, C. Dennis; Glidewell, Don D.; Mangan, Dennis L.; Smathers, Douglas C.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring technologies are playing an increasingly important part in international safeguards and fissile material verification. The developments reduce the time an inspector must spend at a site while assuring continuity of knowledge. Monitoring technologies' continued development has produced new seal systems and integrated video surveillance advances under consideration for Trilateral Initiative use. This paper will present recent developments for monitoring systems at Embalse, Argentina, VNHEF, Sarov, Russian, and Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

  15. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  16. Paul Tillich and Technology: His Importance for Robust Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrich, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the linkage between science, technology, and religious ideas. Tillich's continuum of existentialism, philosophy, and theology and his concepts of the multidimensional unity of life have been used to develop a technology and religion course. Included are the core ethic and basic tenets for STS education. (KR)

  17. Fundamental Technology Development for Radiation Damage in Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Chul; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, E. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    This project was performed to achieve technologies for the evaluation of radiation effects at materials irradiated at HANARO and nuclear power plants, to establish measurement equipment and software for the analysis of radiation defects and to set up facilities for the measurements of radiation damage with non-destructive methods. Major targets were 1) establishment of hot laboratories and remote handling facilities/ technologies for the radioactive material tests, 2) irradiation test for the simulation of nuclear power plant environment and measurement/calculation of physical radiation damage, 3) evaluation and analysis of nano-scale radiation damage, 4) evaluation of radiation embrittlement with ultrasonic resonance spectrum measurement and electromagnetic measurement and 5) basic research of radiation embrittlement and radiation damage mechanism. Through the performance of 3 years, preliminary basics were established for the application research to evaluation of irradiated materials of present nuclear power plants and GEN-IV systems. Particularly the results of SANS, PAS and TEM analyses were the first output in Korea. And computer simulations of radiation damage were tried for the first time in Korea. The technologies will be developed for the design of GEN-IV material

  18. Material Identification Technology (MIT) concept technical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.L.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.; Johnson, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has initiated the design and development of a novel pulsed accelerator-based, active interrogation concept. The proposed concept, referred to as the Material Identification Technology (MIT), enables rapid (between accelerator pulses), non-destructive, elemental composition analysis of both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Applications of this technique include material monitoring in support of counter-proliferation activities, such as export controls (at domestic and international inspection locations), SNM controls, nuclear weapon dismantlement, and chemical weapon verification. Material Identification Technology combines a pulsed, X-ray source (an electron accelerator) and a gamma detection system. The accelerator must maximize neutron production (pulse width, beam current, beam energy, and repetition rate) and minimize photon dose to the object. Current available accelerator technology can meet these requirements. The detection system must include detectors which provide adequate gamma energy resolution capability, rapid recovery after the initial X-ray interrogation pulse, and multiple single gamma event detection between accelerator pulses. Further research is required to develop the detection system. This report provides the initial feasibility assessment of the MIT concept.

  19. On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfel, William E.

    This commentary on Hugh Lacey's paper emphasises the material aspects of the social structure within which technological control takes place. It is suggested here that when the example of the Green Revolution is examined in detail a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints/possibilities is misleading. I propose a material analysis of the control situation. This analysis is placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. By widening of the analysis even further it is hoped that the environmental issues of the Green Revolution that concern Vandana Shiva can be addressed. I provide a glimpse of how such an account should proceed.

  20. The Importance of Localized Related Variety for International Diversification of Corporate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    technological activities. The estimations show that this is the case in regions characterized by a high overall technological strength. This suggests that related variety facilitates technological diversifications of foreign corporations in regions at the top of the geographic hierarchy......The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign...

  1. Technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Kellman, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on the technology and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions was held April 3, 1992 in Monterey, California, as a satellite meeting of the 10th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions. The objective was to bring together researchers working on disruption measurements in operating tokamaks, those performing disruption simulation experiments using pulsed plasma gun, electron beam and laser systems, and computational physicists attempting to model the evolution and plasma-materials interaction processes of tokamak disruptions. This is a brief report on the workshop. 4 refs

  2. Applications of simulation experiments in LMFBR core materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of charged particle bombardment experiments to simulate neutron irradiation induced swelling in austenitic alloys is briefly described. The applications of these techniques in LMFBR core materials technology are discussed. It is shown that use of the techniques to study the behavior of cold-worked Type-316 was instrumental in demonstrating at an early date the need for advanced materials. The simulation techniques then were used to identify alloying elements which can markedly decrease swelling and thus a focused reactor irradiation program is now in place to allow the future use of a lower swelling alloy for LMFBR core components

  3. VZLUSAT-1: verification of new materials and technologies for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Vladimir; Urban, Martin; Nentvich, Ondrej; Stehlikova, Veronika

    2016-09-01

    CubeSats are a good opportunity to test new technologies and materials on orbit. These innovations can be later used for improving of properties and life length of Cubesat or other satellites as well. VZLUSAT-1 is a small satellite from the CubeSat family, which will carry a wide scale of payloads with different purposes. The poster is focused on measuring of degradation and properties measurement of new radiation hardened composite material in orbit due to space environment. Material properties changes can be studied by many methods and in many disciplines. One payload measures mechanical changes in dependence on Young's modulus of elasticity which is got from non-destructive testing by mechanical vibrations. The natural frequencies we get using Fast Fourier Transform. The material is tested also by several thermometers which measure heat distribution through the composite, as well as reflectivity in dependence on different coatings. The satellite also will measure the material radiation shielding properties. There are PIN diodes which measure the relative shielding efficiency of composite and how it will change in time in space environment. Last one of material space testing is measurement of outgassing from tested composite material. It could be very dangerous for other parts of satellite, like detectors, when anything was outgassing, for example water steam. There are several humidity sensors which are sensitive to steam and other gases and measures temperatures as well.

  4. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  5. Recent trends in physics of material science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastava, Keshav; Akhtar, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the recent trends in Computational Physics, Nano-physics and Devices Technology. Numerous modern devices with very high accuracy, are explored In conditions such as longevity and extended possibilities to work in wide temperature and pressure ranges, aggressive media, etc. This edited volume presents 32 selected papers  of the 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics . The book is divided into three  scientific Sections: (i) Computational Physics, (ii) Nanophysics and Technology, (iii) Devices and Systems and is addressed to Professors, post-graduate students, scientists and engineers taking part in R&D of nano-materials, ferro-piezoelectrics, computational Physics and devices system, and also different devices based on broad applications in different areas of modern science and technology.

  6. Honeycomb technology materials, design, manufacturing, applications and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bitzer, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Honeycomb Technology is a guide to honeycomb cores and honeycomb sandwich panels, from the manufacturing methods by which they are produced, to the different types of design, applications for usage and methods of testing the materials. It explains the different types of honeycomb cores available and provides tabulated data of their properties. The author has been involved in the testing and design of honeycomb cores and sandwich panels for nearly 30 years. Honeycomb Technology reflects this by emphasizing a `hands-on' approach and discusses procedures for designing sandwich panels, explaining the necessary equations. Also included is a section on how to design honeycomb energy absorbers and one full chapter discussing honeycomb core and sandwich panel testing. Honeycomb Technology will be of interest to engineers in the aircraft, aerospace and building industries. It will also be of great use to engineering students interested in basic sandwich panel design.

  7. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  8. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  9. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  10. Photonic band gap materials: Technology, applications and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.; Bezboruah, T.

    2006-05-01

    Last century has been the age of Artificial Materials. One material that stands out in this regard is the semiconductor. The revolution in electronic industry in the 20th century was made possible by the ability of semiconductors to microscopically manipulate the flow of electrons. Further advancement in the field made scientists suggest that the new millennium will be the age of photonics in which artificial materials will be synthesized to microscopically manipulate the flow of light. One of these will be Photonic Band Gap material (PBG). PBG are periodic dielectric structures that forbid propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. They are able to engineer most fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves such as the laws of refraction, diffraction, and emission of light from atoms. Such PBG material not only opens up variety of possible applications (in lasers, antennas, millimeter wave devices, efficient solar cells photo-catalytic processes, integrated optical communication etc.) but also give rise to new physics (cavity electrodynamics, localization, disorder, photon-number-state squeezing). Unlike electronic micro-cavity, optical waveguides in a PBG microchip can simultaneously conduct hundreds of wavelength channels of information in a three dimensional circuit path. In this article we have discussed some aspects of PBG materials and their unusual properties, which provided a foundation for novel practical applications ranging from clinical medicine to information technology. (author)

  11. System analysis for material control and accountancy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Daly, T.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.C.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The systems analysis for material control and accountancy technology (SAMCAT) program involves a working group structured to ensure that direct operating measurements, accountancy experience, and knowledge of the processes and flows of nuclear material in the total US Department of Energy (DOE) complex of production fuel cycles would be the major bases for developing and implementing a plan of action. This working group consists of facility operators, DOE Office of Safeguards Security headquarters and field offices, and government laboratories. The program focus is to develop a system for decision support in validating the material control and accountancy (MC ampersand A) aspects of the masters safeguards and security agreements effectiveness and in evaluating proposed MC ampersand A upgrades. This paper is a status report on the current capabilities of the system

  12. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo.

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs

  13. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  14. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  15. Application of nuclear technologies for growing of fruits which are of regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, Z.K.; Kharlamova, N.A.; Aidarkhanova, G.S.; Kudabayev, A.B.; Andropenkov, S.A.; Maltseva, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Application of recent achievements of nuclear techniques in different applied branches develops in such main directions as radiation-biological technologies under stimulation of plants, sterilization, increasing of storage terms, disinfestation of foodstuff, forage, raw material of animal and vegetable origin, dressing, instruments, which cannot be exposed to thermal and chemical processing. It is of practical interest the irradiation of fruits and berries cuttings, which are of regional importance and been growing in nurseries. This method is already widely introduced into practice as one of efficient methods. Aim of research was the optimal irradiation dose selection for stimulation of currant cuttings gemmas before bedding out. The sorts of black and goldish currants were used in the experiment. Irradiation was conducted in 60 Co gamma-ray source. As the study materials the black currant cuttings of the 'Katyusha' sort and goldish currants of the sort 'Uzbekistanskaya' were used. For each variant 20 cuttings were prepared.Cuttings were bedded out. Drop irrigation was employed. In the sequel agricultural monitoring was carried out. The results of rooting and development of irradiated samples will be presented in report

  16. Improving our national security readiness posture in high-technology materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.A. Jr. (Bureau of Mines, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Washington, DC (US))

    1989-05-01

    Having a stockpile is one of the principal options in ameliorating the effect of a supply disruption. The U.S. Government has had most of its present large stockpile of metals and minerals for over 40 years. During the past 10 to 15 years, there has been a steady increase in the use of new, highly purified or highly processed materials that have critical military-related applications, and many of these are substantially imported, making supply vulnerable during a defense emergency. The properties of these materials often make stockpiling difficult. The production and use technology of these materials significantly influences the ease of stockpiling. This paper examines a number of new materials in terms of technology and ease of stockpiling and consider other options for dealing with supply disruptions where necessary.

  17. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  18. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  19. Modern laser technologies used for cutting textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarie, Claudiu; Dragan, Anca; Isarie, Laura; Nastase, Dan

    2006-02-01

    With modern laser technologies we can cut multiple layers at once, yielding high production levels and short setup times between cutting runs. One example could be the operation of cutting the material named Nylon 66, used to manufacture automobile airbags. With laser, up to seven layers of Nylon 66 can be cut in one pass, that means high production rates on a single machine. Airbags must be precisely crafted piece of critical safety equipment that is built to very high levels of precision in a mass production environment. Of course, synthetic material, used for airbags, can be cut also by a conventional fixed blade system, but for a high production rates and a long term low-maintenance, laser cutting is most suitable. Most systems, are equipped with two material handling systems, which can cut on one half of he table while the finished product is being removed from the other half and the new stock material laid out. The laser system is reliable and adaptable to any flatbed-cutting task. Computer controlled industrial cutting and plotting machines are the latest offerings from a well established and experienced industrial engineering company that is dedicated to reduce cutting costs and boosting productivity in today's competitive industrial machine tool market. In this way, just one machine can carry out a multitude of production tasks. Authors have studied the cutting parameters for different textile materials, to reach the maximum output of the process.

  20. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Olivares, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; García-Ladona, Emili; Turiel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. The mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. The most adequate deployment areas for the power stations are studied, as well as the required space. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that may be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. Overall, the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible. However, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling systems were implemented and rechargeable zinc–air batteries would not be developed; 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, they may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption. - Highlights: ▶ A global renewable mix with proven energy technologies and common materials. ▶ Wind turbines, concentrating solar power, hydroelectricity and wave attenuators. ▶ Mix technically feasible. Lithium, nickel and platinum may limit vehicles fleet. ▶ Sixty per cent of copper reserves used in the mix and in societal electrification. ▶ Power cannot growth exponentially. Future “spaceship economy” scenario expected.

  1. Transport of Riverine Material From Multiple Rivers in the Chesapeake Bay: Important Control of Estuarine Circulation on the Material Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiabi; Shen, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Driven by estuarine circulation, material released from lower Chesapeake Bay tributaries has the potential to be transported to the upper Bay. How far and what fraction of the material from tributaries can be carried to the upper estuary have not been quantitatively investigated. For an estuary system with multiple tributaries, the relative contribution from each tributary can provide valuable information for source assessment and fate prediction for riverine materials and passive moving organisms. We conducted long-term numerical simulations using multiple passive tracers that are independently released in the headwater of five main rivers (i.e., Susquehanna, Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James Rivers) and calculated the relative contribution of each river to the total material in the mainstem. The results show that discharge from Susquehanna River exerts the dominant control on the riverine material throughout the entire mainstem. Despite the smaller contribution from the lower-middle Bay tributaries to the total materials in the mainstem, materials released from these rivers have a high potential to be transported to the middle-upper Bay through the bottom inflow by the persistent estuarine circulation. The fraction of the tributary material transported to the upper Bay depends on the location of the tributary. Materials released near the mouth are subject to a rapid flushing process, small retention time, and strong shelf current. Our results reveal three distinct spatial patterns for materials released from the main river, tributary, and coastal oceans. This study highlights the important control of estuarine circulation over horizontal and vertical distributions of materials in the mainstem.

  2. Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnaz Izailovich, Fayrushin; Nail Faikovich, Kashapov; Mahmut Mashutovich, Ganiev

    2014-12-01

    In the period from 25 to 27 September 2013 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference "Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2013" (IRTC "IMETEM - 2013"). The conference was held on the grounds of "Kazanskaya Yarmarka" (Kazan). The conference plenary meeting was held with the participation of the Republic of Tatarstan, breakout sessions, forum "Improving the competitiveness and efficiency of engineering enterprises in the WTO" and a number of round tables. Traditionally, the event was followed by the 13th International specialized exhibition "Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan ", in which were presented the development of innovative enterprises in the interests of the Russian Federation of Industry of Republic of Tatarstan, to support the "Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology" and the 8th specialized exhibition "TechnoWelding". Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  3. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durkee, Jr., Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  4. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  5. The importance of educational theories for facilitating learning when using technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Patel, Rakesh S; Goh, Poh Sun; Kokatailo, Patricia K; Lafferty, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology. The use of illustrative examples of the main educational theories to demonstrate the importance of theories informing the design of interventions using technology. Highlights the use of educational theories for theory-based and realistic evaluations of the use of technology in medical education. An explicit description of the educational theories used to inform the design of an intervention with technology can provide potentially useful insights into why some interventions with technology are more effective than others. An explicit description is also an important aspect of the scholarship of using technology in medical education.

  6. Perceived Importance and Manageability of Teachers toward the Factors of Integrating Computer Technology into Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the perceived importance and manageability of teachers on the factors in technology integration were assessed among 407 elementary and secondary schoolteachers. A questionnaire containing 28 items focusing on environmental, personal, social and curricular factors related to technology integration was used. Two sets of data resources…

  7. Research on technology of evaluating thermal property data of nuclear power materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hidetaka; Baba, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Arai, Teruo

    1997-01-01

    For the materials of first wall and diverter of nuclear fusion reactor, in order to withstand steady and unsteady high heat flux load, excellent thermal characteristics are required. It is strongly demanded to measure such thermal property values as heat conductivity, heat diffusivity, specific heat capacity, emissivity and so using small test pieces up to higher than 2000degC. As the materials of nuclear reactors are subjected to neutron irradiation, in order to secure the long term reliability of the materials, it is very important to establish the techniques for forecasting the change of the thermal property values due to irradiation effect. Also the establishment of the techniques for estimating the thermal property values of new materials like low radioactivation material is important. In National Research Laboratory of Metrology, the research on the advancement of the measuring technology for high temperature thermal properties has resulted in the considerably successful development of such technologies. In this research, the rapid measurement of thermal property values up to superhigh temperature with highest accuracy, the making of thermal property data set of high level, the analysis and evaluation of the correlation of material characters and thermal property values, and the development of the basic techniques for estimating the thermal property values of solid materials are aimed at and advanced. These are explained. (K.I.)

  8. NASA's Advanced TPS Materials and Technology Development: Multi-Functional Materials and Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald T.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's future missions will be more demanding. They require materials to be mass efficient, robust, multi-functional, scalable and able to be integrated with other subsystems to enable innovative missions to accomplish future science missions. Thermal protection systems and materials (TPSM) are critical for the robotic and human exploration of the solar system when it involves entry. TPSM is a single string system with no back-up. Mass efficiency and robustness are required. Integration of TPSM with the aeroshell is both a challenge and an opportunity. Since 2010, NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate has invested in innovative new materials and systems across a spectrum of game changing technologies. In this keynote address, we plan to highlight and present our successful approaches utilized in developing four different materials and system technologies that use innovative new manufacturing techniques to meet mission needs. 3-D weaving and felt manufacturing allowed us to successfully propose new ways of addressing TPSM challenges. In the 3-D MAT project, we developed and delivered a multi-functional TPS materials solution, in under three years that is an enabler for Lunar Capable Orion Spacecraft. Under the HEEET project, we are developing a robust heat-shield that can withstand extreme entry conditions, both thermally and mechanically, for entry at Venus, Saturn or higher speed sample return missions. The improved efficiency of HEEET allows science missions entry at much reduced G'loads enabling delicate science instruments to be used. The ADEPT concept is a foldable and deployable entry system and the critical component is a multi-functional fabric that is foldable and deployable and also functions as a mechanical aeroshell and a TPS. The fourth technology we will highlight involves felt to address integration challenges of rigid ablative system such as PICA that was used on MSL. The felt technology allows us to develop a compliant TPS for easy

  9. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be adapted to other gas-phase, liquid phase and secondary crystallization processes to create bulk nanomaterials of another chemical composition with no less unique properties.

  10. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  11. Physical protection of export/import and transportation of nuclear material in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclav, J

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains short overview about average amount of nuclear materials transported on the territory of the Slovak Republic in a year, and the physical protection of these nuclear materials. There are several types of transportation and export/import of nuclear materials in the SR: fresh fuel import; import of other unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium); export of unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. natural uranium); internal transportation of fresh fuel; internal transportation of other unirradiated nuclear materials; internal transportation of spent fuel. The main objective of the nuclear regulatory authority SR is to supervise observation of the national legislation as follows: the act no. 130 / 1998 on peaceful use of nuclear energy; UJD SR's regulation no. 186/1999 which details the physical protection of the nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, and radioactive waste (following requirements of INFCIRC 225 / Rev. 4); UJD SR's regulation no. 284 / 1999 which details conditions of nuclear material and radioactive wastes transportation. (author)

  12. Using computer technology to identify the appropriate radioactive materials packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, K.L.; Conan, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) database is designed to store and retrieve information on all non-classified packages certified for the transport of radioactive materials within the boundaries of the US. The information in RAMPAC is publicly available, and the database has been designed so that individuals without programming experience can search for and retrieve information using a menu-driven system. RAMPAC currently contains information on over 650 radioactive material shipping packages. Information is gathered from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of transportation (DOT), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RAMPAC is the only tool available to radioactive material shippers that contains and reports packaging information from all three Federal Agencies. The DOT information includes package listings from Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Japan, which have DOT revalidations for their certificates of competent authority and are authorized for use within the US for import and export shipments only. RAMPAC was originally developed in 1981 by DOE as a research and development tool. In recent years, however, RAMPAC has proven to be highly useful to operational personnel. As packages become obsolete or materials to be transported change, shippers of radioactive materials must be able to determine if alternative packages exist before designing new packages. RAMPAC is designed to minimize the time required to make this determination, thus assisting the operational community in meeting their goals

  13. 3D printing processes for photocurable polymeric materials: technologies, materials, and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Gabriele; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Messori, Massimo; Bondioli, Federica

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this review is a faithful report of the panorama of solutions adopted to fabricate a component using vat photopolymerization (VP) processes. A general overview on additive manufacturing and on the different technologies available for polymers is given. A comparison between stereolithography and digital light processing is also presented, with attention to different aspects and to the advantages and limitations of both technologies. Afterward, a quick overview of the process parameters is given, with an emphasis on the necessities and the issues associated with the VP process. The materials are then explored, starting from base matrix materials to composites and nanocomposites, with attention to examples of applications and explanations of the main factors involved.

  14. 76 FR 74690 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... with Bolivia on December 4, 2001, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on certain... CFR Part 12 [CBP Dec. 11-24] RIN 1515-AD83 Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Bolivia AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Department of...

  15. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  16. Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology Project bibliography, 1984--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology [for Advanced Heat Engines] Project was begun in 1983 to meet the ceramic materials needs of the companion DOE automotive engine program, the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) project, and the Heavy Duty Transport (low-heat-rejection, heavy-duty diesel) project. Goal is to develop an industry technology base for reliable and cost effective ceramics for applications in advanced automotive gas turbine and diesel engines. Research areas were identified following extensive input from industry and academia. Majority of research is done by industry (60%); work is also done at colleges and universities, in-house, and at other national laboratories and government agencies. In the beginning, reliability of ceramic components was the key issue. The reliability issues have largely been met and, at the present time, cost is the driving issue, especially in light of the highly cost-sensitive automotive market. Emphasis of the program has now been shifted toward developing cost-effective ceramic components for high-performance engines in the near-term. This bibliography is a compilation of publications done in conjunction with the Ceramic Technology Project since its beginning. Citations were obtained from reports done by participants in the project. We have tried to limit citations to those published and easily located. The end date of 1992 was selected.

  17. Material saving by means of CWR technology using optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Iñaki; Ambrosio, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Material saving is currently a must for the forging companies, as material costs sum up to 50% for parts made of steel and up to 90% in other materials like titanium. For long products, cross wedge rolling (CWR) technology can be used to obtain forging preforms with a suitable distribution of the material along its own axis. However, defining the correct preform dimensions is not an easy task and it could need an intensive trial-and-error campaign. To speed up the preform definition, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques on Finite Element Models (FEM) able to reproduce the material behaviour when being rolled. Meta-models Assisted Evolution Strategies (MAES), that combine evolutionary algorithms with Kriging meta-models, are implemented in FORGE® software and they allow reducing optimization computation costs in a relevant way. The paper shows the application of these optimization techniques to the definition of the right preform for a shaft from a vehicle of the agricultural sector. First, the current forging process, based on obtaining the forging preform by means of an open die forging operation, is showed. Then, the CWR preform optimization is developed by using the above mentioned optimization techniques. The objective is to reduce, as much as possible, the initial billet weight, so that a calculation of flash weight reduction due to the use of the proposed preform is stated. Finally, a simulation of CWR process for the defined preform is carried out to check that most common failures (necking, spirals,..) in CWR do not appear in this case.

  18. Development of structural materials on the base of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.F.; Anoshkin, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Some results are considered and possibilities which discovered in development of structural materials connected with development of such new technological processes as skull melting of titanium alloys, granule metallurgy, hot isostatic, diffusion welding are estimated. The method of skull melting with remelted skull is developed. The method assures sufficient possibilities for dissolving of high-heat components of charge and obtaining homogeneous ingots of series of new alloys. Granule metallurgy based on crystallization of the metal with high rate in the form of small (up to 300 μkm) particles and subsequent consolidation of them into compact billet discoveres a wide possibilities of creation of new structural material with more high operation indexes. It is noted that developed processes of granule production, their treatment, compacting and thermal treatment of the billets assure production of metal of high quality, satisfied the strong requirements of present standards. The process of hot isostatic pressing at which the workable metal is subjected to through uniform pressure by compressed gas after heating or semultaneously with its heating up to the temperatures of working in gasostats is one of new technological processes. A certain experience of the HIP use for production of compact billets from granules for diffusion welding of the billets is accumulated. This process has a great possibilities for densification of shaped castings. Investigation and application of the diffusion welding represent combination of elements into details of complex form in vacuum at the temperatures low of melting point under effect of small pressures are investigated both in our country and abroad. Diffusion welding gives a wide possibilities in the development of materials with higher properties at the expence of production of products of large dimensions from thin elements with fine-grained structure as well as products with assigned gradient of chemical composition, structure

  19. Strategic importance of the New Materials in the Sustainable Development and as Alternative of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez E, Wilken; Bejarano B, Hernan; Villazon A, Hernando

    1999-01-01

    The new materials have a growing importance in the national development, and most of the industrialized countries are investing big supreme in the development of these, due to their great strategic paper in the global economic interaction. The present article seeks to give a general vision of the participation of these materials in the world economy as alternative factor of competition, keeping primarily in mind the conservation of the environment and the permanent search of the total quality

  20. The importance of anti corruption education teaching materials for the young generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Made Swanda, I.; Nadiroh, Ulin

    2018-01-01

    Corruption is one of the most serious issues in many countries. The purpose of this paper is to identify the importance of anti-corruption education teaching materials for the younger generation. The research method used qualitative description with questionnaire as data collection tool. The sample in this research was 150 junior high school teachers in Surabaya. Data analysis technique used in this research was descriptive statistic with percentage technique. The result of this research was that Socisl Studies teachers in Surabaya realize that teaching materials on Anti-Corruption Education is very important in Social Studies learning activities. Recommendations for further research is to examine the antieducation teaching materials that contain the value of anti-corruption character. With anticorruption education is expected to give awareness and change to all the younger generation to understand and realize the importance of having the character of anti-corruption and can mengnglemlem in society.

  1. International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ginson P.

    2015-02-01

    FROM THE CONVENOR'S DESK The Department of Physics, St. Thomas College Pala, is highly privileged to organize an International Conference on Materials Science and Technology (ICMST 2012) during 10-14 June 2012, and as Convenor of the conference it is with legitimate pride and immense gratitude to God that I remember the most enthusiastic responses received for this from scientists all over the world. In a time of tremendous revolutionary changes in Materials Science and Technology, it is quite in keeping with the tradition of a pioneering institute that St. Thomas College is, to have risen to the occasion to make this conference a reality. We have no doubt that this proved to be a historic event, a real breakthrough, not only for us the organizers but also for all the participants. A conference of this kind provides a nonpareil, a distinctly outstanding platform for the scholars, researchers and the scientists to discuss and share ideas with delegates from all over the world. This had been most fruitful to the participants in identifying new collaborations and strengthening existing relations. That experts of diverse disciplines from across the world were sitting under one roof for five days, exchanging views and sharing findings, was a speciality of this conference. The event has evoked excellent responses from all segments of the Materials Science community worldwide. 600 renowned scholars from 28 countries participated in this. We were uniquely honoured to have Prof. C.N.R. Rao, Chairman, Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India, to inaugurate this conference. May I take this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed their valuable share, diverse in tone and nature, in the making of this conference. My whole hearted gratitude is due to the international and national members of the advisory committee for their valuable guidance and involvement. I place on record my heartfelt gratitude to our sponsors. I am sure that this conference has

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on new material development. Nano-technology and hydrogen energy society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Ohgaki, Junpei

    2005-03-01

    We have newly held the Workshop on New Material Development in order to enhance the research activities on new material development using radiation. Theme of this workshop was 'nano-technology and hydrogen', both of which are considered to have great influence on our social life and have shown rapid progress in the related researches, recently. Researchers from domestic universities, research institutes, and private companies have attended at the workshop and had the opportunity to exchange information and make discussions about the latest trend in the leading edge researches, and have contributed to the material development in future. The technology for manufacturing and evaluation of very fine materials, which is essential for the nano-technology, and the development of new functional materials, which will support the hydrogen energy society in future, have increasingly become important and have been intensively investigated by many research groups. In such investigation, the ionizing radiation is indispensable as the tool for probing and modifying materials. For this reason, this workshop was held at JAERI, Takasaki, a center of excellence for radiation application in Japan. This workshop was held by JAERI, Takasaki, on November 19, 2004 under the joint auspices of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Chemical Society of Japan, the Polymer Science Society of Japan and the Japanese Society of Radiation Chemistry. The workshop was attended by 97 participates. We believe that this workshop supported by many academic societies will largely contribute to the research on new material development in the field of nano-technology and hydrogen. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  4. Materials technology for InSb MISFET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, W.; Chen, C.W.; Lile, D.L.; Junga, F.

    1989-01-01

    The narrow and direct bandgap of indium antimonide is frequently used to good advantage in detection of light in the infra-red region; however, to data little use has been made of the high mobilities associated with this material. Although its high intrinsic carrier concentration generally necessitates operation at cooled temperatures, higher speeds and the advantage of integrating other devices on-chip with the infrared detectors encourages the development of an active device technology on this semiconductor. Considering its small bandgap, the problems associated with good p-n junctions may favor the MISFET in this application. Surprisingly, little has been done toward this goal, though structures such as charge-coupled-devices, focal array detectors, and a few insulated gate FETs have been fabricated. In this paper the authors present the results of recent work toward the development of a fabrication technology for InSb MISFETs. Specifically, they have conducted a study of etchants, metal contacts, and dielectrics for application to mesa-structure, insulated gate field transistors

  5. Application of Telepresence Technologies to Nuclear Material Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.C.; Rome, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of remote monitoring systems has become a priority area for the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international inspection regimes. For the past three years, DOE2000 has been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) initiative to develop innovative applications to exploit the capabilities of broadband networks and media integration. The aim is to enhance scientific collaboration by merging computing and communications technologies. These Internet-based telepresence technologies could be easily extended to provide remote monitoring and control for confidence building and transparency systems at nuclear facilities around the world. One of the original DOE2000 projects, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory is an interactive virtual laboratory, linking seven DOE user facilities located across the US. At these facilities, external collaborators have access to scientists, data, and instrumentation, all of which are available to varying degrees using the Internet. Remote operation of the instruments varies between passive (observational) to active (direct control), in many cases requiring no software at the remote site beyond a Web browser. Live video streams are continuously available on the Web so that participants can see what is happening at a particular location. An X.509 certificate system provides strong authentication, The hardware and software are commercially available and are easily adaptable to safeguards applications

  6. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  7. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  8. Engineering light: advances in wavelength conversion materials for energy and environmental technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Ezra L; Chinnapongse, Stephanie L; Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-11-20

    Upconversion photoluminescence (UC) occurs in optical materials that are capable of absorbing low energy photons and emitting photons of higher energy and shorter wavelength, while downconversion (DC) materials may absorb one high energy photon and emit two of lower energy for quantum yields exceeding unity. These wavelength conversion processes allow us to transform electromagnetic radiation so it may be more effectively utilized by light-capturing devices and materials. Progress in designing more efficient organic and inorganic photochemical conversion systems has initiated a recent surge in attempts to apply these processes for practical uses, including enhancement of many energy and environmental technologies. In this review, we introduce important concepts in UC and DC materials and discuss the current status and challenges toward the application of wavelength conversion to solar cells, photocatalysis, and antimicrobial surfaces.

  9. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Nuclear technology applications in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Junchen; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology to material science has led to a new cross subject, nuclear material science (also named nuclear solid physics) which covers material analysis, material modification and new material synthesis. This paper reviews the development of nuclear technical applications in material science and the basic physics involved

  10. Co-combustion of waste materials using fluidized bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; T. Crujeira; D. Boavida; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in using renewable fuels in order to sustain the CO{sub 2} accumulation. Several waste materials can be used as coal substitutes as long as they contain significant combustible matter, as for example MSW and sewage sludge. Besides the outcome of the energetic valorization of such materials, combustion must be regarded as a pre-treatment process, contributing to the safe management of wastes. Landfilling is an expensive management option and requires a previous destruction of the organic matter present in residues, since its degradation generates greenhouse gases and produces acidic organic leachates. Fluidized bed combustion is a promising technology for the use of mixtures of coal and combustible wastes. This paper presents INETI's experience in the co-combustion of coal with this kind of residues performed in a pilot fluidized bed. Both the RDF (from MSW and sewage sludge) and sewage sludge combustion problems were addressed, relating the gaseous emissions, the behaviour of metals and the leachability of ashes and a comparison was made between co-combustion and mono-combustion in order to verify the influence of the utilization of coal. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  12. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  13. Freeze-drying technology: A separation technique for liquid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, J.A.; Efurd, D.W.; Banar, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Freeze-drying technology (FDT) has been around for several decades as a separation technology. Most commonly, FDT is associated with the processing of food, but the largest industrial-scale use of FDT is in the pharmaceutical industry. Through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with BOC Edwards Calumatic, we are demonstrating the feasibility of FDT as a waste minimization and pollution prevention technology. This is a novel and innovative application of FDT. In addition, we plan to demonstrate that the freeze-dried residue is an ideal feed material for ceramic stabilization of radioactive waste and excess fissile material. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of FDT for the separation of complex radioactive and nonradioactive materials, including liquids, slurries, and sludges containing a wide variety of constituents in which the separation factors are >10 8 . This is the first application of FDT in which the condensate is of primary importance. Our focus is applying this technology to the elimination of radioactive liquid discharges from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and within the U.S. Department of Energy complex; however, successful demonstration will lead to nuclear industry-wide applications

  14. Life cycle assessment of waste paper management: The importance of technology data and system boundaries in assessing recycling and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrild, Hanna; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Bygning 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing on global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate was studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved biomass, in order to study the importance of the system boundary choices. For recycling, the choice of virgin paper manufacturing data is most important, but the results show that also the impacts from the reprocessing technologies fluctuate greatly. For the overall results the choice of the technology data is of importance when comparing recycling including virgin paper substitution with incineration including energy substitution. Combining an environmentally high or low performing recycling technology with an environmentally high or low performing incineration technology can give quite different results. The modelling showed that recycling of paper, from a life cycle point of view, is environmentally equal or better than incineration with energy recovery only when the recycling technology is at a high environmental performance level. However, the modelling also showed that expanding the system to include substitution of fossil fuel energy by production of energy from the saved biomass associated with recycling will give a completely different result. In this case recycling is always more beneficial than incineration, thus increased recycling is desirable. Expanding the system to include forestry was shown to have a minor effect on the results. As assessments are often performed with a set choice of data and a set recycling rate, it is questionable how useful the results from

  15. Review of New Technology for Preparing Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials by Metallurgical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Dai, Yongnian; Ma, Wenhui; Yang, Bin; Chu, Qingmei

    2017-11-01

    The goals of greatly reducing the photovoltaic power cost and making it less than that of thermal power to realize photovoltaic power grid parity without state subsidies are focused on in this paper. The research status, key technologies and development of the new technology for preparing crystalline silicon solar cell materials by metallurgical method at home and abroad are reviewed. The important effects of impurities and defects in crystalline silicon on its properties are analysed. The importance of new technology on reducing production costs and improving its quality to increase the cell conversion efficiency are emphasized. The previous research results show that the raw materials of crystalline silicon are extremely abundant. The product of crystalline silicon can meet the quality requirements of solar cell materials: Si ≥ 6 N, P 1 Ω cm, minority carrier life > 25 μs cell conversion efficiency of about 19.3%, the product costs dollars / kg, the product energy consumption < 30 kwh / kg. The existing problems are pointed out. The prospect of the new metallurgical process with low cost, low energy consumption, low carbon and sustainable development are prospected.

  16. Using crowdsourcing technology for testing multilingual public health promotion materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Kirchhoff, Katrin; Capurro, Daniel

    2012-06-04

    Effective communication of public health messages is a key strategy for health promotion by public health agencies. Creating effective health promotion materials requires careful message design and feedback from representatives of target populations. This is particularly true when the target audiences are hard to reach as limited English proficiency groups. Traditional methods of soliciting feedback--such as focus groups and convenience sample interviews--are expensive and time consuming. As a result, adequate feedback from target populations is often insufficient due to the time and resource constraints characteristic to public health. To describe a pilot study investigating the use of crowdsourcing technology as a method to gather rapid and relevant feedback on the design of health promotion messages for oral health. Our goal was to better describe the demographics of participants responding to a crowdsourcing survey and to test whether crowdsourcing could be used to gather feedback from English-speaking and Spanish-speaking participants in a short period of time and at relatively low costs. We developed health promotion materials on pediatric dental health issues in four different formats and in two languages (English and Spanish). We then designed an online survey to elicit feedback on format preferences and made it available in both languages via the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We surveyed 236 native English-speaking and 163 native Spanish-speaking participants in less than 12 days, at a cost of US $374. Overall, Spanish-speaking participants originated from a wider distribution of countries than the overall Latino population in the United States. Most participants were in the 18- to 29-year age range and had some college or graduate education. Participants provided valuable input for the health promotion material design. Our results indicate that crowdsourcing can be an effective method for recruiting and gaining feedback from English

  17. The natural and man made radioactivity in some local and imported sorbent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL AFIFI, E.M.; HILAL, M.A.; DAIFUALLAH, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to detect the radioactivity concentrations (Bq/kg dry weight) in some sorbent materials used in several industrial purposes. This radioactivity may be natural or artificial. Five brands of these materials were investigated, three of them were manufactured locally while the other two were imported. The samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry to assess the activity concentration. The results showed that the local samples contained primordial radionuclides of uranium-238 ( 238 U), uranium-235 ( 235 U) and thorium-232 ( 232 Th) and their respective decay progenies ( 226 Ra, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 210 Pb, 235 U, 228 Ra (Ac), 212 Pb, 208 Tl) and potassium-40 ( 40 K). The two imported samples were found to contain 137 Cs as well as the natural radioactivity. The correlation coefficient (r) was calculated and discussed for total activity and fixed carbon content of samples. Value of correlation coefficient showed poor relation between activity concentration and carbon content (%). The radium equivalent index and the total absorbed dose rates due to gamma emissions were also estimated and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, it is favourable to use the sorbents manufactured locally and if it is necessary to use the imported sorbents, these materials should be surveyed radiologically before use to avoid its radiation hazards for the workers in this field and/or contamination of the treated materials consequently to the public

  18. The importance of the technologically able social innovators and entrepreneurs: A US National Laboratory Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, Victor; Stinnett, Regan; Tierney, Robert; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    A country's National Innovation Policies (NIP) often center on military, energy or other national security missions. Yet many countries' NIPs have resulted in tremendous societal benefit through both planned and unplanned action not associated with these goals. Socially important technology product

  19. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc... Materials Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas, (FTZ Docket 46-2009, filed October 27, 2009... Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas (Subzone 265C), as described in the application and...

  20. Enhancing the Efficiency of Removing Support Material from Rapid Prototype Parts using pH Value Compensation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chil-Chyuan KUO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Removing support material from rapid prototyping (RP parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM is required. Removing the support material rapidly and efficiently is an important concern because the product life cycle is shorter than before. The measurement of pH value in solution is an important issue affecting the efficiency of removing support material. In this work, a method was proposed to enhance the efficiency of removing support material from rapid prototype parts using pH value compensation technology. It is found that the pH value11.6 is a good candidate for compensating the solution during removing process. The efficiency of removing support material increases with increasing the times of compensation. The savings in the removing time is up to 72% using pH value compensation technology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6523

  1. Review of information technologies and their importance in the educational directory of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Викторович Иванов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the fact that the need for education is continuous and ongoing process therefore anytime anywhere access to it is becoming a necessity. The need for information is constantly increasing phenomenon. Education should meet the needs of different groups of learners, and therefore, modern information technologies are important to meet this need. Discusses the requirements of society, which consist in the fact that all the members of this society have the necessary level of technological literacy. Thus, increasing access and reducing the cost of education with the aim of achieving the planned quality of education possible to implement cloud-based IT technologies. Sets out the specifics of cloud computing, which imposes special requirements for training in their use, including the management of educational process. Draws conclusions about what information and communication technologies, understanding the capabilities of cloud technologies and their impact on the management efficiency of the education system, are the main prerequisites for the development of professional competence of the head of the educational organization in the field of information technology.

  2. Characterization of materials of industrial importance using small-angle scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.

    2003-01-01

    Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques using either X-rays or neutrons are versatile tools for deriving information on the size, morphology and dispersion of colloidal systems in complex materials of industrial importance. The processes such as self-assembly, aggregation, crystallization and phase separation can be studied using SAS techniques at relevant conditions. The difference in the interaction of X-rays and neutrons with matter enables complementary contrast variation studies using SANS and anomalous SAXS (in the presence of metals) on multi-component materials with hierarchical structures. In this paper we present results from small angle scattering studies on a number of systems of industrial importance including, temperature/pressure/shear dependent phase behaviour of pluronics in aqueous media, solution structures of aggregates/polymers of metal-extractant complexes, third phase formation of metal-extractant complexes in organic phase, encapsulation of lanthanides and actinides in porous silica and phase separation and nanocrystallization in bulk metallic glasses. (orig.)

  3. Importance of material evaluation prior to the construction of devices for in vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jessica; Halter, Beat; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-11-01

    The development and validation of new in vitro methods in the field of toxicology have gained more importance in recent years due to stricter guidelines for animal testing, especially in the European Union. Consequently, advances in the construction of technical devices for the exposure of cell or tissue cultures to test substances are necessary. Here, to obtain reliable results, it is important to exclusively use materials that do not interfere with the cell viability. Thus, similar to the biomaterials testing of medical devices which is regulated in the Directive 93/42/EEC, the biocompatibility of the materials has to be verified prior to the construction of such devices. We present here a novel approach for biomaterials testing which allows the quantitative and qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity of material samples. Stainless steel and silicone are often used for laboratory equipment, due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. However, our results highlight that some types of silicone may have adverse effects on cultured cells. Moreover, special methods for the surface treatment of metals may also be a critical factor for in vitro devices. Therefore, the testing of all materials coming in contact with cell cultures is highly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Notification to the Agency of exports and imports of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The document reproduces the letter dated 15 November 1991 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative to the Agency of the People's Republic of China, informing him that, in the interest of assisting the Agency in its safeguards activities, the Government of the People's Republic of China had decided to provide it henceforth with information on exports and imports of nuclear material

  5. Notification to the Agency of Exports and Imports of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On 16 February 1984 the Director General received a letter dated 7 February 1984 from the Governor from France on the Agency's Board of Governors informing him that, in the interest of assisting the Agency in its safeguards activities, the Government of France had decided to provide it henceforth with information on exports and imports of nuclear material. In the light of the request made in this letter, its text is reproduced

  6. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  7. Importance of material and friction characterisation for FE-aided process design of hybrid bevel gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Matthias, T.

    2017-10-01

    Solid-forming components are often used in areas where they are subjected to very high loads. For most solid components locally divergent and sometimes contradictory requirements exist. Despite these contradictory requirements, almost exclusively monomaterials are nowadays used for the production of solid components. These components often reach their material-specific limits because of increasing demands on the products. Thus a significant increase in product quality and profitability would result from combining different materials in order to create tailored properties. In the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1153 "Tailored Forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, this topic is investigated. The primary objective of the CRC 1153 is to develop and investigate new tailored manufacturing processes to produce reliable hybrid solid semi-finished components. In contrast to existing production processes of hybrid solid components, semi-finished workpieces in the CRC 1153 are joined before the forming phase. Thus, it will be possible to produce complex and highly stressable solid components made of different metals, which cannot be produced yet with the current used technologies. In this work the material and friction characteristics are investigated and the forming tool for the production of hybrid bevel gears made of different steel alloys (C22 and 41Cr4) is designed by numerical simulations. For this purpose, flow curves of both materials are determined by means of upsetting tests at process-related forming temperatures and strain rates. The temperature range for the forming process of the semi-finished product is determined by comparing the respective flow curves regarding similar flow stresses. Furthermore, the friction between the tool and the joining materials is investigated by means of ring upsetting tests at a process-relevant temperature. Finally, a stress analysis of the forming tools is carried out.

  8. Passive RF component technology materials, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on novel materials and techniques, this pioneering volume provides you with a solid understanding of the design and fabrication of smart RF passive components. You find comprehensive details on LCP, metal materials, ferrite materials, nano materials, high aspect ratio enabled materials, green materials for RFID, and silicon micromachining techniques. Moreover, this practical book offers expert guidance on how to apply these materials and techniques to design a wide range of cutting-edge RF passive components, from MEMS switch based tunable passives and 3D passives, to metamaterial-bas

  9. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Zrnic; Milos Dordevic; Branislav Dragovic; Srdan Bosnjak

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials han-dling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby en-vironment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous ma-terials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possibl...

  10. Technology Transfer in the EU: Exporting Strategically Important ICT Solutions to Other EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Säär Anni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of ICTs pose new challenges to the European Union and its Member States. Every EU country has its own policies regarding technology transfer, ownership of state e-services, and the possibilities how the state-owned or licensed e-service could be exported. Taking into account the free movement of goods, the EU has created a platform to cooperate and export IT solutions. However, the lack of preparedness of infrastructures, legislation and stakeholders for cross-border exchanges poses a threat to IT transfer and should be taken into consideration in the EU as well. In the coming decades the number of outsourced ICT solutions, strategically important ICT solutions, public services and critically important information exchange platforms developed on behalf of the states, will grow exponentially. Still, digital development is uneven across the EU, they grow at different speeds and the performance is quite splintered. There are legal provisions which are outdated and therefore impede technological cooperation and export of IT solutions. A Member State may restrict the ICT licensing based on national security and policy reasons and the ownership of intellectual property might pose a threat to technology transfer or further development of the IT solution. There are examples of strategically important export of ICT solutions, the experience at which can be expanded to cover other EU Member States. Strong collaboration would enable mutual learning from past experiences along with the opportunities for better use of technology. Parallels can be drawn with military technology transfers, as the policies and legal framework was first developed and mostly used with them.

  11. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  12. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    , both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects......Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included...

  13. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  14. Design of a study of Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Rothman, A.B.; Bucher, R.G.; Daly, T.A.; Cha, B.C.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Seefeldt, W.B.; Stewart, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is a program to develop an interactive computer-based management system for decision support in evaluating Material Control and Accountancy (MCandA) upgrades and for validating the MCandA aspects of the Master Safeguards and Security Agreements (MSSA) effectiveness. This paper briefly reviews SAMCAT and presents the status of current activities, with primary focus on the design of a pilot study that has been planned for the near-term development program. The objective of the pilot study is to aid in the development and testing of assessment technologies by utilizing data and information from recent upgrades in MCandA measurements at several of the measurement locations that were important contributors to the uncertainty of the inventory differences (IDs) for a specific material balance area (MBA). The FB-Line MBA in the plutonium production cycle through Savannah River was recommended as a candidate MBA for the study. Attributes considered as selection criteria of key measurement locations for MCandA upgrades, importance rankings of the measurement locations, modeling approaches in evaluating the effectiveness of upgrades at given locations, and the data requirements to support the pilot study are presented. Applications of the near-term pilot study to the overall SAMCAT development program are also presented. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Simulation of high fluence swelling behavior in technological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Powell, R.W.; Diamond, S.; Lauritzen, T.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Sprague, J.A.; Keefer, D.

    1977-06-01

    The U.S. Breeder Reactor Program is employing charged particle irradiation experiments at accelerated displacement rates to simulate neutron-induced microstructural changes in materials of technological interest. Applications of the simulation technique range from the study of fundamental microstructural mechanisms to the development of predictions of the high fluence swelling behavior of candidate alloys for breeder reactor ducts and fuel cladding. An exact equivalence probably cannot be established between all facets of the microstructural evolution which occurs in the disparate charged-particle and neutron environments. To aid in the correlation of data developed in the two environments an assessment has been made of the factors influencing the simulation process. A series of intercorrelation programs and analysis activities have been conducted to identify and explore the relevant phenomena. The factors found to exert substantial influence on the correlation process fall into two categories, one which deals with those variables which are atypical of the neutron environment and one which deals with the additional factors which arise due to the large differences in displacement rate of the two irradiation environments. While the various simulation techniques have been invaluable in determining the basic mechanisms and parametric dependencies of swelling, the potential of these tools in the confident prediction of swelling at high neutron fluence has yet to be realized. The basic problem lies in the inability of the simulation technique to reproduce the early microstructural development in the period that precedes and encompasses the incubation of voids. The concepts of temperature shift and dose equivalency have also been found to be more complicated than previously imagined. Preconditioning of metals in a neutron environment prior to simulation testing is now being employed in order to provide more appropriate starting microstructures

  16. Research of interaction between technological and material parameters during densification of sunflower hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križan, Peter; Matúš, Miloš; Beniak, Juraj; Šooš, Ľubomír

    2018-01-01

    During the biomass densification can be recognized various technological variables and also material parameters which significantly influences the final solid biofuels (pellets) quality. In this paper, we will present the research findings concerning relationships between technological and material variables during densification of sunflower hulls. Sunflower hulls as an unused source is a typical product of agricultural industry in Slovakia and belongs to the group of herbaceous biomass. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the impact of compression pressure, compression temperature and material particle size distribution on final biofuels quality. Experimental research described in this paper was realized by single-axis densification, which was represented by experimental pressing stand. The impact of mentioned investigated variables on the final briquettes density and briquettes dilatation was determined. Mutual interactions of these variables on final briquettes quality are showing the importance of mentioned variables during the densification process. Impact of raw material particle size distribution on final biofuels quality was also proven by experimental research on semi-production pelleting plant.

  17. Export and import provisions for nuclear materials and power plants, from the legal point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper provides a general review of the legal bases for and the administrative procedures involved in the export and import licensing of nuclear power reactors, fuels, and other nuclear materials by the United States. The basic statutory provisions and requirements are briefly described, and the requirement of an agreement for cooperation reviewed. The regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are covered in greater detail as they apply to the export and import of power reactors, nuclear fuels, source materials and byproduct materials. The intra-governmental procedures for review of an application for an export license are described in detail. Problems encountered in the administration of the law and regulations are described and the methods of resolving them are noted. The paper concludes with a brief account of three current topics, 1) the preparation of an environmental impact statement for export programs, 2) the situation with respect to the export licensing of component parts of reactors by the U.S. Department of Commerce, and 3) the shipment of plutonium by air. (orig.) [de

  18. IRMM Certified Reference Materials and k0-NAA: an important role for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Pauwels, J.; Pomm, S.

    1998-01-01

    The k 0 -Neutron Activation Analysis method was introduced at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) in 1994. This analytical technique is routinely used at IRMM for the production control, homogeneity and stability tests and/or for certification of metallic, biological and environmental reference materials. The successful implementation of k 0 -NAA was proven at several certification exercises - such as ISS Antarctic Sediment, BCR Mussel Tissue and BCR Bovine Liver, SMU Bovine Blood - where all our results were accepted for certification. Responding to regulatory and/or scientific demands, IRMM is collaborating with national institutes to develop new high quality reference materials: (i) in the field of Neutron dosimetry: high purity nickel, Al-Ag or Zr-Au-Lu alloys; (ii) for environmental and industrial monitoring: Antarctic krill, doped plastics or catalytic converters; (iii) synthetic multi-element standard for the accreditation of k 0 -NAA laboratories. Far from being exhaustive, this list highlights the important role that k 0 -NAA will play in the certification of reference materials in the years 2000. (author)

  19. Material System Engineering for Advanced Electrocaloric Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoshi

    Electrocaloric effect refers to the entropy change and/or temperature change in dielectrics caused by the electric field induced polarization change. Recent discovery of giant ECE provides an opportunity to realize highly efficient cooling devices for a broad range of applications ranging from household appliances to industrial applications, from large-scale building thermal management to micro-scale cooling devices. The advances of electrocaloric (EC) based cooling device prototypes suggest that highly efficient cooling devices with compact size are achievable, which could lead to revolution in next generation refrigeration technology. This dissertation focuses on both EC based materials and cooling devices with their recent advances that address practical issues. Based on better understandings in designing an EC device, several EC material systems are studied and improved to promote the performances of EC based cooling devices. In principle, applying an electric field to a dielectric would cause change of dipolar ordering states and thus a change of dipolar entropy. Giant ECE observed in ferroelectrics near ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition temperature is owing to the large dipolar orientation change, between random-oriented dipolar states in paraelectric phase and spontaneous-ordered dipolar states in ferroelectric phases, which is induced by external electric fields. Besides pursuing large ECE, studies on EC cooling devices indicated that EC materials are required to possess wide operational temperature window, in which large ECE can be maintained for efficient operations. Although giant ECE was first predicted in ferroelectric polymers, where the large effect exhibits near FEPE phase transition, the narrow operation temperature window poses obstacles for these normal ferroelectrics to be conveniently perform in wide range of applications. In this dissertation, we demonstrated that the normal ferroelectric polymers can be converted to relaxor

  20. Materials Testing: Why Don't Those Bats Break? Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes high-tech methods of materials testing and organizations that perform it. Suggests that materials testing is an ideal example of the integration of mathematics, science, and technology. (SK)

  1. High Technology Development and Creation of Experimental Industrial Area of High-Performance Precision Diamond Dress Tool Production for Engineering Needs and Import Substitution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing design of high-precision diamond tool for special applications carried out at V. M Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials of NAS of Ukraine is described. Presented developments open up scientific and technological capabilities of special dress diamond tool production for mechanical engineering and substitution of imported tools at Ukrainian enterprises by home-produced.

  2. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC); 2) Structural Materials Radiation Effects (SMoRE); 3) Water Chemistry (FUWAC) and 4) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel assembly damage that did not result in breach of the fuel rod cladding, such as assembly bow or crud deposition an the experience with these unexpected fuel issues shows that they can seriously affect plant operations, and it is clear that concerns about reliability in this area are of similar importance today as fuel rod failures, at least for LWR fuel are discussed. Detection, examination and analysis of fuel failures and description of failures and mitigation measures as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications, including extraction, forming, properties and irradiation experience are presented

  3. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  4. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  5. Effect of imports of uranium on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The report gives results of an investigation to determine the effects of uranium imports on the national security. Uranium is essential to the operation of the Navy's nuclear-powered fleet, for nuclear weapon capability and for civilian nuclear energy generation. US utilities imported 43.8 percent of their uranium requirements in 1986 and 51.1 percent in 1987. The report finds that the domestic industry's competitiveness has deteriorated in recent years, due to the easily accessible and richer deposits available elsewhere. The report concludes, however, that in a national security emergency, defense requirements could be met through stockpiles of finished nuclear materials set aside for military needs. Furthermore, civilian requirements could be met through US production, reliable imports, inventories, and tails reprocessing. The report, therefore, finds that uranium is not being imported in such quantities or under such circumstances as to represent a threat to the national security

  6. Biomimicry and the Materiality of Ecological Technology and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the concept of nature that is presupposed in biomimetic approaches to technology and innovation. Because current practices of biomimicry presuppose a technological model of nature, it is questionable whether its claim of being a more ecosystem friendly approach to

  7. On-line radiation teaching materials using IT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We developed the on-line radiation teaching materials using the Internet, in order to provide the teaching support materials of atomic power and radiation educations in on-school study, as well as to create the complementary study system in off-school study. The themes of teaching materials were selected from requests by teachers. In the case of an elementary school, the teaching material 'an environmental problem and atomic power' was created as the aggregate of each content for study without boundary between subjects. The teaching material 'medical treatment and radiation' was created for junior high school students to raise the individual knowledge. In the case of a high school, the teaching material nucleus and radiation' was prepared to supplement the physical study of students. The on-line teaching materials were tried to 300 junior high school and high school students, 68% of students answered that the teaching material is effective to understand atomic power and radiation, though 17% answered they were not effective. Although there are problems to prepare IT learning equipments and learning follow-up system in the material, it is suggested that the on-line teaching materials will provide the novel learning system including debates for the study. This method has no limitation of time and place. (author)

  8. The socio-materiality of learning practices and implications for the field of learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Johri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of digital information technologies in education has becomecommonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories thatexplicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In thispaper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitionersalike by working as a conduit to study and design learning technologies.Towards this goal, I propose socio-materiality as a key theoretical construct withvaluable insights and implications for the field of learning technology. Sociomaterialityhelps balance the disproportionate attention given to either the socialimplications of technology use or the material aspects of technology design.Furthermore, I forward ‘socio-material bricolage' as a useful analytical frameworkto examine and design technology-infused learning environments. I illustratethe value of the framework by applying it to three case studies of formaland informal technology-based learning.

  9. The Effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design Course to Teacher Candidates' Gaining of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkoparam, Süleyman Burak; Kiliç, Muhammet Emre; Usta, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies of teacher candidates in Turkish Teaching department of Mevlana (Rumi) University and the effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design (ITMD) Course on TPACK. The study is a study of quantitative type and single-group pretest-posttest…

  10. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  11. Irradiation of gelatin. Important applications for the development of new materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, N. L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05008-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Gelatin is obtained from a naturally occurring protein, collagen, by chemical and thermal hydrolysis. As a protein, gelatin is biodegradable. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because the dehydrated gelatin is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Gelatin melts to a liquid when heated and solidifies when cooled again. Together with water, it forms a semi-solid colloid gel. If gelatin is placed in contact with cold water, some of the material dissolves, their solubility being determined by their manufacturing method. Ionizing radiation acting on aqueous biological systems produces labile intermediates. Macromolecular free radicals may be diffusion ally mobile in homogenous solutions but relatively immobile in gelled systems. In this paper, different works, some of them performed in our laboratory, are firstly described showing gelatin irradiation in diverse systems. We have already studied the mechanical properties of gelatin composites prepared with a natural fiber, plasticizer and treated by electron beam irradiation. Departing from that, the range of novel applications for gelatin composites like gelatin nanoparticles as biodegradable s and low cell toxic alternative carrier delivery systems are outlined. The potential and the possibilities of using gelatin irradiation for important applications for the development of new materials for medical and food industry are presented. (Author)

  12. W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwell, H.

    1997-09-19

    This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, a friend and colleague for over 40 years, attended the event and shared his personal reminiscences. Dr. Seaborg is Associate Director-At-Large at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Compendium begins with three papers which demonstrate the ongoing importance of magnetism in physics and material science. Other contributions cover the highlights of Dr. Henry`s career as a researcher, educator, and inventor. Colleagues and former students share insights on the impact of Dr. Henry`s research in the field of magnetism, low temperature physics, and solid state physics; his influence on students as an educator; and his character, intellect and ingenuity, and passion for learning and teaching. They share a glimpse of the environment and times that molded him as a man, and the circumstances under which he made his great achievements despite the many challenges he faced.

  13. Waste processing: new near infrared technologies for material identification and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesetti, M.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The awareness of environmental issues on a global scale increases the opportunities for waste handling companies. Recovery is set to become all the more important in areas such as waste selection, minerals processing, electronic scrap, metal and plastic recycling, refuse and the food industry. Effective recycling relies on effective sorting. Sorting is a fundamental step of the waste disposal/recovery process. The big players in the sorting market are pushing for the development of new technologies to cope with literally any type of waste. The purpose of this tutorial is to gain an understanding of waste management, frameworks, strategies, and components that are current and emerging in the field. A particular focus is given to spectroscopic techniques that pertains the material selection process with a greater emphasis placed on the NIR technology for material identification. Three different studies that make use of NIR technology are shown, they are an example of some of the possible applications and the excellent results that can be achieved with this technique.

  14. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  15. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of

  16. Importance of nuclear technology in the conservation and production of nutritional fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.

  17. Material problems in high temperature corrosive environments and their solution by surface technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Toshio; Shibata, Keiichi

    1992-01-01

    The materials for high temperature facilities are usually determined by the heat resistant strength except special corrosive environment. High temperature corrosion has been considered in the case of using low quality fuel which is avoided recently. Even though fuel is clean, high temperature corrosion occurs due to the rise of design temperature and the intake of sea salt particles. There is also one more high temperature corrosion problem on process side that consumes heat energy. The research on high temperature corrosion is important for realizing new energy system such as molten carbonate type fuel cell, pulverized coal-firing supercritical power generation and high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. In this report, the examples experienced actually in a chemical plant are examined, and the possibility of material technology against high temperature corrosion is reviewed. Corrosion phenomena in high temperature environment, the examples of corrosion in the high temperature facilities in a chemical plant and the material technology as the countermeasures for corrosion prevention are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Information Technology and Transcription of Reading Materials for the Visually Impaired Persons in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkiko, Christopher; Atinmo, Morayo I.; Michael-Onuoha, Happiness Chijioke; Ilogho, Julie E.; Fagbohun, Michael O.; Ifeakachuku, Osinulu; Adetomiwa, Basiru; Usman, Kazeem Omeiza

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown inadequate reading materials for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Information technology has greatly advanced the provision of information to the visually impaired in other industrialized climes. This study investigated the extent of application of information technology to the transcription of reading materials for the…

  19. Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, J. F; Mattausch, G; Morgner, H; Hass, D. D; Wadley, H. N

    2000-01-01

    Directed vapor deposition (DVD) is a recently developed electron beam-based evaporation technology designed to enhance the creation of high performance thick and thin film coatings on small area surfaces...

  20. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  1. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs

  2. Proceedings of the third international conference on recent advances in material processing technology: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, S.L.; Manisekar, K.; Lenin, N.; Ramanan, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the conference was to disseminate information on the latest trends and global research in manufacturing and material processing techniques. This conference provided a forum to share information on technologies, concepts, and techniques to improve the quality of the products and productivity. The deliberations at the conference provided discussion on Casting Technology, Forming processes, Manufacturing Techniques, Simulation and Modeling Techniques, Tools and Precision Engineering, Condition Monitoring, Composites, Optimization Techniques, Surface Engineering, Welding Technology, Nano Technology, Recycle Technology, Fuel Cell Technology, Sensors and Robotics, Materials for Energy Engineering, Rapid Protyping, Eco-Manufacturing Systems, Functionally Graded Materials, Non-Destructive Evaluation, Materials Development and Evaluation etc. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Designing and Developing Supplemental Technology of PACI Model Materials through Blended Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Limbong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century English teachers and lecturers are required to have competencies in translating Content Knowledge (CK, integrating various Pedagogical Knolwedge (PK and implementing Technological Knowledge (TK in order to produce effective and efficient teaching. This research reveals and describes researchers efforts and pre-service EFL teachers (PSEFLTs roles in designing and developing the supplemental teaching and learning materials with PowerPoint, Audacity, Camtasia and Internet. To transform researcher roles and model to introduce and implement Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK framework, this research implemented blended learning: traditional face to face (F2F and Facebook closed-group discussion (FBcgD based on Project-Based Learning (PBL. This research employed the qualitative autobiography narrative of self-study from the researchers experiences to implement blended learning. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with four PSEFLTs of group A and five PSEFLTs of group B to seek the PSEFLTs experiences in designing and developing PACI model. The results suggested that blended learning is can effectively and efficiently integrate and implement the design and development of a PACI model. Most importantly both of researcher and two groups realized that in integration of TPACK during a Computer Literacy course, the subject matter may be shaped by the application of technology; teaching as well as learning might be changed by the use of technology and the way to represent and communicate specific lessons to students.

  4. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Costs and Benefits of Vendor Sponsored Learning Materials in Information Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for qualified information technology professionals remains high despite downturns in the economy. It is imperative to provide students with a curriculum that provides a broad foundation in information technology knowledge, skills, and abilities. Students also need access to specialized technologies and learning materials to develop the…

  6. A review of accelerated carbonation technology in the treatment of cement-based materials and sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bertos, M.; Simons, S.J.R.; Hills, C.D.; Carey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moist calcium silicate minerals are known to readily react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The reaction products can cause rapid hardening and result in the production of monolithic materials. Today, accelerated carbonation is a developing technology, which may have potential for the treatment of wastes and contaminated soils and for the sequestration of CO 2 , an important greenhouse gas. This paper reviews recent developments in this emerging technology and provides information on the parameters that control the process. The effects of the accelerated carbonation reaction on the solid phase are discussed and future potential applications of this technology are also considered

  7. Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management: Importance for Aviation Companies, Aerospace Industry Organizations and Relevant Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Szabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper in the introductory part underlines some aspects concerning the importance of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management and informs on basic international standards for the processes and stages of life cycle. The second part is focused on definition and main objectives of system life cycle management. The authors subsequently inform on system life cycle stages (in general and system life cycle processes according to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 standard. Following the fact, that life cycle cost (LCC is inseparable part and has direct connection to the life cycle management, the paper contains brief information regarding to LCC (cost categories, cost breakdown structure, cost estimation a.o.. Recently was issued the first part of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management monograph (in Slovak: ”Manažment životného cyklu leteckej techniky I”, written by I.Koblen and S.Szabo. Following this fact and direct relation to the topic of article it is a part of article briefly introduced the content of two parts of this monograph (the 2nd part of monograph it has been prepared for the print. The last part of article is focused on issue concerning main assumptions and conditions for successful application of aviation technology life cycle management in aviation companies, aerospace industry organizations as well as from the relevant stakeholders side.

  8. Conference on Engineering of Scintillation Materials and Radiation Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gektin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a broad overview of the latest achievements in scintillator development, from theory to applications, and aiming for a deeper understanding of fundamental processes, as well as the discovery and availability of components for the production of new generations of scintillation materials. It includes papers on the microtheory of scintillation and the initial phase of luminescence development, applications of the various materials, and development and characterization of ionizing radiation detection equipment. The book also touches upon the increased demand for cryogenic scintillators, the renaissance of  garnet materials for scintillator applications, nano-structuring in scintillator development, development and applications for security, and exploration of hydrocarbons and ecological monitoring.

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  10. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  11. Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments : Uses, Technologies, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this scanning tour was to review and document innovative policies, programs, and techniques that promote the use of recycled materials in the highway environment. The U.S. delegation met with more than 100 representatives from transp...

  12. Practices and technologies in hazardous material transportation and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    "The University of Arkansas (UA) team is responsible for investigating practices of : hazardous material transportation in the private sector. The UA team is a subcontractor : to the project Petrochemical Transportation Security, Development of...

  13. Integrated Computational Material Engineering Technologies for Additive Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuesTek Innovations, a pioneer in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and a Tibbetts Award recipient, is teaming with University of Pittsburgh,...

  14. The impact and importance of new technologies in business development in context of economic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Oana-Georgiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, led and connected by and through technology, gadgets and perpetual and intense technological development, the business environment and the trajectory travelled by entrepreneurs in the process of creation and development of a business, becomes more and more challenging and complex. Continuous innovation has become mandatory and „adaptability” became the keyword for the success of any entrepreneurial actions. In this socio-economic context, an organization must find, through entrepreneurs or managers, the courage to face the uncertainty and be always prepared to adopt radical solutions, so that, can provide sustainability of the business through competitiveness. The purpose of this research started from the need for adaptability and flexibility of the Romanian entrepreneurial environment to the trends in the digital era, in order to maintain the level of competitiveness and to develop sustainably. The objective of this scientific approach is to conduct a qualitative comparative analysis relating to the importance and the impact of new technologies in the development and sustainability of a business. The comparison will be made through the eyes of two main categories of actors in the creation and development of a business namely entrepreneurs and managers from two consecutive generations - generation X (born between 1965 and 1980 and generation Y (born between 1980 and 1995. The methodology used in this study is qualitative research through focus group method, and it aims to be highlighted the changes occurred in leadership and management style of a business/organization, by observing and comparing the two generations' attitudes towards change, towards new, towards the digital component, and the intent of the use of new technologies, and more than that, their impact on the management style.

  15. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Barklay, Chadwick D.

    2008-01-01

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules

  16. Fabricating the "Southern Belle": Assessing the Role of Imported Material Culture in the Confederacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Confederate society was dependent on a rigidly defined hierarchy that assigned roles and appropriate behavior based on race, gender, and wealth. White, wealthy, southern women were dependent on material culture as a socially acceptable means of self-fashioning and making their status public. The Union naval blockade threatened this practice by preventing Confederate markets from accessing imported, status-affirming goods. The industry of blockade running rose to fill this need, often controversially prioritizing cargo space for civilian, luxury products over necessities for the military. This article examines the artifact assemblages of blockade runner sites off the coasts of Wilmington, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina through a theoretical framework of agency and costly signaling to make assessments about Confederate identity during the Civil War.

  17. [Research and application of supply catalog and encoding identification technology applied to medical consumable materials management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingna; Han, Wei; Zhang, Enke; Li, Shuaishuai

    2013-01-01

    In this article, medical consumable materials supply catalog technology was introduced through the principle, method and application of topic studies, at the same time bar code tags to tag and identify medical consumable materials were introduced. These two techniques established the correspondence between the real supplies logistics and information flow system, provided foundation for medical supplies all process tracking and traceability management. Supply catalog and encoding identification technology provide a new solution for the effective management of medical consumable materials.

  18. Development of technologies for national control of and accountancy for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this project is to establish a rigid foundation of national safeguards and to develop the new technologies for the nuclear control. This project is composed of four different technologies; 1. Monitoring technology for nuclear materials, 2. Detection technology for a single particle, 3. Safeguards information management technology, 4. Physical protection technology. Various studies such as a remote verification system for CANDU spent fuel in dry storage canister, a spent fuel verification system using an optical fiber scintillator, and development of softwares for safeguards and physical protection were performed in the frist phase('99-'01). As a result of this research, it has been identified that the developed technologies could be a crucial means of the control for the nuclear material and facilities related. We are planing to accomplish a steady national safeguard system in the second phase('02-'06). This research will help to elevate the transparency and credibility in national nuclear activities by improving the relative technologies

  19. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for characterization of bionanocomposite functional materials for energy-harvesting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-07-22

    The analysis of hybrid multicomponent bioorganic and bioinorganic composite materials related to energy technologies by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is discussed. The approaches and considerations of overcoming the difficulties of analyzing hybrid multicomponent materials are demonstrated for different types of materials used in bioenzyme fuel cells, that is, enzyme immobilization in a hybrid inorganic-organic matrix, analysis of peptide binding and structure in the mediation of silica nanoparticle formation, analysis of enzyme-polymeric multilayered architectures obtained through layer-by-layer assembly, and study of the mechanism of electropolymerization. Thorough optimization of experimental design through analysis of an adequate set of reference materials, relevant timescales of sample preparation and X-ray exposure, careful peak decomposition and cross-correlation between elemental speciation, results in a detailed understanding of the chemistry of nanocomposite constituents and interactions between them. The methodology presented and examples discussed are of significant importance to the scientific and engineering communities focused on the immobilization of enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other large biological molecules on solid substrates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  2. Uranium ores of Kazakhstan as the most technologic source of a fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berikbolov, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Kazakhstan as is known has unique deposits of uranium. Its resources composed a third part of the world resources. The most important part of resources having a practical value, is related with depression in southern regions of the Republic. By now more than 15 deposits are discovered and partially explored. These deposits from three uranium provinces - Shu-Sarysu, Syr-Darya and Ili. The ores occur in friable water-bearing sandy horizons of Cretaceous and Paleogene age between waterproof agrillaceous sediments at depth from 100 up to 600 m. Ore bodies thickness changes from 5 to 10 m at uranian average-grade 0.03-0.1 %. Width of band shaped ore bodies changes from tens meters to the one kilometers and extent changes from one kilometer up to many tens kilometers. The important feature of deposits is their suitability for development by progressive in situ leaching (ISL) method. It was demonstrated, that uranium ores are comprehensive and, that is important, a lot of commercially important elements, containing in ores, gives in to extraction at development by the ISL method. The preliminary calculation of expenditures for the extraction of useful byproducts from ordinary sulphate solution have demonstrated rather high profitableness for rhenium, scandium, selenium, rare earth even at the very low contents in solution. It was pointed out, that whole technological chain applied now at industrial scale is oriented to mono-metallic uranium ores, therefore present technology of leaching and recovery of industrial solution does not allow ti extract all valuable components containing in ores. The development of new improved technological chain. beginning with a composition of leaching out reagent and up to applying of miscellaneous sorbing materials, can create new mineral-raw base of rare and dissipated elements and to lower considerably the price of uranium mining from sandstone deposits

  3. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billa, R.; Amaral, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented

  4. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling space engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Dreshfield, Robert L.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Kiser, James D.; Mackay, Rebecca A.; Mcdaniels, David L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Watson, Gordon K.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor. However, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  5. Utilizing Technology in Manual Material Handling and Safe Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mick

    2016-02-01

    There is great potential to decrease injuries with the use of these new technologies, especially musculoskeletal disorders and repetitive task-related injuries. Initial costs can be considerable for some of these units, but they are much cheaper than a back surgery. As with all technology, the first designs cost a small fortune, but as we are seeing even now, the pricing is decreasing and the quality is increasing for these devices. In 30 years, we might all have flying cars like "Back to the Future II" predicted we would in 2015 or be able to figure out a tricorder like on "Star Trek"! For more information on exoskeletons, exoskeletonreport.com is a great resource.

  6. Liquid crystals. Oligomeric and polymeric materials for soft photonic technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, M J

    2002-01-01

    The current pace of today's information technologies might lead the casual observer to believe that this is all new. However the reality is that, as with most things, this is really a long evolution of processes based on tried, tested and re-adapted techniques. This thesis represents 12 years of predominantly technology driven research and covers a whole range of characterising, evaluating and fabricating devices based on liquid crystalline systems. Firstly polymer liquid crystals are discussed with respect to the fabrication of a flexible substrate display based on standard printing techniques and this is shown to have improved display viewing properties over a standard polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device. Following on from this work is presented that involves the production of regular grid arrays in isotropic polymers that are used as control structures in nematic liquid crystal systems. This progresses onto a now patented device that allows the production of robust ferroelectric devices based on...

  7. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  8. [Science and Technology and Recycling: Instructional Materials on Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Association, New York, NY.

    Educational materials on the manufacture and use of aluminum are assembled in this multi-media unit for use by junior high and secondary school students. Student booklets and brochures include: "The Story of Aluminum,""Uses of Aluminum,""Independent Study Guide for School Research Projects,""Questions and Answers…

  9. Participating Technologies? Nonhuman Others and Socio-Material Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    This talk takes up the conversation analytical understanding of participation and combines it with the idea of technical agency developed in actor-network theory (Latour 2005). Rather than depicting nonhumans as objects of human actions, actor-network theory understands actions as socio-material ...

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. CHOICE OF MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kupriyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the carried out work abundant type of steel was chosen for casting production of asterisk of the excavator «Kamatsu». This type of steel is widely used as the wearproof steel working in the conditions of abrasive and shock – abrasive wear. Mathematical modeling of process of filling and hardening of casting was done and it confirmed a choice of the technology to produce casting without faulty parts.

  12. TUNG OIL AND LINSEED OIL AS TRADITIONAL FINISHING MATERIALS IMPORTANT FOR FURNITURE CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin You LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tung oil and linseed oil are two representative traditional drying oils wich were commonly employed, for centuries, for wood finishing. Therefore, their study in terms of properties, chemical structure features and alterations by ageing is important for furniture conservation. This paper focusses on some comparative properties of Tung oil and linseed oil as wood finishing materials. For this purpose, test wooden samples of Chinese walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim. were coated with these materials by manual traditional techniques. Solids content of the oils was determined in order to approximate the thickness of the resulting film. The colour change brought about by coating of wood surfaces with these oils was measured in the CIELab system. Furthermore, an accelerated artificial ageing test under the action of temperature (100°C was performed in order to evaluate and compare the ageing resistance of the two types of oils. Ageing phenomena were investigated by colour measurements and FTIR - ATR spectrometry. Both uncoated and oils coated wood surfaces suffered colour changes observed as darkening and colour shade shifting to red and yellow, but these were obviously more evident for the oil coated samples. The overal colour changes were maximum for the samples finished with linseed oil, while tung oil semmed to be more resistant. FTIR investigations for two types of oils highlighted similarities and differences in their chemical composition, curing and aspects of the thermally induced ageing mechanism. The later proved to be mainly an oxidative degradation process leading to formation of free fatty acids and other carbonyl containing compounds, as suggested by the broader carbonyl (1740 cm-1 and hydroxyl bands (3400 cm-1 .

  13. The protagonism of information technology systems in telephone interception: the importance of the chain of custody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Ramires Santoro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to technological advances, new means of obtaining information have been brought up to the field of criminal procedure, among them, the interception of telephone communication. Law 9.296/96 has introduced new actors on to the probative subsystem that play a direct part on the production/gathering of information that may be taken in consideration by the judge. The inexistence of proper procedural regulation that delimitates the manner in which such investigation must be carried out, the defense finds grave difficulty to try and trace the source of the proof. Fearing the risks associated with the production of defective evidence, the present study focuses on the importance of the chain of custody as a mean to track and assure the reliability of set information. With the purpose of knowing the rite to obtain the data through telephone interception and the verifying its credibility, a theoretical-bibliographic study was carried out and combined with an analysis of the statistics on means of investigation of proof provided by the CNJ and, finally, followed by an analysis of the technology systems developed to carry out the interception of communications measure.

  14. Nuclear material facilities - security systems and technology R and D trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.; Steele, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the US, physical security research and development (R and D) during the 1970s and 1980s created a body of technology and systems engineering that largely defined the industry for several decades. However, despite today's terrorists threats and risks, the overall funding of new and innovative physical security solutions is relatively very small. Such factors constraining physical security R and D include the expansion of overall security responsibilities, the emphasis on programmatic and business performance, in addition to evolving (mis)perceptions that 'the problem has been solved' or that 'anyone can do security'. Underlying these factors, the lack of robust standards and certifications has limited the development and application of physical security products, systems, and services. The research and development of new security technologies must be evaluated against very demanding constraints - including costs/benefits, emerging threats, and policies. Going forward, the goal will be to create a more comprehensive approach to physical security of nuclear material facilities that matches evolving threats and that will complement the transition to an integrated security/operations management environment. Such a management model evaluates the additional value of increasing security alternatives in addition to determining trade-offs between the programmatic mission and security issues. Correspondingly, more explicit and strategically useful measures must be developed to determine importance that, in turn, will influence security-related R and D efforts. The research and development of security technologies should be based upon identified needs and requirements resulting from a systematic analysis of the threat and other conditions. In particular, security technologies and systems must be evaluated in terms of current and long-term impacts. Such needs are (will be) diverse and will depend upon sustained research investments in a broad range of technologies

  15. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  16. Seismic problems of thin-walled piping for technologically important water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejent, B.; Kosek, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The results of theoretical, calculation and experimental work associated with the problems of seismic stress of pipings with technologically important water at the Mochovce and Temelin nuclear power plants are discussed. The inner diameter of the piping is 500 to 1600 mm, wall thickness 8 to 12 mm; it is subject to vigorous corrosion, which at the Temelin power plant attains a value of 4.5 mm by the end of the service life (30 years). Discussed are the results of the static strength calculations, of experimental investigation of the properties of the friction pair in the push fit of the piping and of static examination of the loading capacity of the piping shell in the points of the supports. From the earthquake resistance aspect, attention is paid particularly to the vibro-isolation of the piping systems by virtue of friction in the supports. (Z.M.). 11 figs., 6 refs

  17. U.S. FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES R&D PROGRAM FOR NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. MILLER

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies R&D program under the Office of Nuclear Energy is working to advance technologies to enhance both the existing and future fuel cycles. One thrust area is in developing enabling technologies for next generation nuclear materials management under the Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies (MPACT Campaign where advanced instrumentation, analysis and assessment methods, and security approaches are being developed under a framework of Safeguards and Security by Design. An overview of the MPACT campaign's activities and recent accomplishments is presented along with future plans.

  18. Chemistry and technology of radiation processed composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1985-01-01

    Composite materials of synthetics (based on monomers, oligomers and thermoplastics) and of natural polymers (wood and other fibrous cellulosics) prepared by radiation processing, offer valuable structural materials with enhanced coupling forces between the components. The applied polymer chemistry of such composites shows several common features with that of radiation grafting, e.g. the polymerization rate of oligomer-monomer mixtures in wood remains in most cases proportional to the square-root of the initiating dose-rate, just as in the simultaneous grafting, demonstrating that the chain termination kinetics remain regularly bimolecular in the corresponding dose-rate ranges. In the processing experiences of such composites, low dose requirement, easy process-control, and good technical feasibility have been found for composites of wood with oligomer-monomer mixtures, for coconut fibres with unsaturated polyesters and for pretreated wood fibre with polypropylene. (author)

  19. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  20. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  1. Proceedings of the national conference on critical and strategic materials for advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The conference is totally devoted to all aspects of critical and strategic materials. The overall objectives of the symposium are to discuss: a) the key and enabling role of critical and strategic materials in advanced technologies; b) a sustainable supply and utilization of these materials; c) to bring into focus cross-cutting research and educational needs and scientific/technological grand challenges associated with the sustainable extraction, recovery, recycling, reuse, substitution and purification of critical materials and d) to communicate the research needs in this field to the scientists, technologists and government. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  3. Material-Device-Circuit Co-optimization of 2D Material based FETs for Ultra-Scaled Technology Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tarun Kumar; Soree, Bart; Radu, Iuliana; Raghavan, Praveen; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Fiori, Gianluca; Dehaene, Wim; Heyns, Marc

    2017-07-10

    Two-dimensional (2D) material based FETs are being considered for future technology nodes and high performance logic applications. However, a comprehensive assessment of 2D material based FETs has been lacking for high performance logic applications considering appropriate system level figure-of-merits (FOMs) e.g. delay, and energy-delay product. In this paper, we present guidelines for 2D material based FETs to meet sub-10 nm high performance logic requirements focusing on material requirement, device design, energy-delay optimization for the first time. We show the need for 2D materials with smaller effective mass in the transport direction and anisotropicity to meet the performance requirement for future technology nodes. We present novel device designs with one such 2D material (monolayer black-phosphorus) to keep Moore's alive for the HP logic in sub-5 nm gate length regime. With these device proposals we show that below 5 nm gate lengths 2D electrostatistics arising from gate stack design becomes more of a challenge than direct source-to-drain tunneling for 2D material-based FETs. Therefore, it is challenging to meet both delay and energy-delay requirement in sub-5 nm gate length regime without scaling both supply voltage (V DD ) and effective-oxide-thickness (EOT) below 0.5 V and 0.5 nm respectively.

  4. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  5. Mineralogical and technology characterization of raw materials of clay used for ceramic blocks fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, N.Q.; Tapajos, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    In the state of Para, the red ceramic industry has several segments highly generators of jobs and a strong social appeal. With so many companies focused on this productive sector emerge, but many without any administration quality. Therefore, this study focused the technological and mineralogical characterization of the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic blocks, by Ceramica Vermelha Company, located in the district of Inhangapi-PA. The raw material was obtained by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the present crystalline phases through an accurate and efficient procedure, where it was possible to identify the peaks relating to montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite clay in the sample, and kaolinite and quartz in the sample laterite. Another important result was the absorption of water, with average satisfactory according to the standards. According to a sieve analysis, the laterite the sand fraction showed a greater extent compared to the other, while the clay silt exceeding 80% was found to be too plastic material. The resistance to compression, the results were below the required by the standard, suggesting more accurate test methods. (author)

  6. NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Application of Natural Microporous Materials to the Environmental Technology. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this proceedings About 80 people from Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, U.K., Turkey, Ukraine, U.S.A. and Slovakia took part in the workshop. 56 reports had been presented. from which 19 reports deals with the scope of INIS. The purpose of the workshop was the critical assessment of the current developments in the field of utilization of natural microporous materials (zeolites, clays, oxides) for the solution of problems related to the toxic and nuclear waste management, the water pollution control and decontamination, the environmental catalysis associated to the atmospheric pollution, the creation of new materials for energy storage and agricultural management including the development of artificial soils for plant growth in the space. Of especial importance for this meeting was the exchange of information and know-how among specialists working in institutions of NATO and Cooperation Partner countries aiming in the development of common strategies for the solution of environmental problems and the promotion of the further scientific and technological collaboration. Nineteen papers deals with the using of microporous materials for separation of radionuclides

  7. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  8. Modeling of Complex Material Systems in Extreme Environments for Space Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among the many enabling technologies of space research is the design of materials which are stable in the environments of interest for a given application. At the...

  9. The Development of a Skills Standard for Hazardous Materials Management Technology Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James; Bear, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    A multifaceted program, Goals 2000: Educate America," has as one of its top priorities the development of skills standards for certain key occupations. This articles examines the development of standards for Hazardous Materials Management Technology technicians. (LZ)

  10. Mining Pribram in science and technology. Proceedings of Session U - Mineral raw materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, J.; Vetejska, K.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of session ''Mineral raw materials treatment'' contain 27 papers of which only one deals with the application of nuclear technology, namely, the effect of fast electrons on the magnetic properties of the polymetallic Rudniany ore. (J.B.)

  11. Technologies of bearings systems production from composite materials by polyester resin injection into the closed mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy M. Turenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern technologies for manufacturing components and bearing systems made of composite materials has been conducted. These technologies are based on the polyester resin injection method and do not require high financial costs in manufacturing. The proposed method, due to the low cost of tooling, is convenient to produce a wide range of items made of composite materials, both in large-scale and single-piece production. Composite materials are intensively used in automotive industry, especially for motor racing vehicles’ parts. These technologies allow to solve the problem of creating ultra-light assemblies for modern car bodies, energy-absorbing passive safety elements and other high-loaded parts. They provide better strength and weight characteristics and better specific energy-output ratio of passive safety elements, as compared to conventional materials (metals and plastics. Considering the above, the most appropriate technology for the automotive industry has been assessed with that choice substantiation.

  12. An Investigation of the Attitudes of the National Teams’ Coaches Towards the Role and Importance of Information Technology in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.

  13. Automative Technology Objectives [and] Automotive Technology: Basic Textbooks and Instructional Materials. Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides program objectives for instructors teaching automotive technology courses in junior and senior high Department of Defense Dependents Schools. The manual begins with a description of the automotive technology courses offered in the Dependents Schools, and a list of instructor expectations. Following is the main part of the…

  14. Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes - Romanian experience: Master - Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.; Valeca, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the Master Nuclear Materials and Technologies Educational Plan are: 1. To deliver higher education and training in the following specific domains, such as: Powders Technology and Ceramic Materials, Techniques of Structural Analysis, Composite Materials, Semiconductor Materials and Components, Metals and Metallic Alloys, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Nuclear Materials, The Engineering of Special Nuclear Materials, 2. To train managers of the Nuclear Waste Products and Nuclear Safety, 3. To qualify in ICT Systems for Nuclear Process Guidance, 4. To qualify in Environmental Protection System at the Level of Nuclear Power Stations, 5. To train managers for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Energetic Processes, 6. To deliver higher education and training regarding the International Treatises, Conventions and Settlements in force in the field of nuclear related activities. (author)

  15. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  16. Assessment of research needs for wind turbine rotor materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Wind-driven power systems is a renewable energy technology that is still in the early stages of development. Wind power plants installed in early 1980s suffered structural failures chiefly because of incomplete understanding of wind forces (turbulent), in some cases because of poor product quality. Failures of rotor blades are now somewhat better understood. This committee has examined the experience base accumulated by wind turbines and the R and D programs sponsored by DOE. It is concluded that a wind energy system such as is described is within the capability of engineering practice; however because of certain gaps in knowledge, and the presence of only one major integrated manufacturer of wind power machines in the USA, a DOE R and D investment is still required.

  17. 10th International School of Materials Science and Technology : Intercalation in Layered Materials "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume is prepared from lecture notes for the course "Intercalation in Layered Materials" which was held at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture at Erice, Sicily in July, 1986, as part of the International School of Materials Science and Tech­ nology. The course itself consisted of formal tutorial lectures, workshops, and informal discussions. Lecture notes were prepared for the formal lectures, and short summaries of many of the workshop presentations were prepared. This volume is based on these lecture notes and research summaries. The material is addressed to advanced graduate students and postdoctoral researchers and assumes a background in basic solid state physics. The goals of this volume on Intercalation in Layered Materials include an introduc­ tion to the field for potential new participants, an in-depth and broad exposure for stu­ dents and young investigators already working in the field, a basis for cross-fertilization between workers on various layered host materials...

  18. Vitrification of ion exchange materials. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Ion exchange is a process that safely and efficiently removes radionuclides from tank waste. Cesium and strontium account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is an inorganic sorbent that strongly binds cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides. Developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratory and Texas A and M University, CST was commercialized through a cooperative research and development agreement with an industrial partner. Both an engineered (mesh pellets) and powdered forms are commercially available. Cesium removal is a baseline in HLW treatment processing. CST is very effective at removing cesium from HLW streams and is being considered for adoption at several sites. However, CST is nonregenerable, and it presents a significant secondary waste problem. Treatment options include vitrification of the CST, vitrification of the CST coupled with HLW, direct disposal, and low-temperature processes such as grouting. The work presented in this report demonstrates that it is effective to immobilize CST using a baseline technology such as vitrification. Vitrification produces a durable waste form. CST vitrification was not demonstrated before 1996. In FY97, acceptable glass formulations were developed using cesium-loaded CST obtained from treating supernatants from Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) tanks, and the CST was vitrified in a research melter at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). In FY98, SRS decided to reevaluate the use of in-tank precipitation using tetraphenylborate to remove cesium from tank supernatant and to consider other options for cesium removal, including CST. Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory also require radionuclide removal in their baseline flowsheets.

  19. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  20. Functional materials for information and energy technology: Insights by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Martina [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Nemšák, Slavomír; Plucinski, Lukasz [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Schneider, Claus M., E-mail: c.m.schneider@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Photoemission spectro/microscopy studies of functional material systems. • Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from magnetic semiconductors and insulators. • Information depth studies in hard X-ray photoemission microscopy. • Soft X-ray standing wave ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy from liquid films. - Abstract: The evolution of both information and energy technology is intimately connected to complex condensed matter systems, the properties of which are determined by electronic and chemical interactions and processes on a broad range of length and time scales. Dedicated photoelectron spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy experiments can provide important insights into fundamental phenomena and applied functionalities. We discuss some recent methodological developments with application to relevant questions in spintronics, and towards operando studies of resistive switching and electrochemical processes.

  1. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  2. Exploring the Importance of Employing Bio and Nano-Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Naguib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued and increasing use of ordinary building materials to house the ever-growing world population ensures growing contributions of carbon (C to the active carbon cycle through carbon dioxide (C02 emissions from combustion and chemical reactions in the raw material to the atmosphere. To minimize this, materials should be conserved, reduce their unnecessary use, produce them more benignly and make them last longer, recycle and reuse materials. Thus, paper will focus on exploring alternative building materials and systems that can be developed in order to balance atmospheric carbon dioxide.  It also presents the Bio-inspired architecture approach that embraces the eco-friendly practices of using Biomaterials and Nano-materials for sustainable dwelling construction through a number of examples that shows how a building can be strongly related to its site.

  3. Emerging technologies from the foot-prints of heavy ions radiation in insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of heavy-ions interaction with dielectric materials is the phase change at the point of interaction creating a damage trail, popularly known as latent track, which in fact, is the footprint of the incident ion. It is very convenient to amplify chemically this foot-print and manufacture a membrane under certain conditions. A membrane, with its most comprehensive and clear definition, is an intervening phase separating two phases and/or acting as an active or passive barrier to the transport of matter between phases. The very existence of a membrane relies upon the functionality domain of the pores contained therein. The geometrical traits and morphology of the pore ensembles dictate the applications, which any membrane can serve to. There are variety of membranes being developed and used in myriad of applications in diverse fields of science and technology. The range of commercially available membrane materials is quite diverse and varies widely in terms of composition, and physical structure. The creation of pores, whether through natural self-assembling phenomenon or man-made processes, might itself be an issue of interest but these are the pore-traits which are fundamentally more important, whether the membrane is being used for sieving-one of the ever most important applications the mankind has been using for thousand of years, or in the technological applications-the most recent one being nano technology. This talk would be addressed to the development of membranes - organic (polymeric) in general, formed through irradiation of polymeric foils with heavy and energetic ions followed by chemical processing leading finally to what is known as 'Track Etch Membranes (TEMs)', and present the review of the innovative applications of these membranes from filtration to electro-kinetic based applications and nano-/micro fabrication of devices- the potent aspect of emerging technologies. The emphasis would be on the dependence of useful

  4. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  5. Applying commercial robotic technology to radioactive material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasz, E.L.; Sievers, R.H. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The development of robotic systems for glove box process automation is motivated by the need to reduce operator radiation dosage, minimize the generation of process waste, and to improve the security of nuclear materials. Commercial robotic systems are available with the required capabilities but are not compatible with a glove box environment. Alpha radiation, concentrated dust, a dry atmosphere and restricted work space result in the need for unique adaptations to commercial robotics. Implementation of these adaptations to commercial robotics require performance trade-offs. A design and development effort has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using a commercial overhead gantry robot for glove box processing. This paper will present the initial results and observations for this development effort. 1 ref

  6. Overview of the Defense Programs Research and Technology Development Program for fiscal year 1993. Appendix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The pages that follow contain summaries of the nine R&TD Program Element Plans for Fiscal Year 1993 that were completed in the Spring of 1993. The nine program elements are aggregated into three program clusters as follows: Design Sciences and Advanced Computation; Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Capabilities; and Advanced Materials Sciences and Technology.

  7. Test facilities for radioactive materials transport packages (Transportation Technology Center Inc., Pueblo, Colorado, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, P.C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. is capable of conducting tests on rail vehicle systems designed for transporting radioactive materials including low level waste debris, transuranic waste, and spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Services include rail vehicle dynamics modelling, on-track performance testing, full scale structural fatigue testing, rail vehicle impact tests, engineering design and technology consulting, and emergency response training. (author)

  8. Teacher design knowledge and beliefs for technology enhanced learning materials in early literacy: Four portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, F.; McKenney, S.; Pieters, J.M.; Voogt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher engagement in the design of technology-rich learning material is beneficial to teacher learning and may create a sense of ownership, both of which are conducive to bringing about innovation with technology. During collaborative design, teachers draw on various types of knowledge and beliefs:

  9. Radiation treatment of materials - elaboration bases of radiation technology; Obrobka radiacyjna materialow - zasady opracowywania technologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The basic rules in design of radiation technologies have been presented and discussed. The recommendations for achieving of assigned goal in respect of obliged regulations have been done and explained on the example of radiation technology of adhesive materials and glue production.

  10. Advanced nuclear materials development -Development of superconductor application technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kye Won; Lee, Heui Kyoon; Lee, Hoh Jin; Kim, Chan Joong; Jang, Kun Ik; Kim, Kee Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil; Park, Hae Woong; Yoo, Jae Keun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jang, Joong Chul; Yang, Suk Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype fly wheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies on the method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting powder with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Tc of 16,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with the Jc of approx. 10000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilament wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. 126 figs, 14 tabs, 214 refs. (Author).

  11. Initial ACTR retrieval technology evaluation test material recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.

    1996-04-01

    Millions of gallons of radiaoctive waste are contained in underground storage tanks at Hanford (SE Washington). Techniques for retrieving much of this waste from the storage tanks have been developed. Current baseline approach is to use sluice jets for single-shell tanks and mixer pumps for double-shell tanks. The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) effort was initiated to identify potential improvements in or alternatives to the baseline waste retrieval methods. Communications with a variety of vendors are underway to identify improved methods that can be implemented at Hanford with little or no additional development. Commercially available retrieval methods will be evaluated by a combination of testing and system-level cost estimation. Current progress toward developing waste simulants for testing ACTR candidate methods is reported; the simulants are designed to model 4 different types of tank waste. Simulant recipes are given for wet sludge, hardpan/dried sludge,hard saltcake, and soft saltcake. Comparisons of the waste and simulant properties are documented in this report

  12. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  13. 75 FR 44072 - Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Updates and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... of radioactive material warrant fingerprinting and FBI criminal history records checks. By the end of... radioactive material (72 FR 70901; December 13, 2007) to require fingerprinting and FBI criminal history... globalization of the nuclear industry, U.S. nuclear companies are outsourcing more and more items, including...

  14. The technology development for surveillance test of RPV materials 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, Byoung Chul; Choi, Sun Pil; Choi, Kwen Jai

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation-induced changes in mechanical properties and magnetic parameters were measured and compared to explore possible correlations for Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel surveillance specimens which were irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.4 x 10 1 9n/cm 2 (E≥1.0 MeV) in a typical pressurized water reactor environment at about 288 deg C. For mechanical property parameters, microvickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact test were performed and Barkhausen Noise(BN) amplitude, coercivity, maximum induction were measured for magnetic parameters, respectively. Results of mechanical property measurements showed an increase in yield and tensil strength, microvickers hardness 41J indexed RT NDT and a decrease in upper shelf energy irrespective of base and weld metals. In the case of magnetic measurements, it is found that magnetic remanence, BN amplitude, BN energy have dropped significantly but coercivity has increased rapidly after irradiation. For isothermally heat treated condition of irradiated specimen, BN energy has increased while Vickers microhardness has decreased. Results of BNE and Vickers microhardness are reversed to the results on irradiated condition. All these consistent changes in magnetic parameter and Vickers microhardness measurement, which are thought to be resulted from the interaction between irradiation-induced defects and dislocation, and magnetic domain, respectively, show a possibility that magnetic measurement may be used to the evaluation of material degradation and recovery due to neutron irradiation and heat treatment, respectively, if a relevant large database is prepared. (author). 49 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  15. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  16. Supercritical fluid technology in materials science and engineering: syntheses, properties, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Ya-Ping

    2002-01-01

    ... and polymer preparations and as alternative solvent systems for materials processing. In fact, materials-related applications have emerged as a new frontier in the development of supercritical fluid technology. I hope that this book will be a timely contribution to this emerging research field by serving at least two purposes. One is to provide intere...

  17. Magnetically responsive (nano) composites as perspective materials for environmental technology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    -, č. 0 (2010), s. 85-90 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetically responsive materials * ( nano )biocomposites * environmental technology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  18. The importance of health information technology in care coordination and transitional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Pamela F; Bowles, Kathryn; Dailey, Maureen; Dykes, Patricia; Lamb, Gerri; Naylor, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Care coordination and transitional care services are strategically important for achieving the priorities of better care, better health, and reduced costs embodied in the National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy [NQS]). Some of the most vulnerable times in a person’s care occur with changes in condition as well as movement within and between settings of care. The American Academy of Nursing (AAN) believes it is essential to facilitate the coordination of care and transitions by using health information technology (HIT) to collect, share, and analyze data that communicate patient-centered information among patients, families, and care providers across communities. HIT makes information accessible, actionable, timely, customizable, and portable. Rapid access to information also creates efficiencies in care by eliminating redundancies and illuminating health history and prior care. The adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and information systems can enable care coordination to be more effective but only when a number of essential elements are addressed to reflect the team-based nature of care coordination as well as a focus on the individual’s needs and preferences. To that end, the AAN offers a set of recommendations to guide the development of the infrastructure, standards, content, and measures for electronically enabled care coordination and transitions in care as well as research needed to build the evidence base to assess outcomes of the associated interventions.

  19. Design and implementation of the system of importing data of nuclear analysis experiment based on UML technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yanguang; Yu Chuansong; Ma Mei; Sun Gongxing

    2004-01-01

    There are some problems that Excel data importing to database for our scientific data processing, we introduce a method how to use UML and XML technology design and implementation our system. Because XML technology have flexible data exchange mechanism, so it is appropriate to do it, and it is easy for use that the system of importing data of nuclear analysis experiment has a web browser GUI. Our paper emphasis on the software design method and UML design cases. (authors)

  20. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  1. Solid state NMR studies of materials for energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambukara Kodiweera Arachchilage, Chandana K.

    Presented in this dissertation are NMR investigations of the dynamical and structural properties of materials for energy conversion and storage devices. 1H and 2H NMR was used to study water and methanol transportation in sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) based membranes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These results are presented in chapter 3. The amount of liquid in the membrane and ion exchange capacity (IEC) are two main factors that govern the dynamics in these membranes. Water and methanol diffusion coefficients also are comparable. Chapters 4 and 5 are concerned with 31P and 1H NMR in phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes (para-PBI and 2OH-PBI) as well as PBI membranes containing ionic liquids (H3PO4/PMIH2PO4/PBI). These membranes are designed for higher-temperature fuel cell operation. In general, stronger short and long range interactions were observed in the 2OH-PBI matrix, yielding reduced proton transport compared to that of para-PBI. In the case of H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI, both conductivity and diffusion are higher for the sample with molar ratio 2/4/1. Finally, chapter 6 is devoted to the 31P NMR MAS study of phosphorus-containing structural groups on the surfaces of micro/mesoporous activated carbons. Two spectral features were observed and the narrow feature identifies surface phosphates while the broad component identifies heterogeneous subsurface phosphorus environments including phosphate and more complex structure multiple P-C, P-N and P=N bonds.

  2. New Inner Canalizing Technology with Vapour Hardening Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďurove Juraj

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liner is a composite sandwich construction using multiple layers of Owens Corning Advantex extra corrosion resistant fiberglass, forming a complex unidirectional reinforced structure. This construction achives an unmatched strenght permitting a thinner wall and therefore less reduction of the original diameter. The ring stiffness is very important. The unique design of the Liner gives a very high E-Moduls performance of 10.000 MPa which is unmatched by any other liner on the market. The longitudial reinforcement ensures complete stability troughout the length and prevent any elongation caused by the installation process. The Liner is constructed using extra corrosion resistant fiberglass. The inside of the liner is covered with a polyester veil rich of resin, forming a very smooth and glass-hard surface. In Combination with the unique post-curing at 110 °C, a very high resistance to abrasion and chemicals is achieved.

  3. Technological project of serpentine raw material milling from Dobšiná heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pietriková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Serpentine heaps in the surrounding of Dobšiná are an old ecological problem of the city and at the same time a suitable material for the production of MgCl2 and SiO2. The technology of the production is based on the chemical processing of the raw material, which is preceded by the raw material preparation comprising of the mechanical and hydraulic sorting, milling and the magnetic separation operations.

  4. Optical Material Researches for Frontier Optical Ceramics and Visible Fiber Laser Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    are very useful for scientific and industrial applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fibre Lasers, Laser Dynamics, Nonlinear Optical Materials 16. SECURITY...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0059 Optical material researches for frontier optical ceramics and visible fiber laser technologies Yasushi Fujimoto Osaka...07-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Apr 2013 to 17 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical material researches for frontier

  5. Development of a new bonding material and its trial application to accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Yamano, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    We have succeeded to develop a new bonding material for new television technology, which has a very low outgas property. This bonding material has been tested and confirmed the excellent sealing or outgas property in various institutes. We have tried it to use as a vacuum sealant against the super-leaking in He-II. In this report, we will present the motivation of the bonding material development, and the result of the application to cryogenics. (author)

  6. Experimental model of the device for detection of nuclear cycle materials by photoneutron technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalyarov, A.M.; Karetnikov, M.D.; Kozlov, K.N.; Lebedev, V.I.; Meleshko, E.A.; Obinyakov, B.A.; Ostashev, I.E.; Tupikin, N.A.; Yakovlev, G.V.

    2007-01-01

    The inherent complexity of sea container control makes them potentially dangerous for smuggling nuclear materials. The experts believe that only active technologies based on recording the products of induced radiation from sensitive materials might solve the problem. The paper reports on the experimental model of the device on the basis of the electron LINAC U-28 for detection of nuclear materials by photonuclear technology. The preliminary numerical optimization of output units (converter, filter, collimator) for shaping the bremsstrahlung was carried out. The setup of experimental device and initial results of recording the prompt and delayed fission products are discussed

  7. Innovative Technological Materials Structural Properties by Neutron Scattering, Synchrotron Radiation and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, Jacek J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides at first ideas on the answers that neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation could give in innovative materials science and technology. In particular, non-conventional, unusual or innovative neutron and x-ray scattering experiments (from both the scientific and the instrumental point of view) will be described which either have novel applications or provide a new insight into material science and technology. Moreover, a capability of the existing and the enhanced constitutive models and numerical procedures to predict complex behaviour of the novel multifunctional materials is examined.

  8. Innovative technological materials. Structural properties by neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustichelli, Franco; Skrzypek, Jacek J.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides at first ideas on the answers that neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation could give in innovative materials science and technology. In particular, non-conventional, unusual or innovative neutron and X-ray scattering experiments (from both the scientific and the instrumental point of view) are described which either have novel applications or provide a new insight into material science and technology. Moreover, a capability of the existing and the enhanced constitutive models and numerical procedures to predict complex behaviour of the novel multifunctional materials is examined. (orig.)

  9. Research on the Mode of Technology Innovation Alliance of the New Material Industry in Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan

    2018-03-01

    One of the main directions of technology development in the 21st century is the development and application of new materials, and the key to the development of the new material industry lies in the industrial technology innovation. The gross scale of the new material industry in Hunan Province ranks the first array in China. Based on the present situation of Hunan’s new material industry, three modes of technology innovation alliance are put forward in this paper, namely the government-driven mode, the research-driven and the market-oriented mode. The government-driven mode is applicable to the major technology innovation fields with uncertain market prospect, high risk of innovation and government’s direct or indirect intervention;the research-driven mode is applicable to the key technology innovation fields with a high technology content; and the market-oriented mode is applicable to the general innovation fields in which enterprises have demands for technology innovation but such innovation must be achieved via cooperative research and development.

  10. Material scarcity: a reason for responsibility in technology development and product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas R

    2013-09-01

    There are warning signs for impending scarcity of certain technology metals that play a critical role in high-tech products. The scarce elements are indispensable for the design of modern technologies with superior performance. Material scarcity can restrain future innovations and presents therefore a serious risk that must be counteracted. However, the risk is often underrated in the pursuit of technological progress. Many innovators seem to be inattentive to the limitations in availability of critical resources and the possible implications thereof. The present shortages in industrial supply with technology metals may be interpreted as a wake-up call for technology developers to tackle the issue with due consideration. The article reviews the materials scarcity phenomenon from the viewpoint of sustainable development ethics. The following questions are discussed: 'Should preventative actions be taken today in order to mitigate resource scarcity in future?' and 'Should technology developers feel responsible to do this?' The discussion presents arguments for industrial designers and engineers to create a sense of responsibility for the proactive mitigation of material scarcity. Being protagonists of the innovation system, they have the opportunity to lead change towards resource-aware technology development. The paper concludes by outlining ideas on how they can pioneer sustainable management of critical materials.

  11. Structures and Materials Technologies for Extreme Environments Applied to Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Clay, Christopher; Rezin, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of structures and materials technology approaches to survive the challenging extreme environments encountered by earth-to-orbit space transportation systems, with emphasis on more recent developments in the USA. The evolution of technology requirements and experience in the various approaches to meeting these requirements has significantly influenced the technology approaches. While previous goals were primarily performance driven, more recently dramatic improvements in costs/operations and in safety have been paramount goals. Technologies that focus on the cost/operations and safety goals in the area of hot structures and thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles are presented. Assessments of the potential ability of the various technologies to satisfy the technology requirements, and their current technology readiness status are also presented.

  12. Non-Proliferation, the IAEA Safeguards System, and the importance of nuclear material measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this project is to explain the contribution of nuclear material measurements to the system of international verification of State declarations and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  13. The importance of fracture toughness in ultrafine and nanocrystalline bulk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippan, R; Hohenwarter, A

    2016-07-02

    The suitability of high-strength ultrafine and nanocrystalline materials processed by severe plastic deformation methods and aimed to be used for structural applications will strongly depend on their resistance against crack growth. In this contribution some general available findings on the damage tolerance of this material class will be summarized. Particularly, the occurrence of a pronounced fracture anisotropy will be in the center of discussion. In addition, the great potential of this generated anisotropy to obtain high-strength materials with exceptionally high fracture toughness in specific loading and crack growth directions will be enlightened. IMPACT STATEMENT Severely plastically deformed materials are reviewed in light of their damage tolerance. The frequently observed toughness anisotropy allows unprecedented fracture toughness - strength combinations.

  14. Marketing technology (Martech) – the most important dimension of online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company

  15. Marketing technology (Martech – the most important dimension of online marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătruțiu Balteș Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the new dimension of marketing and of online marketing in particular is marketing technology. Even if it is just at the beginning, marketing technology will become the most widely used hacking tool in the near future, and will probably be used by companies on the digital market in order to stay ahead of the competition. This article defines the concept of marketing technology, along with the advantages and disadvantages that it brings to a company

  16. Discussion on Application of Space Materials and Technological Innovation in Dynamic Fashion Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meilin; Kim, Chul Soo; Zhao, Wenhan

    2018-03-01

    In modern dynamic fashion show, designers often use the latest ideas and technology, and spend their energy in stage effect and overall environment to make audience’s watching a fashion show like an audio-visual feast. With rapid development of China’s science and technology, it has become a design trend to strengthen the relationship between new ideas, new trends and technology in modern art. With emergence of new technology, new methods and new materials, designers for dynamic fashion show stage art can choose the materials with an increasingly large scope. Generation of new technology has also made designers constantly innovate the stage space design means, and made the stage space design innovated constantly on the original basis of experiences. The dynamic clothing display space is on design of clothing display space, layout, platform decoration style, platform models, performing colors, light arrangement, platform background, etc.

  17. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.; Hyde, J.

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D ampersand D of DOE's facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019. These technologies will also generate a reusable or recyclable product, while achieving D ampersand D in less time at lower cost with reduced health and safety risks to the workers, the public and the environment

  18. A Market Model for Evaluating Technologies That Impact Critical-Material Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Vedantam, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A recent Critical Materials Strategy report highlighted the supply chain risk associated with neodymium and dysprosium, which are used in the manufacturing of neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets (PM). In response, the Critical Materials Institute is developing innovative strategies to increase and diversify primary production, develop substitutes, reduce material intensity and recycle critical materials. Our goal in this paper is to propose an economic model to quantify the impact of one of these strategies, material intensity reduction. Technologies that reduce material intensity impact the economics of magnet manufacturing in multiple ways because of: (1) the lower quantity of critical material required per unit PM, (2) more efficient use of limited supply, and (3) the potential impact on manufacturing cost. However, the net benefit of these technologies to a magnet manufacturer is an outcome of an internal production decision subject to market demand characteristics, availability and resource constraints. Our contribution in this paper shows how a manufacturer's production economics moves from a region of being supply-constrained, to a region enabling the market optimal production quantity, to a region being constrained by resources other than critical materials, as the critical material intensity changes. Key insights for engineers and material scientists are: (1) material intensity reduction can have a significant market impact, (2) benefits to manufacturers are non-linear in the material intensity reduction, (3) there exists a threshold value for material intensity reduction that can be calculated for any target PM application, and (4) there is value for new intellectual property (IP) when existing manufacturing technology is IP-protected.

  19. A Detailed Analysis over Some Important Issues towards Using Computer Technology into the EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein

    2014-01-01

    Computer technology has changed the ways we work, learn, interact and spend our leisure time. Computer technology has changed every aspect of our daily life--how and where we get our news, how we order goods and services, and how we communicate. This study investigates some of the significant issues concerning the use of computer technology…

  20. Consultancy on 'Knowledge preservation in the area of fast reactor technology'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The fast reactor, which can generate electricity and breed additional fissile material for future fuel stocks is a resource that will be needed when economic uranium supplies for the advanced light water reactors or other thermal-spectrum options diminish. Further, the fast-fission fuel cycle in which material is recycled offers the flexibility needed to contribute decisively towards solving the problem of growing spent fuel inventories by greatly reducing the volume of high-level waste that must be disposed of in long-term repositories. This is a waste management option that also should be retained for future generations. The fast reactor has been the subject of research and development programs in a number of countries for upwards of 40 years. Now, despite early sharing and innovative worldwide research and development, ongoing work is confined to China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Russia. Information generated worldwide will be needed in the future. Presently, it is in danger of being lost even in those countries continuing the work. Some countries have already taken the issue of knowledge preservation seriously: Japan, France, Britain, and Russia, in particular. At worst, valuable contributory information elsewhere will be lost and would have to be regenerated when needed. The IAEA initiative seeks to establish a comprehensive, international inventory of fast reactor data and knowledge, which would be sufficient to form the basis for fast reactor development in 20 to 40 years from now. The Agency is in a good position to provide the framework for knowledge preservation efforts. Under Article III of its Statute, the IAEA is mandated to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world. Obviously, an important aspect of this mandate is maintaining and increasing the knowledge that is necessary for the technological development. The main objectives of the consultancy

  1. ICT security- aspects important for nuclear facilities; Information and Communication Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2005-09-15

    Rapid application growth of complex Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in every society and state infrastructure as well as industry has revealed vulnerabilities that eventually have given rise to serious security breaches. These vulnerabilities together with the course of the breaches from cause to consequence are gradually about to convince the field experts that ensuring the security of ICT-driven systems is no longer possible by only relying on the fundaments of computer science, IT, or telecommunications. Appropriating knowledge from other disciplines is not only beneficial, but indeed very necessary. At the same time, it is a common observation today that ICT-driven systems are used everywhere, from the nuclear, aviation, commerce and healthcare domains to camera-equipped web-enabled cellular phones. The increasing interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral aspects of ICT security worldwide have been providing updated and useful information to the nuclear domain, as one of the emerging users of ICT-driven systems. Nevertheless, such aspects have also contributed to new and complicated challenges, as ICT security for the nuclear domain is in a much more delicate manner than for any other domains related to the concept of safety, at least from the public standpoint. This report addresses some important aspects of ICT security that need to be considered at nuclear facilities. It deals with ICT security and the relationship between security and safety from a rather different perspective than usually observed and applied. The report especially highlights the influence on the security of ICT-driven systems by all other dependability factors, and on that basis suggests a framework for ICT security profiling, where several security profiles are assumed to be valid and used in parallel for each ICT-driven system, sub-system or unit at nuclear facilities. The report also covers a related research topic of the Halden Project with focus on cyber threats and

  2. Importance of the effective atomic number (Zeff) of TL materials for radiation dosimetry in clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    The electric power generation, it has been one of the radiation applications of bigger weight, mainly in developed countries. Another sector of more impact is without a doubt that of the medicine. However, for a sure operation with radiations, those international organisms of radiological safety, exist every time more precise detection systems. The thermoluminescent dosimetry is one of the more reliable methods for this purpose, for that several groups of investigators from different parts of the world, they have guided its investigations in the development of new TL materials. However, to avoid underestimate or overestimation of the measured dose with the use of these materials, it should take into account it effective atomic number (Z eff ) it is well known that some TL materials considered as equivalent to the tissue, presents smaller TL intensity when being irradiated with low energy photons, while the TL material known as not equivalent to the tissue, they present the supra sensitivity effect for this radiation type. Nowadays, the estimate of the Z eff has not been clear, in this work the Z eff is determined by means of the traditional methods and an own method is presented for its determination. The results of the TL signal of different materials, when being irradiated with photons of effective energy between 24 keV and 1.25 MeV and their relationship with their calculated Z eff are also presented. (Author)

  3. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA in roots: how important is material preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Martina; Püschel, David; Hujslová, Martina; Slavíková, Renata; Jansa, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots is a pre-requisite for improving our understanding of AMF ecology and functioning of the symbiosis in natural conditions. Among other approaches, quantification of fungal DNA in plant tissues by quantitative real-time PCR is one of the advanced techniques with a great potential to process large numbers of samples and to deliver truly quantitative information. Its application potential would greatly increase if the samples could be preserved by drying, but little is currently known about the feasibility and reliability of fungal DNA quantification from dry plant material. We addressed this question by comparing quantification results based on dry root material to those obtained from deep-frozen roots of Medicago truncatula colonized with Rhizophagus sp. The fungal DNA was well conserved in the dry root samples with overall fungal DNA levels in the extracts comparable with those determined in extracts of frozen roots. There was, however, no correlation between the quantitative data sets obtained from the two types of material, and data from dry roots were more variable. Based on these results, we recommend dry material for qualitative screenings but advocate using frozen root materials if precise quantification of fungal DNA is required.

  4. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs, a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  5. Technology of development phytogenetic protectors and creation of raw material base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, N.R.; Guluyev, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Recently in order to protect organisms from the of radiation effect radio protectors have been applied principally concerning to sulfur compounds, aminothioles and indolilalkins. Although the achievements obtained in the direction of synthetic medicines discovery, they can not completely replace the medicinal preparation of natural origin. That is why the study of natural biological active substances with radio protector property are of special importance. One of the goals of the project is the detection of plant species rich with anti mutagen and radio protector, the study of their cultivation technology, and the produce of natural raw material with high quality in planting condition. Flora of Azerbaijan is considered one of the richest countries for its species' richness. There are plant varieties for producing radio protector substances (essence-oil, lipid, lipoid, phenol compounds, pigment substances, proteins, vitamins and various amino acids). It was cultivated new varieties and forms of sea buckthorn, black caraway, basil, tarragons which are richer with their radio protector substances among these plants. In the article it is intended to prepare aerosol, consisted of essence oils and lipid mixtures, for respiratory system treatment in extreme conditions having radiation threat. The plants with essence oil are potential radio protectors. On industry scale the researches will be conducted in the direction of this technology realization. There are also some achievements in the field of working out of production technology of food products, with polyvitamins, from plants for extreme conditions and it will be improved in the process of project activies. Scientific importance of alcoholic and less alcoholic drinks in liquidating the impact of radioactive substances in organism and their disposal out of the organism have been found in literatures. It is also intended to conduct research works on production technology of medicinal preparations, liquor, alcohol of

  6. Bioactive treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation on titanium materials fabricated by selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology is useful for the fabrication of porous titanium implants with complex shapes and structures. The materials fabricated by SLM characteristically have a very rough surface (average surface roughness, Ra=24.58 µm). In this study, we evaluated morphologically and biochemically the specific effects of this very rough surface and the additional effects of a bioactive treatment on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Flat-rolled titanium materials (Ra=1.02 µm) were used as the controls. On the treated materials fabricated by SLM, we observed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM. No significant differences were observed between the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM in their effects on osteoblast differentiation. We concluded that the very rough surface fabricated by SLM had to undergo a bioactive treatment to obtain a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation.

  7. 77 FR 33624 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... aspects, Michael Craig, Chief, Interagency Requirements Branch, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of... the Determination to Extend as ``Archaeological Material from the Prehispanic Cultures and Certain... foreign affairs function of the United States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public...

  8. 21 CFR 1304.31 - Reports from manufacturers importing narcotic raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therefrom. (g) All in-process inventories should be expressed in terms of end-products and not precursors... following information shall be submitted for each type of narcotic raw material (quantities are expressed as... opium, crude alkaloids and other derivatives (quantities are expressed as grams of anhydrous base or...

  9. Breakdown Tests of Composite Materials, and the Importance of the Volume Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    High voltage testing of inhomogeneous composite materials often shows that the stressed volume has a great influence on the result. This paper tries to develop methods of estimating the stressed volume by calculating the theoretical extent of streamer propagation along insulating surfaces...

  10. Nondestructive assay technology and in-plant dynamic materials control: ''DYMAC''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppin, G.R.; Maraman, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced system of in-plant materials control known as DYMAC, Dynamic Materials Control, is being developed. This major safeguards R and D effort merges state-of-the-art nondestructive assay instrumentation and computer technology, with the clear objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent, real time control of nuclear materials in a modern plutonium processing facility. Emphasis is placed on developing practical solutions to generic problems of materials measurement and control, so that resulting safeguards techniques and instrumentation will have widespread applicability throughout the nuclear community. (auth)

  11. 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Abstracts of the 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century are presented. The symposium was held 24-29 October 2010 in Moscow. The symposium included the following microsymposiums: Electrical double layer and electrochemical kinetics (from phenomenological to molecular level); New processes, materials and devices for successful electrochemical transformation of energy; Corrosion and protection of materials; General and local corrosion; Electroactive composition materials; Bioelectrochemistry. The Frumkin symposium includes plenary lectures, oral and poster presentations. Official language of the symposium is English [ru

  12. Can Birds Fly? Can First Graders Learn the Importance of Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    A project was designed to infuse technology education into the first-grade classroom. Students learned bird identification, read fiction about birds, built bird feeders, learned about binoculars through birdwatching, and wrote a book about the experience. (JOW)

  13. 31 CFR 545.205 - Prohibited importation of goods, software, technology, or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN..., software, technology, or services owned or controlled by the Taliban or persons whose property or interests... Taliban is prohibited. ...

  14. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  15. Globalization and Employment: Imported Skill Biased Technological Change in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Conte; Marco Vivarelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of the international transfer of embodied technological change on the employment evolution of skills in a sample of low and middle income countries (LMICs). A large body of literature has already underlined the occurrence of widening wage and employment differentials between skilled and unskilled workers in high-income countries (HICs) (Katz and Autor, 1999). Such empirical evidence is consistent with both trade- and technology-based explanations while these co...

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Advanced Materials and Technologies for Micro/Nano-Devices, Sensors and Actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, Evgeni; Dideikin, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to review recent progress and current status of MEMS/NEMS technologies and devices. Several important areas are discussed: history of research in the field, device physics, examples of sucessful applications, sensors, materials and processing aspects. The authors who have contributed to the book represent a diverse group of leading scientists from academic, industrial and governmental labs worldwide who bring a broad array of backgrounds such as device physics, technologists, electrical and mechanical engineering, surface chemistry and materials science). The contributions to this book are accessible to both expert scientists and engineers who need to keep up with leading edge research, and newcomers to the field who wish to learn more about the exciting basic and applied research issues relevant to micromechanical devices and technologies.

  17. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  18. 1995 Federal Research and Development Program in Materials Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-12-01

    The Nation's economic prosperity and military security depend heavily on development and commercialization of advanced materials. Materials are a key facet of many technologies, providing the key ingredient for entire industries and tens of millions of jobs. With foreign competition in many areas of technology growing, improvements in materials and associated processes are needed now more than ever, both to create the new products and jobs of the future and to ensure that U.S. industry and military forces can compete and win in the international arena. The Federal Government has invested in materials research and development (R&D) for nearly a century, helping to lay the foundation for many of the best commercial products and military components used today. But while the United States has led the world in the science and development of advanced materials, it often has lagged in commercializing them. This long-standing hurdle must be overcome now if the nation is to maintain its leadership in materials R&D and the many technologies that depend on it. The Administration therefore seeks to foster commercialization of state-of-the-art materials for both commercial and military use, as a means of promoting US industrial competitiveness as well as the procurement of advanced military and space systems and other products at affordable costs. The Federal R&D effort in Fiscal Year 1994 for materials science and technology is an estimated $2123.7 million. It includes the ongoing R&D base that support the missions of nine Federal departments and agencies, increased strategic investment to overcome obstacles to commercialization of advanced materials technologies, interagency cooperation in R&D areas of mutual benefit to leverage assets and eliminate duplicative work, cost-shared research with industrial and academic partners in critical precompetitive technology areas, and international cooperation on selected R&D topics with assured benefits for the United States. The

  19. Materials for inductive and microwave function integration in LTCC-technology multichip modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspalis, V T [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kolenbrander, M [Ferroxcube GmbH, Department of Materials and Process Development, 22419 Hamburg (Germany); Boerekamp, J [Ferroxcube GmbH, Department of Materials and Process Development, 22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Low Temperature cofired ceramics technology (LTCC) receives considerable industrial interest as a multichip module integration technology, particularly because its very good performance-cost combination. The integration potential of the LTCC technology will be significantly extended with the availability of LTCC-compatible low firing magnetic materials that will enable the integration of high frequency inductive functions. In this article the preparation of low firing cobalt containing hexagonal ferrite materials of the Z-structure (Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41}, or Co-Z) is described using a PbO-WO{sub 3} eutectic mixture as liquid phase sintering additive. Layers from the previous materials are prepared by the slip-casting technique and cofired with commercially available, low dielectric constant, LTCC tapes. Crack free multilayer structures are achieved after firing at 950-1000 deg. C.

  20. Managing critical materials with a technology-specific stocks and flows model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K; Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy

    2014-01-21

    The transition to low carbon infrastructure systems required to meet climate change mitigation targets will involve an unprecedented roll-out of technologies reliant upon materials not previously widespread in infrastructure. Many of these materials (including lithium and rare earth metals) are at risk of supply disruption. To ensure the future sustainability and resilience of infrastructure, circular economy policies must be crafted to manage these critical materials effectively. These policies can only be effective if supported by an understanding of the material demands of infrastructure transition and what reuse and recycling options are possible given the future availability of end-of-life stocks. This Article presents a novel, enhanced stocks and flows model for the dynamic assessment of material demands resulting from infrastructure transitions. By including a hierarchical, nested description of infrastructure technologies, their components, and the materials they contain, this model can be used to quantify the effectiveness of recovery at both a technology remanufacturing and reuse level and a material recycling level. The model's potential is demonstrated on a case study on the roll-out of electric vehicles in the UK forecast by UK Department of Energy and Climate Change scenarios. The results suggest policy action should be taken to ensure Li-ion battery recycling infrastructure is in place by 2025 and NdFeB motor magnets should be designed for reuse. This could result in a reduction in primary demand for lithium of 40% and neodymium of 70%.

  1. Managing Critical Materials with a Technology-Specific Stocks and Flows Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The transition to low carbon infrastructure systems required to meet climate change mitigation targets will involve an unprecedented roll-out of technologies reliant upon materials not previously widespread in infrastructure. Many of these materials (including lithium and rare earth metals) are at risk of supply disruption. To ensure the future sustainability and resilience of infrastructure, circular economy policies must be crafted to manage these critical materials effectively. These policies can only be effective if supported by an understanding of the material demands of infrastructure transition and what reuse and recycling options are possible given the future availability of end-of-life stocks. This Article presents a novel, enhanced stocks and flows model for the dynamic assessment of material demands resulting from infrastructure transitions. By including a hierarchical, nested description of infrastructure technologies, their components, and the materials they contain, this model can be used to quantify the effectiveness of recovery at both a technology remanufacturing and reuse level and a material recycling level. The model’s potential is demonstrated on a case study on the roll-out of electric vehicles in the UK forecast by UK Department of Energy and Climate Change scenarios. The results suggest policy action should be taken to ensure Li-ion battery recycling infrastructure is in place by 2025 and NdFeB motor magnets should be designed for reuse. This could result in a reduction in primary demand for lithium of 40% and neodymium of 70%. PMID:24328245

  2. Perception by French Students of the Gendered Nature of Material Artifacts Studied in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Andreucci; Marjolaine, Chatoney

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the socio-cultural factors that lead girls to desert scientific and technological courses. Over a long period, the contents of the French technology education (TE) college curricula may well have contributed to strengthening the feeling among girls that this discipline was better suited to boys. The choice…

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Belenkaya; Ya. A. Golinskaya

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after p...

  4. ‘Spacer stitching’, an innovative material feeding technology for improved thermal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, H.; Rödel, H.; Krzywinski, S.; Hes, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the problems associated with heat loss occurring at the points of needle insertion. The insulation material at stitching points is compressed by sewing thread tensions and consequently the air entrapped is forced to leave its structure. It results in poor thermal insulation at the points of needle insertions. An innovative material feeding technology, ‘Spacer stitching’ is developed which addresses the state of the art of cold spots with a simpler and much efficient method. A comparison of sewing samples of conventional sewing technology with the spacer stitching is carried out in this research paper to study the improvement in thermal properties.

  5. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  6. Health care technology--information technology/Part 4. Why will the Internet be important to clinicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, M

    1996-10-01

    As the popularity of the Internet's World Wide Web exploded in 1994 and 1995, corporations began adopting the browser software called Mosaic (and its derivatives) for their networks. Why? That same software can be used to "surf" the Internet. Since Intranets are easier to maintain and less expensive, they are replacing the more expensive "groupware" applications based on client-server architectures that corporations installed over the past five years. These Intranets are based on widely-available technologies designed for the Internet, not proprietary software designed for a relatively few customers. Organizations with communication networks integrated with their transaction systems and electronic medical records will be more effective in managing health care resources--and more attractive to employers and insurers for managed care contracting.

  7. Markets for Technology and the Importance of Firm-Specific Search for Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    , the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support......Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other...

  8. Markets for Technology and the Importance of Firm-specific Search for Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm?s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...

  9. Markets for Technology and the Importance of Firm-Specific Search for Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    Firms rely increasingly on external knowledge, e.g. from universities, to improve their innovation performance. Existing research models the acquisition of knowledge either as a firm-specific search or a purchase on markets for technology. The former implies that a firm chooses and develops...... relationships with knowledge sources while the latter suggests a transaction governed by markets. We argue that both mechanisms increase a firm’s innovation performance but that they are interrelated. While on the firm level firm-specific search and acquisitions on markets for technology complement each other......, the costs of firm-specific search are only justified in underdeveloped markets. Otherwise, market transactions provide higher efficiency and flexibility. This negative cross-level interaction effect is stronger the more knowledge in an industry is covered by markets for technology. We test and support...

  10. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  11. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  12. Automation - Development of the Material-Technological Basis - Changed Conditions of Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, W.; Steinitz, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper was presented at a joint seminar on flexible automation held in Berlin (East) from June 8-11, 1982. The seminar was a collaborative project between IIASA and the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic. The report and the working material presented to the conference deal, among other things, with the influence of the flexible automation on the further development of the material-technological basis and on the whole system of the productive forces. Hence the follo...

  13. Technology for complex processing of tin-rare earth raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumarev, V.M.; Okunev, A.I.; Krasikov, S.A.; Fedorov, V.D.; Safonov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The tested technology for processing of tin-rare earth raw materials with complicated composition, including the stage of reducing-sulfidizing melting of raw materials with tin and rare earth elements (gallium, thulium) transition in fumes, with rare refractory metals (tantalum, niobium, tungsten) transition in iron-base or matter-base alloy and transition of radionuclides in dump slag is offered. 4 fig., 5 refs

  14. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma

    2017-05-01

    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.

  15. 7 CFR 351.7 - Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR... enter the commerce of the United States. (3) After inspection by the customs and quarantine officers... parcel under customs supervision; affix to the parcel the necessary postage, and comply with other...

  16. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work

    2011-01-01

    Non-indigenous Homoptera, mainly scales, aphids, and mealy bugs, intercepted on plants destined for cultivation represent an elevated risk for the establishment of invasive insects in North America. These insects [grouped as the suborder Sternorrhyncha] are often parthenogenic and are imported on viable host plants.

  17. 76 FR 13879 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Certain Archaeological and Ethnological Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, determined that the cultural heritage of... Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 12 RIN 1515-AD73 Extension of Import... Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Final rule...

  18. Catalyst Stability Benchmarking for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction: The Importance of Backing Electrode Material and Dissolution in Accelerated Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Simon; Kasian, Olga; Mingers, Andrea M; Nicley, Shannon S; Haenen, Ken; Mayrhofer, Karl J J; Cherevko, Serhiy

    2017-09-18

    In searching for alternative oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts for acidic water splitting, fast screening of the material intrinsic activity and stability in half-cell tests is of vital importance. The screening process significantly accelerates the discovery of new promising materials without the need of time-consuming real-cell analysis. In commonly employed tests, a conclusion on the catalyst stability is drawn solely on the basis of electrochemical data, for example, by evaluating potential-versus-time profiles. Herein important limitations of such approaches, which are related to the degradation of the backing electrode material, are demonstrated. State-of-the-art Ir-black powder is investigated for OER activity and for dissolution as a function of the backing electrode material. Even at very short time intervals materials like glassy carbon passivate, increasing the contact resistance and concealing the degradation phenomena of the electrocatalyst itself. Alternative backing electrodes like gold and boron-doped diamond show better stability and are thus recommended for short accelerated aging investigations. Moreover, parallel quantification of dissolution products in the electrolyte is shown to be of great importance for comparing OER catalyst feasibility. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Importance of Design Thinking for Technological Literacy: A Phenomenological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    "We know that progress depends on discovery, inventions, creativity and design, but we have simply supposed that it happens anyway," de Bono (1999 p. 43). Technology education is ostensibly a foundation for future designers and creative thinking. However evidence of good design or creative thinking in outcomes displayed in school…

  20. Ethical Use of Information Technologies in Education: Important Issues for America's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.

    In response to the rapid growth of computer crime and such illegitimate practices as piracy and fraud, the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement have formed a partnership to promote school programs on the ethical uses of new technologies. This report, the first of the partnership, is designed to…

  1. The importance of technological innovation in the logistics of ethanol exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Petraglia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the technological status of the bulk liquids logistical process at the port of Santos. The main objective is to identify problems encountered in port logistics for the export of ethanol and evaluate their respective technological innovation perspectives. Ethanol exports have increased given international environmental appeals. Within the complex and uncertain environments that contemporary corporations are experiencing, environmental issues have captured global attention. There is an awareness as to the relevance of reducing pollutant emissions to the atmosphere and one of the manners of so doing is by utilising ethanol as a source of propulsion energy fuelling automobile engines. Brazil is one of largest, high quality, ethanol producers in the world and a strong competitor to serve the global market given that the quality of the port logistic infrastructure poses significant impact on exports. Thus, this article proposes to further deepen the theory fundamentals alongside research conducted at companies of South-central Brazil´s sugar alcohol supply chain sector. The study´s analytical model is based on bibliographical research, monitoring and descriptive field surveys at companies within the segment. The article demonstrates that although the logistical process is evolving technologically, further investments in logistic infrastructure is required so as to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage and ensure the feasibility of exports of the Brazilian product.Key words: logistic process, technological innovation and ethanol.

  2. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  3. The Importance of History and Epistemology in the Designing of Earth Science Curriculum Materials for General Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Praia, Joao; Marques, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Points out the importance of writing, trialling, and using curriculum materials that are illustrated in the teaching and learning of what is widely recognized as the most recent revolution in scientific knowledge. Outlines events and factors related to the ways in which scientific knowledge was gained. (Contains 69 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  5. 77 FR 27113 - Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... / Wednesday, May 9, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ04 Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Samples AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  6. Transmutation and activation cross sections important for reuse of fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Edward T.; Kopecky, Jiri; Forrest, Robin A.

    2002-01-01

    Important neutron reactions relevant to the generation of medium and long-lived radio-nuclides of significance to waste management in a fusion power plant have been identified. Cross sections from EAF(European Activation File)-2001 were used to calculate the concentrations of these significant induced radionuclides. The concentrations of these radio-nuclides, namely A126, Co60, Nb94, and Ag108m, and the corresponding contact dose rates, due to 1 ppm of their parent impurities in the blanket and hot shield components made of vanadium based structural alloy, were calculated. The concentration of induced Ar42 in the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was also calculated after the respective lifetime of the power plant components. A review was made of the important transmutation and activation cross sections. (author)

  7. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  9. Artificial intelligence to maximise contributions of nondestructive evaluation to materials science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Rajagopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E), in relation to materials science and technology. It suggests a path of growth for Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, taking into account the increase in data and knowledge. We recommend Artificial Intelligence (AI) concepts for maximising the contributions of and benefits from, Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. (author)

  10. Identification of Quality Visual-Based Learning Material for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    It is widely known that the use of visual technology enhances learning by providing a better understanding of the topic as well as motivating students. If all visual-based learning materials (tables, figures, photos, etc.) were equally effective in facilitating student achievement of all kinds of educational objectives, there would virtually be no…

  11. Information and Communication Technologies in Azerbaijan and Importance of Their Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynalova K.Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the development of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Azerbaijan. In recent years, great advancement in development and improvement of the ICThas been gained in the country, including adoption and implementation of the related state documents, creation of competition in the market of communication technologies as well as mobile operators,spatial enlargement of use of internet through the country’s territory, launch of the national telecommunication satellite, and othernumerous events and significant processes.The progress in establishment of informational environment found its reflection in the higher position of Azerbaijanamong world’s countriesfor the definite indexes.The factors and needed terms responsible for further acceleration of improvement of ICT are shown in the paper.

  12. User-centred design as an important component of technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can be implemented in clinical rehabilitation processes or to close the gap in health care provision by transferring them to the patients’ home. Successful use can only be achieved under the assumption that the technology is accepted by its users. The involvement of users in iterative development processes is to be shown to increase the quality of health care systems and to prevent refusal. In this review potentials of user acceptance and satisfaction surveys in the development of stroke rehabilitation systems are discussed. The surveys are conducted as a method for improving the ongoing design process of innovative technical systems developed in the BMBF funded project “BeMobil”.

  13. Paying for Joint or Single Audits? The Importance of Auditor Pairings and Differences in Technology Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In the first theoretical paper on joint audits, Deng et al. predict that the audit fees for joint audits will be lower than those from single audits. However, the prediction depends on the combination of audit firms involved in the joint audit and on their technology efficiency as well...... as on the liability involved. This paper is the first to empirically test the predictions. Our findings from Denmark do not indicate any general difference in audit fees when two audit firms – regardless of combination and technology efficiency – conduct the statutory audit compared to a single Big audit firm....... The results indicate the existence of fixed coordination costs in joint audits. We do, however, find higher audit fees in Big-Small joint audits when the Small audit firm has a share of less than 25 per cent. This may reflect free-riding concerns....

  14. Organizational and technological insight as important factors for successful implementation of IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    Politicians and hospital management in Sweden and Denmark focus on IT and especially Electronic Patient Record, EPR as a tool for changes that will lead to better economy as well as better quality and service to the patients. These changes are not direct effects of the new medium for patient records but indirect effects due to the possibilities embedded in the new technology. To ensure that the implementation is successful, i.e. leads to changes in organization structure and workflow, we need tools to prepare clinicians and management. The focus of this paper is the individual insight in technology and organization and it proposes a model to assess and categorize the possibilities of individuals and groups to participate in and make an implementation process powerful. PMID:10566426

  15. The high-temperature vaporization/decomposition of actinide materials: fundamental and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The unique and variable chemistry exhibited across the actinide series offers a scientifically challenging group of elements. Investigations of their high-temperature materials science and thermodynamics can provide important insights into fundamental actinide science and generate critical information for technological applications. The wide variations in the physicochemical properties and the availability of the various actinide elements necessitates special experimental techniques be employed, even when investigating a single property (e.g., the enthalpy of vaporization). Experimental approaches range can from classical to novel methods to permit studies of the rarer and the more intensely radioactive members. We have developed special equipment and techniques to investigate the high-temperature, physicochemical properties of several actinides through Md, as well as the precursor elements, radium and actinium. These experimental approaches employed both alloys and solid solutions of compounds, in addition to the pure elements themselves. The vaporization/decomposition of compounds and the sublimation of the elements, together with the associated thermodynamics, are the main issues. Results for several of the actinide elements, some of the techniques employed and systematic comparisons of the thermochemical aspects of bonding are discussed to give a fuller understanding of the series as a whole. (orig.)

  16. Microstructural characterization and influence of manufacturing parameters on technological properties of vitreous ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njoya, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Hajjaji, M., E-mail: Hajjaji@ucam.ac.ma [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Bacaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Njopwouo, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-03-15

    Microstructure of vitreous ceramic samples manufactured from kaolinitic-clay and feldspars raw materials from Cameroon was investigated in the range 1150-1250 deg. C by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring some technological properties. Moreover, the simultaneous influence of feldspars content, heating temperature and soaking time on water absorption and firing shrinkage was evaluated by adopting the response surface methodology (Doehlert matrix), using the New Efficient Methodology for Research using Optimal Design (NEMROD) software. The results show that a spinel phase, mullite, glassy phase and some amount of hematite were formed. However, the spinel phase and potassic feldspar, as compared to the sodic one, disappeared at moderate firing temperature and soaking time. Apparently, mullite developed from spinel phase, which is formed from the demixion of metakaolin. On the other hand, it is found that the effects of fluxing content and firing temperature on the measured properties were almost similar and more influent than soaking time. Antagonistic and synergetic interactions existed between the considered parameters, and their importance differed for the considered properties. By using this mathematical tool, suitable operating conditions for manufacturing vitreous bodies were determined.

  17. Important advances in technology and unique applications related to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Mohamad G; Shah, Dipan J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance has become a well-established imaging modality and is considered the gold standard for myocardial tissue viability assessment and ventricular volumes quantification. Recent technological hardware and software advancements in magnetic resonance imaging technology have allowed the development of new methods that can improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. The advent of a new generation of higher magnetic field scanners can be beneficial to various clinical applications. Also, the development of faster acquisition techniques have allowed mapping of the magnetic relaxation properties T1, T2, and T2* in the myocardium that can be used to quantify myocardial diffuse fibrosis, determine the presence of edema or inflammation, and measure iron within the myocardium, respectively. Another recent major advancement in CMR has been the introduction of three-dimension (3D) phase contrast imaging, also known as 4D flow. The following review discusses key advances in cardiac magnetic resonance technology and their potential to improve clinical cardiovascular diagnosis and outcomes.

  18. Experience is more important than technology in paediatric post-tonsillectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton-Bayre, A D; Noonan, K; Ling, S; Vijayasekaran, S

    2017-07-01

    Paediatric tonsillectomy is a common procedure and one of the first skills acquired by surgical trainees. Post-tonsillectomy bleeding is one of the most significant complications. This study examined post-tonsillectomy bleed rates associated with technology and level of surgical experience. Data were collected on all tonsillectomies performed by surgical consultants (n = 6) and trainees (n = 10) at affiliated hospitals over a nine-month period. Hospital records were audited for post-tonsillectomy bleeding re-admissions and returns to the operating theatre. A total of 1396 tonsillectomies were performed (279 by trainees, 1117 by consultant surgeons). Primary post-tonsillectomy bleed rates were equivalent between trainees and consultants. Secondary bleed rates were significantly greater for trainees (10.0 per cent) compared to consultants (3.3 per cent), as were return to operating theatre rates (2.5 per cent vs 0.7 per cent). Amongst consultants, technology used was not associated with differences in secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding and returns to the operating theatre. Our data suggest that experience of the surgeon may have greater bearing on post-tonsillectomy bleed rates than the technology used.

  19. Nuclear material safeguards technology development in the new structure of BATAN organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Zurias

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The implementation of Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/97 has led to a restructuring in BATAN organization in July 1999. A new unit, Center for Nuclear Material Safeguards Technology (PTPBN), was established to be especially in charge of safeguards facilities. The main responsibility of this unit is to develop the technology of safeguards and physical protection. The function of this unit is also to analyze the operational technical aspect of the International Convention of Nuclear. The duties of Center for Nuclear Material Safeguards Technology can be seen from the various programs set up for every fiscal year. The programs for the year 2000 were: Analyses of SSAC implementation in BATAN; Development of Safeguards information system; Creation of database of physical protection technology; Physical protection simulator for Bandung reactor research; Development of detector technology for physical protection system; Identification of BATAN activities and facilities submitted to IAEA in order to be in line with the Additional Protocol to the agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on Non-Proliferation on Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified on September 29th, 1999 in Vienna, Austria; Seminar on Safeguards technology held in Jakarta in September 2000. The program of 2001 will be focusing on the continuation of the previous year's program as well as the creation of new ones, such as: Collaboration with other countries. At initial stage experts from JBC-Japan were invited to share their expertise on their safeguards information system; Development of education and training for safeguards operators by emphasizing more on the techniques of nuclear materials measurement; Seminar on Safeguards technology scheduled for December 2001 by inviting experts from IAEA and modem countries; Field survey to determine the location of radionuclide station in Indonesia in

  20. The importance of the active surface area of graphite materials in the first lithium intercalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P.; Ufheil, J.; Buqa, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Krumeich, F. [ETH Zuerich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spahr, M.E.; Goers, D.; Wilhelm, H.; Vix-Guterl, C. [TIMCAL SA, CH-6743 Bodio TI (Switzerland); Dentzer, J.; Gadiou, R. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CNRS UPR 9069, F-68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2007-12-06

    When lithium is intercalated into graphite in ethylene carbonate (EC) containing electrolytes, solvent co-intercalation leading to the exfoliation of the graphite structure could occur. The exfoliation can be suppressed if an efficient solid electrolyte interphase (SEI, a passivation layer) is formed. Here we study the role played by the active surface area (ASA) of graphite materials during their first electrochemical reduction. ASA (related to the presence of defects at the carbon surface) appears as a critical graphite surface parameter influencing the surface passivation mechanism and the graphite exfoliation. The ASA of TIMREX {sup registered} SLX50 synthetic graphite was modified by thermal treatment in argon and air. The electrochemical performance was characterized in 1 M LiPF{sub 6}, EC:DMC electrolyte and post mortem analyses were performed by SEM imaging. It turned out that a decrease of the graphite ASA, i.e., an increase of the graphite structural order, hinders the formation of the passivation layer and favors the exfoliation process. In contrast, the exfoliation of the same graphite can be suppressed if its ASA is increased for example by air treatment. The ASA of the graphite kinetically controls the formation of an efficient SEI film and accordingly the irreversible charge loss is much lower in the case of graphite with a high ASA value. (author)

  1. PREFACE: International Scientific and Technical Conference ''Innovative Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Equipment and Materials-2014''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 3 to 5 December 2014 the city of Kazan hosted the International Scientific Conference ''Innovative mechanical engineering technologies, equipment and materials - 2014'' (ISC ''vIMETEM - 2014''). The event was followed by the 14th International specialized exhibition ''Engineering. Metalworking. Kazan'' The main objective of the annual conference was for participants to discuss scientific and technical achievements in the design and manufacture of engineering products, the expansion of cooperation between scientific organizations and enterprises of machine-building complex and the definition of perspective ways of creation and development of new techniques, technologies and materials. The conference ''IMETEM'' was devoted to the 90th anniversary of Fayzrahman Salahovich Yunusov, who made a great contribution in the field of aviation technology. Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  2. Device Innovation and Material Challenges at the Limits of CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.

    2000-08-01

    Scaling of the predominant silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is finally approaching an end after decades of exponential growth. This review explores the reasons for this limit and some of the strategies available to the semiconductor industry to continue the technology extension. Evolutionary change to the silicon transistor will be pursued as long as possible, with increasing demands being placed on materials. Eventually new materials such a silicon-germanium may be used, and new device topologies such as the double-gated transistor may be employed. These strategies are being pursued in research organizations today. It is likely that planar technology will reach its limit with devices on the 10-nm scale, and then the third dimension will have to be exploited more efficiently to achieve further performance and density improvements.

  3. Magnetic fusion energy materials technology program annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.

    1977-09-01

    The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Materials Technology Program, which is described in this report, are to continue to solve the materials problems of the Fusion Energy Division of ORNL and to meet needs of the national MFE program, directed by the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE). This work is a continuation of the program described in previous annual progress reports. The principal areas of work include radiation effects, compatibility studies, materials studies related to the plasma-materials interaction, materials engineering, radiation behavior of superconducting magnet insulation, and mechanical properties of superconducting composites. The level of effort and schedules are consistent with Logic II of the DMFE Program Plan

  4. The importance of material-processing interactions in inducing false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C K; McDermott, Kathleen B; Watson, Jason M; Gallo, David A

    2005-04-01

    Deep encoding, relative to shallow encoding, has been shown to increase the probability of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Thapar & McDermott, 2001; Toglia, Neuschatz, & Goodwin, 1999). In two experiments, we showed important limitations on the generalizability of this phenomenon; these limitations are clearly predicted by existing theories regarding the mechanisms underlying such false memories (e.g., Roediger, Watson, McDermott, & Gallo, 2001). Specifically, asking subjects to attend to phonological relations among lists of phonologically associated words (e.g., weep, steep, etc.) increased the likelihood of false recall (Experiment 1) and false recognition (Experiment 2) of a related, nonpresented associate (e.g., sleep), relative to a condition in which subjects attended to meaningful relations among the words. These findings occurred along with a replication of prior findings (i.e., a semantic encoding task, relative to a phonological encoding task, enhanced the likelihood of false memory arising from a list of semantically associated words), and they place important constraints on theoretical explanations of false memory.

  5. Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, V.V.; Kaushik, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, S.K. [School of Infrastructure Technology and Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, J and K (India); Akiyama, T. [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-86283 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change material (PCM) have been recognized as one of the most advanced energy technologies in enhancing the energy efficiency and sustainability of buildings. Now the research is focus on suitable method to incorporate PCMs with building. There are several methods to use phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal energy storage (TES) for different applications. Microencapsulation is one of the well known and advanced technologies for better utilization of PCMs with building parts, such as, wall, roof and floor besides, within the building materials. Phase change materials based microencapsulation for latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) systems for building application offers a challenging option to be employed as effective thermal energy storage and a retrieval device. Since the particular interest in using microencapsulation PCMs for concrete and wall/wallboards, the specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. This paper presents an overview of the previous research work on microencapsulation technology for thermal energy storage incorporating the phase change materials (PCMs) in the building applications, along with few useful conclusive remarks concluded from the available literature. (author)

  6. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1993-11-01

    This publication contains 19 papers on the determination of cross sections relevant for the generation of long-lived radioisotopes through neutron-induced reactions in the neutron range around 14 MeV of importance in D-T fusion reactor technology. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. International careers and career success of Indian women in science & technology : The importance of career capital and organizational capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.; van der Velde, E.G.; van Engen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on international careers and career success of Indian women in Science & Technology (S&T). We conducted interviews with 30 (upper) middle class Indian women in New Delhi and Bangalore (India) who pursued careers abroad as self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Important

  8. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. 78 FR 33440 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... importer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium Raw (9600) II Poppy... States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA...

  10. 77 FR 35057 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... importer of the basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has...

  11. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  12. Applications of Research Reactors Towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    of materials under development for Generation IV concepts. International collaboration among MTRs and specialized facilities has been identified as integral to progress in fusion development as well as enhancing reactor utilization. This publication specifies which areas of research remain in the qualification of structural materials and components, and has detailed the characteristics of many research reactors and devices that can accomplish an important portion of these necessary studies. This publication is the outcome of two recent IAEA sponsored meetings under its programme to enhance the utilization and collaboration of research reactor and material test facilities: - Consultancy meeting on Role of Research Reactors in Materials Research for Nuclear Fusion Technology, 13-15 December 2010, IAEA, Vienna; - Technical meeting on Materials under High Energy and High Intensity Neutron Fluxes for Nuclear Fusion Technology, 27-29 June 2011, IAEA, Vienna. These meetings brought together representatives from MTRs, spallation neutron sources, multiple beam irradiation facilities, material scientists as well as fusion community representatives to discuss the current state of fusion research and to plot necessary studies and modes of research collaboration

  13. Scalable Solution Processing of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Assembled, Tunable Materials with Direct Application to Space Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current material technologies limit space exploration and vehicle performance due to often unnecessary mass increase from copper wiring or heavy structural...

  14. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  15. Characterization and integrity testing of flexible film materials utilizing a unique corona beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gregory J.

    2005-11-01

    The characterization, porosity, permeability and integrity of conductive and non-conductive medical and consumer flexible barrier packaging material are determined utilizing a novel electron beam technology and electronic instrumentation in an open atmosphere for 100% real-time, on-line testing. The electron beam developed in an open atmosphere maintains its prescribed frequency through the use of a nitrogen cover gas, ionizing the gas to create a corona beam. The corona beam discharge, maintained at a high negative voltage, forms from the holes or anomalies in the flexible barrier material. The anomaly is detected and analyzed in order to determine the presence of viral and sub-viral sized voids or holes, as well as other anomalies such as blisters and bubbles. The process can also utilize an established range of acceptability to certify materials that require a well defined level of permeability. This process can be performed by the flexible barrier film manufacturer to certify a specific quality level. It can be performed by the material fabricator to ensure quality standards for preformed materials. It can also be performed by the product packaging manufacturer that uses the packaging material to wrap their products and confirm the integrity of the final sealed package by measuring the atmosphere inside the finished package. There are many other packaging applications that can utilize this technology for film characterization, validation and integrity testing within the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food processing industries, as well as other industrial applications.

  16. Enabling Technologies for High-Throughput Screening of Nano-Porous Materials: Collaboration with the Nanoporous Materials Genome Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jordan [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-21

    The overarching goal of this research was to develop new methodologies to enable the accurate and efficient modeling of complex materials using computer simulations. Using inter-molecular interaction energies calculated via an accurate but computationally expensive approach (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory), we parameterized efficient next-generation “force fields” to utilize in subsequent simulations. Since the resulting force fields incorporate much of the relevant physics of inter-molecular interactions, they consequently exhibit high transferability from one material to another. This transferability enables the modeling of a wide range of novel materials without additional computational cost. While this approach is quite general, a particular emphasis of this research involved applications to so-called “metal-organic framework”(MOF) materials relevant to energy-intensive gas separations. We focused specifically on CO2/N2 selectivity, which is a key metric for post combustion CO2 capture efforts at coal-fired power plants. The gas adsorption capacities and selectivity of the MOFs can be tailored via careful functionalization. We have demonstrated that our force fields exhibit predictive accuracy for a wide variety of functionalized MOFs, thus opening the door for the computational design of “tailored” materials for particular separations. Finally, we have also demonstrated the importance of accounting for the presence of reactive contaminant species when evaluating the performance of MOFs in practical applications.

  17. Structures, Material and Processes Technology in the Future Launchers Preparatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Ramusat, G.; Breteau, J.; Bouilly, Th.; Lavelle, Fl.; Cardone, T.; Fischer, H.; Appel, S.; Block, U.

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of the technology / demonstration activity for European launchers developments and evolutions, a top-down / bottom-up approach has been employed to identify promising technologies and alternative conception. The top-down approach consists in looking for system-driven design solutions and the bottom-up approach features design solutions leading to substantial advantages for the system. The main investigations have been devoted to structures, material and process technology.Preliminary specifications have been used in order to permit sub-system design with the goal to find the major benefit for the overall launch system. In this respect competitiveness factors have been defined to down- select the technology and the corresponding optimized design. The development cost, non-recurring cost, industrialization and operational aspects have been considered for the identification of the most interesting solutions. The TRL/IRL has been assessed depending on the manufacturing company and a preliminary development plan has been issued for some technology.The reference launch systems for the technology and demonstration programs are mainly Ariane 6 with its evolutions, VEGA C/E and others possible longer term systems. Requirements and reference structures architectures have been considered in order to state requirements for representative subscale or full scale demonstrators. The major sub-systems and structures analyzed are for instance the upper stage structures, the engine thrust frame (ETF), the inter stage structures (ISS), the cryogenic propellant tanks, the feeding lines and their attachments, the pressurization systems, the payload adapters and fairings. A specific analysis has been devoted to the efficiency of production processes associated to technologies and design features.The paper provides an overview of the main results of the technology and demonstration activities with the associated system benefits. The materials used for the main structures are

  18. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  19. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  20. Using Content Analysis To Evaluate The Impact of Technological Development In Instructional Materials

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. Keiler; E. Galembeck

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks are widely used as a teaching tool, and are considered very important in severaleducational environments, from elementary to tertiary education levels. Since the firsttextbook arose in the seventeenth century, printed books are the most popular format oftextbooks published. New technologies developed over years such as paper, ink andprinting hardware. These have made it possible to present printed books in even moreattractive formats. Moreover, digital technologies allowed textbooks...

  1. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  2. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Proceedings of the Symposium on Structural and Refractory Materials for Fusion and Fission Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Samaras, M.; Serrano de Caro, M.; Victoria, M.; Wirth, B.

    2008-01-01

    The development of future fusion and Generation IV fission reactor power plant concepts will require extensive materials research to solve numerous technological problems. Structural components in these future reactors will be subjected to complex thermomechanical loading, higher operating temperatures, and high-irradiation doses (up to 100 dpa) which are beyond the current capabilities of conventional materials. Consequently, numerous worldwide research activities are under way to develop and qualify novel structural materials. At present, the most attractive candidate materials include low-activation ferritic martensitic steels and their ODS variants, vanadium alloys, SiC/SiC composites, as well as refractory materials like tungsten alloys and their ODS variants. The aim of this symposium is to provide an open forum for the discussion of materials issues and problems, and to promote future collaborations. Papers cover the following areas: Materials processing and development by composition and treatment; Irradiation effects, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties degradation; Modeling of damage evolution and alloy stability; Mechanical properties and structural integrity; Materials-design interface, characterization, and modeling of constitutive behavior; Nuclear fuel element modeling; Ferritic/martensitic steels and ODS variants

  4. From Julius Caesar to Sustainable Composite Materials: A Passage through Port Caisson Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cejuela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The breakwater construction technique using floating concrete caissons is well-known nowadays as a widespread system. Yet do we really know its origin? Since Julius Caesar used this technology in Brindisi (Italy up to the Normandy landings in June 1944, not only has this technology been developed, but it has been a key item in several moments in history. Its development has almost always been driven by military requirements. The greatest changes have not been conceptual but point occurring, backed by the materials used. Parallelisms can be clearly seen in each new stage: timber, opus caementitium (Roman concrete, iron and concrete… However, nowadays, achieving a more sustainable world constitutes a major challenge, to which the construction of caissons breakwaters must contribute as a field of application of new eco-friendly materials. This research work provides a general overview from the origins of caissons until our time. It will make better known the changes that took place in the system and their adaptation to new materials, and will help in clarifying the future in developing technology towards composite sustainable materials and special concrete. If we understand the past, it will be easier to define the future.

  5. Reciclagem de materiais plásticos: a importância da identificação correta Plastic materials recycling: the importance of the correct identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2008-06-01

    important for the plastic recycling chain. In the present study, a survey was carried out with 177 rigid plastic packages for food and non-food products available in the Brazilian market. Although the identification code was a requirement from the ABNT NBR 13230 Brazilian standard issued 14 years ago, there are still problems with the resin identification code. Only approximately 80% of the evaluated packages had the resin identification code. Furthermore, up to 40% of packages had incorrect material identification. Therefore, misinformation still occurs in the Brazilian market concerning plastic packaging material type - including lack of resin identification code - as well as lack of information regarding the correct way to display the resin identification code in plastic packages. Both of these factors have negative effect on the plastic recycling chain.

  6. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  7. Study of radon diffusion coefficient for technologically enhanced building construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, A.K.; Goyal, S.K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most building materials of natural origin contain small amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs), mainly radionuclides from the 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains and 40 K. The origin of these materials is the earths crust, but they find their way into building materials, air, water, food and the human body itself. The worldwide average indoor effective dose due to gamma rays from building materials is estimated to be about 0.4 mSv per year. In many parts of the world, building materials containing radioactive materials have been used for generations. As individuals spend more than 80% of their time indoors, the internal and external radiation exposure from building materials creates prolonged exposure situations. The internal (inhalation) radiation exposure is due to 222 Rn and their short lived decay products exhaled from building materials into the room air. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the earths crust are 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. However, elevated levels of natural radionuclides causing annual doses of several mSv were identified in some regions around the world. Recycled industrial by-products containing Technologically Phosphogypsum, a by-product in the production of phosphate fertilizers is used as building material, and red mud, a waste from primary aluminum production, is used in bricks, ceramics and tiles. The increased tendency of the building material industry to use industrial wastes as substitutes for natural products having relatively high activity concentration of NORMs and the increased exposure caused by them were the driving forces for undertaking the present investigation. (author)

  8. Advanced ceramic matrix composite materials for current and future propulsion technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Beyer, S.; Knabe, H.; Immich, H.; Meistring, R.; Gessler, A.

    2004-08-01

    Current rocket engines, due to their method of construction, the materials used and the extreme loads to which they are subjected, feature a limited number of load cycles. Various technology programmes in Europe are concerned, besides developing reliable and rugged, low cost, throwaway equipment, with preparing for future reusable propulsion technologies. One of the key roles for realizing reusable engine components is the use of modern and innovative materials. One of the key technologies which concern various engine manufacturers worldwide is the development of fibre-reinforced ceramics—ceramic matrix composites. The advantages for the developers are obvious—the low specific weight, the high specific strength over a large temperature range, and their great damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics make this material class extremely interesting as a construction material. Over the past years, the Astrium company (formerly DASA) has, together with various partners, worked intensively on developing components for hypersonic engines and liquid rocket propulsion systems. In the year 2000, various hot-firing tests with subscale (scale 1:5) and full-scale nozzle extensions were conducted. In this year, a further decisive milestone was achieved in the sector of small thrusters, and long-term tests served to demonstrate the extraordinary stability of the C/SiC material. Besides developing and testing radiation-cooled nozzle components and small-thruster combustion chambers, Astrium worked on the preliminary development of actively cooled structures for future reusable propulsion systems. In order to get one step nearer to this objective, the development of a new fibre composite was commenced within the framework of a regionally sponsored programme. The objective here is to create multidirectional (3D) textile structures combined with a cost-effective infiltration process. Besides material and process development, the project also encompasses the development of

  9. Instrumentation Technologies for Improving an Irradiation Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials at the HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Sung Jae; Choo, Ki Nam

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 years of nuclear fuels and materials irradiation testing has led to many countries developing significant improvements in instrumentation to monitor physical parameters and to control the test conditions in Materials Test Reactors (MTRs) or research reactors. Recent effort to deploy new fuels and materials in existing and advanced reactors has increased the demand for well-instrumented irradiation tests. Specifically, demand has increased for tests with sensors capable of providing real-time measurement of key parameters, such as temperature, geometry changes, thermal conductivity, fission gas release, cracking, coating buildup, thermal and fast flux, etc. This review paper documents the current state of instrumentation technologies in MTRs in the world and summarizes on-going research efforts to deploy new sensors. There is increased interest to irradiate new materials and reactor fuels for advanced PWRs and the Gen-IV reactor systems, such as SFRs (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors), VHTRs (Very-High-Temperature Reactors), SCWRs (Supercritical-Water-cooled Reactors) and GFRs (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor). This review documents the current state of instrumentation technologies in MTRs in the world, identifies challenges faced by previous testing methods and how these challenges were overcome. A wide range of sensors are available to measure key parameters of interest during fuels and materials irradiations in MTRs. Such sensors must be reliable, small size, highly accurate, and able to withstand harsh conditions. On-going development efforts are focusing on providing MTR users a wider range of parameter measurements with increased accuracy. In addition, development efforts are focusing on reducing the impact of sensor on measurements by reducing sensor size. This report includes not only status of instrumentation using research reactors in the world to irradiate nuclear fuels and materials but also future directions relating to instrumentation technologies for

  10. Doing Age in a Digitized World—A Material Praxeology of Aging With Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wanka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have gained vast relevance in postmodern societies and digital infrastructures are substantially integrated into the everyday lives of older people. This digitization is reframing the norms and practices of later life as well as the social construct of age itself. Despite the increasing amount of studies in the field of aging and technologies, it still lacks theorizing. This paper addresses this deficit, suggesting that the study of aging and technologies could profit from a comprehensive integration of theories from the sociology of aging, critical gerontology, and science-and-technology studies. We aim to make a theoretical contribution to this issue, asking: how is age being done in a digitized world? Applying a praxeological approach to aging and technologies, we firstly examine how theoretical and empirical work has constructed aging with technologies so far and identify its shortcomings. Some of this work so far lacks a proper consideration of social inequalities within these processes, whereas other studies lack a thorough consideration of materialities. Secondly, in an attempt to equally “praxeologize” and “materialize” the study of aging and technologies we develop a theoretical model that aims to overcome these shortcomings. In what we frame as a material praxeology of aging with technology, we are concerned with how age is being done through discursive formations, set into practice through social and material practices and involved in the (reproduction of social inequalities. Enriching a Bordieuan terminology of social fields with notions of non-human agency, this praxeology is founded on three assumptions: (1 Social fields constitute the contexts in which age as a social phenomenon is being done with and through technologies (2 Human and non-human agents are equally involved in this process (3 The actions of the involved agents emerge from an agency distributed among them, and are structured through the

  11. Progress of research on plasma facing materials in University of Science and Technology Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Chang-Chun; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Song, Shu-Xiang; Du, Juan; Zhong, Zhi-Hong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report some new progress on plasma facing materials in University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), China. They include fabrication of tungsten coating with ultra-fine grain size by atmosphere plasma spraying; fabrication of tungsten with ultra-fine grain size by a newly developed method named as resistance sintering under ultra-high pressure; using the concept of functionally graded materials to join tungsten to copper based heat sink; joining silicon doped carbon to copper by brazing using a Ti based amorphous filler and direct casting

  12. Numerical simulation as an important tool in developing novel hypersonic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, A N; Bityurin, V A; Medin, S A; Naumov, N D; Petrovskiy, V P; Ryabkov, O I; Tatarinov, A V; Teplyakov, I O; Fortov, V E; Balakirev, B A; Golovin, N N; Solomonov, Yu S; Tikhonov, A A; Gryaznov, V K; Iosilevskiy, I L; Evstigneev, N M

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel hypersonic technologies necessarily requires the development of methods for analyzing a motion of hypervelocity vehicles. This paper could be considered as the initial stage in developing of complex computational model for studying flows around hypervelocity vehicles of arbitrary shape. Essential part of the model is a solution to three-dimensional transport equations for mass, momentum and energy for the medium in the state of both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE. One of the primary requirements to the developed model is the realization on the modern heterogeneous computer systems including both CPU and GPU. The paper presents the first results on numerical simulation of hypersonic flow. The first problem considered is three-dimensional flow around curved body under angle of attack. The performance of heterogeneous 4-GPU computer system is tested. The second problem highlights the capabilities of the developed model to study heat and mass transfer problems. Namely, interior heat problem is considered which takes into account ablation of thermal protection system and variation of the surface shape of the vehicle. (paper)

  13. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  14. Research and deployment priorities for renewable technologies: Quantifying the importance of various renewable technologies for low cost, high renewable electricity systems in an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesz, Jenny; Elliston, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify research priorities to enable low cost, high renewable power systems. An evolutionary program optimises the mix of technologies in 100% renewable energy portfolios (RE) in the Australian National Electricity Market. Various technologies are reduced in availability to determine their relative importance for achieving low costs. The single most important factor is found to be the integration of large quantities of wind; therefore wind integration is identified as a research priority. In contrast, photovoltaics are found to “saturate” the system at less than 10% of total energy (in the absence of storage or demand management, installation of further photovoltaics does not contribute significant further value). This indicates that policies to promote utility-scale photovoltaics should be considered in partnership with complementary measures (such as demand side participation and storage). Biofuelled gas turbines are found to be important; a complete absence of bioenergy increases costs by AU$20–30/MWh, and even having only 0.1 TWh per year of bioenergy available reduces average costs by AU$3–4/MWh. Limits on the non-synchronous penetration (NSP) are found to be relatively expensive, suggesting a significant research priority around finding alternative approaches to providing synchronous services, such as inertia. Geothermal and concentrating solar thermal technologies do not appear essential as long as sufficient wind and peaking bioenergy is available. - Highlights: • Photovoltaics saturate early, suggesting they need complementary measures. • Biofuelled gas turbines or another peaking technology are important for low costs. • Limits on the non-synchronous penetration are relatively expensive.

  15. Five Years of Research Into Technology-Enhanced Learning at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetský, Štefan; Moravčík, Oliver; Rusková, Dagmar; Balog, Karol; Sakál, Peter; Tanuška, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    The article describes a five-year period of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) implementation at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology (MTF) in Trnava. It is a part of the challenges put forward by the 7th Framework Programme (ICT research in FP7) focused on "how information and communication technologies can be used to support learning and teaching". The empirical research during the years 2006-2008 was focused on technology-driven support of teaching, i. e. the development of VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) and the development of database applications such as instruments developed simultaneously with the information support of the project, and tested and applied directly in the teaching of bachelor students. During this period, the MTF also participated in the administration of the FP7 KEPLER project proposal in the international consortium of 20 participants. In the following period of 2009-2010, the concept of educational activities automation systematically began to develop. Within this concept, the idea originated to develop a universal multi-purpose system BIKE based on the batch processing knowledge paradigm. This allowed to focus more on educational approach, i.e. TEL educational-driven and to finish the programming of the Internet application - network for feedback (communication between teachers and students). Thanks to this specialization, the results of applications in the teaching at MTF could gradually be presented at the international conferences focused on computer-enhanced engineering education. TEL was implemented at a detached workplace and four institutes involving more than 600 students-bachelors and teachers of technical subjects. Four study programmes were supported, including technical English language. Altogether, the results have been presented via 16 articles in five countries, including the EU level (IGIP-SEFI).

  16. Development of import subtituting technologies for increasing productivity of sintering machines and strength of agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of industrial fluxed agglomerates self-destruction in the process of cooling after sintering has been examined. It has been revealed that the main reason of strength degradation is polymorphism of dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 (or short designation С2S: β-Ca2SiO4 ® γ-Ca2SiO4. Ways for increasing the  agglomerate  strength by physical and crystal-chemical stabilization of the high temperature modification of C2S have been proposed and tested. Physical stabilization of C2S agglomerate is increased with its structure reinforcement due to thickening of walls between large pores that is achieved by increasing height of the sintered layer through improvement of its gas permeability. The task is addressed by substituting the previously used import sintering ore with the  polydisperse ore from the Yakovlevo field, which improves the charge  pelletizing by 3-4 times and helps to bring the  height of the sintered layer and the strength of the domestic agglomerate up to the international best practice standards, while eliminating a need to purchase import high-vacuum   exhausters. In practice crystal-chemical stabilization of C2S within iron-ore  agglomerate is ensured by adding an  opti- mal multicomponent additive in the form of the    waste product  generated in production  of alumina  from bauxites, i.e. the red mud, to the initial sinter charge. Thus mechanical strength of agglomerates and pellets is increased by 5-10 % and their hot strength improves by 20-40 %. The productivity of sintering machines and blast furnaces improves by 5-10 %. Specific coke consumption reduces by 2-2.5 %. In production of iron-ore pellets red mud is substituting the import  bentonite.

  17. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  18. A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, K. B.

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines, by means of a contract with Kaiser Engineers and with Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation as a subcontractor, has sponsored a technological and an economic evaluation of six candidate processes for the manufacture of alumina from certain U. S. raw materials other than bauxite. This paper describes each process. Flow diagrams and the total energy requirement for each process are included. Important characteristics affecting the economics of producing alumina by each process are discussed, and some presently unsolved technical problems are identified. The extraction of alumina from clay via hydrochloric acid with iron separation by solvent extraction, and the crystallization of intermediate AlCl3·6H2O through the introduction of HCl gas into the pregnant mother liquor, appears to be technically feasible and the most attractive of the six raw material/process combinations.

  19. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm 3 and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  20. The technological socio-materiality of kindergarten children’s conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The conduct of everyday life concept has been enormously fruitful for theorizing how persons come to live their lives across diverse social contexts as participants in and contributors to social practices. However, social practice research still needs to investigate in a more detailed manner...... the relevance of material artifacts for conducting one’s everyday life. Everyday artifacts such as media technologies heavily shape the concrete socio-material arrangements in specific practices, hence co-constituting the scope of imaginable action possibilities. The presentation builds on insights drawn from...... a four-month researcher participation in a kindergarten practice. It argues that the relevance of media technologies can only be investigated in relation to the various perspectives of the other practice participants. The main focus is put on the children’s perspectives, as it is their conduct...

  1. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  2. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  3. Drainage Adits in Upper Silesia - Industrial Technology Heritage and Important Elements of the Hydrotechnical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duży, Stanisław; Dyduch, Grzegorz; Preidl, Wojciech; Stacha, Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Adits played an important role in the hydrotechnical infrastructure for centuries. Initially, they were used mainly to drain wetland and supply water to the population. There were also inherent in the conduct of mining activities. They were used as exploratory, development and supply headings. Their usual function was to drain, ventilate and transport, and after the cessation of mining they became important elements of the hydrotechnical infrastructure in the transformed mining areas. The article presents issues related to the revitalization of the Main Key Hereditary Adit and Friedrich Adit as essential for the areas in which they are located. Both are hydraulic structures with the possibility of adaptation for tourism purposes. The need to consider some technical activities to be undertaken in this type of objects was pointed out, not only including aspects related to their proper protection so that they can continue to safely perform their function, but also to the preservation of their historical values. Due to their age and the method of drilling used in them, those headings are often included in the list of monuments and protected by law.

  4. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahai

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  6. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the Note Verbale dated 2 December 1992 received by the Director General from the Resident Representative of Argentina to the Agency relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment or technology, in order to provide information on that Government's Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and related Technology

  7. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  8. The Calcium-Looping technology for CO2 capture: On the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perejón, Antonio; Romeo, Luis M.; Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology is a potentially low cost and highly efficient postcombustion CO 2 capture technology. • Energy integration and sorbent behavior play a relevant role on the process. • The industrial competitiveness of the process depends critically on the minimization of energy penalties. • It may be used in precombustion capture systems and other industrial processes such as cement production. • Sorbent deactivation must be assessed under realistic conditions involving high CO 2 concentration in the calciner. - Abstract: The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO in gas–solid fluidized bed reactors at high temperature, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO 2 capture. In this manuscript a critical review is made on the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior in the process efficiency. Firstly, the strategies proposed to reduce the energy demand by internal integration are discussed as well as process modifications aimed at optimizing the overall efficiency by means of external integration. The most important benefit of the high temperature CaL cycles is the possibility of using high temperature streams that could reduce significantly the energy penalty associated to CO 2 capture. The application of the CaL technology in precombustion capture systems and energy integration, and the coupling of the CaL technology with other industrial processes are also described. In particular, the CaL technology has a significant potential to be a feasible CO 2 capture system for cement plants. A precise knowledge of the multicyclic CO 2 capture behavior of the sorbent at the CaL conditions to be expected in practice is of great relevance in order to predict a realistic capture efficiency and energy penalty from process simulations. The second part of this manuscript will be devoted to this issue. Particular emphasis is put on the

  9. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  10. Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal medicines are used in many countries for maintaining health and treating diseases. Their efficacy depends on the use of the correct materials, and life-threatening poisoning may occur if toxic adulterants or substitutes are administered instead. Identification of a medicinal material at the DNA level provides an objective and powerful tool for quality control. Extraction of high-quality DNA is the first crucial step in DNA authentication, followed by a battery of DNA techniques including whole genome fingerprinting, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray to establish the identity of the material. New or improved technologies have been developed and valuable data have been collected and compiled for DNA authentication. Some of these technologies and data are patentable. This article provides an overview of some recent patents that cover the extraction of DNA from medicinal materials, the amplification of DNA using improved reaction conditions, the generation of DNA sequences and fingerprints, and the development of high-throughput authentication methods. It also briefly explains why these patents have been granted.

  11. Materials project of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) program for Fiscal Year 1983: Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, L.E.; Jordan, A.; Carpenter, J.A. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    This is the annual technical progress report for fiscal year 1983 of the Materials Project of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program. In fiscal year 1983, the ECUT Materials Project conducted research in four technical areas, or ''work elements,'' entitled High Temperature Materials, Lightweight Materials, Materials by Design, and New Assessments and Initiatives. The progress of the various tasks of the work elements is discussed in this report.

  12. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  13. Bulk Building Material Characterization and Decontamination Using a Concrete Floor and Wall Contamination Profiling Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.; Charters, G.; Blauvelt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The concrete profiling technology, RadPro(trademark) has four major components: a drill with a specialized cutting and sampling head, drill bits, a sample collection unit and a vacuum pump. The equipment in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The drill head is used under hammer action to penetrate hard surfaces. This causes the bulk material to be pulverized as the drill travels through the radioactive media efficiently transmitting to the sampling unit a representative sample of powdered bulk material. The profiling equipment is designed to sequentially collect all material from the hole. The bulk material samples are continuously retrieved by use of a specially designed vacuumed sample retrieval unit that prevents cross contamination of the clean retrieved samples. No circulation medium is required with this profiling process; therefore, the only by-product from drilling is the sample. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the bulk building material. The activity data obtained during the profiling process is reduced and transferred to building drawings as part of a detailed report of the radiological problem. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk

  14. Study on electroplating technology of diamond tools for machining hard and brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Jian Hua; Sun, Li Peng; Wang, Yue

    2016-10-01

    With the development of the high speed cutting, the ultra-precision machining and ultrasonic vibration technique in processing hard and brittle material , the requirement of cutting tools is becoming higher and higher. As electroplated diamond tools have distinct advantages, such as high adaptability, high durability, long service life and good dimensional stability, the cutting tools are effective and extensive used in grinding hard and brittle materials. In this paper, the coating structure of electroplating diamond tool is described. The electroplating process flow is presented, and the influence of pretreatment on the machining quality is analyzed. Through the experimental research and summary, the reasonable formula of the electrolyte, the electroplating technologic parameters and the suitable sanding method were determined. Meanwhile, the drilling experiment on glass-ceramic shows that the electroplating process can effectively improve the cutting performance of diamond tools. It has laid a good foundation for further improving the quality and efficiency of the machining of hard and brittle materials.

  15. Cornell Fuel Cell Institute: Materials Discovery to Enable Fuel Cell Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruna, H.D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2012-06-29

    The discovery and understanding of new, improved materials to advance fuel cell technology are the objectives of the Cornell Fuel Cell Institute (CFCI) research program. CFCI was initially formed in 2003. This report highlights the accomplishments from 2006-2009. Many of the grand challenges in energy science and technology are based on the need for materials with greatly improved or even revolutionary properties and performance. This is certainly true for fuel cells, which have the promise of being highly efficient in the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. Fuel cells offer the possibility of efficiencies perhaps up to 90 % based on the free energy of reaction. Here, the challenges are clearly in the materials used to construct the heart of the fuel cell: the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of two electrodes separated by an ionically conducting membrane. Each electrode is a nanocomposite of electronically conducting catalyst support, ionic conductor and open porosity, that together form three percolation networks that must connect to each catalyst nanoparticle; otherwise the catalyst is inactive. This report highlights the findings of the three years completing the CFCI funding, and incudes developments in materials for electrocatalyts, catalyst supports, materials with structured and functional porosity for electrodes, and novel electrolyte membranes. The report also discusses developments at understanding electrocatalytic mechanisms, especially on novel catalyst surfaces, plus in situ characterization techniques and contributions from theory. Much of the research of the CFCI continues within the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2), a DOE funded, Office of Science Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC).

  16. Assessment of Corrosion Characteristics and Development of Remedial Technologies in Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Lim, Y. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    In general, materials having superior resistance to corrosion are used for main components and structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) to improve their safety. During long-term operations in the high temperature and pressure environment, however, localized-corrosion related degradations occur frequently in those materials, leading to unexpected shutdown of the plants. The unexpected shutdowns may lower the operating efficiency of the power generation and expand the repair period, which results in a huge economical loss. Moreover, since the damages may cause a leakage of the primary coolant that brings about a contamination by radioactive substances, the corrosion related degradations of structural materials have become a menace to the safety of NPPs. The steam generator tubes forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs are one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion. Therefore, it is strongly required to verify the degradation mechanisms of Alloy 182 and Alloy 600 materials used in the steam generator tubes and primary systems, to establish remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, (1) the assessment techniques of corrosion damages were improved and the database of the obtained results were established. (2) The basic technologies of the management of corrosion damages were developed for the practical use. (3) The fundamental technologies for inhibition and repair of corrosion damages were also developed. The results of this project are applicable to the assessment, failure analysis and life estimation of the materials against corrosion damages. The assessment data obtained in this work are available for the technical references of the corrosion failures of components in NPPs during operation. Furthermore, it is applicable to establish materials design requirements, to establish the optimum operation condition and to

  17. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  18. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R. [comps.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  19. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  20. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center 'Welding Processes and Technologies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, N A; Kryukov, R E; Galevsky, G V; Titov, D A; Shurupov, V M

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies».New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed. (paper)

  1. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  2. The development of cost-effective pavement design approaches using minerology tests with new nano-technology modifications of materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jordaan, G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available to determine the mineral composition of materials allows engineers not only to allow these “problem” materials to be identified, but also to address the “perceived risk” of these materials during the design process. New proven Nano-technologies developed over...

  3. Results of the Rhine-Ruhr international materials conference and award 2005. Materials for energy technology in the 21st century - Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains the origin wording of 16 lectures (speech) and discussions, which were held on the first Rhine-Ruhr International Materials Conference in Essen, Germany, on October 23 and 24, 2005. The focus of the gathering was on materials research, development and production in the field of energy engineering. The following topics are dealt with: Energy Concepts for Closing the Gap between Demand and Environmental Protection (Klaus Toepfer); Materials Science: The Competitive Factor in the Global Energy Technology Development (Roland Schenkel); The Necessity for Innovation in the EU as Seen by a New Member State (K.J. Kurzydlowski); New Pathways for Cooperation between Materials Science and Industry (Paul M. Siffert); Energy Demand and Environmental Protection - how to get both in line (Mark Radka); Chinese Energy Efficiency Policy leading to cleaner Production in China (Ming Yang); The Global Significance of Solar Energy Supply (Adolf Goetzberger); The Vision of Sustainable Development of Nuclear Energy (Patrick Ledermann); Improving the Efficiency of Energy Technology with Novel Materials (Johannes Teyssen); New Material Concepts for High Efficiency and Low Risk Exploitation of Energy (Koichi Yagi); Materials Systems for Tomorrow's Gas Turbines (Wilfried Kurz); Science and Technological Advances in Fusion Energy Research, ITER and beyond (Bernard Saoutic); Materials, Systems and Milestones for Economically and Environmentally Attractive Fusion Power Plants (Ian Cook); Fuel Cells - The State of the Art: Applications, Feasibility, Technology and Outlook for the Next Decade (Roland Diethelm); Wind Energy - Significance and Challenges for Tomorrow (Christian Nath); Solar Energy - Time Scale for the Full Application (Volker Wittwer)

  4. Development of materials and manufacturing technologies for Indian fast reactor programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Mandal, Sumantra [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are vital towards meeting security and sustainability of energy for the growing economy of India. The development of FBRs necessitates extensive research and development in domains of materials and manufacturing technologies in association with a wide spectrum of disciplines and their inter-twining to meet the challenging technology. The paper highlight the work and the approaches adopted for the successful deployment of materials, manufacturing and inspection technologies for the in-core and structural components of current and future Indian Fast Breeder Reactor Programme. Indigenous development of in-core materials viz. Titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) and its variants, ferritic/martensitic oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels as well as structural materials viz. 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr-1Mo have been achieved through synergistic interactions between Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), education and research institutes and industries. Robust manufacturing technology has been established for forming and joining of various components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) through 'science-based technology' approach. To achieve the strict quality standards of formed parts in terms of geometrical tolerances, residual stresses and microstructural defects, FEM-based modelling and experimental validation was carried out for estimation of spring-back during forming of multiple curvature thick plantes. Optimization of grain boundary character distribution in Alloy D9 was carried out by adopting the grain boundary engineering approach to reduce radiation induced segregation. Extensive welding is involved in the fabrication of reactor vessels, piping, steam generators, fuel sub-assemblies etc. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process along with activated flux developed at IGCAR has been successfully used in fabrication of dummy fuel subassemblies (DFSA) required

  5. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  6. Designing materials for advanced microelectronic patterning applications using controlled polymerization RAFT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Chambers, Charles R.; Tran, Hoang V.; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Brun, Yefim; Romberger, Matthew L.; Sounik, James R.

    2011-04-01

    Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization technology enables the production of polymers possessing low polydispersity (PD) in high yield for many applications. RAFT technology also enables control over polymer architecture. With synthetic control over these polymer characteristics, a variety of polymers can be designed and manufactured for use in advanced electronic applications. By matching the specific RAFT reagent and monomer combinations, we can accommodate monomer reactivity and optimize acrylate or methacrylate polymerizations (193 and 193i photoresist polymers) or optimize styrenic monomer systems (248 nm photoresist polymers) to yield polymers with PD as low as 1.05. For 193i lithography, we have used RAFT technology to produce block copolymers comprising of a random "resist" block with composition and size based on conventional dry photoresist materials and a "low surface energy" block The relative block lengths and compositions may be varied to tune solution migration behavior, surface energy, contact angles, and solubility in developer. Directed self assembly is proving to be an interesting and innovative method to make 2- and even 3-dimensional periodic, uniform patterns. Two keys to acceptable performance of directed self assembly from block copolymers are the uniformity and the purity of the materials will be discussed.

  7. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  8. Research on technology utilizing data freeway for base nuclear power materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuji; Shiraishi, Haruki; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the selection of the nuclear power materials which are used in radiation, from high temperature to very low temperature, and in corrosive environment, and the development of the materials effectively, the construction of huge material data base is indispensable. The development of the distributed type material data base called 'freeway' is advanced jointly by National Research Institute for Metals, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and Japan Science and Technology Corporation. It has been aimed at that the results obtained in each research institute are made into a data base by that institute, and those data bases can be utilized mutually through network. In fiscal year 1996, the transfer to the system, by which the function showing the contents of system data and the function of data retrieval can be utilized from internet, was begun jointly. The present state of the data freeway, the operation environment of World Wide Web, and the trial making of the computation program for forecasting the change of the chemical composition of materials by neutron irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Development of metallic system multi-composite materials for compound environment and corrosion monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    For the structural materials used for the pressure boundary of nuclear power plants and others, the long term durability over several decades under the compound environment, in which the action of radiation and the corrosion and erosion in the environment of use are superposed, is demanded. To its controlling factors, the secular change of materials due to irradiation ageing and the chemical and physical properties of extreme compound environment are related complicatedly. In the first period of this research, the development of the corrosion-resistant alloys with the most excellent adaptability to environments was carried out by the combination of new alloy design and alloy manufacturing technology. In the second period, in order to heighten the adaptability as the pressure boundary materials between different compound environments, the creation of metallic system multi-composite materials has been advanced. Also corrosion monitoring technique is being developed. The stainless steel for water-cooled reactors, the wear and corrosion-resistant superalloy for reactor core, the corrosion-resistant alloy and the metallic refractory material for reprocessing nitric acid reaction vessels are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Application of plasma technology for the modification of polymer and textile materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma treatment is based on the physico-chemical changes of the material surface and as an ecologically and economically acceptable process it can be an attractive alternative to conventional modifications. The possibilities of plasma technology application to the modification of polymer and textile materials are discussed. Different specific properties of the material can be achieved by plasma cleaning, etching, functionalization or polymerization. The final effects are strongly influenced by the treatment parameters (treatment time, pressure, power, gas flow, the applied gas and nature of the material. The plasma treatment of polymers is predominantly focused on cleaning and activation of the surfaces to increase adhesion, binding, wettability, dye ability and printability. Current studies deal more with plasma polymerization where an ultra thin film of plasma polymer is deposited on the material surface and, depending on the applied monomer, different specific properties can be obtained (i.e. chemical and thermal resistance, abrasion resistance, antireflexion, water repellence, etc.. Plasma application to textiles is mostly oriented toward wool and synthetic fibres, though some studies also consider cotton, hemp, flax and silk. The main goal of plasma treatment is to impart a more hydrophilic fibre surface and accordingly increase wettability, dye ability, printability and particularly, shrink resistance in the case of wool. Recent studies have favored technical textiles, where plasma polymerization can offer a wide range of opportunities.

  11. Engineered Transport in Microporous Materials and Membranes for Clean Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyi; Meckler, Stephen M; Smith, Zachary P; Bachman, Jonathan E; Maserati, Lorenzo; Long, Jeffrey R; Helms, Brett A

    2018-02-01

    Many forward-looking clean-energy technologies hinge on the development of scalable and efficient membrane-based separations. Ongoing investment in the basic research of microporous materials is beginning to pay dividends in membrane technology maturation. Specifically, improvements in membrane selectivity, permeability, and durability are being leveraged for more efficient carbon capture, desalination, and energy storage, and the market adoption of membranes in those areas appears to be on the horizon. Herein, an overview of the microporous materials chemistry driving advanced membrane development, the clean-energy separations employing them, and the theoretical underpinnings tying membrane performance to membrane structure across multiple length scales is provided. The interplay of pore architecture and chemistry for a given set of analytes emerges as a critical design consideration dictating mass transport outcomes. Opportunities and outstanding challenges in the field are also discussed, including high-flux 2D molecular-sieving membranes, phase-change adsorbents as performance-enhancing components in composite membranes, and the need for quantitative metrologies for understanding mass transport in heterophasic materials and in micropores with unusual chemical interactions with analytes of interest. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Summary of the government/industry workshop on new materials and processing technologies for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J K

    1992-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the 1-day workshop conducted at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 16, 1992, between the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) and the US Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Materials Program (DOE AIM). The workshop objectives were to: (1) encourage collaboration between DOE, the DOE national laboratories, and NCMS material manufacturers and (2) assist the DOE AIM program in targeting research and development (R D) more effectively. During the workshop, participants from industry and DOE laboratories were divided into three working groups. Representatives from the DOE national laboratories currently conducting major research programs for AIM were asked to be working group leaders. The groups developed recommendations for NCMS and AIM managers using a six-step process. As a result of the workshop, the groups identified problems of key concern to NCMS member companies and promising materials and processes to meet industry needs. Overall, the workshop found that the research agenda of DOE AIM should include working with suppliers to develop manufacturing technology. The agenda should not be solely driven by energy considerations, but rather it should be driven by industry needs. The role of DOE should be to ensure that energy-efficient technology is available to meet these needs.

  13. Summary of the government/industry workshop on new materials and processing technologies for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the 1-day workshop conducted at Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 16, 1992, between the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) and the US Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Materials Program (DOE AIM). The workshop objectives were to: (1) encourage collaboration between DOE, the DOE national laboratories, and NCMS material manufacturers and (2) assist the DOE AIM program in targeting research and development (R&D) more effectively. During the workshop, participants from industry and DOE laboratories were divided into three working groups. Representatives from the DOE national laboratories currently conducting major research programs for AIM were asked to be working group leaders. The groups developed recommendations for NCMS and AIM managers using a six-step process. As a result of the workshop, the groups identified problems of key concern to NCMS member companies and promising materials and processes to meet industry needs. Overall, the workshop found that the research agenda of DOE AIM should include working with suppliers to develop manufacturing technology. The agenda should not be solely driven by energy considerations, but rather it should be driven by industry needs. The role of DOE should be to ensure that energy-efficient technology is available to meet these needs.

  14. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.

  15. PRINCIPLES OF RE-ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS IN PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIAL COMPONENTS WHILE PRODUCING CEMENT AND SILICATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Busel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding process is characterized by high energy consumption and low productivity. Nowadays efficiency of the ball mills applied for grinding is rather low. Only 3-6 % of the supplied power energy is used for material grinding. The rest part of the energy disappears in the form of heat, vibration and noise. So matter concerning reduction of energy consumption is of great importance.Improvement of efficiency and quality of technological process in grinding of raw material components while producing construction materials is considered as one of priority-oriented targets of power- and resource saving in construction industry with the purpose to reduce energy consumption for grinding. Grinding efficiency at operating enterprises is reasonable to improve by modernization of the equipment and existing technological, management and other processes which are related to grinding of mineral raw material. In order to reduce grinding power consumption it is necessary to carry out a complex re-engineering of technological process in grinding of various materials which is based on usage of new modifications of grinding bodies, physical and chemical grinding aids, modern information technologies and industrial automation equipment. Application of modern information technologies and industrial automation equipment makes it possible to execute the grinding process with maximum achievable productivity for existing capacity due to automatic control and consideration of continuous changes in technological parameters. In addition to this such approach gives an opportunity to control processes in real time by immediate adjustments of technological equipment operational modes.The paper considers an approach to the development of re-engineering methodology for technological process in grinding of raw material components while producing construction materials. The present state of technological grinding process is presented in the paper. The paper points out the

  16. Handbook on Lead-bismuth Eutectic Alloy and Lead Properties, Materials Compatibility, Thermal-hydraulics and Technologies - 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Concetta; Sobolev, V.P.; Aerts, A.; Gavrilov, S.; Lambrinou, K.; Schuurmans, P.; Gessi, A.; Agostini, P.; Ciampichetti, A.; Martinelli, L.; Gosse, S.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Courouau, J.L.; Terlain, A.; Li, N.; Glasbrenner, H.; Neuhausen, J.; Heinitz, S.; Zanini, L.; Dai, Y.; Jolkkonen, M.; Kurata, Y.; Obara, T.; Thiolliere, N.; Martin-Munoz, F.J.; Heinzel, A.; Weisenburger, A.; Mueller, G.; Schumacher, G.; Jianu, A.; Pacio, J.; Marocco, L.; Stieglitz, R.; Wetzel, T.; Daubner, M.; Litfin, K.; Vogt, J.B.; Proriol-Serre, I.; Gorse, D.; Eckert, S.; Stefani, F.; Buchenau, D.; Wondrak, T.; Hwang, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the 1950's. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste. Heavy liquid metals are also under evaluation as a reactor core coolant and accelerator-driven system neutron spallation source. Several national and international R and D programmes are ongoing for the development of liquid lead-alloy technology and the design of liquid lead-alloy-cooled reactor systems. In 2007, a first edition of the handbook was published to provide deeper insight into the properties and experimental results in relation to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic technology and to establish a common database. This handbook remains a reference in the field and is a valuable tool for designers and researchers with an interest in heavy liquid metals. The 2015 edition includes updated data resulting from various national and international R and D programmes and contains new experimental data to help understand some important phenomena such as liquid metal embrittlement and turbulent heat transfer in a fuel bundle. The handbook provides an overview of liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic properties, materials compatibility and testing issues, key aspects of thermal-hydraulics and existing facilities, as well as perspectives for future R and D. (authors)

  17. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology, Winfrith, UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Transport packages for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international regulations. The involvement of AEA Technology is traced from the establishment of the early IAEA Regulations. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide variety of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described with references to practical experience in the form of a short bibliography. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700te); air guns for impacts up to sonic velocities; pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities and instruments; criticality simulations and leak test instruments. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  18. How does materiality shape Childbirth? An explorative journey into evidence, childbirth practices & Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jette Aaroe

    2010-01-01

    is Science and Technology Studies (STS). (Post) Actor Network Theory and postphenomenology is used as theoretical resources to help formulate questions to EBM, midwifery and birthing practices. A central theoretical resource is the Dutch Philosopher Annemarie Mol’s concept of mul-tiplicity. Mol argues......" for those positioned in evidence based medicine and midwifery about the use of technology in childbirth. The empirical material is developed during a field study at a maternity ward. Noisy stories about the use of epidurals and fetal monitors are used as resources. Noisy stories are stories that do...... produced in RCTs and eve-ryday midwifery practices. This thesis encompasses 12 chapters aiming to make the familiar strange and the strange familiar. Histori-cally anthropologist travelled to far away exotic plac-es in an attempt to describe the unfamiliar in familiar terms. This text makes the opposite...

  19. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  20. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.