Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.
Picard, B; Lebret, B; Cassar-Malek, I; Liaubet, L; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Hocquette, J F; Renand, G
The knowledge of the molecular organization of living organisms evolved considerably during the last years. The methodologies associated also progressed with the development of the high-throughput sequencing (SNP array, RNAseq, etc.) and of genomic tools allowing the simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of genes, proteins or metabolites. In farm animals, some proteins, mRNAs or metabolites whose abundance has been associated with meat quality traits have been detected in pig, cattle, chicken. They constitute biomarkers for the assessment and prediction of qualities of interest in each species, with potential biomarkers across species. The ongoing development of rapid methods will allow their use for decision-making and management tools in slaughterhouses, to better allocate carcasses or cuts to the appropriate markets. Besides, their application on living animals will help to improve genetic selection and to adapt a breeding system to fulfill expected quality level. The ultimate goal is to propose effective molecular tools for the management of product quality in meat production chains.
Sørensen, Klavs Martin
This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... on surgical castration will be in effect starting 2018. With the ban, the risk of meat products with the malodorous taint reaching the consumer is highly increased, and thus, detection of boar taint is a necessity. No current on-line detection system is available; the only alternative is chemical extraction...
Sørensen, Klavs Martin
This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection of...... quality, but also with environmental issues such as energy and water use and animal welfare. Future research into the technologies will ultimately allow broad on-line screening of biomarkers, leading to on-line metabolomics......This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...
Daugaard, Søren Blond; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Carstensen, Jens Michael
. The vision technology can also detect even slight increases in the agglutination of the fried minced meat during the process. This agglutination is undesirable, but very difficult to measure on-line. The results indicate that multi-spectral vision technology may partially or totally Substitute visual...... inspection by an operator as a means of assessing product quality during processing. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Horbańczuk Olaf K.
Full Text Available In recent years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed all over the world. However, consumers as well as the meat industry still have limited and scattered knowledge about this type of meat, especially in the case of emu and rhea. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide information on technological and nutritional properties of ostrich, emu, and rhea meat, including carcass composition and yields, physicochemical characteristics, and nutritive value. Carcass yields and composition among ratites are comparable, with the exception of higher content of fat in emu. Ostrich, emu, and rhea meat is darker than beef and ratite meat acidification is closer to beef than to poultry. Ratite meat can be recognised as a dietetic product mainly because of its low level of fat, high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and high iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. Ratite meat is also rich in selenium, copper, vitamin B, and biologically active peptides such as creatine (emu and anserine (ostrich, and has low content of sodium (ostrich. The abundance of bioactive compounds e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation and requires research concerning elaboration of innovative, intelligent packaging system for protection of nutritional and technological properties of this meat.
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20 and 24 h post-mortem (pHu and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of the rate and the extent of the pH fall in the breast muscle were estimated at h2 = 0.21 ± 0.04 and h2 = 0.16 ± 0.04, respectively. Heritabilities ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 were obtained for the colour indicators in the breast muscle. A marked negative genetic correlation (rg = -0.80 ± 0.10 was found between pH20 and lightness (L* of breast meat, both traits corresponding to PSE indicators. The pH20 in the thigh muscle had a moderate heritability (h2 = 0.20 ± 0.07 and was partially genetically related to pH20 in the breast muscle (rg = 0.45 ± 0.17. Body weight and breast yield were positively correlated with both initial and ultimate pH and negatively with the lightness of breast meat.
Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip
In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
This paper presents a case study on use of advanced product quality information in meat processing. To serve segmented customer demand meat processors consider use of innovative sensor technology to sort meat products to customer orders. To assess the use of this sensor technology a discrete-event
Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;
Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....
Miriam T. Nediani
Full Text Available Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product.
Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y
Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain margin
Dalen, G A
The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs.
Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur
Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products.
Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa
World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals.
Water holding capacity (WHC) of pork defines the sensory appreciation and processing yields of meat. Pork varies in WHC and is mainly generated by differences in post mortem muscle metabolism of carcasses. Nowadays, the pork processing industry performs sorting of carcasses and primal cuts on
Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul
During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread
L. V. Antipova
Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.
Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L
This study evaluated the interaction between medium voltage electrical stimulation, SmartStretch™ stretching and ageing treatments on key meat quality traits of hot boned sheep m. semimembranosus. Medium voltage stimulation reduced initial pH (Pmeat quality traits. There was a significant interaction between stretch treatment and ageing (Pmeat display time.
Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.
Gerolamo Xiccato; Angela Trocino; Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani
Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing) is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe...
Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone
The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...
Full Text Available Forty-one reindeer bulls (age 1 1/2 years were subjected to different pre-slaughter treatments: herding for a short distance to a grazing corral, selection by use of a lasso, lorry transport and helicopter herding for 1, 2 and 3 days respectively. As control, 9 reindeer were shot without previous handling (in the mountains. The results indicated the traditional selection technique of using a lasso to be the most stressful and glycogen-depleting handling procedure so far studied. In the lasso-selected reindeer the lowest glycogen values and the highest ultimate pH values in the meat were measured. The values of the measured parameters indicating stress (aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, urea, Cortisol and abomasal lesions were also highest in these reindeer. By contrast, the modern method of herding by helicopter was not found to be detrimental to glycogen content, ultimate pH, the measured blood metabolites, or the frequency of abomasal lesions. In all treatment groups degenerative lesions were observed in the skeletal muscles. No relarionship between technological and sensory meat quality characteristics and skeletal muscle lesions in reindeer could, however, be found in this study. The study confirmed an earlier finding that a 'stress-flavour' could develop in reindeer meat after intensive pre-slaughter handling of the animals. Further study of when and how such "stress-flavour" develops ought to be undertaken.
This thesis deals with the use of conservation technologies in meat processing and production of meat products. The aim is to gather available information on methods to extend the life of the issue of meat and meat products. In her first retrieval character are generally mentioned meanings conservation technologies and described the principles of conservation, protection and legal requirements associated with it. It further describes the various methods of preserving meat and meat products an...
Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad
The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (Pprocessed meat intake was associated with a lower (Pprocessed meat consumption was associated with lower (Pprocessed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.
Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.
Troy, Declan J; Ojha, Kumari Shikha; Kerry, Joseph P; Tiwari, Brijesh K
New and emerging robust technologies can play an important role in ensuring a more resilient meat value chain and satisfying consumer demands and needs. This paper outlines various novel thermal and non-thermal technologies which have shown potential for meat processing applications. A number of process analytical techniques which have shown potential for rapid, real-time assessment of meat quality are also discussed. The commercial uptake and consumer acceptance of novel technologies in meat processing have been subjects of great interest over the past decade. Consumer focus group studies have shown that consumer expectations and liking for novel technologies, applicable to meat processing applications, vary significantly. This overview also highlights the necessity for meat processors to address consumer risk-benefit perceptions, knowledge and trust in order to be commercially successful in the application of novel technologies within the meat sector.
The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.
Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.
Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan
This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed.
Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.
Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle consists of several tissues, such as muscle fibers and connective and adipose tissues. This review aims to describe the features of these various muscle components and their relationships with the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of meat/flesh from different livestock and fish species. Thus, the contractile and metabolic types, size and number of muscle fibers, the content, composition and distribution of the connective tissue, and the content and lipid composition of intramuscular fat play a role in the determination of meat/flesh appearance, color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and technological value. Interestingly, the biochemical and structural characteristics of muscle fibers, intramuscular connective tissue, and intramuscular fat appear to play independent role, which suggests that the properties of these various muscle components can be independently modulated by genetics or environmental factors to achieve production efficiency and improve meat/flesh quality.
Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith
The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.
Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
To fulfil segmented consumer demand and add value, meat processors seek to exploit quality differences in meat products. Availability of product quality information is of key importance for this. We present a case study where an innovative sensor technology that provides estimates of an important
Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
To fulfil segmented consumer demand and add value, meat processors seek to exploit quality differences in meat products. Availability of product quality information is of key importance for this. We present a case study where an innovative sensor technology that provides estimates of an important me
Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo
Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and
Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.
Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P M
Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). ...
Zhang, Wangang; Naveena, B Maheswarappa; Jo, Cheorun; Sakata, Ryoichi; Zhou, Guanghong; Banerjee, Rituparna; Nishiumi, Tadayuki
A rapid increase in the economy, population, industrialization, and urbanization of Asian countries has driven the fast development of their meat industries over recent decades. This consistent increase in meat production and consumption in Asia has been the major cause for the development of the global meat industry. Meat production methods and consumption are very diverse across different regions and countries in Asia, and thus, it is impossible to cover the technological demands of all Asian countries in this review. Here, we have mainly highlighted the differences in meat production methods and consumption in Asia during recent decades and the meat technology demands of three east Asian countries, namely China, Korea, and Japan, and one south Asian country, India. A brief introduction of the meat industry, in particular the production and consumption trend in these countries, is provided in this article. The technology demands for fresh and processed meat products are then reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bekker, G.A.; Fischer, A.R.; Tobi, H.; Trijp, H.C.M. van
Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit
This book chapter reviews hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) as an innovative, postharvest technology for enhancing the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products. A variety of meat products have been tested for their response to the high pressure shockwaves of HDP. The st...
Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I
The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kukushkin, V I; Satusheva, E V; Aleksandrov, M T; Morozova, O A; Pashkov, E P; Ambartsumyan, O A; Amosova, V A
Determination of the effect of microorganisms on spoilage of meat products during various temperature regimes of storage by integral indexes of luminescent lines in their spectra and development of an algorithm of microorganism indication by an express method using laser Raman-luminescent spectroscopy. Minced meat from beef and pork was used. Determination of quantity of mesophilic aerobic and opportunistic-anaerobic microorganisms was carried out by serial 10-fold dilutions with subsequent parallel seeding into Rida count total 24 plates and Petri dishes with 5% blood agar. Sample study was carried out in luminescent software-hardware complex Enspectr L405 (a variant of Enspectr M software-hardware complexes). Meat spoilage was established to be caused to a large degree by Pseudomonas genus (P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. fragi et al.) bacterial growth. Raman-luminescent spectra of bacteria that compose microflora, characterizing and accompanying beef and pork spoilage, were measured and recorded into a database. The results obtained will allow to use this technique in the future for both express-indication and differentiation of microorganisms and express-evaluation of quality of meat products at all stages of their manufacturing, storage, transport and realization.
Kuzelov, Aco; STOJANOVSKI, Mitre; Josevska, Elena; Marenceva, Daniela
Production of wholesome, high quality and safe meat products primarily depends on technological operations during production, legislative regulation and control the production of meat products in all segments of the manufacturing process. During the manufacturing process should be taken for the proper conduct of all technological operations from farm to table. No for technologists working in local industries can affect the proper functioning of the technological operations of unloading of ...
Full Text Available Thirty reindeer bulls (age 1 1/2 years were subjected to different pre-slaughter treatments to study the effects on ultimate pH values, muscle glycogen content, blood metabolites and abomasal lesions. Gathering and herding into a grazing corral were followed by various selection procedures. Before starting these, a control group of 10 reindeer were captured by lasso and slaughtered outside the grazing corral. Ten reindeer were then selected by hand from a small group of animals (100-150 head in a small selection corral. Another 10 reindeer were selected from a large herd of about 1000-2000 animals, by the traditional technique of using a lasso. During a 6-hour selection, animals were captured and slaughtered after 1.5 hours (n = 2, 3-5 hours (n = 2, 5 hours (n = 3 and 6 hours (n=3 respectively. The results showed the technique of using a lasso to be stressful and glycogen-depleting, as the two lasso captured groups (the control group and the reindeer exposed to the protracted lasso selection had the highest ultimate pH values and lowest muscle glycogen values measured. By contrast, the selection procedure where reindeer were captured by hand, was not found to be detrimental to glycogen content and ultimate pH values. Nevertheless, both selection techniques expose the reindeer to acute stress during the capture and manual restraint, which in the present study was reflected in high plasma Cortisol values in all treatment groups. The frequency of abomasal lesions was highest in the group of reindeer subjected to the prolonged selection procedure. No connection between technological and sensory meat quality was found in this study. The technique of selecting animals by hand ought to be further developed so that existing practical problems can be solved. The technique could then be recommended for wider use.
Lee, Keun Taik
This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.
Swiderski, F; Russel, S; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B; Cholewińska, E
The aim of study was to evaluate the quality of poultry meat, roasted and smoked chicken and poultry pie packing under low and high vacuum. All investigated products were stored at +4 degrees C and evaluated by microbiological analysis. It was showed that packing under low and high vacuum inhibited development of aerobic microorganisms, proteolytic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Vacuum-packaged storage of poultry meat and its products stimulated activity of anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria. The fast spoilage of fresh poultry meat was observed both under vacuum and conventional storage. The microbiology quality of poultry products depended on technology of production and microbiological quality of raw material.
Kapovsky, B. R.; Pchelkina, V. A.; Plyasheshnik, P. I.; Dydykin, A. S.; Lazarev, A. A.
A design for an automatic line for minced meat production according to new production technology based on an innovative meat milling method is proposed. This method allows the necessary degree of raw material comminution at the stage of raw material preparation to be obtained, which leads to production intensification due to the traditional meat mass comminution equipment being unnecessary. To ensure consistent quality of the product obtained, the use of on-line automatic control of the technological process for minced meat production is envisaged. This system has been developed using artificial intelligence methods and technologies. The system is trainable during the operation process, adapts to changes in processed raw material characteristics and to external impacts that affect the system operation, and manufactures meat shavings with minimal dispersion of the typical particle size. The control system includes equipment for express analysis of the chemical composition of the minced meat and its temperature after comminution. In this case, the minced meat production process can be controlled strictly as a function of time, which excludes subjective factors for assessing the degree of finished product readiness. This will allow finished meat products with consistent, targeted high quality to be produced.
Aug 4, 2009 ... INTRODUCTION. There is currently a world trend to reduce the use of anti- ... this study was undertaken to know the effect of probiotics .... tics fed broilers. ..... International Organization for Standardization, on meat and meat.
Full Text Available Dressing percentage of nutria is fairly large and remains at the level of 52 to as much as 63%, while the share of edible meat offal is about 3.75%. Chemical composition of meat is similar to lean beef, and average fat content is maintained in the range of 4.7 to 7%. The usefulness of nutria meat processing testify the good technological properties, dietary values, taste, culinary and nutritional which put them on a par with other meat originating from livestock. It is perfect for making breakfast sausages, sausages, processed meat products durable and preparation of a variety of meat dishes. The introduction of nutria meat on the market, as well as its relevant health-promoting features, can contribute to its permanent place in our diet.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.
The effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of 16 different varieties of meat, meat products, game, poultry and seafood are reviewed. Changes induced by ILP are animal species, type of meat product and fluences applied dependent. ILP significantly deteriorates sensory quality of cooked meat products. It causes less change in the sensory properties of dry cured than cooked meat products while fermented sausage is least affected. The higher fluence applied significantly changes ...
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare the quality of meat of local carcass sheep between fresh and aging meat stored at room temperature for 12 hours, at 4oC for one day and one week. For that purpose a study of aging carcass involving 12 local sheep (male and female with different ages was carried out by separating carcass into two parts: (1 the right portion was aged on 4oC for one day and one week, room temperature for 12 hours, and (2 the left portion as control without aging. A factorial design 2x2 (2 sexes and aging vs without aging for three kinds of aging on quality of meat. A factorial design 2x3 (2 sexes and 3 kinds of aging on aging loss. Replicate twice was carried out with different ages (old and young sheep. Parameter measured were pH, warter-holding capacity, cooking loss, color, tenderness, carcass weight loss. There was decrease in pH, increase in tenderness value for aged meat that stored at room temperature for 12 hours (1.84 kg, at cold temperature for one day (2.03 kg, but tenderness value was the most (0.92 kg at cold temperature for one week compared to fresh meat (3.41, 4.06, and 3.66 kg. Lightness color (l, red color (a and yellow color (b for aged meat is usually increase compare to fresh meat, except for aged meat stored at room temperature for 12 hours was decrease significant. Water-holding capacity and cooking loss value of aged meat was not significant compared to fresh meat. Aging loss of aged meat stored at 4oC for one week (13.58% was significant compared to aged meat stored at room temperature (2.42% and 4oC for one day (2.90%.
Bajovic, Bajo; Bolumar, Tomas; Heinz, Volker
Pressure can be applied by high hydrostatic pressure, better known as high pressure processing (HPP), or by hydrodynamic pressure (HDP) in the form of shockwaves to alter quality parameters, such as shelf-life and texture of meat and meat products. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the use of pressure in the meat industry and to highlight its usage as a method to inactivate microorganisms but also a novel strategy to alter the structure and the quality parameters of meat and meat products. Benefits and possibilities of the technologies are presented, as well as how to overcome undesired product changes caused by HPP. The use of hydrodynamic shockwaves is briefly described and a promising newly developed industrial prototype for the generation of shockwaves by underwater explosion is presented.
Longdell, G R
New Zealand has invested heavily in the development of slaughter dressing and deboning equipment and machinery for sheep and lamb. In total some thirteen machines have been developed to date and all are now commercially available and many examples are working within New Zealand and overseas. Significant economic savings have been derived from the introduction of these machines. The Australian meat industry is funding a major programme in beef slaughter technology development. Eleven modules have been developed and at present they are being incorporated into a commercial plant at Kilcoy in Queensland, Australia. The Netherlands have a programme named Slaughterline 2000 which includes a number of pork slaughtering and processing initiations. Stunning, sticking and an automatic carcass opener are developments within this programme.
Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K
It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation.
Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A
Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.
洪岩; 党苗苗; 费楠; 夏秀芳
超高压技术凭借其明显的诸多优点应用于肉制品加工中越来越多，它能够有效地延长食品的贮藏期，这与其能够杀死肉中的微生物有关。同时，经高压处理后的肉制品的品质会有所变化，不同动物的肉经过高压处理后的颜色变化不同；代表肉嫩度的剪切力也会改变，适当的高压会提高肉品的嫩度，用不同的压力水平和时间处理肉制品时，肌肉蛋白所产生的凝胶的硬度也不同。超高压技术也存在一些缺点，诸如肉制品在经过不同的压力水平和持续时间的高压处理时会引发脂质氧化，导致肉制品的货架期变短。本文从超高压技术在肉制品加工中对于肉制品中微生物以及肉制品品质方面的影响进行综述，为超高压技术可以更好地应用于肉制品加工提供一定的理论依据。%ABSTRACT:The ultra-high pressure technology was used in the meat processing more and more popular, which could effectively prolong the storage period by killing the microorganisms in meat. At the same time, after high pressure processing, there were different meat color changes from different kinds of animal, as well as the changes of shear force which stood for the tenderness of meat, and the appropriate high pressure would improve meat tenderness. With different levels of pressure and time processing, the gel hardness produced by the muscle protein was different. There were some disadvantages of ultra-high pressure technology, such as lipid oxidation, leading to shorter shelf life of meat products after different stress level and duration of high pressure processing. This article summarized the change of microorganisms in meat and meat products quality after ultra-high pressure technology, and provided certain theoretical basis for ultra-high voltage which could be better applied to meat products processing.
Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup
of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable...... transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one......, it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...
Hugas, M; Garriga, M; Monfort, J M
As a consequence of market globalization, the production and manufacture of meat products is at a stage of innovative dynamics. Consumers demand high quality and convenient meat products, with natural flavour and taste, and very much appreciate the fresh appearance of minimally processed food. To harmonize or to blend all these demands without compromising safety, it is necessary to implement new preservation technologies in the meat industry and in the food industry in general. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) represents an attractive non-thermal process for meat products to avoid post-processing contamination. When combined with antimicrobials, like bacteriocins, the death rate may be increased because of sublethal injuries to living cells. HPP is a powerful tool to control risks associated with Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in raw or marinated meats. The HPP treatment could extend the shelf life of the marinated beef loin by controlling the growth of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. As a general conclusion it can be stated that from both a physico-chemical and microbiological point of view, cooked pork ham, dry cured pork ham and marinated beef loin, vacuum-packed and high pressure treated at 600 MPa for 10 min at 30 °C, are substantially equivalent to the same untreated products.
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen
In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purch......, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare....... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen
In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purch......, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare....... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen
for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding......In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point......, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare....
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen
for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding......In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point......, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare....
Quality Attributes Of Two Species Of Indigenous Guinea Fowl Meat As ... This study examined the effect of frozen storage, prepackaging (Polyethylene film, ... of weight loss, cooking loss, pH, and tenderness scores increased (P < 0.05).
The importance of improving meat quality characterized by complex multivariate properties has been recognized worldwide for over two decades in pig production. However, there is still very limited knowledge of the mechanisms behind meat quality. In this thesis, meat quality is studied through...... with meat quality have been indentified....
At present, some foreign researchers of meat industry developed countries are studying and applying nondestructive testing techniques to detect meat quality. In our country, these techniques are seldom used besides some techniques using electromagnetic properties. This paper introduces some modern nondestructive testing techniques for quality detection of meat, such as Supersonic wave,electronic Nose, electromagnetic method, near infrared, Raman Spectroscopy and computer vision technology. These techniques can meet the requirements of high speed and high accuracy on line detection of meat. Besides, further research and possible applications are also discussed.
Full Text Available The main characteristics that define meat quality are the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. These characteristics are influenced by like production system, racial group, feed, transport, ante-mortem animals handling and post-mortem meat handling. The ante-mortem handling is very important, where stress physiology and the factors that provoke it (fasting, transportation, stunning, specie and their effect in each step of the ante-mortem handling is reflected in final meat quality (pH, conductivity, color, water holding capacity and shelf life.
Xiong, Zhenjie; Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan
Currently, the issue of food safety and quality is a great public concern. In order to satisfy the demands of consumers and obtain superior food qualities, non-destructive and fast methods are required for quality evaluation. As one of these methods, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique has emerged as a smart and promising analytical tool for quality evaluation purposes and has attracted much interest in non-destructive analysis of different food products. With the main advantage of combining both spectroscopy technique and imaging technique, HSI technique shows a convinced attitude to detect and evaluate chicken meat quality objectively. Moreover, developing a quality evaluation system based on HSI technology would bring economic benefits to the chicken meat industry. Therefore, in recent years, many studies have been conducted on using HSI technology for the safety and quality detection and evaluation of chicken meat. The aim of this review is thus to give a detailed overview about HSI and focus on the recently developed methods exerted in HSI technology developed for microbiological spoilage detection and quality classification of chicken meat. Moreover, the usefulness of HSI technique for detecting fecal contamination and bone fragments of chicken carcasses are presented. Finally, some viewpoints on its future research and applicability in the modern poultry industry are proposed.
Riquet-Motchidlover, Anne-Marie; Vitrac, Olivier; Sauvageot Loriot, C.
The main research directions followed by the mixed technology network Propack Food are discussed with special reference to monitoring the impact of packaging and associated preservation processes on quality and safety of meat products and other foods.
Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...
Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...
Sirri, F; Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A
Caponization is a surgical technique adopted to alter the sexual maturation of male chickens with the aim of improving the quality characteristics of carcass and meat. Under commercial conditions within each flock, about 10% of the birds usually result with incomplete caponization and are called slips. A trial was conducted to compare quality traits of breast and thigh meat from capons (n = 12), slips (n = 12), and cocks (unoperated birds; n = 12) (Hubbard x Golden Comet) reared together and processed at 180 d old under commercial conditions. Capons exhibited the highest (P < 0.01) values of breast and thigh meat lightness and yellowness as well as the lowest values of redness (P < 0.01) compared with cocks and slips. These variations in meat color were related to a lower concentration of heme pigments in both breast and thigh meat from capons. Capons and slips presented lower Allo-Kramer shear values of cooked breast meat (P < 0.05) in comparison with cocks. As for chemical composition, capons showed a higher content of total lipid, cholesterol, and ash both in breast and thigh meat. Total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not strongly affected by caponization. However, capons exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.01) content of linoleic and linolenic acids as well as a lower content of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids in respect to slips and cocks. Overall, this study indicated that caponization can affect the main meat quality traits with special regards to appearance (color), texture, and composition. Finally, it was found that slips present intermediate meat quality characteristics between capons and cocks.
research has focused on evaluating meat quality from the local/indigenous ... meat. Cooking loss and meat tenderness were determined for these samples. ..... producing lactic acid as the end product which .... Limited. Final Report, April 2012.
Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie
The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muriel, Elena; Ruiz, Jorge; Ventanas, Jesùs; Jesús Petrón, Maria; Antequera, Teresa
Physico-chemical parameters involved in technological meat quality for dry cured processing of four different lines (Entrepelado, Lampiño, Retinto and Torbiscal) of Iberian pigs were studied in the Masseter (MS) and Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. The line of Iberian pig significantly affected intramuscular fat content of MS muscle, animals from the Torbiscal line showing lower values. Proportions of several fatty acids of total lipids and polar lipids from the MS muscle were also affected. However, fatty acid composition and total lipids, neutral lipids and polar lipids of LD muscle and neutral lipids of MS muscle were scarcely affected. Lipid oxidation was also unaffected by Iberian pig line, but instrumental colour parameters of MS muscle showed significant variations.
Kozačinski, Lidija; Hadžiosmanović, Mirza; Zdolec, Nevijo
This paper presents an investigation of the microbiological quality of poultry meat sold on the Croatian market. Bacteriological analysis was performed on 66 samples of fresh, retail-cut chicken meat (21 samples of chicken breasts without skin - “fillet”, and 19 samples of chicken breasts with skin) and frozen ground chicken meat (26 samples). Samples were collected from retailers (kept in cooling showcases at +4 ºC, deep-freezers at -18 ºC, respectively), and then bacteriologically tested fo...
Chapter 1 is a general introduction to this thesis. Welfare of slaughter pigs may be impaired by preslaughter treatment. Frequently used welfare indicators are behavioural and physiological responses. The responses to preslaughter treatment may also have an effect on perimortem muscle metabolism and thereby on meat quality. Behavioural and physiological responses to acute stress could lead to properties of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat via an associated increase in muscle exercise, muscle ...
Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh
Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.
should, to a large extent, influence the meat research re- ... not service, has led to a rapid development of self-service. ... that wholesale buying is in the hands of a small number of ..... and cooking factors influencing tenderness are very com-.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the fatting capacity and the meat quality of the combined (meat+eggs White English breed and to compare with the same of the meat Faraon breed. Logically, the live weight of 31-day old male Faraon-birds was by 5,9 % higher and of the female ones – by 7,9 % compared to the birds of White English breed. Feed conversion ratio for the experimental period (3-31 days for the White English quails was to 9,95% less effective, compared to the Faraon birds. The meat of Faraon quails contained more dry matter and protein compared to the meat of White English breed. Fat content in the quail bodies of White English breed was signifi cantly lower compared to Faraon breed /Р≤0,05/. Quail meat of White English breed was characterized by its better capacity for technological processing due to the lower loss of moisture – by 18,8 % for breast and 22,4 % for leg muscles /Р≤0,05/. The established results characterize the combined White English breed as suitable for producing both of eggs and meat from quails.
Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly α- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...
Williams, John L.
Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.
Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.
were 1.9, 3.0 and 3.7. Finishing feeding increased IMF, improved meat flavour and colour, and tended to reduce shear force value and improve tenderness and juiciness. The F4 cows also had higher fat trim than C- and F2-cows. Cows were divided into two parity groups (1st parity and older cows). Compared...
Full Text Available Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143 were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237 of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20 slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3, while the rest (n = 37 sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per mℓ in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per mℓ. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12 and Escherichia coli (n=15. During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was
Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M
Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Animal growth performance and quality of pork depend on the interactive effects of pig genotype, rearing conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and carcass and meat processing. This paper focuses on the effects of feeding and rearing systems (feeding level and diet composition, housing, production system, etc.) on growth performance, carcass composition, and eating and technological qualities of pork. The feeding level and protein : energy ratio can be used to manipulate growth rate or composition of weight gain. Restricted feed allowance strongly reduces growth rate and carcass fatness and also intramuscular fat (IMF) level, resulting in decreased meat tenderness or juiciness. Expression of compensatory growth due to restricted followed by ad libitum feeding modifies the composition of weight gain at both carcass and muscle levels, and may improve meat tenderness due to higher in vivo protein turnover. Decreasing the protein : energy ratio of the diet actually increases IMF and improves eating quality, but gives fatter carcasses. In contrast, a progressive reduction in the protein : energy ratio leads to similar carcass composition at slaughter but with higher IMF. Technological meat traits (pH1, pHu, colour, drip loss) are generally not affected by the level or protein : energy in feed. Modification of fatty acid composition and antioxidant level in meat can be obtained through diet supplementations (e.g. vegetable sources with high n-3 fatty acids), thereby improving the nutritional quality of pork. Influences of pig rearing system on animal performance, carcass and meat traits result from interactive effects of housing (floor type, space allowance, ambient temperature, physical activity), feeding level and genotype in specific production systems. Indoor enrichment (more space, straw bedding) generally increases growth rate and carcass fatness, and may improve meat juiciness or flavour through higher IMF. Outdoor rearing and organic production system have various
Lloveras, M R; Goenaga, P R; Irurueta, M; Carduza, F; Grigioni, G; García, P T; Améndola, A
This report describes the meat quality of two INTA hybrids (hybrid females) sired by Duroc (D) or Yorkshire (Y) boars and a third one from PIC (S), a cross of females C22 to 412 boars. Starting at 30kg live weight, 18 barrows and 18 gilts of each genotype were kept in identical conditions until slaughtered at 110kg. Longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. Means differed significantly (Psex effects and no genotype-sex interactions. Distinct differences in meat quality between hybrids do exist, with D superior, S the worst, and Y intermediate.
The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment.
Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05 decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.
Full Text Available Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, as an effective analytical technique for electrochemical system, has shown a wide application for food quality and safety assessment recently. Individual differences of livestock cause high variation in quality of raw meat and fish and their commercialized products. Therefore, in order to obtain the definite quality information and ensure the quality of each product, a fast and on-line detection technology is demanded to be developed to monitor product processing. EIS has advantages of being fast, nondestructive, inexpensive, and easily implemented and shows potential to develop on-line detecting instrument to replace traditional methods to realize time, cost, skilled persons saving and further quality grading. This review outlines the fundamental theories and two common measurement methods of EIS applied to biological tissue, summarizes its application specifically for quality assessment of meat and fish, and discusses challenges and future trends of EIS technology applied for meat and fish quality assessment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species.
Gokulakrishnan, P; Vergis, Jess
Achieving food safety is a global health goal and the food-borne diseases take a major check on global health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods and immunology-based methods may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield a result. Obviously, this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid diagnostic methods. The advent of molecular techniques has led to the development of a diverse array of assay for quality control of meat and meat products. Rapid analysis using DNA hybridization and amplification techniques offer more sensitivity and specificity to get results than culture based methods as well as dramatic reduction in the time to get results. Many methods have also achieved the high level automation, facilitating their application as routine sample screening assays. This review is intended to provide an overview of the molecular methods for microbiological quality control of meat and meat products.
Ivanović Snežana D.
Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food
E. K. Tunieva
Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of diﬀerent methods for preservation of taste and consistency in ﬁnished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the ﬁeld of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of diﬀerent taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.
McCreight, Donald E.
This article is based on Dr. McCreight's Ph.D. dissertation, "A Vocational Teaching Experiment on Occupations and Quality Control in the Processing of Meat, which was completed at The Pennsylvania State University in 1969. Glenn Z. Stevens, Professor of Agricultural Education at The Pennsylvania State University, was Dr. McCreight's major…
Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further
Singh, Preeti; Wani, Ali Abas; Saengerlaub, Sven; Langowski, Horst-Christian
Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The success of MAP-fresh meat depends on many factors including good initial product quality, good hygiene from the source plants, correct packaging material selection, the appropriate gas mix for the product, reliable packaging equipment, and maintenance of controlled temperatures and humidity levels. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled meat. Although several parameters critical for the quality of MA packed meat have been studied and each found to be crucial, understanding of the interactions between the parameters is needed. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely available, scattered information about the various integrated critical factors responsible for the quality and shelf life of MA packed meat with an interest to stimulate further research to optimize different quality parameters.
V. K. Mathur
Full Text Available Recent developments in the chemistry and technology of cured and smoked meat products are reviewed. Various factors physical, chemical and microbiological affecting water holding capacity of cured meats and cured colour formation and its stability during storage are discussed. Methods of preparation of various types of cured and smoked meat products have been briefly described. Developments in the use of synthetic casings and skinless sausages have been mentioned. Smoke constituents, their role and physico-chemical aspects of mechanism and functions of smoking are discussed. Advancements in the methods of smoke generation, conventional smoking and some kilns, electrostatic smoking and smoking by use of liquid smokes have been described. Some of the methods of preparation of liquid smokes are also given.
Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F
were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level...... will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs......A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip...
Wojnowski, Wojciech; Majchrzak, Tomasz; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek
Main factors that are considered by consumers when choosing meat products are colour and aroma, of which the latter is a more reliable indicator of quality. However, a simple sensory evaluation of hedonistic qualities is often not sufficient to determine whether protein is past its shelf life, and consumption of spoiled meat can lead to serious health hazards. Some volatile compounds can be used as spoilage indicators, and so a device equipped with a sensor sensitive to particular odorants would prove useful. Unfortunately, no such single compound has yet been identified, as the changes taking place in a sample of meat during storage are contingent on numerous factors. On the other hand, a combination of volatile compounds may form a unique 'fingerprint' which can be analysed pattern recognition algorithms with an electronic nose. It can supplement established techniques of meat quality assessment by providing results that correlate well with hedonic perception in a short time and at a low cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.
J. H. Park
Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.
Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping
Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (PT, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (Pmeat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits.
Full Text Available Among the peneids, Marsupenaeus japonicus, a cold-temperate species, carnivorous, is the mostly cultured prawn in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea basin, thanks to the good adaptability to the temperature and salinity variations, to the good resistance to the manipulations (better resistance out of water, to its appreciate nourishing qualities and to the good growth rate (Lumare, 1998.Whereas the literature on cultured fish fillet is rich (Gjedrem, 1997; Lanari et al., 1999; Parisi et al., 2003, few are the information about the shrimp meat quality traits.Therefore, the present work aimed at typifying the variations of the meat quality characteristics in shrimps from semi-intensive (supplemented with an artificial diet or extensive rearing systems.
赵祥忠; 张合亮; 刘新才; 王莹; 张欣欣; 杨晓宙
以新鲜虾夷扇贝为原料，经蒸煮、入味、烘烤、杀菌等工艺处理，制得了即食虾夷扇贝柱产品。入味液中加入0.3%的异抗坏血酸钠、0.2%的L-半胱氨酸、0.04%的甜蜜素和0.04%的I+G，减少白砂糖和味精用量，可有效抑制即食扇贝柱的褐变；植物油中添加0.3%的竹叶黄酮醇取物可保证产品在货架期内无氧化酸败问题；添加25 mg/L的乳酸链球菌素并采用105℃杀菌15 min，产品在37℃下放置25 d未出现腐败变质现象。%Using fresh patinopecten yessoensis, by cooking,tasty,roasting, sterilization, an instant scallop meat products was prepared. In the process of tasty, if we added 0.3%ascorbic acid sodium, 0.2%L-cys, 0.04%sodium cyclamate, 0.04%I+G and reduced the contents of white granulated sugar and aginomoto, the problem of browning in instant scallop meat during shelf period can be solved. When we added 0.3%flavonoids ethanol extracts of bamboo leaves in plant oil, the product has not presented the oxidative rancidity phenomenon during shelf period. When we added 25 mg/L nisin and sterilized at 105 ℃ for about 15 min, the product has not presented the corruption and deterioration phenomenon at 37℃for 25 d.
This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...
Intense light pulses (ILP) are an emerging processing technology, which has a potential to decontaminate food products. The light generated by ILP lamps consists of a continuum broadband spectrum from deep UV to the infrared, especially rich in UV range below 400 nm, which is germicidal. Evaluation of the effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of meat, game and poultry was performed using two kinds of red meat (beef and pork), two kinds of ...
MISHRA, BIDYUT PRAVA; CHAUHAN, GEETA; Mendiratta, S. K.; B. D. Sharma; Desai, B. A.; Rath, P. K.
It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat ri...
May 15, 2015 ... 1Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Goiano (IF Goiano), Rio ... derived from the culled animals are promising alternatives for small farmers ... This research project was submitted to the Research Ethics.
Stasiewicz, M; Lipiński, K; Cierach, M
.... Meat products were subjected to a sensory evaluation. The obtained results show that changes in the quality of meat products packaged under modified atmosphere are significantly influenced by the composition of the applied atmosphere...
Kristensen, L; Støier, S; Würtz, J; Hinrichsen, L
With an increasing world population, an increase in affluence and a substantial growth in the demand for high quality protein, the meat sector faces a fantastic but challenging century. New scientific knowledge, technology and creative minds are the main ingredients in order to reach out for this great opportunity. Efficiency all the way from breeding and farming to processing and dispatch is crucial for success. Technology has brought us far, and there is still a huge potential for increased efficiency by implementing best practices on a global scale. New challenges include: hyper flexible automation, more accurate and faster measurement systems and meeting special consumer demands already at the production line. Systems for optimal animal welfare will be even more important and sustainability is no longer a consumer trend but a license to operate. The scientific meat society must provide knowledge and technology so we together can reach out for a seemingly bright future.
Sofos, J N; Smith, G C
Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.
Baldi, G; Soglia, F; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Canonico, L; Babini, E; Laghi, L; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology. In two replications, 96 P. major muscles were classified into four classes: normal (N), WS, SM and WS/SM. The whole fillet was used for weight assessment and morphometric measurements, then each sample was cut in order to separate the superficial layer from the deep one and used to evaluate proximate composition, histological features, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times, functional properties and both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins profile. Fillets affected by WS and SM abnormalities exhibited higher weights and increased thickness and length. SM condition was associated with a relevant decrease in protein content coupled with a significant increase in moisture level, whereas fat content was affected only by the simultaneous presence of WS. Histological evaluations revealed that abnormal samples were characterized by several degenerative aspects that almost completely concerned the superficial layer of the fillets. White striped fillets exhibited necrosis and lysis of fibers, fibrosis, lipidosis, loss of cross striation and vacuolar degeneration. Moreover, SM samples were characterized by poor fiber uniformity and a progressive rarefaction of the endo- and peri-mysial connective tissue, whereas WS/SM fillets showed intermediate histological features. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis revealed a higher proportion of extra-myofibrillar water in the superficial section of all the abnormal fillets, especially in SM
Panagiotis E Simitzis
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements. No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.
Full Text Available In Tunisia, the marketing of lamb is in the majority of farmers after weaning at relatively low weight. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct a test of fattening lambs Tunisian landraces (Barbarine (BGQ, fine Tail from the west (QFO Black Thibar (NT and Sicilo-Sarde (SS after weaning to evaluate their growth performance and determine the quality of carcasses and meat. To do so, four uniform lots of lambs (age and weight were conducted simultaneously in two months and fed with oat hay ad libitum supplemented with 300g of concentrate/day/lamb. It was clear from this work that the lambs of the breed Black Thibar had better daily growth (87.5g vs. 64.2; 66.3, 72.6 respectively for the QFO, BGQ and SS, feed efficiency (5.94. The quality of meat (6.89% fat and pieces of the first category (leg, the net and found the square (53.43%. To enjoy optimum production of red meat, it is strongly recommended that fattened lambs after weaning with diets tailored to the farming area where profitability is better and food is available.
Full Text Available In the experiment, we used propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1 in feed mixture during 40 days of feeding (experimental group of Ross 308 chickens. Then, we evaluated technological properties of poultry meat stored by freezing at -18 °C for 3 months. In the breast muscle, pH was 6.04 for control group and significantly lower (P≤0.01 5.86 for experimental group but without negative influence on meat quality. In the thigh muscle, pH values between the groups (control – 6.12; experimental – 6.15 were not significant (P≥0.05. In the breast muscle, colour of meat was 26.17% R (control group and 25.85% R (experimental group. Paler colour of meat was insignificantly recorded in control group. In thigh muscle, we found (P≥0.05 a higher value 18.78% R in experimental group compared with control group (18.57% R. In the breast muscle, shear force was slightly higher (P≥0.05 in experimental group (1.59 kg.cm-2 compared with control group (1.58 kg.cm-2. In the thigh muscle, higher value of shear force (P≥0.05 was recorded in control group (1.35 kg.cm-2 compared with experimental group (1.29 kg.cm-2. Baking losses were higher by 1.19% (P≥0.05 in experimental group (30.59% compared with control group (29.40%. Results of the experiment confirm that propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1 can be applied in nutrition of Ross 308 chickens, because it has not negative effects and has not significant influence on selected technological indicators of poultry meat quality.
Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A
Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.
Lin, Wan; Peng, Yankun
Quality attributes of fresh meat influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. In order to meet the demand of inspection department for portable device, a rapid and nondestructive detection device for fresh meat quality based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) processor and VIS/NIR technology was designed. Working principal, hardware composition, software system and functional test were introduced. Hardware system consisted of ARM processing unit, light source unit, detection probe unit, spectral data acquisition unit, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) touch screen display unit, power unit and the cooling unit. Linux operating system and quality parameters acquisition processing application were designed. This system has realized collecting spectral signal, storing, displaying and processing as integration with the weight of 3.5 kg. 40 pieces of beef were used in experiment to validate the stability and reliability. The results indicated that prediction model developed using PLSR method using SNV as pre-processing method had good performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 and root mean square error of 1.56 for validation set for L*, 0.95 and 1.74 for a*，0.94 and 0.59 for b*, 0.88 and 0.13 for pH, 0.79 and 12.46 for tenderness, 0.89 and 0.91 for water content, respectively. The experimental result shows that this device can be a useful tool for detecting quality of meat.
Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.
Full Text Available This study is an investigation into the meat quality parameters of Karayaka lambs at differentslaughter weights (SWs. The single-born Karayaka male lambs (n=30 selected for this study were an average live-weight of 20 kg and weaned at 2.5-3 months of age. The animals with pre-specifiedSWs were divided into slaughter weight (SW groups (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kg using a fully randomized design. To determine the M. longissimus dorsi et thoracis (LD muscle meat qualitycharacteristics, six lambs from each weight group were slaughtered. Results revealed significant differences among the slaughter groups with regard to pH, color parameters (L*-lightness,a*-redness, b* -yellowness, cooking loss (CL, drip loss (DL, moisture (M, crude protein (CP and intramuscular fat (IF ratios. Increasing water holding capacities (WHCs and hardness valueswere observed with increasing SW. Significant differences were also observed among the slaughter groups with regard to total monounsaturated fatty acid + total polyunsaturated fatty acid/totalsaturated fatty acid ratios and total cholesterol content.
Kim, J M; Choi, B D; Kim, B C; Park, S S; Hong, K C
Pig breeding is aimed at improving lean meat production ability as well as meat quality, and muscle fibre characteristics may be important for enhancing these traits. Therefore, new molecular markers have been demanded for selecting lean meat production ability and meat quality in live animals. Myogenin belongs to the MyoD gene family, and is a candidate gene responsible for muscle fibre characteristics. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in the 5' upstream region of the myogenin gene (nucleotides C and T). A total of 252 pigs of three breeds were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BspCNI. Additionally, they were genotyped for the previously detected MspI site in the 3'-flanking region (alleles A and B). The CCBB diplotype had the highest frequency over breeds, followed by TCBB and CCAB. The other diplotypes were not found in studied pigs. Association analysis performed for the markers found that the TCBB diplotype has desirable effects on the total number of fibres (p lean meat production ability with good meat quality.
Xu, Xia; Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yi-Bin
As one of new optical detection methods, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has been widely used in food industry in recent years. NIRS technique is also promising for quality evaluation of meat and meat products and is characterized by its quickness, online operation and nondestructive detection. The present paper reviews the main application and recent development of research on near-infrared spectroscopy in meat industry, including components analysis, sensory quality evaluation as well as discrimination of production. It's necessary to determine the content of main chemical components in a variety of meat such as protein, fat, water etc as they exert important influence on meat quality. Sensory quality including tenderness, water holding capacity, color, and freshness is commonly evaluated by human sensory system. Thus there is an obvious potential profit to achieve online determination industrialization for meat quality. Additionally the utilization of NIRS in quality detection of common meat products is particularized in this paper. Most study of near-infrared spectroscopy technique for meat quality evaluation lays emphasis on component analysis that especially has shown a progress in the determination of protein, fat, water and part of fatty acid, which has been investigated much recently. Not any kind of sensory quality can be well predicted by NIRS as it depends on the species of meat and the limitation of this optical technique. Therein beef is the mostly used object with many reports on the evaluation of tenderness compared to other types. There is a lot of investigation for sensory quality detection of pork on water holding capacity etc. Meanwhile this review also tries to come up with some perspectives on meat quality detection with near-infrared spectroscopy according to current development trend: on the basis of deeply improving the meat detection precision, near-infrared spectroscopy technique combined with other non-detection techniques
Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept of quality and the factors that it consist of. It takes into account the role of the consumer in the formation of the product quality. It presents the basic quality assurance systems used in food production. Purchasing decision-making process and its implications have been presented. The situation on the market of meat and cured meat in Poland and the legal requirements for the production of food of animal origin have been described. It presents the results of their survey, comparing them with the available data.
Full Text Available Background. A demand on raw fermented meat products depends on their availability, price and the culture. In Poland, raw meat products have a several hundred years, although limited to the Podlasie region, tradition of manufacturing. Therefore, in spite of widening of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German and recently even the Czech Republic products assortment on the Polish market, the consumption of them increases slowly. The aim of the study was to compare the sensory quality of raw ripened smoked products and sausages, sold on the Polish foodstuffs market as “traditional”. Material and methods. The study included the basic chemical content, water activity, pH, the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative cocci, as well as selected texture and sensory parameters. The analysis was conducted in compliance with Polish Standards, and the cutting strength was measured with the use of the TA-XT2 texture-meter. The sensory analysis was conducted by a 12-person panel using the 5-point method. Results. The differences in the amount of water, protein, fat and salt resulted from the wide variability of ingredients among both groups of the analysed cold meats. The smoked products were characterised by a higher pH (5.6-5.9, smaller amount of bacilli (2-5.5 log cfu/g and lactic cocci (3.3 to 6.6 log cfu/g in comparison with the sausages. The amount of both populations of bacteria in the sausages of a pH of 4.5-5.5 ranged from 6.8-8.9 log cfu/g and 5.9-7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. Among the analysed smoked products and sausages the greatest TPA hardness (respectively 128.6-140.3 N and 91.3-139.7 N, TPA chewiness (28.9-54.2 N and 16.1-36.0 N and cutting strength (11.0-12.9 kG and 8.2-8.5 kG was observed in those with a 0.81-0.86 water activity. The overall quality of the analysed cold meats was at a good level (3.9-4.1 pt. Conclusions. Distinguishing features which determined the quality of products are hardness, juiciness as well as odour
Brown, Robert J. S.; Capozzi, Francesco; Cavani, Claudio; Cremonini, Mauro A.; Petracci, Massimiliano; Placucci, Giuseppe
In this paper chemometrics (ANOVA and PCR) is used to measure unbiased correlations between NMR spin-echo decays of pork M. Longissimus dorsi obtained through Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments at low frequency (20 MHz) and the values of 14 technological parameters commonly used to assess pork meat quality. On the basis of the ANOVA results, it is also found that the CPMG decays of meat cannot be best interpreted with a "discrete" model (i.e., by expanding the decays in a series of a discrete number of exponential components, each with a different transverse relaxation time), but rather with a "continuous" model, by which a continuous distribution of T2's is allowed. The latter model also agrees with literature histological results.
Brown, R J; Capozzi, F; Cavani, C; Cremonini, M A; Petracci, M; Placucci, G
In this paper chemometrics (ANOVA and PCR) is used to measure unbiased correlations between NMR spin-echo decays of pork M. Longissimus dorsi obtained through Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments at low frequency (20 MHz) and the values of 14 technological parameters commonly used to assess pork meat quality. On the basis of the ANOVA results, it is also found that the CPMG decays of meat cannot be best interpreted with a "discrete" model (i.e., by expanding the decays in a series of a discrete number of exponential components, each with a different transverse relaxation time), but rather with a "continuous" model, by which a continuous distribution of T(2)'s is allowed. The latter model also agrees with literature histological results. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Full Text Available Within few hours after parturition lambs develop a strong and selective relationship with their mothers (Poindron and Le Neindre, 1980. In order to increase the amount of milk available for transformation, lambs often are prematurely separated from the ewes, thus inducing an early disruption of the mother-young relationship. A number of authors demonstrated that the lack of the maternal bond can inhibit the welfare state of the lambs (Sevi et al., 2001 and reduced animal welfare can have detrimental effects on meat quality in many animals species (Gregory, 1998 as well as in sheep (Napolitano et al., 2002a. A possible recover from conditions of poor animal welfare may be attained through the administration of gentle contacts by humans (Boivin et al., 2000 which may supply an additional social bond with members of a different animal species. The present study aims to verify the effect of artificial rearing on lamb welfare and meat quality, and assess the possibility to increase both by means of gentling.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to develop an indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality and to compare the response of indicator sensor with meat quality parameters at ambient temperature. Materials and Methods: Indicator sensor was prepared using bromophenol blue (1% w/v as indicator solution and filter paper as indicator carrier. Indicator sensor was fabricated by coating indicator solution onto carrier by centrifugation. To observe the response of indicator sensor buffalo meat was packed in polystyrene foam trays covered with PVC film and indicator sensor was attached to the inner side of packaging film. The pattern of color change in indicator sensor was monitored and compared with meat quality parameters viz. total volatile basic nitrogen, D-glucose, standard plate count and tyrosine value to correlate ability of indicator sensor for its suitability to predict the meat quality and storage life. Results: The indicator sensor changed its color from yellow to blue starting from margins during the storage period of 24 h at ambient temperature and this correlated well with changes in meat quality parameters. Conclusions: The indicator sensor can be used for real-time monitoring of meat quality as the color of indicator sensor changed from yellow to blue starting from margins when meat deteriorates with advancement of the storage period. Thus by observing the color of indicator sensor quality of meat and shelf life can be predicted.
O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G
For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included.
This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe. Soft meat products specially produced for the elderly, along with diet meat products low in salt and calorie content for middle aged persons have recently gone into production. The intensification of color formation of meat using naturally occurring materials, and tenderization of sausage casing are discussed.
Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila
As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…
Jones, Roger; Currie, Lamar; Clayton, Sheila
As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…
Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R
Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.
Pierzchala, M.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Urbanski, P.; Kruijt, L.; Kristensen, L.; Young, L.; Oksbjerg, N.; Goluch, D.; Pas, te M.F.W.
The aim of this study was to validate previously reported associations between microarray gene expression levels and pork quality traits using real-time PCR. Meat samples and meat quality data from 100 pigs were collected from a different pig breed to the one tested by microarray (Large White versus
Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M
One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities
Gian Maria Chiericato
Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.
Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Groenen, M.
Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection re
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of marination on turkey breast meat qual- ity traits. Breast meat samples were marinated with two types of solution (containing sodium tripolyphos- phate, STPP or a commercial mix with sodium carbonate and citrate, COM and three solution/meat ratios (14, 18, and 22%. Marination with STPP determined a higher increase of meat pH in comparison with COM (∆pH measured before and after marination: +0.20 vs. +0.14; P≤0.05. The marinade uptake and AK- shear values did not differ between solutions, whereas STPP determined a higher marinade retention (98.2 vs. 97.9%; P≤0.05 and a strong decrease of cooking loss (21.8 vs. 28.1%; P≤0.01 compared with COM. The increase of solution/meat ratio from 14 to 22% significantly raised meat pH, marinade uptake, and cooking loss of the meat. Taking into account both marinade uptake and cooking losses, the use of a 14% solution/ meat ratio allowed to maximise processing yield. Overall, compared to non-marinated meat, marinated meat exhibited a higher lightness and yellowness, and a lower AK-shear value after cooking, confirming that this technique can be successfully employed to improve meat texture.
Full Text Available The subject of research were 40 gilts of Polish Large White breed, which were separatively kept and fed under control. They were slaughtered on 185th day of life. Particular dissection of primary cuts and evaluation of some traits of meat quality such as pH1, meat colour and soluble protein content were conducted according to methodology applied in Polish Pig Testing Station. Depending on growth rate during fattening period gilts were divided into two groups (20 individuals each, i.e. lower daily gains of body weight (up to 680 g and higher daily gains of body weight (above 680 g. The limit value regarding daily gain of body weight amounted 680 g and resulted from distribution of this trait in tested population of animals. Significance of differences between tested groups of different growth rate was estimated by using t-Student test and computer program Statistica PL. Tested gilts characterized by higher growth rate had statistically high significant meat weight in primary cuts such as proper ham, loin, belly and ribs by 0.52; 0.38, 0.26 and 0.07 kg, respectively. Differences in total meat weight in primary cuts between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains were 1.58 kg (P≤0.01. However, percentage meat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass shaped on similar level in tested groups of gilts. Fat weight in particular primary cuts and percentage fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and relations between percentage meat content and percentage fat content in 1 kg of half-carcass in gilts of tested groups were statistically not diversed. In range of traits characterizing meat quality statistically significant differences between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains of body weight also were not stated. Therefore, the impact of growth rate on percentage meat and fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and meat quality of pigs of Polish Large White breed was not proved.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P
Full Text Available The use of probiotics, as fodder supplement for chickens, could stimulate meat quality that is a very important criterion especially for human consumption markets. The study had in view the effects of powdery YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic on meat quality in chicken broilers. There were studied 75 meat chickens of Ross-308 hybrid grouped on three lots of 25 capita/lot during an experimental period of 42 days. In the mixed fodder of experimental lots was added powdery YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic in proportion of 0.1% in lot L1(E and in proportion of 0.25% in lot L2(E. In the experiment end, were effected control slaughtering of 5 chickens per each lot, to establish the meat quality by trenching and meat chemical composition. After YEA-SACC 1026 probiotic administration, as fodder supplement, the chicken meat quality was improved by increasing the weight of superior quality meat in carcass. The obtained results confirm the favourable effects of probiotics on chicken meat production and its quality
Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K
Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam
The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.
Adriana Morar; Kálmán Imre; Alexandra Plic; Claudia Corina Sala
Meat products obtained following traditional recipes are considered healthy foods, with superior sensory characteristics, being highly appreciated by consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and safety of 18 meat products obtained by traditional receipts, including raw/smoked pork sausages (n=3), loin (n=1), bacon (n=2), kaizer (n=1), ham (n=1), spareribs (n=1), pork pastrami (n=1), and sausages prepared from edible meat offal of pork (n=8). All samples were bacteriologically exami...
Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.
Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO
Full Text Available Pig meat off-flavor is attributed to trimethylamine (TMA concentration, and it is considered as the precursor of the fishy off-flavor problems. In this study, TMA concentrations in pig meat were determined, and the interactions with breed and gender effects were discussed. In addition, the TMA threshold for meat off-flavor and pig meat natural quality was measured in relation to meat storage and movement, and the influential factors including the pig breed and storage time were discussed. The results indicated positive effects on the precursor of the fishy off-flavor and the TMA threshold. Native breeds were found to have lower TMA concentrations than European breeds (P<0.01, and females and castrated males had significantly lower TMA concentration than males (P<0.01, The threshold concentration of TMA when meat was classed as off-flavored was 25 μg·g-1, and this occurred after 35–38 h of storage. The natural qualities, such as appearance, flavor, color and overall acceptable scores declined significantly after 4 days in storage (P<0.01. It is concluded that pig meat off-flavor, breed and gender were essential factors affecting flavor for meat breeding programs, and storage time is important for pig meat natural quality.
Kandeepan, Gurunathan; Anjaneyulu, Anne Seet Ram; Kondaiah, Napa; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar
The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.
Full Text Available Background. The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Material and methods. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. Results. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Conclusions. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.
Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S
This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.
Anne y Castro Marques
Full Text Available The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat processing, particularly the application of the proteolytic enzymes transglutaminase and phytases, associated with nutritional, technological, and environmental improvements.
Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li
To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (pphosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.
F. M. Sarti
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of double muscled Marchigiana young bulls characterized by different genotypes for the hypertrophy: normal and mutated (heterozygous. Calpain and calpastatin activities were determined to verify the state of aging meat on a sample of Longissimus thoracis muscle (XIII thoracic rib taken at slaughtering (0h and after 24 hours (24h. After 14 days of aging, another sample of muscle was taken to evaluate physical and chemical parameters of meat quality. The results showed a better meat quality of mutated animals respect normal animals. Another interesting result was the correlation between the biochemical parameters and some physical parameters, such as WBS (Warner Bratzler Shear Force, CL (Cooking loss. These results showed the relationship between the proteolytic activity of calpain system and meat tenderness.
Parsons, C M; Castanon, F; Han, Y
The in vivo protein quality of 14 meat and bone meals (MBM) was evaluated in three chick growth assays and a 48-h excreta collection assay using conventional and cecectomized roosters. In addition, in vitro evaluation of protein quality was assessed using pepsin N digestibility (0.2, 0.002, or 0.0002% pepsin), KOH protein solubility, and multi-enzyme pH change. Crude protein, lysine, and SAA in the MBM varied from 48 to 56, 2.32 to 3.01, and 1.0 to 2.13%, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (weight gain:protein intake) estimated from feeding chicks diets containing 9% protein from a MBM ranged from 0.61 to 2.89 and averaged 1.78. Lysine bioavailability determined by slope-ratio chick assay ranged from 43 to 89%. True amino acid digestibility and TMEn values determined in cecectomized roosters were generally lower (P < 0.05) than those determined in conventional roosters. True digestibility of amino acids (percentage) also varied among MBM, with the mean (and range) for lysine, methionine, and cystine in cecectomized birds being 81 (73 to 88), 85 (77 to 91), and 58% (37 to 72%), respectively. Pepsin N digestibility values determined using 0.002 or 0.0002% pepsin were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with lysine digestibility. Pepsin N digestibility determined using 0.2% pepsin, KOH protein solubility, and multi-enzyme pH change were not significantly correlated with in vivo protein quality. Ash content was negatively correlated (-0.80, P < 0.05) with protein efficiency ratio. These results indicated that there is substantial variation in protein quality among commercial MBM and that pepsin N digestibility and ash content are correlated with some in vivo protein quality measurements.
Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Pak, Won-Min; Kang, Ja-Eun; Park, Hong-Min; Kim, Bo-Ram; Ahn, Dong-Hyun
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of chicken breast meat on the quality of mackerel sausages. The mackerel sausages were manufactured by additions of 5%, 7%, and 10% of chicken breast meat. The lightness of mackerel sausages showed no significant differences between the control and addition groups. The redness increased in a dose-dependent manner, but the yellowness decreased significantly with the addition of 7% chicken breast meat (psausage added with 7% chicken breast meat was significantly higher than those of the other groups (psausage added with 5% of chicken breast meat showed no significant differences as compared to the control. However, the mackerel sausages added with 7% and 10% of chicken breast meat showed a dose-dependent decrease. The gel strength of the mackerel sausage added with 5% chicken breast meat was not significantly different from the control, but the addition of 7% and 10% chicken breast meat reduced the gel strength of the mackerel sausage. In sensory evaluation, the mackerel sausages prepared with chicken breast meat have higher scores in smell, taste, texture, hardness, chewiness, and overall preference as compared to the no addition group. Therefore, these results suggest that the optimal condition for improving the properties within mackerel sausages was 5% addition of chicken breast meat.
Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Maurizio Bianchi
A study was conducted to determine the effect of marination on turkey breast meat qual- ity traits. Breast meat samples were marinated with two types of solution (containing sodium tripolyphos- phate, STPP or a commercial mix with sodium carbonate and citrate, COM) and three solution/meat ratios (14, 18, and 22%). Marination with STPP determined a higher increase of meat pH in comparison with COM (∆pH measured before and after marination: +0.20 vs. +0.14; P≤0.05). The marinade uptake and A...
Qiao, Lu; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei
Meat is the necessary source of essential nutrients for people including protein, fat, and so on. The discrimination of meat species and the determination of meat authenticity have been an important issue in the meat industry. The objective of this study is to realize the fast and accurate identification of three main red meats containing beef, lamb and pork by using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. After acquiring the hyperspectral images of meat samples, the calibration of acquired images and selection of the region of interest (ROI) were carried out. Then spectral preprocessing method of standard normal variate correction (SNV) was used to reduce the light scattering and random noise before the spectral analysis. Finally, characteristic wavelengths were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA), and the Fisher linear discriminant method was applied to establish Fisher discriminant functions to identify the meat species. All the samples were collected from different batches in order to improve the coverage of the models. In addition to the validation of sample itself in train set and cross validation, three different meat samples were sliced at the size of 2cm×2cm×2 cm approximately and were spliced together in one interface to be scanned by HSI system. The acquired hyperspectral data was applied to further validate the discriminant model. The results demonstrated that the near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technology could be applied as an effective, rapid and non-destructive discrimination method for main red meats.
Hendriks, W.H.; Cottam, Y.H.; Thomas, D.V.
The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal was investigated. Three meat and bone meal samples were stored for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months, with or without the addition of the antioxidants (butylatedhydroxytoluene and butylatedhydroxyanisole). Gross composition, thiobarbituric
Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M
The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.
Chang, Ming; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Ruijie; Lu, Liangzhong; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo
Meat and bone meal (MBM), a type of protein feed source, with high nutritional value, has been widely used as feed in China. In order to study the effect of defatting on the quality of MBM, MBM were defatted by hexane, and their basic nutritional components, color, flavor, protein characteristics, freshness indexes before and after defatting, were investigated. The crude protein content of the defatted MBM was increased from 54.5% to 61.2%, lysine content increased from 1.83 to 1.96%, pure protein content and in vitro digestibility of MBM were increased to 50.7% and 90.45%, respectively. Acid value decreased from 9.0 to 2.6 mg potassium hydroxide/g, and the color and flavor were also improved after defatting. Furthermore, volatile basic nitrogen content decreased from 60 to 40 mg/100 g and histamine content did not change significantly (decreasing from 20.1 to 19.6 mg/kg). Therefore, defatting treatment was good for the quality improvement of MBM.
In order to explain the mechanism of high meat quality in Laiwu pigs and investigate the relation between myosin heavy chains (MyHC) composition and meat quality, meat quality analysis was conducted and mRNA expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb was quantified by real-time fluorescence PCR in longissimus muscle (LM) and semimembranous muscle of Laiwu pigs and Duroc. The result indicated that, compared with Duroc, mRNA expression of MyHC IIa, IIx in LM and semimembranous muscle of Laiwu pigs was significantly increased, mRNA expression of MyHC IIb was dramatically decreased. However, the expression of MyHC I was not significantly affected by breeds. The correlation between mRNA expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx in LM and meat color, pH value, marbling, intramuscular fat content was positive, but shear value of LM was negative. The relation between MyHC IIb mRNA expression and marbling, intramuscular fat content was dramatically negative, whereas shear value was strikingly positive, as well as fiber diameter, but without reaching statistical significance. Therefore, the composition of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb affected meat quality, furthermore, expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb mRNA prominently influenced meat characteristics, especially edible quality of muscle, suggesting that mRNA expression level of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb can exactly and impersonally estimate meat quality.
HU HongMei; WANG JiYing; ZHU RongSheng; GUO JianFeng; WU Ying
In order to explain the mechanism of high meat quality in Laiwu pigs and investigate the relation between myosin heavy chains (MyHC) composition and meat quality, meat quality analysis was conducted and mRNA expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb was quantified by real-time fluorescence PCR in Iongissimus muscle (LM) and semimembranous muscle of Laiwu pigs and Duroc. The result indicated that, compared with Duroc, mRNA expression of MyHC IIa, IIx in LM and semimembranous muscle of Laiwu pigs was significantly increased, mRNA expression of MyHC Ilia'was dramatically decreased.However, the expression of MyHC I was not significantly affected by breeds. The correlation between mRNA expression of MyHC I, IIa, IIx in LM and meat color, pH value, marbling, intramuscular fat content was positive, but shear value of LM was negative. The relation between MyHC lib mRNA expression and marbling, intramuscular fat content was dramatically negative, whereas shear value was strikingly positive, as well as fiber diameter, but without reaching statistical significance. Therefore, the composition of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb affected meat quality, furthermore, expression of MyHC I,IIa, IIx, IIb mRNA prominently influenced meat characteristics, especially edible quality of muscle, suggesting that mRNA expression level of MyHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb can exactly and impersonally estimate meat quality.
Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Sheard, P R; Richardson, R I; Hughes, S I; Whittington, F M
This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in adipose tissue and muscle. The full range of PUFA are also found in sheep adipose tissue and muscle whereas cattle 'conserve' long chain PUFA in muscle phospholipid. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is a major ingredient of feeds for all species. Its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle in relation to the amount in the diet is greater than for other fatty acids. It is deposited in muscle phospholipid at a high level where it and its long chain products eg aracidonic acid (20:4n-6) compete well for insertion into phospholipid molecules. Its proportion in pig adipose tissue declines as fat deposition proceeds and is an index of fatness. The same inverse relationships are not seen in ruminant adipose tissue but in all species the proportion of 18:2n-6 declines in muscle as fat deposition increases. The main reason is that phospholipid, where 18:2n-6 is located, declines as a proportion of muscle lipid and the proportion of neutral lipid, with its higher content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increases. Oleic acid (18:1cis-9), formed from stearic acid (18:0) by the enzyme stearoyl Co-A desaturase, is a major component of neutral lipid and in ruminants the same enzyme forms conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an important nutrient in human nutrition. Like 18:2n-6, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is an essential fatty acid and is important to ruminants since it is the major fatty acid in grass. However it does not compete well for insertion into phospholipid compared with 18:2n-6 and its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle is less efficient. Greater biohydrogenation of 18:3n-3 and a long rumen transit time
Full Text Available In the recent decades because of the alternative poultry meat production technologies (free range and organic farming, which are gaining ground in some of the European countries, only special slow growing breeds and hybrids can be used. The end products created by crossing the indigenous Yellow Hungarian hen with different meat type cocks were suitable for alternative keeping technology. The valuable meat parts of the pure bred Yellow Hungarian kept in free range for 84 days and the end product created with crossing (first group as well as the valuable meat parts of Ross 308 broilers fattened for 42 days in intensive keeping technology (second group were thoroughly examined in order to establish whether the genotype, sex and/or keeping technology has any kind of influence on different chemical parameters of the meat. There were no essential differences between the dry matter content of breast meat of the two different keeping technology groups (25.34 and 26.25%. However, dry matter content of thigh was 5.28 to 7.48 percentage points higher in the second group. Protein contents of breast and thigh meat were not affected by the keeping technology. Fat content of thigh meat was two and a half times higher than in the first group (6.03 and 13.73%. Thus, this study have revealed that only the ash content of breast meat affected from the keeping technology, as this parameter was higher in the first group than the second group (0.84 to 1.05 % vs 0.53 %.
Berhe, Daniel Tsegay
parameters related to the final product quality. The work further shows that Raman spectroscopy has great potential for authentication of ‘ready to eat’ cooked meat products in the retail market to be used by the quality control authority. Finally, it should be stressed that the results in this thesis were......-destructive quality monitoring in the meat processing industry as it requires no further sample preparation. Water, which is the main component of meat, is also not a problem for Raman spectroscopic measurement because water is a poor Raman scatter. Two major product quality related issues, cooking of meat and fat...... quality were selected as focus areas: Endpoint Temperature (EPT) and gross fatty acid (FA) composition. Endpoint temperature of a cooked product is an important parameter as it is related to the microbial safety and palatability of the product. The project aimed at using Raman spectroscopy...
Kandeepan, G; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N; Mendiratta, S K; Rajkumar, R S
Scientific basis on the quality changes of traditional keema will boost and sustain meat production and utilization in buffalo abundant countries. A programme was undertaken to determine the influence of age and gender on the quality of buffalo meat keema at refrigerator storage (4 ± 1 °C). Buffalo meat keema was evaluated by analyzing the changes in physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The product characteristics and acceptability of keema were better in spent buffalo group than young male group. The values of pH, TBARS, total aerobic mesophils, coliforms, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic and psychrophilic counts of buffalo meat keema increased but appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue residue and overall acceptability scores decreased with progressing refrigerated storage. The shelf life of refrigerated buffalo meat keema was 18 days with an overall acceptability score ranging from extremely acceptable to moderately acceptable.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C; basal diet plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the
Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song
The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis
Flavour development and overall eating quality of pork semimembranosus were investigated with regard to different raw meat qualities (feeding/fasting strategy; control/low glycogen level, gender; castrate/female, slaughter live-weight; 84 kg/110 kg) combined with frying temperature (150 degrees C....../240 degrees C). It was further investigated whether the precursor levels of glycogen, IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine in the raw meat were correlated to the raw meat quality and fried/grilled attributes. Pork schnitzels were fried on a pan (155 degrees C) or grill-pan (240-250 degrees C) to a core...... temperature of 70 degrees C. Frying temperature was the one factor with greatest influence on the sensory attributes, and pan-grilled schnitzels had significantly higher scores in fried/grilled attributes regardless of meat quality compared to pan-fried schnitzels. Texture was not appreciably influenced...
Berhe, Daniel Tsegay
-destructive quality monitoring in the meat processing industry as it requires no further sample preparation. Water, which is the main component of meat, is also not a problem for Raman spectroscopic measurement because water is a poor Raman scatter. Two major product quality related issues, cooking of meat and fat......The objective of this thesis was to test the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for quality monitoring in the meat processing industry. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique, which can provide rapid chemical information at the molecular level. It can, therefore, be used for non...... quality were selected as focus areas: Endpoint Temperature (EPT) and gross fatty acid (FA) composition. Endpoint temperature of a cooked product is an important parameter as it is related to the microbial safety and palatability of the product. The project aimed at using Raman spectroscopy...
J. A. Ujan
Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.
Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka
Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.
Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S
One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.
Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei
To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.
Full Text Available In current study, the effect of different levels of Mentha piperita plant (MPP on meat quality characteristics in Japanese quail wasinvestigated. 180 quails were carried out in completely randomized design with three levels of MPP (0, 1.5 and 3 percentage. Four replicateswith 15 quails were allocated to each experimental treatment. At the end of experiment, after slaughter and evisceration two birds from eachreplicate of the treatment, the carcasses of the birds were kept in a refrigerator (2-40С for 24 hours. Meat quality parameters including thebrightness, yellowness and redness of colors, water holding capacity (WHC, acidity (pH, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARSand intramuscular fat (IMF were performed on breast meat samples. The results showed that yellowness, redness and thiobarbituric acid-reactingsubstances (TBARS affected by diets containing MPP (p<0.05. There was no significantly difference for the rest of meat quality traitssuch as brightness, WHC, pH and IMF.
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas; FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean; SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal. Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001 vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10 in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001 α-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10 eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001 n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher α-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.
Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits.
Full Text Available Currently there is a focus on the development of functional poultry products capable of enrichment by selenium, vitamin E, iodine and fatty acids of the third order. Since there is a lack of data about various selenium sources and its synergistic effect on sensory and other properties of vitamin E enriched poultry, the objective of this research was to examine the effect of addition of selenium in broilers diet on meat quality. The amount of Se in the diet was increased from 0.15 mg.kg-1 feed (control group to 0.5 mg.kg-1 feed. Addition of Se had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cooking and thawing losses, as well as on the majority of sensory attributes, adhesiveness, cohesiveness of chicken breast samples. Aftertaste (p < 0.05, hardness (p < 0.001 and resilience (p < 0.001 of the texture of the samples increased along with the increased amount of Se in bird diet. Mean values of the sensory attributes of thigh muscles showed no significant differences among the samples in case of intensities of odor and taste attributes; however, firmness and chewiness of the tested samples increased by increasing the amount of Se in the feed (p > 0.05. In addition, Se did not have significant influence on meat cooking or thawing losses. The results of this study showed that 0.15 mg and 0.5 mg of selenium in complex with 40 mg of vitamin E could be added to broiler diet without having negative effect on technological or sensory properties of the broiler meat and acceptability.
Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.
Massimo Trabalza Marinucci
Full Text Available Wild ungulate populations are increasing in Europe and Italy, with a consequent increase in culling rates and availability of their meats. Objectives of this review were to evaluate the trends of availability of meat from wild ungulates in Italy, to review the present knowledge on nutritional properties, sensorial characteristics, and hygiene problems of wild ungulate meat and to examine the critical steps that influence their hygiene and quality. Wild ungulate meat in Italy derives mainly from wild boar, roe deer and red deer and its availability has been increasing in the last decade. Total consumption of wild ungulate meat is low (0.1-0.3 kg per capita/year, but in some regions rises to significant levels, especially for hunters’ families (1.0-4.0 kg per capita/year. Wild ungulate meats generally have a low fat content, although with a certain variability associated with gender, hunting season, age and physiological conditions, and a favourable fatty acid composition. In general, they are darker, less tender and characterised by a more intense and peculiar flavour than meats from domestic ruminants. However, these properties also show a great inter- and intra-specific variability. Risks for the consumer associated with contaminants (heavy metals, radionuclides, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and zoonoses are considered to be low. Critical steps from shooting in the field to the final marketing should be considered to ensure hygiene and quality of meats. Future research should focus on the variability of hunting modes, accuracy of shooting, field dressing and carcass processing, in order to understand how these practices influence the final microbiological and sensorial quality of wild ungulate meats.
Lanza, M; Fasone, V; Galofaro, V; Barbagallo, D; Bella, M; Pennisi, P
The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. M. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate pH (Piliofibularis. M. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of C14:0 (Piliofibularis. Citrus pulp diet increased (P<0.05) meat ultimate pH and reduced cooking losses (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet. Meat from animals given citrus pulp had lower crude fat (P<0.05) and ash percentages (P<0.05) in comparison to that from the control group. The proportions of intramuscular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P<0.05) in the citrus pulp group as compared to the control one. Meat from the citrus pulp treatment group had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than meat from the control treatment. In particular, meat from ostriches given citrus pulp diet exhibited higher C18:2ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) contents that accounted for a higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Overall, the use of a citrus pulp-included diet in ostrich feeding did not adversely affect meat quality and, therefore, citrus pulp seems to be a possible ingredient to reduce feeding costs.
Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi
Full Text Available The use of electrical stimulation (ES as a management tool to improve meat quality and efficiency of meat processing is reviewed. The basis of the efficacy of ES is its ability to fast track postmortem glycolysis, which in turn stimulates myriad histological, physical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological changes in the postmortem muscle. Electrical stimulation hastens the onset and resolution of rigor mortis thereby reducing processing time and labor and plays a vital role in improving meat tenderness and other meat quality traits. However, ES may have negative impacts on some meat quality traits such as color stability and water holding capacity in some animals. Electrical stimulation is not an end in itself. In order to achieve the desired benefits from its application, the technique must be properly used in conjunction with various intricate antemortem, perimortem and postmortem management practices. Despite extensive research on ES, the fundamental mechanisms and the appropriate commercial applications remained obscured. In addition, muscles differ in their response to ES. Thus, elementary knowledge of the various alterations with respect to muscle type is needed in order to optimize the effectiveness of ES in the improvement of meat quality.
Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N
A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.
Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G
A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.
Full Text Available Meat quality is a term that includes many different aspects like e.g. safety, ethics, nutrition, taste and functionality. What is regarded as most important is mainly related to where a person is placed in the chain from production to consumption. Along this chain are also many factors that influence the quality of meat. By measuring the pH value of meat it is possible to get good information about shelf life, tenderness, colour and water-holding capacity. Meat pH also gives an indication to whether the animals have been exposed to stress prior to slaughter or not. Good pastures and supplementary feeding using grain-based feed mixtures have been demonstrated to increase the energy stores in the animals' muscles and therefore have a positive effect on pH values in venison. What the animals had been eating prior to slaughter also affected the fat composition and meat flavour. Meat from animals grazing pasture had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and a "wild" flavour compared with meat from animals fed grain-based pellets. It is possible to change the fat composition in a commercial grain-based feed mixture, without altering the protein or energy content, so that the fat composition mimic that of a natural pasture. Pelvic suspension of a carcass will stretch the muscles in valuable cuts and improve the tenderness of the meat. In fallow deer carcasses the tenderness was improved in several meat cuts and in addition the water-holding capacity of the meat increased after pelvic suspension. Electrical stimulation of the carcass quickly empties the energy stores in the muscles and accelerates the onset of rigor mortis. In red deer venison electrical stimulation accelerated the rate of meat tenderisation, but this benefit was lost after approx. 3 weeks of ageing (-1.5 °C. A study from Alaska demonstrated no effects of electrical stimulation of reindeer carcasses on meat tenderness or water-holding capacity. We recommend further studies of pelvic
Full Text Available Background. Principal parameters determining meat nutritional value, its culinary and processing suitability and which jointly make up the concept of meat quality include basic composition, as well as meat pH value. The objective of the presented research project was to compare the slaughter value, basic composition and the course of pH changes in meat obtained from young bulls of four cattle breeds: Limousine, Hereford, and Polish Holstein-Frisian of Black and White variety and Polish Red. Material and methods. In carcasses proportions of meat, fat and bones were determined using the dissection method. Chemical analyses were carried out on the longissimus dorsi muscle which was cut out from chilled carcasses. Samples were stored in vacuum bags for 10 days at 2°C. Results. Higher slaughter values were obtained in the case of beef breeds in comparison with the native once. With the age, fat and protein content in meat increased, while the content of water decreased. Meat of Limousine and Polish Red breeds was characterised by the highest protein content in the muscle tissue in contrast to that of Hereford breed in which its concentration was the lowest and was accompanied by the highest fat content. The process of meat acidification in all examined animals was slow and in general the final pH value was low. However, in the case of the beef type cattle slightly higher final meat pH values were recorded. Conclusions. The diversity of principal quality indices of culinary meat between compared breeds of young bulls was small, however often statistically significant. The analysis of the slaughter value revealed that the Polish Red cattle breed achieved dressing percentage similar to that of Hereford of beef type cattle. The Limousine bulls revealed the highest dressing and meatiness from all analysed animals. The highest protein content was found in the Limousine and Polish Red breeds despite the fact that they do not belong to the same
Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S
This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities.
Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina
In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Hopkins, D L; Mortimer, S I
Subtle breed differences exist for meat quality traits and the Merino does stand out, although many comparisons are confounded by production site or lack of processing intervention. Despite this, the Merino does seem to have a propensity to produce meat with a higher pH and reduced colour stability under extended ageing. Use of the Merino in a crossbreeding system not only provides benefits from hybrid vigour, but also overcomes the meat quality constraints of pure Merinos. Genetic evaluation for lamb production has enabled impressive genetic gains, but an overemphasis on lean meat production has had to be addressed to counter adverse effects on meat quality traits like eating quality. In this regard, the development of genomic selection has provided a methodology for accurate prediction of genetic merit and applying balanced breeding objectives. The potential for negative meat quality effects has stemmed adoption of non-castration approaches, but ensuring that lamb is young when slaughtered does provide brand integrity.
Full Text Available Meat products obtained following traditional recipes are considered healthy foods, with superior sensory characteristics, being highly appreciated by consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and safety of 18 meat products obtained by traditional receipts, including raw/smoked pork sausages (n=3, loin (n=1, bacon (n=2, kaizer (n=1, ham (n=1, spareribs (n=1, pork pastrami (n=1, and sausages prepared from edible meat offal of pork (n=8. All samples were bacteriologically examined (Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and E. coli. Also, moisture, fat, total protein, salt and nitrite contents were quantified. All products were Salmonella and L. monocytogenes free. E. coli was recovered in two samples (11.1%, a smoked pork sausage and a sausage prepared from edible meat offal of pork, at levels between 1.5 log and 3.25 log cfu/g. Moisture ranged from 17.21 to 67.46%, fat 17.37–62.18%, protein 8.13–23.18%, sodium chloride 1.50–6.39%, and nitrites <10–35 ppm, respectively. In two samples (11.1% of smoked meat products the salt content exceeded the maximum limits allowed by law. These results have shown that meat products obtained by traditional recipes are nutritive and safety. However, some varieties of meat products with high salt concentrations should be avoided by persons with dietary salt restriction.
Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A
The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P < or = 0.001) between skin and breast meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.
Full Text Available Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB and the number of piglets born alive (NBA from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW and backfat thickness (BF and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m, pH value after 24 hours (pH24h, lightness in meat color (LMC, redness in meat color (RMC, yellowness in meat color (YMC, moisture holding capacity (MHC, drip loss (DL, cooking loss (CL, fat content (FC, and shear force value (SH, 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of −0.51 to −0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were −0.41 and −0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and −0.14 to −0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with
Lee, Joon-Ho; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hwa-Chun; Park, Kyung-Do
Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of -0.51 to -0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were -0.41 and -0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and -0.14 to -0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an
Feng, Xi; Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk
This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of quality changes in raw turkey breast meat by irradiation. Raw turkey breast meat was irradiated at 0 kGy, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy, and changes in quality parameters including color, lipid and protein oxidation, and off-odor volatiles were determined. Irradiation accelerated lipid and protein oxidation, and increased redness in raw turkey breast meat. However, irradiation had less effect on the volatile profiles of salt-soluble muscle extract than water-soluble muscle extract because the primary radiolytic product from water (hydroxyl radical) had higher chances to react with the water-soluble molecules nearby. The radiolytic degradation products from sulfur-containing amino acids and aldehydes from lipid oxidation were two major volatile compounds responsible for the off-odor of irradiated raw turkey breast meat. Dimethyl disulfide was found only in irradiated raw turkey breast meat, and the amount of dimethyl disulfide linearly increased as the irradiation dose increased, indicating that this compound can be used as a marker for irradiate meat.
Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano
Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable.
Blacha, Ines; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter
Poultry meat is often stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) or vacuum packaging to improve consumer acceptance and shelf life. The aim of this study was to determine how different packaging conditions influence meat quality. Therefore, in three independent experiments, turkey breast muscle cutlets were packaged either in vacuum or in different modified atmosphere mixtures (80% O2, 20% CO2 [MAP 1]; 80% N2, 20% CO2 [MAP 2]; and 20% O2, 20% CO2, 60% N2 [MAP 3]) and stored for 12 days at 3°C. Color, pH, electrical conductivity, total viable counts, and Pseudomonas species were determined on days 1, 4, 8, and 12 of storage. On the same days, samples were collected for analysis of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and total volatile basic nitrogen concentrations. Sensory parameters and liquid loss were determined on days 4, 8, and 12. Vacuum-packaged meat had the highest liquid loss and lowest sensory results. MAP 1-packaged meat showed the highest sensory, redness, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values. MAP 2-packaged meat had lower sensory values. MAP 3-packaged meat had lower redness and sensory values, especially at the end of storage. The study showed an impact of the packaging condition on different quality parameters, with a small advantage for storage of turkey cutlets in high-oxygen packages.
R. G. Li
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05. The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05. The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01. The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081. In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits.
Miao, Z-G; Wang, L-J; Xu, Z-R; Huang, J-F; Wang, Y-R
The present study was aimed to compare the developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality characteristics and organ weight in pigs of different breeds. Six pigs (sex balance) of each breed were slaughtered at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat and skin; additionally, organ weight and meat quality parameters were observed. Carcasses of the Jinhua pig were lighter (P Landrace. L*-values were lower in Jinhua pigs than in Landrace at 125 days of age (P Landrace at the age of 80 days (P Landrace. For organ weight, Jinhua pigs had higher relative heart weight at the age of 80 days (P Landrace. In addition, the relative kidney weight was heavier (P Landrace during the whole experiment. These results indicated that developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality parameters and organ weight displayed breed differences. Jinhua pigs were fatter than Landrace but the former had better quality characteristics in the meat.
Q. K. Sheng
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen and fed with basic diet (control group, basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group, and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group, respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli, Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.
Sheng, Q K; Zhou, K F; Hu, H M; Zhao, H B; Zhang, Y; Ying, W
This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.
Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Greeff, J C; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Taylor, P J; van der Werf, J H J
Genetic correlations between reproduction traits in ewes and carcass and meat quality traits in Merino rams were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The carcass data were from 5870 Merino rams slaughtered at approximately 18 months of age that were the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks over 7 years. The carcass traits included ultrasound scan fat and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) measured on live animals, dressing percentage and carcass tissue depth (at the GR site FATGR and C site FATC), eye muscle depth, width and area and the meat quality indicator traits of muscle final pH and colour (L*, a*, b*). The reproduction data consisted of 13 464 ewe joining records for number of lambs born and weaned and 9015 records for LS. The genetic correlations between reproduction and fat measurements were negative (range -0.06 +/- 0.12 to -0.37 +/- 0.12), with smaller correlations for live measurement than carcass traits. There were small favourable genetic correlations between reproduction traits and muscle depth in live rams (EMDUS, 0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.20 +/- 0.12), although those with carcass muscle traits were close to zero. The reproduction traits were independent of meat colour L* (relative brightness), but tended to be favourably correlated with meat colour a* (relative redness, 0.12 +/- 0.17 to 0.19 +/- 0.16). There was a tendency for meat final pH to have small negative favourable genetic correlations with reproduction traits (0.05 +/- 0.11 to -0.17 +/- 0.12). This study indicates that there is no antagonism between reproduction traits and carcass and meat quality indicator traits, with scope for joint improvement of reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits in Merino sheep.
Blokhina, Anastasia A.; Ryzhova, Victoria A.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.
Analysis of the polarization characteristics of the scattered radiation of biological tissues in some cases provides a qualitatively new results in the study of biological samples. These results can be used in medicine and food industry. As a result of the work, it was determined that the high concentration of scattering particles, the nonuniformity of their dimensions, forms make the task of creating an adequate optical model of a biotissue quite difficult, though many interesting tissue properties can be potentially studied by means of polarized light. In this case, the method for control the freshness of meat samples is considered for by obtaining the Stokes parameters of the polarized radiation scattered forward by the meat product.
Full Text Available Pigs of two crosses: A (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain (n=24 and B (Swedish Landrace x Large White x Pietrain (n=26 were used to investigate the effects of different lairage time (2 and 24 hours on levels of stress and meat quality traits. No direct effect of lairage time on cortisol, lactate, electrolytes and meat quality parameters was observed. However, after long lairage time, pigs showed lower level of glucose and higher CK, AST and ALT activity. Crossbred B pigs exposed to short lairage time, showed higher blood lactate, sodium, and potassium level, higher drip loss and lower pHi, whereas there were no significant differences between the crossbreeds in the long lairage group. The results indicate that long lairage time decreases blood glucose level and produces signs of muscle damage. In the short lairage period, the crossbreed B showed a higher response to pre-slaughter handling affecting the meat quality.
Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John
Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b...... fat by 13% (P meat quality assessed by objective as well as subjective methods was unaffected by bGH treatment. In summary, bGH treatment of dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...
Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun
With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ragni, M.; S. Tarricone; Pinto, F.; Dimatteo, S; G. Marsico; Rasulo, A
Sixteen carcasses of wild boars, pigs, hybrids F1 (wild boar x pig) and reared wild boar have been examined to study the meat quality and the fatty acid composition. Four carcasses came from hunted wild boars and twelve from animals reared in outdoor pens till nine months of age. The meat produced by the hunted wild animals, although not marketable, offers the best quality and nutritional characteristics. The use of hybrids reared in outdoor pens can approximate or equalize the hunted wild bo...
Full Text Available Phytoadditives have been used for millennia in traditional human medicine but only recent in animals to improve the growth performances and to reduce disease outbreaks. The goal of the present experiment has been to determine the effect of phytoadditive combinations on growth performances and meat quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss. The phytoaditive combinations were represented by garlic (2% + ginger (1% – group 1E and oregano (1% and Echinacea (0.5% – group 2E. the dietary treatment with phytoadditive combinations led to a better body weight gain in all the experimental groups compared to the control. Also the specific growth rate and the FCR values were improved in the experimental groups, the best values being recorded in group 1E. the experimental groups also had a higher survival rate, the highest value being recorded in group 1E. meat quality was not significantly influenced by dietary treatment of phytoadditive combinations. The meat Selenium content significantly varied among all experimental groups, the highest value being recorded in group 1E and the lowest in the control group. Dietary treatment with phytoadditive combination had a positive influence on growth and consumption indices with no significant changes in meat quality but significantly influencing the meat Selenium content.
Danny Swee Weng CHEONG
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis inclusion in feed on live performance, carcass composition and meat quality of Japanese quails during growing stage to identify the best inclusion range for Japanese quails without affecting the growth and carcass parameters. Three hundred Japanese quails of 15 days of age were used in this experiment, randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replication comprised of 30 males and 30 females. The quails were fed with a basal diet as a control and 4 levels of Spirulina inclusion diet 1, 2, 4 and 8 %. Diets were fed to birds from 15 days to 35 days of age. Body weight gain (BWG, Feed intake (FI, Feed conversion ratio (FCR and Mortality rate (MR were recorded weekly during the experiment. Carcass composition and meat quality tests were done after slaughtering. BWG, FI, FCR and MR were significantly different (p < 0.05 in the experiment. Carcass composition was found to be significantly different in the leg percentage (p < 0.05. Meat color and meat shear force value were also found to differ significantly (p < 0.05 with the Spirulina inclusion diet showing a better result than the control. Therefore, the result of this experiment suggests that diets up to 4 % of Spirulina achieve the best live performance, carcass composition and meat quality.
Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu
We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (PAfter 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (Pmeat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (Pchanges occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.
Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K
Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing broiler feed with hesperidin or naringin, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, breast meat quality and the oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. One of the groups served as a control (C and was given commercial basal diets, whereas the other five groups were given the same diets further supplemented with naringin at 0.75 g/kg (N1, naringin at 1.5 g/kg (N2, hesperidin at 0.75 g/kg (E1, hesperidin at 1.5 g/kg (E2 and a-tocopheryl acetate at 0.2 g/kg (E. At 42 days of age, 10 chickens per treatment group were slaughtered for meat quality and oxidative stability assessment. No significant differences were observed among groups in final body weight, carcass weight and internal organs weights (P>0.05 apart from liver that decreased linearly with increased levels of naringin (P-linear0.05. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that after hesperidin and naringin dietary supplementation, malondialdehyde values decreased in tissue samples in a dose depended manner (P-linear<0.05. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin, positively influence meat antioxidative properties without negative implications on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in poultry, thus appearing as important additives for both the consumer and the industry.
Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C
The aim of this research was to evaluate quality traits and oxidative stability of meat products from free-range (FR) and conventionally (C) raised chickens as they actually reach consumers in the Italian retail market. Free-range female and male chickens (n = 1,500 + 1,500), medium growing ISA strain, were raised under commercial conditions for 56 (1.8 kg of live weight) and 70 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively; C female and male birds (n = 5,000 + 5,000) were a fast growing hybrid (Ross 708) and were separately raised for 39 (1.9 kg of live weight) and 50 d (3.1 kg of live weight), respectively. A total of 96 chickens (equally divided by production system and sex) were slaughtered in 2 separate sessions to obtain the main 2 commercial categories (rotisserie and cut-up, respectively). After slaughtering, 12 carcasses of each treatment group were randomly selected and used to assess quality properties, chemical composition, and oxidation stability of breast and leg meat. The C birds had dramatic higher carcass and breast meat yield, whereas FR had higher wing and leg yields. The FR birds exhibited higher water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat. Although shear force did not differ in breast meat, legs from FR birds were tougher. Fatty acid composition of FR breast and thigh meat of both categories were characterized by a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6-/n-3 ratio. In general, a low lipid oxidation level (peroxide value < 1.3 mEq O2/kg of lipid and TBA reactive substances < 0.2 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample) was found in breast and legs, regardless of the commercial category. However, the C system significantly increased peroxide value in rotisserie thigh meat, whereas FR led to a significantly higher TBA reactive substances in breast meat. Our results demonstrated that free range can modify the properties of chicken meat and also highlighted the importance of the bird genetic background to select nutritional strategies to improve meat
Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M
Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.
Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.
Verbeke, Wim; Rutsaert, Pieter; Bonne, Karijn; Vermeir, Iris
This paper reports on halal credence quality coordination and Muslim consumers' willingness to buy and pay for certified halal labelled meat at the supermarket and the Islamic butcher. Cross-sectional data were collected through a survey with 202 Muslim consumers in Belgium. Findings indicate that more acculturated and female consumers are more in favour of purchasing certified halal labelled meat in a supermarket. Important conditions are that supermarkets can provide a guarantee of separating halal from non-halal meat and of the organisation of adequate verification and control. Results further show that more Muslim consumers are willing to pay a price premium (of 13% on average) for halal labelled meat at the Islamic butcher shop than at the supermarket. The higher the importance attached to a certified halal label and the more distrust in the actual halal meat status, the higher the likelihood that a Muslim consumer is willing to pay a higher price for certified halal labelled meat at the Islamic butcher shop. Gender and generation determine the actual premium Muslim consumers are willing to pay.
Perlo, F; Bonato, P; Teira, G; Tisocco, O; Vicentin, J; Pueyo, J; Mansilla, A
The meat quality of Corriedale lambs (40kg live weight) produced in the Mesopotamia region (Argentina) was assessed. These lambs had different finishing diets: only native grass pasture, ground alfalfa and alfalfa-linseed pellet (70/30). Carcass yield, longissimus dorsi area, backfat thickness, marbling, pH, meat and subcutaneous fat color, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fat, protein and moisture content were determined. Lambs finished on alfalfa-linseed pellet had the highest carcasses yield and backfat thickness and their meat had a lighter color (higher L(∗) value), higher marbling and tenderness than meat from lambs reared on native grass pasture. Grass-based finishing can lead to the production of leaner meat, with a more reddish color (higher a(∗) value). The ground alfalfa finishing diet seems to be intermediate between native grass pasture and alfalfa-linseed pellet with respect to carcass yield, backfat and meat color. In addition, the animals fed on ground alfalfa showed the highest muscle area.
Larzul, C; Thébault, R G; Allain, D
Two orylag(®) rabbit genotypes, Castor and Chinchilla, feed restricted from 8 to 18 weeks of age at 130 g/d or fed ad libitum, were compared for growth, feed efficiency, carcass traits, and meat sensory characteristics. The total body electrical conductivity (ToBEC) value was also measured to predict meat quality. The feeding level was more restrictive for Castor than for Chinchilla rabbits (74% and 90%, respectively). As expected, growth, feed efficiency, carcass yield and adiposity were altered in both genotypes with feed restriction. For restricted animals, tenderness, juiciness, flavour, flouriness, stickiness and fatness were not affected by the genotype. Feed restriction only significantly decreased flouriness in the Castor genotype. Correlations between meat characteristics and sensory traits were low, and the ToBEC value was not correlated with organoleptic quality.
Full Text Available An assay with 36 swine initially weighting 83.7±5.1kg body weight (BW was carried out to evaluate the effects of the use of different dietary citrus pulp levels, 0, 10%, 20%, and 30%, upon digestive organs weights, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of animals subjected to qualitative feed restriction program, and slaughtered at 130kg BW. Linear response (P0.05. Higher levels of citrus pulp neither decreased backfat thickness nor increased amount of lean meat, indicative that qualitative feed restriction was not efficient. Positive linear effect (P<0.05 on pH measured 24 hours after slaughter and negative linear effect (P<0.05 on color characteristics as function of citrus pulp dietary levels were verified. Citrus pulp addition in qualitative feed restriction program may not be effective. As no deleterious effects upon meat qualities were observed, citrus pulp can be used as an alternative feedstuff for finishing swine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG and low (LG growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15 and ultimate pH (pHu, breast color-redness (BCo-R and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral
Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Choi, Y I; Kim, E J; Kim, H K; Heo, K N; Choi, H C; Lee, S K; Kim, C J; Kim, B G; Kang, C W; An, B K
This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (pducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (pducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (pducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.
Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L
Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Swastike, W.; Hertanto, B. S.; W, A.; Pradisha, E. D.
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of biduri (Calotropis gigantean) latex treatment on physical quality and hedonic test of meat of post laying hen. Samples of this research used meat of post laying hen strain Lohman aged 90 weeks. Thigh muscle was used for physical quality and breast muscle for hedonic test. Extract of biduri latex were obtained by cutting and tapping of young stem tissue, and it was centrifuged to obtain crude fluid of biduri latex (supernatant). Variables of this research were pH, cooking loss, tenderness, and water holding capacity (WHC), and hedonic test. Levels of biduri latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% were measured from weight of the samples and the treatment of biduri latex by smearing on the surface of meat samples. The experimental design of the research used one way randomized design. The data was analyzed by using ANOVA, and differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The effect of biduri latex did not affect on pH, but it significantly affected on cooking loss, WHC, tenderness, and hedonic test (p<0.01). Cooking loss started to decrease in concentration of 6%. Value of WHC and tenderness went up at concentration of 3%. Increasing of meat quality of tenderness of hedonic test, juicy and overall hedonic test started to increase in concentration of 6%, and also flavor on concentration of 3% and 9%. In conclusion, the treatment of biduri latex with concentration of 3% could increase meat quality of meat of post laying hen.
Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C
We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage.
Effective emulsification technology was applied in meat processing to achieve water holding and oil stability in the meat products. The effects of chopping emulsification technology are mainly affected by factors, which was chopping parameters and raw meat materials. Chopping parameters such as chopping temperature, chopping speed, chopping time are crucial factors in chopping emulsification technology. While raw materials such as raw meat type, non-meat proteins, emulsifiers and hydrophilic gums are also important factors directly influencing emulsification. The paper mainly reviewed the advance on chopping emulsification technology in meat processing from aforementioned aspects.
Qureshi, M. S.; Qureshi, I. H.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan is rich in livestock resources, including 14.84 million sheep and goats (valued at US1.60 billion) and a 27% share of the national poultry sector (having an investment of US2.00 billion), and produces 834 billion kg meat. These huge assets have the potential to support the provincial economy through income generation, self employment and production of certified high-quality food items for the domestic and international Halal Food Market. A model has been developed for analyzing the gaps in the status of health, productivity, nutrition, fertility and management aspects of local farming. Improved practices would be introduced to combat the losses. The model will comprise a farming network linked to farmers' welfare centre, a central lab and an expert group. A strong sensing technology network would be introduced for data transfer and quality control of the inputs and products. The farmers will e-tag their animals for the purpose of traceability, online history and biodata. The data will be maintained in remote and central servers. A communication system would be developed utilizing mobile phones for the prices, demands and availability status of inputs and produce at local and international markets. A mobile money transfer system will be introduced to exchange, save and borrow small amounts of capital as well as take out short-term insurance policies.
Xu, H C; Gui, L S; Song, N; Zhang, Y Y; Wang, H C; Zan, L S
Growth and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of cattle productivity and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. CRTC2 is a recently discovered gene related to obesity that may influence fat deposition. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of bovine CRTC2 and explore their relationships to growth and meat quality in Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); g.3001 C>T; g.3034 G>A; and g.3467 T>C, were identified from sequencing results of 422 Qinchuan cattle. The genotypic distributions of both g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C mutations were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (P 0.05), based on χ(2) test analysis. The SNPs g.3001 C>T and g.3034 G>A are missense mutations (Ser/Phe and Ser/Thr respectively). Additionally, SNPs g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C showed a medium polymorphism level (0.25 T showed a low polymorphism level (PIC meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population (P cattle growth and meat quality, and suggest that CRTC2 is a potential candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in future breeding development programs for Qinchuan cattle.
Heuven, H.C.M.; van Wijk, R.H.J.; Dibbits, B.; van Kampen, T.A.; Knol, E.F.
Genet Sel Evol. 2009 Jan 5;41:4. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs. Heuven HC, van Wijk RH, Dibbits B, van Kampen TA, Knol EF, Bovenhuis H. Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. h.c.m.heuven
The effect of sex on the meat quality charachteristics of large white pigs. ... Although, sex related differences in tenderness, juiciness and flavor were not ... After 14 days of frozen storage, 89% of the taste panelists judged from the flavor ...
Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z
A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramírez, R; Cava, R
Carcass composition and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles from three different Iberian×Duroc genotype pigs were studied: GEN1: ♂ Iberian×♀ Duroc1; GEN2: ♂ Duroc1×♀ Iberian; GEN3: ♂ Duroc2×♀ Iberian. Duroc1 (DU1) were selected for the manufacture of dry-cured meat products while Duroc2 (DU2) were pigs selected for meat production, with high percentages of meat cuts and low carcass fat. Genotype had a significant effect on the differences found while sex had not. GEN2 showed the highest weights at days 180 and 238 of weaning and the highest slaughter weights (day 316) followed by GEN3, while the lowest weights were found in GEN1. GEN3 had well conformed carcasses in comparison with GEN1 and GEN2, since GEN3 showed the highest percentages of ham and loin and the highest weight of loin as well as the lowest back and ham fat thickness. However, the use of DU2 pigs in the cross with Iberian had negative effects on meat quality, as GEN3 gave the worst meat quality in both muscles, postmortem pH, cook and drip loss, and colour and the lowest percentages of intramuscular fat (IMF). In subcutaneous fat (SCF), GEN3 had higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than GEN2, while GEN2 had higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) levels. In LD, IMF from GEN3 showed the highest percentage of MUFA and PUFA; while the fatty acid profile of GEN2 was more saturated. BF muscle showed similar trends, but not significantly so. On the other hand, few differences were found between reciprocal crosses (GEN1 vs. GEN2). GEN2 showed higher IMF in LD than GEN1, agreeing with their carcass weight. As a result, GEN1 had a fatty acid profile of IMF in the LD that was more unsaturated.
Choi, J S; Jin, S K; Jeong, Y H; Jung, Y C; Jung, J H; Shim, K S; Choi, Y I
This study was conducted to determine the relationships of five intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (protein kinase adenosine monophosphate-activated γ3 subunit [PRKAG3], fatty acid synthase [FASN], calpastatin [CAST], high mobility group AT-hook 1 [HMGA1], and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R]) and meat quality traits of Duroc breeding stocks in Korea. A total of 200 purebred Duroc gilts from 8 sires and 40 dams at 4 pig breeding farms from 2010 to 2011 reaching market weight (110 kg) were slaughtered and their carcasses were chilled overnight. Longissimus dorsi muscles were removed from the carcass after 24 h of slaughter and used to determine pork properties including carcass weight, backfat thickness, moisture, intramuscular fat, pH24h, shear force, redness, texture, and fatty acid composition. The PRKAG3, FASN, CAST, and MC4R gene SNPs were significantly associated with the meat quality traits (p<0.003). The meats of PRKAG3 (A 0.024/G 0.976) AA genotype had higher pH, redness and texture than those from PRKAG3 GG genotype. Meats of FASN (C 0.301/A 0.699) AA genotype had higher backfat thickness, texture, stearic acid, oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid than FASN CC genotype. While the carcasses of CAST (A 0.373/G 0.627) AA genotype had thicker backfat, and lower shear force, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid content, they had higher stearic acid content than those from the CAST GG genotype. The MC4R (G 0.208/A 0.792) AA genotype were involved in increasing backfat thickness, carcass weight, moisture and saturated fatty acid content, and decreasing unsaturated fatty acid content in Duroc meat. These results indicated that the five SNP markers tested can be a help to select Duroc breed to improve carcass and meat quality properties in crossbred pigs.
Parr, Tim; Mareko, Molebeledi H D; Ryan, Kevin J P; Hemmings, Krystal M; Brown, David M; Brameld, John M
To meet the demands of increased global meat consumption, animal production systems will have to become more efficient, or at least maintain the current efficiency utilizing feed ingredients that are not also used for human consumption. Use of growth promoters is a potential option for increasing production animal feed efficiency and increased muscle growth. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the mechanisms by which the growth promoters, beta-adrenergic agonists and growth hormone, mediate their effects, with specific consideration of the aspects which have implications for meat quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Tannins are phenolic compounds present in several forages, tree leaves and by-products used for small ruminant feeding in the Mediterranean area. Although the effects of dietary tannins on small ruminant growth performances have been largely studied, only in the last ten years researchers have started to study the effects of tannins on meat quality. Meat from small ruminants given tanniniferous diets is lighter in colour compared to meat from animals given the same diets but in which the effects of tannins have been eliminated by the supplementation of polyethylene glycol. This result has been obtained with tannins from different feeds (carob pulp, acacia leaves or sulla fresh herbage. Recent in vitro studies seem to indicate that a possible effect of tannins on meat colour could be due to a reduced microbial biosynthesis of vitamin B12 which is a precursor for the synthesis of haeme pigments. Meat from lambs given carob contains less conjugated linoleic acid compared to meat from animals fed the same diet but supplemented with polyethylene glycol. A possible explanation of this result has been proposed recently after an in vitro experiment on linoleic acid isomerase; it has been shown that when cattle ruminal fluid is incubated with tannins exctracted from acacia, carob or quebracho, the conjugated linoleic acid formed from linoleic acid was lower compared to the mount of conjugated linoleic acid produced in tannin-free rumen fluid. Also, the ruminal biosynthesis of odour-active compounds seems to be affected by tanniniferous diets. This is the case of skatole (3-methylindole and indole which confer unpleasant flavour connotations to lamb meat.
C. A. Patria
Full Text Available The crossbreeding between broiler and kampong chickens has been performed to develop a kampong-broiler strain chicken. The chicken stocking condition needs more attention as a part of animal welfare. This study was performed to identify the relationship between the stocking density and the stress based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI and the effect of stocking density on meat quality, i.e., physical, microbiological, and organoleptic. Ninety DOCs of Kampong-Broiler (KB were assigned into a completely randomized design with 3 treatments of stocking density i.e., 8, 10, and 12 birds m-2. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experimental chickens were housed in 9 blocks of housing each with 1 x 1 m2 size. Data on physical and microbiology of meat qualities were analyzed with analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple range test. The organoleptic data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result showed that the stocking density did not significantly affect the physical and hedonic quality of KB chicken’s breast. The stocking densities significantly affected (P<0.05 the microbiological variables of breast meat. The average value of THI during maintenance reached 28.98±1.25–29.33±1.32oC. The higher the animal density the higher the THI value that correlated to the stress condition. However, high stocking density did not affect the physical and hedonic quality of breast meat, thus it can be accepted by the consumers. The higher the stocking density the higher the total plate count, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, without the presence of Salmonella sp. The meat quality of KB chickens raised in the stocking density of 10 birds m-2 meets the requirement of SNI 01-3924-2009.
Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I
1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation.
Nely de Almeida Pedrosa
Full Text Available Salted lamb meat blanket, originated from boning, salting, and drying of whole lamb carcass, was studied aiming at obtaining information that support the search for guarantees of origin for this typical regional product from the city of Petrolina-Pernambuco-Brazil. Data from three processing units were obtained, where it was observed the use of a traditional local technology that uses salting, an ancient preservation method; however, with a peculiar boning technique, resulting in a meat product with great potential for exploitation in the form of meat blanket. Based on the values of pH (6.22 ± 0.22, water activity (0.97 ± 0.02, and moisture (69.86 ± 2.26 lamb meat blanket is considered a perishable product, and consequently it requires the use of other preservation methods combined with salt, which along with the results of the microbiological analyses (absence of Salmonella sp, score <10 MPN/g of halophilic bacteria, total coliforms between 6.7 × 10³ and 5.2 × 10(6 FUC/g, and Staphylococcus from 8.1 × 10³ CFU/g at uncountable reinforce the need of hygienic practices to ensure product safety. These results, together with the product notoriety and the organization of the sector are important factors in achieving Geographical Indication of the Salted lamb Meat blanket of Petrolina.
Full Text Available This study compared the meat quality of different genotypes. Maternal (M; adult weight/AW/=4.0-4.5kg; selected for the number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; AW=4.3-4.8kg and Large type (L; AW=4.8-5.4kg rabbits were analysed. P and L genotypes were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11wk of age and hindleg (HL meat and M. Longissimus dorsi (LD were analysed for proximate composition and fatty acid (FA profile. Proximate composition was unaffected by the selection programme, even though the meat of P rabbits was leaner and had higher ash content (P<0.10. The LD meat of P rabbits exhibited significantly lower MUFA contents compared to M and L rabbits (25.4 vs 28.0 vs 27.7%; P<0.01 and higher PUFA content compared to M rabbits (31.9 vs 24.9%; P<0.05. This study revealed that long-term CT-based selection is effective in increasing meat leanness and PUFA content.
Full Text Available Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered between 100 and 150kg live weight were evaluated. Pigs (417 Agroceres PIC barrows and gilts were fed a daily allowance of 2.8kg per head from 80kg until 100.71±0.85, 118.58±0.99, 134.07±1.18 or 143.90±1.24kg live weight. Seventy-one pigs were used for the evaluation of primal and subprimal cuts. There was no interaction between sex and slaughter weight for any of the evaluated parameters. Ham, shoulder, and loin weights linearly increased (P<0.01; R2: 84.3-93.2% with increasing slaughter weight, which, however, had little effect on primal cuts meat yield. Increasing slaughter weight promoted a linear (P<0.05 and a quadratic (P<0.01 increase of red/green coordinate (a* value of the loin and ham, respectively. Shear force showed a quadratic response (P<0.05, with minimum value estimated at 122kg slaughter weight. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing slaughter weight increased the volume of meat, but had little effect on meat yield. The meat of pigs slaughtered at heavier weights showed more intense red color and the same intramuscular fat content as lighter pigs, while tenderness was slightly affected.
ALINA NARCISA POSTOLACHE
Full Text Available This research is subscribed of an extensive project that has as main objective the production of crossbred specialized beef hybrids from reformed Romanian Black Spotted cattle's with bulls from breeds specialized for meat production (Blue Blanch Belgique, Aberdeen-Angus and Limousin. Averaged biochemical indicators analyzed showed a normal state of animal's health. The obtained half-breeds products (bulls were raised under semi-intensively conditions and slaughtered at 12 months of age. Live weight, back-fat thickness and carcass traits were significantly influenced by breed, all fat parameters being lower at this age than at standard minimum age of slaughter for meat production (18 months. Drip loss and chemical composition were similar for the breeds. The meat was lighter and pH24 values of longissimus muscle were between 5.57 and 5.64. Sensory panel tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear force values indicated tougher meat at RBSxAA than at RBSxL1 or RBSxBBB. Differences in meat quality were probably due to the combined effects of brute chemical composition and pH dynamic during ripening. It is concluded that slaughtering steers at younger ages may require supplementary feeding, being recommended a slaughter age between 18 and 25 months old.
Claudia Freitas Barbosa
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of blue light diffuser on the broiler stress control by measuring the occurrence of PSE meat just before slaughtering. Birds were divided into the following two groups before slaughter at the point of being hung on shackles: broiler group under low intensity blue light ambience (475, 17-20 lx and control group under white light (550-650nm, 321-332 lx. Birds' stressful conditions were measured by the occurrence of PSE meat. Breast fillets were classified as PSE meat based on pH ( 53.0. The fillet samples in the control group had the following characteristics: pHu=5.77, L* = 54.26 and b*= 6.27. The fillet samples from birds under blue light ambience had the following characteristics: pHu=5.81, L* = 52.86 and b* = 5.22 (p < 0.05. These results revealed that the treatment of blue light ambience just before slaughtering contributed to the alleviation of ante mortem stress of the birds, which was observed by a 14% decrease in the occurrence of PSE meat. Exposure to blue light just before slaughtering was shown to have potential to be used in modern slaughterhouses to offer a comfortable atmosphere, thereby maintaining breast meat quality.
Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H
In the present study, the distribution of the shelf life of cooked, cured meat products based on lactic acid bacteria growth and the distribution of the time to cause health risks based on Listeria monocytogenes growth were studied. Growth models, developed and validated on cooked meat products, were used to predict the growth of microorganisms. Temperature data were obtained from retail and home refrigerators. Distribution predictions were conducted by two approaches (time-temperature profiles and Monte Carlo simulation). Time-temperature profiles were more appropriate to be used, because Monte Carlo simulation overestimated the growth of L. monocytogenes. Shelf life was greatly influenced by storage temperature, but initial microbial load had a smaller effect. The expiration date of cooked meat products might be based on only the growth of the spoilage microorganisms, and only when product contamination with L. monocytogenes cell concentrations is high does a product fraction pose health risks for consumers. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that storage temperature and temperature variability were the most important factors for the duration of shelf life. Distributions of shelf life and time to cause health risks give valuable information on the quality and safety of cooked meat products and may be used as practical tools by meat processors.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere (40% CO2+60% N2, MA packaging on the chemical composition, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of chill-stored meat from 10 fallow deer (Dama dama bucks at 17 to 18 months of age. The animals were hunter-harvested in the forests of north-eastern Poland. During carcass dressing (48 to 54 h post mortem, both musculus longissimus muscles were cut out. Each muscle was divided into seven sections which were allocated to three groups: 0, A, and B. Samples 0 were immediately subjected to laboratory analyses. Samples A were vacuum-packaged, and samples B were packaged in MA. Packaged samples were stored for 7, 14, and 21 days at 2°C. The results of the present study showed that the evaluated packaging systems had no significant effect on the quality of fallow deer meat during chilled storage. However, vacuum-packaged meat samples were characterised by greater drip loss. Vacuum and MA packaging contributed to preserving the desired physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of meat during 21 days of storage. Regardless of the packaging method used, undesirable changes in the colour, water-holding capacity and juiciness of meat, accompanied by tenderness improvement, were observed during chilled storage.
Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to develop vacuum packaging incorporated with Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil treatment of fresh chicken breast meat. For this purpose, fresh chicken’s meat breast samples were divided into three groups. First group was kept as a control group with air packaging, others one was with vacuum packaging of samples and last one group was treated with rosemary essential oil. All fresh chickens’ breast meat samples were stored at 4°C and microbiological evaluation was conducted at intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days post-storage for lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil 2%, significantly reduced lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas aeroginosa counts in the fresh chickens breast meat samples. The results indicated that 2% essential oil improved the microbiological quality and prolonged the shelf-life of the fresh chicken’s breast meat to sixteen days of retail displayed at 4°C. The results obtained in this study point to the necessity of continuing investigations to determine the dose of rosemary preparations that would inhibit the growth of microflora being the most frequent cause of raw materials and products spoilage.
Dilip Ranjan Nath
Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of broiler chickens dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite supplementations on broiler thigh meat water holding capacity (WHC, lipid oxidation (TBARS, pH, and meat color during frozen storage. A total of 448-dayold sexed broiler cockerels were randomly assigned into 28 experimental units. A cornsoybean meal basal diet with 0, 15 and 30 g/kg kaolin, bentonite and zeolite as feed additive were added to control and 6 dietary treatments. Chickens were slaughtered and the left thighs kept at −20°C and analyzed after 1 and 150 days of storage. Experimental treatments had no effect on meat WHC, pH and color. Freezing at −20°C for 150 days impaired meat quality and caused chicken rancidity; however, lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value was significantly lower in chickens received diets including 15 g/kg bentonite and kaolin comparing to control diet after 150 days of frozen storage (P<0.05. It was concluded that though adding silicate minerals did not significantly influence WHC, pH and color in experimental treatments, they had influenced lipid oxidation and decreased chicken meat rancidity during frozen storage period
Rasouli, Z; Zerehdaran, S; Azari, M A; Shargh, M S
1. The objective of the study was to investigate the polymorphisms in two regions of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene and their association with breast and thigh meat quality in Japanese quail (ultimate pH (pHu), lightness, redness, yellowness, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss, water holding capacity and shear force, SF). 2. Blood samples were collected randomly from 100 birds and DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The effect of CAPN1 genotypes on meat quality traits were analysed using a general linear model (GLM) procedure. 3. Genotypes of the CAPN1 gene in the first region (217-bp) analysed were significantly associated with yellowness and SF. The TT genotype showed significantly higher yellowness and lower shear force (more tenderness) than CT and CC genotypes. Genotypes of the second region of the gene (intron 4, 800-bp) were significantly associated with pHu, redness and SF of the breast meat. The BB genotype showed significantly lower pHu and redness and higher SF (lower tenderness) than other genotypes. 4. Information on polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene will eventually provide useful information for improving meat quality of Japanese quail through marker-assisted selection.
Full Text Available Two-year study was carried out on 39 lambs (16 ewes and 23 rams of berrichon du cher breed in Grotkowo flock belonging to the Agricultural-Breeding Farm Żydowo. Lambs came from single (n = 28 and twin (n = 11 births and were born in the period from January to the end of February each year. The lambs were fed ad libitum using TMR mix. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 40 kg. The slaughter and carcass value and meat (mld quality were estimated. Ewes were characterised by better muscularity and better fat consistency but worse fat colour than rams (in EUROP classification. Slaughter value, measurements and primary cuts of the carcass, as well as chemical composition of meat (mld in lambs from single and twin births were levelled, except one fatty acid C22:5n3 which value was higher in twins. The obtained results generally showed a high quality of carcasses and meat of berrichon du cher lambs and indicating the possibility of producing good quality lambs for the meat using TMR feeding system ad libitum.
Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ke; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Bryden, Wayne L; Yao, Bin
Supplementation of broiler chicken diets with probiotics may improve carcass characteristics and meat quality. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, 2D-DIGE-based proteomics was employed to investigate the proteome changes associated with improved carcass traits and meat quality of Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium. The probiotic significantly increased meat colour, water holding capacity and pH of pectoral muscle but decreased abdominal fat content. These meat quality changes were related to the altered abundance of 22 proteins in the pectoral muscle following E. faecium feeding. Of these, 17 proteins have central roles in regulating meat quality due to their biological interaction network. Altered cytoskeletal and chaperon protein expression also contribute to improved water holding capacity and colour of meat, which suggests that upregulation of chaperon proteins maintains cell integrity and prevents moisture loss by enhancing folding and recovery of the membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. The down-regulation of β-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle isozymes suggests roles in increasing the pH of meat by decreasing the production of lactic acid. The validity of the proteomics results was further confirmed by qPCR. This study reveals that improved meat quality of broilers fed probiotics is triggered by proteome alterations (especially the glycolytic proteins), and provides a new insight into the mechanism by which probiotics improve poultry production.
Liste, G; María, G A; Buil, T; García-Belenguer, S; Chacón, G; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Villarroel, M
The transport of domestic animals by road can increase levels of stress and decrease meat quality, especially in unfavourable climates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of journey duration and vertical position on the transport truck on some physiological indicators of stress and on instrumental meat quality parameters in commercial rabbits. In the summer months (June and July, 2003), 78 rabbits were subjected to either long (7 h) (LJ) or short (1 h) (SJ) journeys (3 replicates each, n = 6) between the farm and an abattoir in northern Spain. The position (top, middle, or bottom) occupied by the rabbits on the Multi-Floor cage Rolling Stand (MFRS) of the transport truck was recorded. Blood samples were collected at sticking and meat pH was measured at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). At 48 h post-mortem, samples of the M. longissimus dorsi were used to determine water-holding capacity (WHC) and instrumental tenderness using an INSTRON machine. The levels of corticosterone, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase were slightly higher in LJ than in SJ samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p MFRS showed higher levels (p < or = 0.05) of glucose and creatine kinase (middle), and corticosterone (bottom) than the rabbits located at the top floor. The pH 24 and WHC values of the SJ and LJ rabbits did not differ significantly. Journey length had a significant effect (p < or = 0.01) on meat tenderness. The meat from rabbits subjected to LJ had higher values of maximum stress and total toughness than did the SJ rabbits (p < or = 0.05). There were similar differences (p < or = 0.05) between LJ and SJ rabbits in their stress values of compression at 20% and 40% (measures of the tenderness of raw meat). In hot weather, the position on the transport truck appeared to have a greater effect on rabbit welfare than the duration of the journey.
Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A
Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P0.05 during storage. The influence of groups of goat meat on TBARS value was significantly observed (P<0.05 when processed in water and brine. Massaman curry could reduce the change in TBARS value of canned goat meat during storage. The results based on texture, color and lipid oxidation suggested that there were no significant differences between the groups of goat meat from 3 years Anglonubian crossed native and 7 years Saanen crossed native for being processed in canned goat meat curry products.
Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y
1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.
Wei, Ran; Wang, Peng; Han, Minyi; Chen, Tianhao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong
Objective The objective of this research was to study the electrical properties and quality of frozen-thawed chicken breast meat and to investigate the relationship between these parameters at different times of frozen storage. Methods Thawed samples of chicken breast muscles were evaluated after being kept in frozen storage at −18°C for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 months). Results The results showed that water-holding capacity (WHC) and protein solubility decreased while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content increased with increasing storage time. The impedance module of samples decreased during 8-month frozen storage. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the impedance change ratio (Q value) was significantly (pmeat. Conclusion Impedance measurement has a potential to assess the quality of frozen chicken meat combining with quality indices. PMID:27554358
Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens.
Full Text Available For determination of poultry quality shortly after slaughtering, physical criteria (pH-value, conductivity, colour, juice retention are of importance. However, they are affected by breeding, transport, cooling and the storage period. PH-values of breast meat (genetically structured material were recorded shortly after slaughtering (15 min p.m. and differences between breeding line and gender were found (n=5109. The pH1-values ranged from 5.50 to 6.79. Male broilers showed significantly lower pH1-values than female ones (6.02:6.10. There were also significant differences concerning breeding line and gender. Meat quality (PSE, DFD of broilers can be recorded quickly and accurately determining the pH1-value of breast meat. Threshold ranges to be considered are ≤ 5.8 (PSE, 5.9-6.2 (standard meat properties and ≥ 6.3 (DFD. This classification is not to be compared to the deviation of pork.
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.
Wac, Katarzyna; Fiordelli, M.; Gustarini, M.
Inevitably, as basic human needs are assured in any developed society, differentiating factors for quality of life (QoL) relate to a greater capacity to make informed decisions across daily life activities, especially those related to health. The availability of powerful, personalized, and wearable...
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the dose effects of hesperidin dietary supplementation on fattening rabbits’ growth performance, as well as carcass and meat quality characteristics. Forty-eight Hyla hybrid male weaned (35 d old rabbits were purchased and randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups of 16 rabbits each and fed diets supplemented with the antioxidant hesperidin at 0, 1 and 2 g/kg feed. At 80 d of age, the rabbits were slaughtered and samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle were used to estimate meat quality traits. No significant differences were observed in body weight at the age of 80 d, feed conversion rate (35 to 80 d, or organ weights among the 3 groups. The pH, colour, percentage of released water, shear force values and intramuscular fat content of LL muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Hesperidin dietary supplementation at both levels reduced the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly arachidonic (C20:4n-6, docosapentaenoic (C22:5n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3 (only at 2 g/kg, and PUFA/SFA ratio (P<0.01. Based on the malondialdehyde (MDA values, hesperidin inclusion did not influence meat antioxidant status during the 9-d refrigerated storage at 4°C. Thus, we may conclude that dietary supplementation with hesperidin at the selected concentration levels did not generally influence growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality or antioxidant capacity in fattening rabbits, although meat values for PUFAs appeared to be decreased.
E. Musnandar; A. Hamidah; R. A. Muthalib
The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF) on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%), R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50%) and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%) and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goa...
Full Text Available The physicochemical and fatty acid compositions of meat from 81 calves were measured in order to prove whether the extension of suckling period could distinguish “Normal” from “Suprema” class calves. Three groups of animals were investigated depending on their weaning status: NW (animals were milk-fed until seven months, W1 and W2 (animals which were weaned at different ages and reared either in family farms or in feedlot, respectively. There was no difference among animals in relation to the main components (moisture, protein and ash. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found regarding intramuscular fat; the contents were higher in animals weaned at early ages. Color and texture parameters were significantly affected by weaning status. The intramuscular fatty acid composition in the three types of animals showed that saturated fatty acids were the predominant ones in the three groups with values ranging between 48.71% and 49.52% of total methyl esters. Significant differences (p<0.001 were found depending on weaning status in linolenic acid and in the n-6/n-3 ratio, obtaining the highest values in NW animals. Factor analysis method using principal component was applied to the data. The data matrix constructed was subjected to a canonical discriminant analysis in order to classify the NW, W1 and W2 groups. These results showed that 96.6% for the NW group, and 66.7% and 82.4% for W1 and W2 groups respectively, were correctly classified.
Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying
Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (pcattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186
With the development of economy, the quality of people's daily life is increasing continuously. Consumer demand for food is also gradually strict, especially for meat quality requirements have become strict. At present, the emergence of comprehensive anti corrosion technology to meat production technology has been improved, but also on the meat of the anti-corrosion ability has been greatly improved. On the perception and freshness of meat products have been largely improved.%随着经济的发展，人们的日常生活质量不断提高，消费者对食品的要求也逐渐严格，特别是对肉制品质量要求也变得严格起来。目前，综合防腐技术的出现对肉制品制作技术得到了提高，同时也对肉制品的防腐能力得到了很大的提高。对肉类产品的观感与新鲜度得到了很大程度上的改善。
Wang, Wenxiu; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Fan; Sun, Hongwei
The improvement of living standards has urged consumers to pay more attention to the quality and nutrition of meat, so the development of nondestructive detection device for quality and nutritional parameters is commercioganic undoubtedly. In this research, a portable device equipped with visible (Vis) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, tungsten halogen lamp, optical fiber, ring light guide and embedded computer was developed to realize simultaneous and fast detection of color (L*, a*, b*), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), intramuscular fat (IF), protein and water content in pork. The wavelengths of dual-band spectrometers were 400 1100 nm and 940 1650 nm respectively and the tungsten halogen lamp cooperated with ring light guide to form a ring light source and provide appropriate illumination intensity for sample. Software was self-developed to control the functionality of dual-band spectrometers, set spectrometer parameters, acquire and process Vis/NIR spectroscopy and display the prediction results in real time. In order to obtain a robust and accurate prediction model, fresh longissimus dorsi meat was bought and placed in the refrigerator for 12 days to get pork samples with different freshness degrees. Besides, pork meat from three different parts including longissimus dorsi, haunch and lean meat was collected for the determination of IF, protein and water to make the reference values have a wider distribution range. After acquisition of Vis/NIR spectra, data from 400 1100 nm were pretreated with Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter and standard normal variables transform (SNVT) and spectrum data from 940 1650 nm were preprocessed with SNVT. The anomalous were eliminated by Monte Carlo method based on model cluster analysis and then partial least square regression (PLSR) models based on single band (400 1100 nm or 940 1650 nm) and dual-band were established and compared. The results showed the optimal models for each parameter were built with correlation
The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...
Majid Aminzare; Mohammad Hashemi; Hassan Hassanzad Azar; Jalal Hejazi
The production of healthy and high-quality meat and meat products in line with consumers’ demand for natural foods has become a major challenge for the meat production industry. Herbal extracts and essential oils have shown potentially significant antimicrobial effects against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms present in meat products; however, they tend to have a limited use due to the intense flavor they add to the products. Nevertheless, advanced technologies can improve the microbial...
Dayanne Lima de Sousa
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of meat of castrated and non-castrated Santa Ines lambs submitted to food restriction. Were used 30 lambs, 15 castrated and 15 non-castrated, about two months of age and average initial body weight of 13.00 ± 1.49 kg. The lambs were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (restriction level x sex class, according to the amount of food provided. The duration of the experiment was determined by the time required for the animals in the one of the groups achieved 28 kg of body weight. There was interaction between food restriction levels and sex class to the variables intensity of yellow color and pH in the longissimus lumborum muscle and the shear force in the semimembranosus muscle. In non-castrated animals, the intensity of yellow color was higher in the longissimus lumborum muscle at the level of 30% of food restriction. There was no significant interaction between food restriction levels and sex class for the quality aspects related to color saturation, color tone, luminosity, red intensity, water holding capacity and cooking losses in longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles. Although food restriction and sex class have influenced the variables related to the quality of meat of the animals evaluated, the mean values are considered acceptable by the literature. The feeding restriction levels and sex class influence some important features of quality of Santa Ines lamb meat.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.
Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa
The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.
LIU Jia; LI Weijin
As a novel technology, supported liquid membrane extraction has gradually become the direction of the research of extraction, for the advantages of using little organic solvents, good selectivity and repeatability. This paper is based on describing the working principle, structure and influencing factors of supported liquid membrane, and research in domestic and foreign literatures which are in the same period, and give a review on the application of supported liquid membrane in meat security determination.
Full Text Available A total of 22 young goats were used to assess the effect of two organic zinc sources, i.e. Zn lactate and Zn chelate, compared with Zn oxide and a control treatment without Zn supplementation on meat quality and zinc concentration in muscle. Muscle pH and colour (L*– lightness, a* – redness, b* – yellowness were determined in the triceps brachii muscles, immediately after slaughter and chilling (24 h. Zn content, chemical composition (dry matter, fat, protein and collagen content, drip losses, cook losses, hardness, cohesiveness, pH (48 h and colour (48 h were determined. We did not found statistical significant differences in meat quality between treatments. Significant difference was found in concentration of Zn only between control and group receiving Zn oxide (P < 0.05.
Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng
Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pbreeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.
Ellies-Oury, M-P; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Durand, D; Gruffat, D; Listrat, A; Micol, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Hocquette, J-F; Chavent, M; Saracco, J; Picard, B
This work sets out a methodological approach to assess how to simultaneously control together Animal Performances, nutritional value, sensory quality of meat. Seventy-one young bulls were characterized by 97 variables. Variables of each element were arranged into either 5 homogeneous Intermediate Scores (IS) or 2 Global Indices (GI) via a clustering of variables and analysed together by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These 3 pools of 5 IS (or 2 GI) were analysed together by PCA to established the links existing among the triptych. Classification on IS showed no opposition between Animal Performances and nutritional value of meat, as it seemed possible to identify animals with a high butcher value and intramuscular fat relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concerning GI, the classification indicated that Animal Performances were negatively correlated with sensory quality. This method appeared to be a useful contribution to the management of animal breeding for an optimal trade-off between the three elements of the triptych.
A. V. Grebenshchikov; N. N. Kazakov
The modern science of feeding of agricultural animals argues that could be effective only diet, balanced on all significant components of power, which are reflected in the norms of feeding. Modern information technologies allow us to develop a system of indicators, the use of which allows to increase the efficiency of diets.
A. V. Grebenshchikov
Full Text Available The modern science of feeding of agricultural animals argues that could be effective only diet, balanced on all significant components of power, which are reflected in the norms of feeding. Modern information technologies allow us to develop a system of indicators, the use of which allows to increase the efficiency of diets.
High moisture content (89%) along with high enzymatic and bacteriological activity in Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) meat are responsible for short shelf life and disintegration of meat in cooking. Minimum solubility was at pH 5 (iso-electric point) of muscle protein. Citric acid- sodium citrate buffer (pH 5) with 0.2% potassium sorbate was very effective in reducing moisture in dressed fish and in increasing shelf life up to 4 days at ambient temperature (25-28 °C). Reduction in moisture in meat improved its cooking quality and gel formation capacity with increased protein content. Fish meat contained 1.0-1.5% NaCl and produced stronger gel by using 2% NaCl than conventionally prepared gel with 4% NaCl. Washing fish mince with cold water followed by pressing at pH 5, gave fish cake with more salt soluble protein and better gel strength (>500 gcm) than the same operation done at ambient temperature.
Gian Maria Chiericato
Full Text Available In this trial male and female chickens belonging to a dual-purpose Italian breed, Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, were reared under a free-range production system (June-October from 47 days of life until slaughter age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. At both ages, the final body weight, the dressing-out percentage and the ready-tocook carcass weight were higher (P<0.01 in males. At II age the female carcass showed higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast and lower (P<0.01 proportion of leg. At both ages, the redness index (a* of breast and thigh were lower (P<0.01 in females, whereas the yellowness index (b* showed the opposite trend; the females showed higher lipids in breast meat (P<0.05, thigh meat (P<0.01 and skin (P<0.01. The breast tenderness did not change. The results indicate that the ER birds have a different live body weight, slaughter performance and meat quality according to sex, both at I and II age. At 168 days, under the studied environmental conditions, the chickens were in prepubertal period and the sex affected the dressing-out percentage, meat colour and skin lipids in particular.
Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.
Berge, P; Lepetit, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C
Meat quality traits were determined in the major muscles of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) at different slaughter ages (6, 10, 14, 17 or ≥20 months). A mean ultimate pH value of 5.5 was reached within around 3 h post mortem, but this value was 6.1 in animals that had suffered a preslaughter stress (transportation and fasting). The collagen and pigment contents varied widely among the muscles. The protein and pigment contents increased with animal age, but this effect was perceptible only between 6 and 14 months. The other chemical constituents were little affected by muscle type or animal age. The intense red colour of emu meat, due to a high pigment content, was very sensitive to oxidation, thus limiting the storage of fresh meat under aerobic conditions to short periods of time. Despite a rapid post-mortem tenderization (≤24 h), the residual myofibrillar strength obtained after extended ageing remained intermediate between those reported for chicken and beef. The tenderness of meat, cooked to 60 °C, differed between muscles and decreased with increasing age, thus reflecting the changes occuring in the concentration and in the heat stability of the intramuscular connective tissue.
Full Text Available Chicken meat chips with different extenders (Bengal gram flour, Black gram flour and cooked mashed potato each at 15% level and control were prepared and stored up to 8 weeks both at ambient (37+2°C and refrigerated (7+ 1°C temperature. The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality characteristics. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 182-184
Full Text Available This paper reviews two factors (breed and feed affecting the carcass and meat quality of sheep. The quality of livestock products has acquired greater importance from the distinct perspectives of the different participants in the agricultural food chain. Consumers, producers and the industry give different levels of importance to the parameters of meat and carcass quality. Nevertheless, all the participants in the meat production chain must ensure quality to improve their competitiveness. The quality of the carcass and meat can be influenced by different factors such as breed and type of feed. The breed can influence weight, yields, and the conformation of the carcass, among other variables, as well as the pH level and the fatty acid composition of the meat, whereas the feed mainly affects carcass conformation and several physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of meat quality such as proximal composition, the fatty acid profile, tenderness and color. Consequently, the effects of breed and feed type should be considered to obtain a quality product that satisfies consumer demand.
A. Dalle Zotte
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate some meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat when considering 2 sire breeds (SB: Vienna Blue [VB]; Burgundy Fawn [BF]; both coloured and slow-growing breeds, several parity orders (P: 1, 2, ≥3, gender (G, and 2 slaughter seasons (SS: spring, summer in an organic production system. The effect of storage time (ST at frozen state (2 mo at –20°C of Longissimus lumborum (LL meat was also evaluated. Animals were slaughtered when they reached 2.8 kg of live weight. Then, pH and L*a*b* colour values of Biceps femoris (BF and LL muscles, water loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force of LL and hind leg (HL meat, and the fibre typing and enzymatic activity of LL muscle were analysed. LL meat from females showed higher b* values than males (0.04 vs. –1.25; P<0.05. Significant (P<0.05 SB×P, SB×G and P×G interactions were observed for the b* value of LL: VB and BF crossbreds presented a higher b* value when born as P≥3 and P2 respectively, VB females showed higher b* value than VB males, and P2 and P≥3 produced males with a significantly lower b* value. HL thawing losses were significantly (P<0.05 higher in rabbits slaughtered in summer than in those slaughtered in spring, whereas the opposite result was obtained for LL meat (P<0.01. Cooking loss of LL meat was significantly lower in P2 group than P≥3 group (P<0.05. The lactate dehydrogenase activity in LL muscle was higher in VB than in BF crossbreds (930 vs. 830 IU; P<0.05, albeit not supported by differences in fibre type distribution. The ST significantly (P<0.01 reduced pH, a* and b* colour values, and increased lightness of LL meat. It was concluded that the crossbreeds derived from VB and BF genotypes and farmed organically did not show remarkable sexual dimorphism, considering their elder slaughter age than rabbits reared under intensive conditions. Physical quality of meat was mainly affected by slaughter season, indicating
van Kampen Tony A
Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.
Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de
The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (Pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (Pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.
Luca Rotolo; Francesco Gai; Silvana Nicola; Ivo Zoccarato; Alberto Brugiapaglia; Laura Gasco
The aim of this research was to evaluate the dietary supplementation 1% (w/w) of oregano and sage dried leaves on performances and meat quality of broiler rabbits. A feeding trial, which lasted 48 d, was carried out on 105 male Bianca Italiana rabbits randomly divided in seven groups and fed ad libitum. At the end of the trial ten animals per group were slaughtered and samples of dorsal muscle were taken in order to perform laboratory analysis. Mortality rate did not statistically differ between groups. Growth performances of animals fed diets supplemented with aromatic plants were higher (P<0.05) than those of animals of control group, whereas carcass parameters were not affected by treatments excepting for the slaughter weight that showed the same trend as growth performances. Meat quality traits, oxidative lipid stability and fatty acid proifle were not inlfuenced by aromatic plant supplementation. In conclusion, oregano and sage in form of dried leaves can be used in rabbit without adverse effects on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits.
Aghwan, Z A; Bello, A U; Abubakar, A A; Imlan, J C; Sazili, A Q
Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael
Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.
Ke, Y Y; Liu, W J; Wang, Z X; Chen, Y X
Our previous study demonstrated that blue monochromatic light was better to promote the growth and development of broilers than red light. However, consumer research suggests that the eating quality of the meat is more important. The present study was, therefore, designed to further evaluate the effects of various monochromatic lights on the muscle growth and quality properties and antioxidation of meat. A total of 288 newly hatched Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL), and white light (WL) by a light-emitting diode system for 49 d, respectively. Results showed that the broilers reared under BL significantly increased BW and carcass yield as compared with RL, WL, and GL (P 0.05). Compared with RL, the muscles of breast and thigh in GL and BL had higher pH, water-holding capacity, and protein content, whereas cooking loss, lightness value, shear value, and fat content were lower (P 0.05). These results suggest that BL better improves meat quality of Arbor Acre broilers by elevating antioxidative capacity than does RL.
Bjelanovic, Milena; Grabez, Vladana; Vucic, Goran; Martinovic, Aleksandra; Lima, Lene Ruud; Markovic, Bozidarka; Egelandsdal, Bjørg
The identification of meat quality characteristics from selected breeds grazing in specific regions is particularly relevant to achieve a marketing advantage. Longisimus thoracis at lumborum (LTL) from the indigenous Western Balkan (WB) sheep - VlašićkaPramenka (VP) sheep and lambs, and Pivska Pramenka (PP) sheep grazing in Bosnia & Herzegovina (B&H) and Montenegro (MN), respectively, was compared regarding carcass and meat qualities to the crossbred Norweg...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meat quality depends on physiological processes taking place in muscle tissue, which could involve a large pattern of genes associated with both muscle structural and metabolic features. Understanding the biological phenomena underlying muscle phenotype at slaughter is necessary to uncover meat quality development. Therefore, a muscle transcriptome analysis was undertaken to compare gene expression profiles between two highly contrasted pig breeds, Large White (LW and Basque (B, reared in two different housing systems themselves influencing meat quality. LW is the most predominant breed used in pig industry, which exhibits standard meat quality attributes. B is an indigenous breed with low lean meat and high fat contents, high meat quality characteristics, and is genetically distant from other European pig breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcriptome analysis undertaken using a custom 15 K microarray, highlighted 1233 genes differentially expressed between breeds (multiple-test adjusted P-value<0.05, out of which 635 were highly expressed in the B and 598 highly expressed in the LW pigs. No difference in gene expression was found between housing systems. Besides, expression level of 12 differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR validated microarray data. Functional annotation clustering emphasized four main clusters associated to transcriptome breed differences: metabolic processes, skeletal muscle structure and organization, extracellular matrix, lysosome, and proteolysis, thereby highlighting many genes involved in muscle physiology and meat quality development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these results will contribute to a better understanding of muscle physiology and of the biological and molecular processes underlying meat quality. Besides, this study is a first step towards the identification of molecular markers of pork quality and the subsequent development of control tools.
Maldonado-Siman, E; Bernal-Alcántara, R; Cadena-Meneses, J A; Altamirano-Cárdenas, J R; Martinez-Hernández, P A
Requirements of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) are becoming essential for international trade in food commodities as a safety assurance component. This research reports the level of the adoption of ISO 9000 and the HACCP system by Federal Inspection Type (TIF) pork-exporting enterprises. Implementation and operating costs are reported as well as the benefits involved in this food industry process. In Mexico, there are 97 companies classified as TIF enterprises, and 22 are registered as exporters of processed pork with the National Services for Safety and Quality and Animal Health of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food. Surveys were administered to 22 companies, with a 95.2% response rate. Enterprise characteristics were evaluated, as well as their operating activities. Fieldwork consisted of administering structured questionnaires to TIF exporters. All the surveyed enterprises had implemented HACCP, whereas the ISO 9000 regulation was applied in only 30%. Of total production, 75% is exported to 13 countries, and 25% goes to the Mexican market niche. Results indicate that the main factors for adopting HACCP are related to accessibility to international markets, improving quality, and reducing product quality audits by customers. The results also indicated that staff training was the most important issue. Microbiological testing was the highest cost of the operation. The main benefits reported were related to better access to international markets and a considerable reduction in microbial counts. This study shows the willingness of Mexican pork processors to implement food safety protocols for producing safe and quality products to compete in the international food trade.
Qiong WANG; Chaowu YANG; Yiping LIU; Xiaosong JIANG; Huarui DU; Mohan QIU; Qing ZHU
In this study, PCR-SSCP technique was de-signed to investigate the effect of the myogenin (MyoG) gene on quality of chicken meat (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four muta-tions at base position in the promoter region were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locus A, and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B. Least squares analysis showed that there was a significant difference between genotype and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P0.05) was detected in the other traits. It was concluded that the MyoG gene is the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation can be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for meat quality traits.
Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of
Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang
Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.
Louise Manha Peres
Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter according to initial weight. The experimental diets were isoenergetic and isonutrient, except for the chromium level. The treatments were divided as follows: control (without chromium, control + 200 ppb of inorganic chromium (chromium sulfate, and control + 200 ppb of chelated chromium (chromium-methionine. In the performance measures, the stall was considered the experimental unit and in the blood parameters, carcass and meat evaluations each animal constituted the experimental unit. Animals were slaughtered when they reached the final average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg. Blood samples were collected and tested for blood parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose as well as carcass quality (hot and cold weights, yield, loin-eye area, muscle depth and backfat thickness and meat quality (initial and final pH, drip loss, color, chemical composition and lipid oxidation parameters. Chromium-methionine supplementation provides a greater daily weight gain only compared with the animals that are not supplemented with chromium, because feed conversion is better as compared with the other treatments. After 24 hours of storage, the meat from pigs supplemented either with chromium-methionine or with chromium sulfate presents lower lipid oxidation than that from non-supplemented animals. However, after three days of storage, only chromim-methionine is effective in reducing lipid oxidation.
Full Text Available Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5 and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3 on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05. The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be
Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed (SHS dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15% of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.
Jin Hyoung Cho
Full Text Available Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20 and LQLD (n = 20 Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%, ATPase activity (19%, oxidoreductase activity (13%, cytoskeletal protein binding (13%, actin binding (12%, calcium ion binding (6%, and structural constituent of muscle (6%. Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of
Güner, Ahmet; DOĞRUER, Yusuf; UÇAR, Gürkan; YÖRÜK, Hilal Duygu
The aim of this investigation was to compare some quality characteristics of goose-meat salami with those of turkey- and chicken-meat salami in order to determine its suitability for consumption and to able to use goose meat for meat product technology. The pH values of experimental samples were highest in the goose-meat salami and lowest in the turkey-meat salami. Moisture rates of samples produced with a mixture of two kinds of poultry meat were lower than those of the others. Salmonella, ...
Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the inclusion of 10% of crude glycerin associated with roughage sources on the quality of meat aged for 1, 7 or 14 days post mortem of Nellore young bulls. Thirty feedlot animals (n = 10 with initial body weight of 416.70 ± 24.74 kg and 18 months of age were assigned to three treatments: corn silage (CS, sugar cane (SC and sugar cane bagasse (CB, using a completely randomized design. After 85 days of feeding, animals were slaughtered with 554.51 ± 38.51 kg. Samples of longissimus muscle were collected, after carcass chilling, and vacuum-packed. Diets influenced pH, meat color and subcutaneous fat (SF (p > 0.05. Animals fed CS showed higher values of b* in SF (p 0.05. Aging times influenced pH and shear force of beef (p < 0.05. Beef aged for 14 days showed higher pH (5.90 and lower shear force (2.40 kgf. Diets containing 10% crude glycerin in the DM associated with CS, SC or CB had no effect on the fatty acid profile in beef. The aging process for 14 days reduces shear force, improving meat quality.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of glycolityc and energetical quantities on selected meat quality characteristics of Duroc fatteners. A total of 40 Duroc porkers were investigated. Among two analysed sets of determinants (R1 with glycogen and R1 with lactate measured in 45 min after slaughter, the best diagnostic value for meat quality characteristics exhibit a set involving R1 and glycogen that composed determination coefficient (RC2 was 0.66 for pH measured in 45 min up to 144 h post mortem. Also, with currently used meat diagnostic methods the most useful one that explains the glycolytic and energetic quantities in the highest degree is method that exploits 5 determinants, i.e. pH1, pH24, EC2, EC24 and L*24. Higher composed determination coefficient and canonical correlation (CR for this method was obtained for set involving R1 and lactate – 0.41 and 0.64** respectively.
JIE WANG; YONGSONG HU; MAURICIO A. ELZO; YU SHI; XIANBO JIA; SHIYI CHEN; SONGJIA LAI
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the polymorphism in the Myf5 gene on meat quality traits in the Ira and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. A total of six SNPs and four haplotypes were found in Ira rabbits and only two SNPs were found in Tianfu Black rabbits. The two rabbit breeds had intermediate levels of genetic diversity according to their polymorphic information content values. The SNP association analysis in Ira indicated that SNP1-6 had a significant association with redness, yellowness and intramuscular fat values in the biceps femoris muscle, and alsoa significantly effect on redness in the longissimus dorsi muscle. The haplotype association analysis indicated that some haplotypes could be selected to get higher or lower meat redness, yellowness and intramuscular fat content in longissimus dorsi in Ira rabbits. Several SNPs and haplotypes of Myf5 identified here could be considered as molecular markers to improve the meat quality of Iraand Tianfu Black rabbits.
Thiago Henrique Borghi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of meat from three muscles of Ile de France lambs fed diets containing different levels of glycerin as an alternative to corn. Thirty non-castrated feedlot Ile de France lambs weighing 15±0.2 kg were housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 32±0.2 kg. Treatments consisted of three diets: sugarcane + 0% glycerin; sugarcane + 10% glycerin; and sugarcane + 20% glycerin; and three muscles were evaluated: triceps brachii, semimembranosus, and longissimus lumborum. No interactions were observed among glycerin levels and muscle types for the quality characteristics evaluated. Muscles were similar in terms of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics, and only differed in sarcomere length, diameter of muscle fibers, and cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin did not affect pH, water holding capacity (24 h and 30 days after slaughter, weight loss by thawing and cooking, shear force, diameter of muscle fibers, sarcomere length, lipid oxidation, chemical composition, or meat cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin resulted in a linear decrease of muscle yellowness from 3.99 to 3.29. Dietary glycerin altered intramuscular fat fatty acid profile, increasing the concentration of margaric acid (1.47 to 2.61%. Up to 20% glycerin can be included in the diet of feedlot lambs without any harm to meat quality.
Ertha Janine Lacerda de Medeiros
Full Text Available Thirty-two intact male goats from four genetic groups (eight pure-bred Boers, eight ¾ Boer + ¼ SPRD crossbreeds, eight ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds, and eight ½ Anglo Nubian + ½ SPRD crossbreeds were evaluated for meat quality. The goats were reared in confinement and slaughtered at the average live weight of 29 kg. Temperature and pH decrease in the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined for 24 hours, and analyses of colour, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, and sensory attributes were also performed. Genotype significantly (P < 0.05 influenced the confinement period; ½ Boer + ½ SPRD crossbreeds required the most time in confinement to reach the target weight, while the pure-bred Boers required the least time. Genotype also significantly influenced (P < 0.05 the weight loss due to cooking, shearing force, colour (intensity of yellowness and luminescence, and the sensory attributes of flavour, odour, and raw colour of the meat. The crossing of exotic Boer and Anglo Nubian breeds with the native SPRD resulted in a goat meat of high quality.
Pasquale De Palo
Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of two different gas mixtures on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of veal meat packed in modified atmosphere during chill storage. Experimental gas atmospheres tested were O246 (46% O2, 31% N2 and 23% CO2 and O270 (70% O2, 8% N2 and 22% CO2. Samples were stored at 4°C for 14 days and tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after packaging. The different O2 concentration influenced many parameters. Lower O2 concentration showed a greater increase of a* values (P<0.01 from the 2nd to the 8th packaging day, and a lower increase in drip loss values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation (P<0.001. Total aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic count showed a gradual increase in bacterial load over storage time in both the experimental treatments. Results obtained showed that O246 is better than O270 in calf meat packaging because of a belated decline of meat quality, particularly about oxidative parameters.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (psupplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed. PMID:27433111
Christensen, Sara; Purslow, Peter P
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix components but are also important signaling molecules that regulate many biological processes including muscle, adipose and connective tissue development. Most recently it has been discovered that MMPs act as intracellular signaling molecules inducing gene expression and altering related proteins in the nucleus. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMPs and their inhibitors are known to exist and most of the research on MMPs to date has focused on their activity in relation to human health and disease. Nevertheless there is a growing body of evidence identifying important roles of MMPs as regulators of myogenesis, fibrogenesis and adipogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the currently known functions of the MMPs that have a direct bearing on the deposition of meat components and their relationship with meat quality. Some central pathways by which these enzymes can affect the tenderness, the amount and type of fatty acids are highlighted.
Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C
Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P economic profit evaluated through the net gain reached a maximum at 42 d. The moisture and ammonium content of litter increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) rapidly during rearing concomitantly with increased (P < 0.05) occurrence and severity of contact dermatitis and decreased (P < 0.05) walking ability and activity of birds. Thermal comfort also decreased (P < 0.05) greatly as early as 42 d of age. Changes in carcass quality occurred mainly between 35 and 56 d of age, with a progressive increase (P < 0.001) in breast and leg yield, whereas body fatness was barely affected by age. Major changes in breast meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P < 0.01) and 24 h (P < 0.001) postmortem and reduced (P < 0.001) lightness and drip loss. The protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) with age. Taking into account the main aspects of sustainability, we could recommend slaughtering chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.
Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.
da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color (a* 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).
Full Text Available In the experiment, we verify the effect of propolis extract in Ross 308 broiler on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscle modified by baking at 200 ºC for 60 minutes. The experiment enrolled 360 one day old chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and was formed into 4 groups: control group (C and three experimental groups (EG: I, II, III of 90 pcs chickens. Custom feeding insisted 42 days. Chickens were fed to 21th day of age an ad libitum with the same starter feed mixture HYD-01 (powdery form and from 22nd to 42nd day of age were fed with the growth feed mixture HYD-02 (powdery form in the monitored groups. The fed feed mixture HYD-01 and HYD-02 have been produced without antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. Experimental groups were added to the feed compound of propolis extract in a dose of 200, 300 and 400 mg.kg-1. After heat treatment of breast and thigh muscle of 60 pieces chicken of each group samples were anonymously assessed sensory six-member committee (smell, taste, juiciness, tenderness 5-point scale. Significant differences (P≤0.05 between control group and experimental groups (I, II, III were found in the evaluation of breast muscle in the aroma (+0.15 to +0.23 points, taste between control group and EG I and III (+0.19 to +0.26 points in juiciness between control group and EG I (+0.37 points and the fineness of the control group and EG I and II (+0.35 to +0.45 points. In the thigh muscle were found significant differences (P≤0.05 between control group and EG (I, II, III in the evaluation of smell compared with group I (+0.25 points, the taste of EG I and III (+0.20 to +0.24 points, the juiciness of EG I and III (+0.34 to +0.48 points and the fineness of the EG I and III (+0.30 to +0.43 points. The overall sensory valuation of the most valuable parts of the carcass Ross 308 chickens, were found positive effects of propolis extract on the sensory properties after baking and recommend it to use in the diet of
Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod; Manjunatha, M
The effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on ground goat meat and cooked nuggets during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) was evaluated. Three different treatments evaluated were: I). Aerobic packaging (AP); II) Vacuum packaging (VP) and III). Vacuum packaging along with 1 % pomegranate peel extract (VP + PPE). Results of quality evaluation showed that VP and VP + PPE maintained a more stable colour than AP. In all treatments, a significant (P log 7) in AP than VP meat and nuggets. Thus VP and PPE have a synergistic antioxidant effect and VP extended the refrigerated shelf life of goat meat and nuggets.
Full Text Available Mechanically separated meat (MSM of poultry is a raw material widely used in the meat industry in Poland and most European Union countries. The manner and conditions for the production of this raw material cause, however, that it has limited technological usefulness. In this study the effect of time of obtaining turkey MSM produced by pressure separation on selected quality characteristics of this raw material: basic chemical composition, pH, thermal loss, water binding capacity and colour was determined. The experimental material consisted of MSM, which was collected directly from the machine after 1, 2 and 3 h of operation. The content of water, protein and fat in MSM was determined using a near infrared spectrometer. The instrumental measurement of colour parameters was performed in the CIE L*a*b* (1976 system. Determination of ash content in MSM and pH measurement were performed according to the requirements of Polish standards, and to determine other technological quality characteristics the methods described in the literature were used. It was found that the extension of working time of the pressure separator from 1 to 3 h resulted in a significant increase in the water content in turkey MSM. Furthermore, the MSM sample obtained after 3 h of operation of the device was characterized by a significantly lower thermal loss and higher water binding capacity than a similar material, but obtained after 1 and 2 h of operation of the device. Time of obtaining of turkey MOM had no significant effect on the content of protein, fat and ash, pH value and colour parameters (L*, a*, b* of the raw material.
Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F
A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired
Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P
The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.
Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C
Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).
Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight offish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture offillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white.
Full Text Available Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is a freshwater fish that has been produced in the form of a filet. One of the problems in producing good catfish fillet is compactness and brightness of catfish farmed meat. This research aimed to get feed formulation as enhancer meat quality of striped catfish with added Cinnamon leaves flour (Cinnamomum burmannii and used shrimp head meal. A Fish with a weight of 208.98±25.76 g reared in 12 floating nets cage (2x1x1.5 m3 with density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days. As treatment, fish were fed with feed contains 1% cinnamon leaves, 45% shrimp head meal, and combined of cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal, and as control used feed were formulated without cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal. Fish were fed 2 times a daily with feeding rate 3.5% of average body weight of fish. The test parameters observed were physical, chemical and organoleptic test of catfish meat. The results showed feed with contains cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal could decrease level of body fat 14.7% compared than control (p<0.05. Feed with used cinnamon leaves and shrimp head meal gave a texture of fillet fish more compact, elastic and color of fillet fish white. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, fillet, shrimp head meal, feed formulated, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho
This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (psous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.
Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.
Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M
Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A total of 240 Japanese quail chicks (1 d old were used in a 42-d trial to study the effects of Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E on growth performance and meat quality. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails in each, using a 4×2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Results showed that supplementing the basal diet with Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E significantly affected growth performance at 21 d of age (P. Dietary treatments significantly affected 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and water holding capacity (WHC values of breast meat (P. The value of TBARS in breast meat was not affected by dietary levels of Artichoke leaf powder, whereas the value decreased significantly by vitamin E treatment (P. Quails receiving 1.5 percent Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had significantly lower breast meat WHC than those receiving the basal diet (P. Breast meat crude fat and WHC were affected by gender (P. Dietary 3 percent Artichoke leaf powder increased the b* values of thigh meat compared with the control. The lightness of thigh and breast meat and also redness of thigh meat were affected by gender (P. In general, the results indicated that supplementation of diet by Artichoke leaf powder did not improve growth performance of quails, but may have a potential to improve the oxidative stability and meat quality.
Song, Eun-Yeong; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Lim, Ki-Won; Lee, Chi-Ho
The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity (ABTS(+)), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS(+) values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (psausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS(+), total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry.
Xu, Xiang; Li, Lv-Mu; Li, Bin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Ding, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Fa-Zhi
This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR) of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg) and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups) with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively). Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05). During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.
Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.
Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate the safety and meat quality criteria in broilers following intramuscular injection of boldenone. Twenty-four broiler chicks, divided into two groups, were used in the present study. Boldenone was injected intramuscularly at a single-dose level of 5 mg/kg body weight into 12 broiler chicks at 2 weeks old; the other 12 chicks were injected with sesame oil and kept as controls. Blood samples were collected from the wing and metatarsal veins after 1, 2, and 3 weeks through the experimental course for hematological and clinic-chemical safety parameters. On the last day, chicks were humanely sacrificed and livers and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. Breast muscles were also removed to assess meat-quality parameters. Boldenone significantly (p < 0.05 increased total erythrocytic count and hemoglobin and hematocrit values, while mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration indices decreased. Leukogram showed leukopenia, lymphopenia, and granulocytosis (p < 0.05 as compared to control. Hepatorenal biomarkers, including alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the corresponding control values. Additionally, boldenone significantly (p < 0.05 increased metabolic markers, including total protein, globulins, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose, with parallel decreases in albumin and albumin/globulin ratio. Degenerative changes were recorded in liver and kidney tissues from chicks treated with boldenone. Muscle samples exhibited raised pH values and higher microbial counts as compared to the corresponding control. These data may discourage the use of boldenone as a growth promoter in broilers due to safety and meat quality reasons.
Pietro Pennisi; Daniela Maria Rita Brogna; Renato Pagano; Marco Bella; Massimiliano Lanza; Carla Fabro; Manuel Scerra
The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum) on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas); FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean); SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal)...
Drag, Markus; Kogelman, Lisette; Meinert, Lene
, economic losses associated with castrated pigs and a ban on castration in the EU effective by 2018. The main objective of the PhD project is to unravel the underlying mechanisms of BT at the genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic levels as well as its connection with sensory meat quality (SMQ) in order...... of ~52. Gene expression levels were quantified by HTseq. Genotypic profiling by 60K Porcine SNPchip was performed and selected cuts from fore-end, loin, ham and backfat of the pigs was subjected to SMQ assessments. Combining SNPchip, RNA-seq and SMQ data will reveal causative genes, co...
Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L
Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating
Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J
Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kęska, Paulina; Stadnik, Joanna; Zielińska, Dorota; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta
Meat and meat products are an important component of the daily diet. Nevertheless, they are perishable goods and are prone to microbial contamination, which leads to an increased risk to the health of consumers as well as economic losses in the meat industry. Fermentation has been used for thousands of years to preserve meat. As a result of extensive biochemical reactions occurring in meat during fermentation and ripening, the condi- tions inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are formed. These changes are catalyzed by endogenous meat enzymes and exogenous enzymes derived from natural contaminating bacteria or starter cultures applied. In dry-cured and fermented meat products they are represented mainly by lactic acid bacte- ria (LAB) that produce a wide range of compounds, such as bacteriocins, directed against other microorgan- isms. The use of bactericidal peptides does not affect the sensory quality of foodstuffs, so that they attract attention as alternative means of preserving the stability and safety of dry-cured products.
Huang, J C; Huang, M; Yang, J; Wang, P; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H
This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning systems on the meat quality of broilers. This was done by investigating meat water-holding capacity, meat color, muscle glycogen, and lactate concentrations, as well as blood parameters, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation, and myofibrillar ultrastructures. A total of 160 broilers were divided into 4 treatment groups: a low-voltage stunning (LS) with a constant voltage of 15 V at 750 Hz for 10 s; a midvoltage stunning (MS) with a constant voltage of 50 V at 50 Hz for 10 s; a high-voltage stunning (HS) with a constant voltage of 100 V at 50 Hz for 5 s; and a control group with no stunning (NS). Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed in ice. Breast muscle pH, meat color, glycogen, and lactate contents were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Drip loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, cooked breast meat shear values, low-field NMR, and ultrastructures of myofibrils were determined 24 h postmortem. The NS and MS treatments significantly increased (P plasma corticosterone, initial rate of glycolysis, and drip loss, and significantly reduced (P low-field NMR reflect that NS and MS significantly decreased (P treatments reduce meat water-holding capacity and decrease meat shear force when compared with LS and HS.
Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E
An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Ptotal litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.
With the accelerated pace of urban and rural residents,prepared meat cuisines has gradually become a new bright spot in the meat consumption market.At present,Chinese prepared meat cuisines are mostly cooked by manual or workshop processing and the stability of product quality cannot be guaranteed.The lack of critical processing technology has become a serious constraint to the development of Chinese prepared meat cuisines.The key factors for quality formation and maintenance during the production of prepared meat cuisines are analyzed in this paper.This paper focus on comprehensive bacteria reduction,flavor formulation mechanism,flavor blending,modification and innovation for improved industrial adaptability of traditional technologies,vacuum and gas replacement packaging,bimodal variable temperature sterilization as well as their important roles in quality formation and maintenance of prepared meat cuisines.%随着城乡居民生活节奏的加快,肉类预制菜肴逐渐成为肉类消费市场的新亮点.目前,我国肉类预制菜肴多为手工或作坊式加工,产品质量稳定性无法得到保证,关键加工技术的缺乏已成为制约我国肉类预制菜肴发展的“瓶颈”.本文分析了肉类预制菜肴加工中的品质形成与保持的关键因素,重点讨论了肉类预制菜肴加工中的综合减菌化、调香机制、传统工艺的工业化适应性改造与创新、真空和气体置换包装、双峰变温法热水喷淋杀菌等共性关键技术,阐述了其在肉类预制菜肴加工中品质形成与保持中的重要作用.
Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs
Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D
The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal
Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A
A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ≤ 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ≤ 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ≤ 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ≤ 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ≤ 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ≤ 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were
McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline
Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992
Liu, H W; Cao, Y; Zhou, D W
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of providing shade on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature. A total of 120 healthy male Ujumqin wool sheep (a local breed; BW = 18.7 ± 1.27 kg; 14 wk old) were randomly and equally divided into shaded and unshaded treatments with 3 pens per treatment. Sheep were grazed on an unshaded pastureland from 0600 to 1000 h and 1400 to 1800 h. During other times, sheep were confined in shaded or unshaded pens. Body weight was recorded on d 1 and 42 of the experiment. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. At end of the trial, sheep were blood sampled and slaughtered to collect meat samples. Respiration rate was greater (P sheep than shaded sheep on d 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the trial whereas no significant differences were found on d 7. Moreover, no differences were observed in final BW, ADG, or rectal temperature throughout the trial. The pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) and cooking loss were greater (P sheep. On the contrary, lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 24 h postmortem were lower (P sheep. The sheep in the unshaded group had a greater (P Sheep in the shaded group had lower creatine kinase activity (P sheep in the shaded group had a greater lymphocytes (LYM) count (P meat quality traits and certain stress parameters in grazing sheep reared under high ambient temperature.
Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of ractopamine (RAC on the performance of finishing pigs and the meat quality of these animals. Seventy crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 35 females selected for high gain of lean meat, with initial weight of 77.1±0.32 kg were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm RAC in the diet and seven replications during 28 days. The experimental unit was represented by a male and a female pig. Regarding the performance variables, there was a linear increase in final weight with increasing levels of RAC, as well as in average daily weight gain. An improvement in feed conversion was observed for animals fed RAC, and the optimal level - estimated by the LRP model - was ~ 5 ppm. For feed intake, no significant effect on intake of digestible lysine and energy intake was observed. Carcass yield responses increased linearly with the RAC dose. Ash content, color component b* and loss drip linearly decreased with increasing doses of RAC. There was also a significant difference in the percentage of ether extract and crude protein in the loin, and treatment with 20 ppm RAC showed a lower amount of protein and larger amounts of lipids. Moisture content, color component L*, weight loss by cooking and defrosting, shear force and pH were not affected by the treatment. Concerning the lipid oxidation, there was no effect of RAC on the concentration of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances under cooling and under freezing. Thus, all ractopamine levels improve performance compared with control and do not negatively affect the quality of fresh, chilled or frozen pig meat.
Dinesh D. Jayasena
Full Text Available With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL, KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS, broiler for baeksuk (BL, and broiler for samgyetang (BS were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.
Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C
The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.
Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G
Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.
GAO Shi-zheng; HU Hong-mei; LIU Ling-yun; ZHANG Xi; LIU Yong-gang; GE Chang-rong
To detect the effects of the polyclonal antibodies raised in sheep against porcine adipocyte plasma membranes on the porcine carcass composition and meat quality, 30 pigs assigned into 6 treatment groups were given intraperitoneal injections of sheep antipig adipocyte plasma membrane immunoglobulin (ASIg) or sheep nonimmune serum immunoglobulin (NSIg). At the end of the experiment, the pigs were slaughtered at 90 kg body weight, and carcasses and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed that when pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, 20 mg purified ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, or 20 mg purified ASIg at 60 kg body weight, respectively, their lean meat percentage, fat meat percentage, backfat thickness, loin eye area leaf fat weight, caul fat weight, heart weight, liver weight, and kidney weight were significantly affected. However, the kidney weight, lung weight, dressing percentage,and spleen weight did not remarkably change. Our results indicated that pigs intraperitoneally immunized with 20 or 30 mg ASIg at 15 kg body weight, and 20 mg ASIg twice at 15 and 60 kg body weight, have significantly different drip loss rate,cooked meat ratio, tenderness, storage loss rate, muscle fiber diameter, moisture content, dry matter content, crude protein content, and crude fat content from the control group that received 20 mg NSIg at 15 kg body weight. However, meat pH,meat color value, meat marbling score, inosinate, and myohemoglobin were not significantly affected. Our results indicated ASIg could not significantly affect the content of most muscular amino acids and intramuscular fatty acids.
Petracci, M; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K
The effects of antemortem holding temperatures on live shrink, processing yields, and breast meat quality of broiler chickens were evaluated. A total of 462 broilers was reared to 45 d of age using conventional husbandry practices, removed from feed and water, and cooped 12 h prior to slaughter. During the 12-h feed withdrawal and holding time, the birds were held at 25, 29.5, or 34 C. Birds were individually weighed at cooping, prior to slaughter, and during processing to determine live shrink and processed carcass yields. The breast meat was removed at 2 or 24 h postmortem and was used to determine hot and cold boned meat pH, R-value, sarcomere length, meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), cooked yield, and shear value. The birds held at 34 C showed the significantly greatest live shrink, 5.7%, compared to those held at 29.5 or 25 C with 3.9 and 3.2% shrink, respectively. Birds held at 34 C exhibited significantly lower processed carcass yields based on initial catch weight, but when calculated using postshrink weights, there were no significant differences between treatment groups. For breast meat harvested at 2 h postmortem, the birds held at 25 C had higher R-values, redness, and yellowness values and lower cooked meat yield and shear values. For breast meat harvested at 24 h postmortem, the birds held at 25 C had higher pH, R-values, and redness. These results support earlier reports that holding conditions may dramatically effect live bird shrink and apparent yields (based on calculation denominator) but have relatively little effect on subsequent breast meat quality, regardless of postmortem deboning time.
Full Text Available This on-station study evaluated the effects of whole cotton seed supplementation on the carcass and meat qualities of Djallonke sheep. Twelve sheep of similar age and weight were randomly selected and supplemented with whole cotton seed (WCS for fifteen weeks in a completely randomized design. Three treatment levels of 0 g, 200 g and 400 g were offered with four replicates. Supplementation had no adverse effect on carcass quality but significantly (P<0.001 improved juiciness and overall liking of the meat. The results suggest that whole cotton seed could be used as a supplementary feed with 200 g being enough to ensure the survival and to improve the productivity and meat quality of the Djallonke sheep.
Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota
In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.
Kim, Yuan H Brad; Meyers, Brandon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Liceaga, Andrea M; Lemenager, Ronald P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stepwise dry/wet-aging and freezing method on quality attributes of beef loins. Paired loins (M. Longissimus lumborum) from eight carcasses were assigned to either stepwise dry/wet-aging (carcass dry-aging for 10days then further wet-aging for 7days in vacuum bags) or carcass dry-aging only for 17days. Then, each loin was divided into three sections for freezing (never-frozen, blast or cryogenic freezing). Stepwise dry/wet-aged loin had lower purge/drip loss and shear force than conventionally dry-aged loin (P0.05). The cryogenic freezing resulted in a significant decrease in shear force values and a significant improvement in water-holding capacity (WHC). These findings indicate that the stepwise dry/wet-aging coupled with cryogenic freezing could provide beneficial impacts to the local meat industry by providing equivalent quality attributes as conventional dry-aging and improving WHC of frozen/thawed meat, while reducing the time needed for dry-aging.
De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the segregation of some polymorphisms in three genes (CAPN1, CAST and DGAT1 related to meat quality in the Lidia cattle breed and some of its main lineages. To that effect, 119 individuals from the Lidia breed were analyzed. Although the association between the polymorphisms and the phenotype has never been demonstrated in this breed, the absence of fixed genotypes for these polymorphisms in the studied population makes the Lidia cattle a good candidate to develop selection objectives. The clear differentiation among lineages for most of the genes studied reinforces the high reproductive isolation presented in the Lidia cattle as revealed by previous studies on the structure of the population within the Lidia breed using microsatellite markers. Considering both issues in the design of breeding schemes will be necessary to save the lineages and not to lose this valuable genetic resource. Finally, it would be necessary to carry out an in depth search for new polymorphisms in genes associated with meat quality and to perform needed association analyses between the SNPs segregating in Lidia cattle and traits of economic interest.
Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P
1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.
Lee, Tzu Tai; Ciou, Jhih Ying; Chen, Chung Li; Yu, Bi
Echinacea purpurea L. (EP) is a popular herbal antioxidant and immunomodulator. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EP on meat quality and oxidative status in broilers. Two hundred and fifty (1-day-old) male broilers (Arbor Acres) were randomly allocated to five groups including the control (corn-soybean meal diet) and 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP powder groups, with two replicates per treatment group. The results indicated that the addition of 0.5% and 1.0% EP significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets at 35 days old. For fillet colour, L* (lightness) values were lower, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher with EP supplementation. Lower crude fat contents were observed in EP groups in comparison with control at 35 days of age in breast and thigh fillets, respectively. Production of malondialdehyde was slightly reduced in serum of EP supplemented birds compared to the control group. Results for Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher for the 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% EP supplemental groups than control group in serum. Liver and spleen tissues results showed that the antioxidative enzymes activities were higher with EP powder at 35 days of age. Dried EP can be used as a feed additive to improve the meat quality and oxidative status in Arbor Acres broilers. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Xu, L; Ji, F; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Zhang, L; Qi, G H
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different CO(2) concentrations on blood variables, glycolytic potential (GP), and meat quality of hot-boned muscles in broilers. Thirty broilers were exposed to one of the following 5 gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO(2) + 30% O(2) + N(2) (control), 30% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G30%), 40% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G40%), 50% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G50%), and 60% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G60%). Samples were taken from the pectoralis major (PM), musculus iliofibularis (MI), and tibialis anterior muscles 45 min postmortem. The ultimate pH in both the PM (vs. G30% and G40%) and MI (vs. G40%) was decreased with G60% (P 0.05). In conclusion, stunning broilers with low CO(2) levels (30 and 40%) improved meat quality but had no advantage in animal welfare compared with high CO(2) levels (50 and 60%).
Leygonie, Coleen; Britz, Trevor J; Hoffman, Louwrens C
A pairwise comparison of the meat quality between fresh and frozen/thawed Musculus iliofibularis was conducted. Thirty-two (16 left; 16 right) muscles were collected and allocated to two treatments: fresh and frozen/thawed. Frozen vacuum-packed samples were stored for 1 month at -20°C before thawing. The fresh samples had higher pH (P<0.05), water binding capacity (P<0.05), CIE L* (P<0.0001), CIE a* (P<0.05) and Chroma values (P<0.05) than the frozen/thawed samples, indicating the fresh samples were bright red in appearance and had minimal exudate. The frozen/thawed samples lost 5.09±0.21% moisture during thawing and had a greater drip loss (P<0.0001) and shear force (P<0.001). No differences were obtained with regard to cooking loss, CIE b*, hue and TBARS. Protein oxidation (mM carbonyls/mg protein) was lower (P<0.05) in the frozen/thawed samples, which was attributed to the higher (P<0.0001) protein concentration negating the higher (P<0.001) carbonyl content. Industrial freezing and thawing regimes negatively affected the quality of ostrich meat.
Fiems, L O; Buts, B; Boucqué, C V; Demeyer, D I; Cottyn, B G
Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of cimaterol on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. In two experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), conducted with 16 double-muscled Belgian white-blue bulls and 15 Charolais bulls, respectively, half of the animals received 60 μg cimaterol daily per kg liveweight in the diet, during 135 and 93 days, respectively. In a third experiment, 46 normal Belgian white-blue bulls received no or 4 ppm cimaterol in the diet for 246, 127 or 71 days on average. A withdrawal period of 6 days was always applied for cimaterol-treated animals. Ultimate pH, colour and waterholding capacity were not significantly affected. The effect of cimaterol on moisture content was variable, while protein content was increased and fat was reduced. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were increased by cimaterol P < 0·05 in Experiments 2 and 3 and P = 0·07 in Experiment 1). The lower tenderness cannot be explained by differences in sarcomere length or hydroxyproline content. Myofibrillar protein fragmentation was lower when cimaterol was fed, suggesting that cimaterol may reduce myofibrillar protein degradation via a lower activity of the proteolytic enzymes. Length of cimaterol administration only exerted minor effects on meat quality.
Sañudo, C; Santolaria, M P; María, G; Osorio, M; Sierra, I
The influence of carcass weight (CW) on instrumental and sensory meat quality traits was studied in Rasa Aragonesa lamb carcasses. Forty-six intact male lamb carcasses were divided into three groups: 8.07 (S.D. 0.36) kg (A); 10.22 (S.D. 0.79) kg (B) and 13.42 (S.D. 1.36) kg (C). Results indicate that CW significantly influenced instrumental measurements in all the traits considered, except for waterholding capacity. The weight increase produced higher pH, haem pigment and redness (a (∗)) and lower lightness. Shear values were higher (p ≤ 0.01) in group B. Sensory traits were not influenced by CW with the exception of juiciness. This parameter increased in the order A-B-C, and the subjective colour estimation was darker in groups B and C. The results show that it is possible to produce heavier or lighter lamb carcasses than traditional lamb (Ternasco de Aragón, group B), without significant losses in meat quality. This fact could give flexibility to a system permitting the slaughter weight to be adjusted to variations in seasonal prices.
Karine Regina Alves
Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.
Full Text Available The production of healthy and high-quality meat and meat products in line with consumers’ demand for natural foods has become a major challenge for the meat production industry. Herbal extracts and essential oils have shown potentially significant antimicrobial effects against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms present in meat products; however, they tend to have a limited use due to the intense flavor they add to the products. Nevertheless, advanced technologies can improve the microbial stability and the sensory quality of meat products containing natural extracts and essential oils through different techniques. The present study first reviews the microbial deterioration of meat and meat products and their traditional storage techniques and then discusses the manner and extent of the use of herbal extracts and essential oils in these products.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2 of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which
Orehovački, Tihomir; Al Sokkar, Abdullah A.M.; Derboven, Jan; Khan, Azam
Pace is an inseparable part of all technologies and consequently represents an interaction design element. Various technology aspects can support hedonic qualities brought about from reflection transformed into unlimited unique experiences, mental rest, and inner peace. This paper argues different approaches to technology pace evaluation. Attributes that contribute to the hedonic quality of slow technology are presented and discussed.
Full Text Available The effects of using high fatty acids forages on Maramures Brown fattening steer performance were studied on 30 finishing steers assigned uniformly to 3 groups: control group (no fatty acids-rich feed, E1 (24% full fat soybean in the compound feed and E2 (32% rapeseeds in the compound feed. The diets consisted of Sudan grass as bulk forage (free access and of limited amounts of compound feeds. The use of fatty acids-rich forages did not influence the ingesta of compound feeds and of the complete diet. Weight gain in the experimental groups were higher than in the control group (1393 and 1113 g/steer/day in groups E1 and E2, respectively, compared to 1053 g/steer/day in group C a significant difference being noticed between groups C and E1 (P ≤ 0.05. The meat of steers from the experimental groups had a higher level of crude fat (18 and 24 g in groups E1 and E2, respectively, versus 13 g in group C, while meat protein was lower in group E1 (211 g, intermediary in group C (226 g and higher in group E2 (240 g. Crude fat linoleic acid (C18:2 level increased from 8.33% (group C to 9.46% (group E1, which is beneficial to human health. A higher level of saturated fatty acids was noticed in the meat of animals from group E2, a higher level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was noticed in the meat of animals from group E1, as well as a higher level of medium-chain fatty acids to the detriment of long-chain fatty acids.
Sirri, F; Castellini, C; Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Franchini, A
The characteristics of meat quality, chemical and fatty acid composition, from fast-growing (FG) and medium-growing (MG) meat-type and slow-growing (SG) egg-type chickens reared under organic conditions were compared. Three-hundred and sixty 1-day-old male chicks, equally divided into three experimental groups represented by strains (FG: Cobb 700, MG: Naked neck Kabir and SG: Brown Classic Lohman) were housed into three poultry houses with outdoor pasture availability of 10 m(2)/bird located in the same Research Centre of the University of Perugia. All the birds were fed ad libitum the same diets formulated according to the European Union (EU) Regulations by using organic raw materials. Birds from the FG and MG groups were raised until 81 days, whereas birds from the SG group were raised until 96 days in order to achieve an acceptable market live weight. SG birds showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher breast meat drip and cook losses, Allo-Kramer shear values and collagen content. In comparison with FG and SG, MG exhibited a higher breast meat pH (5.86% v. 5.79% and 5.78%, respectively; P < 0.01) and a lower lightness (54.88% v. 57.81% and 56.98%, respectively; P < 0.05). Genotype dramatically affected the lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of both breast and thigh meat. SG exhibited the lowest content of lipid, both in breast and in thigh meat, the lowest proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total n-3 PUFA of SG breast meat was double that of FG meat and intermediate with respect to MG birds (8.07% v. 4.07% v. 5.14% total fatty acids; P < 0.01). The fatty acid composition of thigh meat is similar to that of breast meat, but the differences among genotypes are less pronounced. Total saturated fatty acids were not affected by the genotype. In conclusion, meat functional properties of FG and MG strains appeared much more attractive both for industry and consumer
Yousefi, Ali Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Nik-khah, Ali; Campbell, Anna W
The aim of this study was to compare the meat quality of a traditional fat-tailed breed, Chall, to a tailed Iranian sheep breed, Zel. Lambs were grazed on pasture until weaning, and then were finished until slaughter at 10-12 months. Meat quality traits were measured on the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. Zel lambs accumulated more intramuscular fat (IMF) (pmeat color of Zel lambs was higher for both a* (pMeat from Zel lambs was more tender (pmeat color.
Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael A.
1. Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers...... was carried out from 21-25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. 2. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat based feed (WBF), maize based feed (MBF), maize based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). 3....... Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. 5. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed CKMS-30. 6. An improved litter quality in terms of dry matter content and a lower frequency...
Full Text Available From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.
Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín
From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.
Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón
Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.
Full Text Available The Istrian Milk sheep is an endangered breed of the Pramenka group raised in the North-Adriatic Karst region. Carcass and meat characteristics of 46 suckling, 6- to 14- week-old intact male light lambs from two feeding systems were analysed. Thirty-two lambs were raised in a flock fed only with forage (hay supplied in stall during winter or fresh herbage directly grazed during the other seasons. The lambs had free access to the forage supplied to their dams (feeding sys- tem: milk and forage; MF. The other fourteen suckling ovine were grown on a farm with a feeding system incorporat- ing a concentrated supply of the forage base. The lambs were stabled and creep fed on a concentrate (20% CP at a daily rate of 100 g/head, in addition to the suckled milk (feeding system: milk and concentrate; MC. The carcasses were divid- ed into three categories of weight, following the Community scale of light lambs classification: A (lesser than or equal to 7 kg, n=17, B (7.1-10 kg, n=15 and C (10.1-13 kg, n=14. The frequency of 1st quality carcasses increased with carcass weight, reaching 100% in category C. On average, 72% of the carcasses were scored as 1st quality, without significant differences between feeding systems. The lightness of lamb meat from A carcasses was higher than that from the heaviest ones. Cooking losses showed a pattern opposite to that of pH (mean 5.44; SE 0.058, increasing where pH decreased (cate- gories A and B and concentrate-fed lambs. Shear force values were significantly affected by factors linked to the feed- ing system; in fact, MC lambs provided more tender meat than MF ones (32.6 vs 46.6 N. As carcass weight increased, moisture concentration decreased steadily (from 77.8% to 75.5%, while lipid content increased progressively (from 1.58% to 3.14%. In agreement with these patterns, the contribution of individual fatty acids (FA to muscle weight gen- erally increased with carcass weight. A similar trend was observed for the
Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T
Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.
Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers are demanding more natural foods, obliging the industry to include natural antioxidants in foods. Natural antioxidants have been used instead of synthetic antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in foods to improve their quality and nutritional value. This review discusses some aspects of recent research on antioxidant activity of plant extracts and natural compounds to improve meat quality. Many herbs, spices, and their extracts have been reported as having high antioxidant capacity, such as some plants of the Lamiaceae family, e.g., oregano (Origanum vulgare L., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., and sage (Salvia officinalis L.. The antioxidant activity of these plants is attributed to their phenolic compound content, which includes volatile compounds also known as essential oils. Several factors that cause some differences on the antioxidant activity of plant extracts include: type of solvent used during extraction, measurement method, and number of samples. Some studies have demonstrated that shelf-life and meat quality can be improved by using natural antioxidants in some stages of meat production. The main effects of these compounds are reducing microbial growth and lipid oxidation during storage. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine antimicrobial activity of natural antioxidants in meat during storage, identify the main metabolic pathway of these compounds, and its effect on other meat quality parameters.Actualmente los consumidores están demandando alimentos más naturales, lo cual ha causado el interés de la industria de incluir antioxidantes naturales en los alimentos para retardar la oxidación de los lípidos, mejorar su calidad y valor nutricional, reemplazando los antioxidantes sintéticos. En esta revisión se discuten algunos aspectos de las investigaciones más recientes acerca de la actividad antioxidante de extractos vegetales y compuestos naturales y su uso para mejorar la calidad de carne
Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.
Anne y Castro Marques; Mário Roberto Maróstica; Gláucia Maria Pastore
The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat proc...
Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon
The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843
姚玉静; 马丽萍; 苏显标
对黄圃腊味进行了概述，包括其定义和发展状况，重点探讨了黄圃腊味的生产工艺，常见质量安全问题和质量监控，最后提出了黄圃腊味的发展对策。%An overview of Huangpu cured meat was introduced, including its definition and development. Its productive technology and common control of quality and safety problems were emphasized and its development was proposed finally.
Y. K. Choo
Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05. Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05, and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05. Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b* of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05, whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05, whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05. In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA on propionic acids and lamb meat chemical quality. The treatment given was R1: feed without medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, while R2 dan R3 were the feed contained 1.0% and 1.5% of MCFA, respectively. The twelve heads of lambs yearling weight of 16-17 kg were used as materials. Biological trial was done for three months and then was slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the animal was taken rumen fluid to be analyzed for propionic acid. The carcass was sampled to be analyzed for chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids content. This study showed that methanogenic inhibitor feed with 1.0-1.5% MCFA could be used as sheep feed, and the results: the propionic acid content in rumen increased 29.59 – 36.11%. The cholesterol content decreased 7.14-10.06%. For the meat fatty acids composition, unsaturated fatty acids increased 9.05 – 17.96%. while saturated fatty acid decreased 6.59 – 11.88%.
Alessandro Dal Bosco
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of 18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.
Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.
Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva
Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality
Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of the introduction of concentrates without GMO risk and at low aflatoxin risk in the diet of grazing milk ewes on the quanti-qualitative production of meat of their milk-fed light lambs, two trials were carried out - in Sicily, on 32 Comisana lambs, slaughtered at 49±4 days (trial 1; and in Sardinia, on 28 Sarda lambs, slaughtered at 31±4 days(trial 2 - comparing the following grazing dams’ feeding regimes: High stocking rate + Organic (barley – tickbean or pea Concentrate (HO; High stocking rate + Conventional (maize-soybean Concentrate (HC; Low stocking rate + Organic Concentrate (LO; Low stocking rate + Conventional Concentrate (LC. Lamb performances, carcass quality, meat colour and lipid content were not modified by dam’s feeding regimen. However, significant differences were observed in the fatty acid (FA composition of the intramuscular fat of the older suckling lambs of trial 1. The main variation concerned n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and conjugated linoleic acids.
George K Symeon
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.
Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( animal welfare audit protocols are important sources of variation in the behavioral response of pigs to preslaughter handling and may affect pork quality variation. However, the different live weight between CON and AWIRS pigs may have biased the meat quality results in this study.
Liotta, L; Chiofalo, V; D'Alessandro, E; Lo Presti, V; Chiofalo, B
In the present study, the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. dietary supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of Nero Siciliano pigs was examined. During the growing-fattening period, 32 Nero Siciliano pigs were allotted into two treatment groups consisting of 8 replicates with 2 pigs per pen. For 90 days, the animals received a basal diet: one group (CTR) was not dietary supplemented, whereas the other group received (1 g/kg) rosemary extract (ROX). Supplementation with rosemary extract significantly improved the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the meat, which showed higher values in the meat of the ROX group compared with the CTR group (P0.05). Color measurement performed in the present study on meat samples from the two dietary treatments showed that redness decreased (P=0.046) and hue values increased (P=0.036), indicating that a deterioration of the initial color occurred and that the rosemary extract was ineffective in preventing color deterioration. Nevertheless, the lightness, yellowness and chroma color descriptors showed similar values in relation to dietary treatment (P>0.05). Considering the nutritional value of meat as an important contributor to the overall quality, the results obtained in this study support the possibility of the dietary supplementation with R. officinalis L. extract in pigs as a functional additive in livestock feeding.
Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Main meat freezing theories,including transition theory,glass transformation theory and ice crystallization theory,were introduced.Some novel freezing technologies such as high pressure freezing,ultrasonic freezing,ice nucleus bacteria freezing protein,cell alive system freezing and decompression freezing were also generally reviewed.
Pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Listeria can potentially contaminate ready-to-eat meats. These bacteria compromise the safety of our food supply. The objective of this research was to develop and test new low temperature pasteurization technology for packaged or thermally sensitive food...
Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T
The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair
The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...
Huangfu, Y F; Zan, L S; Adoligbe, C; Wang, H B; Wang, H; Gao, J B
Here, we detected 2 SNPs, A85C and T335C, that were located on the 3rd exon and the 3 untranslated regions of the bovine Osteocrin gene, respectively, using 413 Qinchuan cattle DNA samples. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were specifically used. Three genotypes (AA, AC, and CC) were found at A85C; yet, only 2 genotypes (TC and CC) were found at T335C. Association analysis showed that both loci were associated with certain meat quality traits, including back fat thickness and loin muscle area. At the A85C locus, individuals with the CC genotype had greater back fat thickness. In comparison, at the T335C locus, individuals with the TC genotype had greater back fat thickness and a larger loin muscle area. Therefore, these 2 SNPs could be used as genetic markers to enhance Qinchuan cattle breeding programs.
Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M
The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.
Full Text Available The nutritional quality of M. Longissimus dorsi in the autochthonous Krškopolje pig breed and commercial fatteners from intensive Slovenian farms was compared. Commercial fatteners were divided into two groups according to lean meat percentage: MEATY and FATTY groups. The Krškopolje pigs (KK group and the FATTY group had higher intramuscular fat content than the MEATY group. The lowest saturated fatty acids (SFA proportion was found in the KK group and the highest in the FATTY group. The KK and FATTY groups contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as well as lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to the MEATY group. The highest n-6 PUFA proportion was found in the MEATY group. The n-3 PUFA proportion differed between the MEATY and FATTY groups. The FATTY group had the lowest ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids as well as the highest atherogenic index.
Full Text Available Research is being carried out to diversify the sources of n-3 fatty acid-rich lipids for animal feed. In this study, 3 batches of 12 pigs with between 50 and 105 kg of live weight, received isolipidic diets containing either palm oil (PO, or rapeseed oil (CO, or hemp oil (HO (providing respectively 0.6; 1.9 and 3.4 g of C18:3 n-3 (ALA /kg of feed. The quantity of ALA deposited in the meat is higher (p< 0.001 in the HO pigs. Hemp oil may be an interesting source of ALA to improve the nutritional quality of pork.
Dario G. Pighin; Sebastian A. Cunzolo; Maria Zimerman; Adriana A. Pazos; Ernesto Domingo; Anibal J. Pordomingo; Gabriela Grigioni
Increased levels of stress hormones in the muscle could lead to post mortem metabolic/structural modiifcations that could be relfected on meat quality. The present study investigated the metabolic effect of either adrenaline or cortisol injected into lambs in order to obtain an animal model of acute stress. Results showed that adrenaline or cortisol injection lead to glucose metabolism and muscle temperature increase. Muscle pH immediately post mortem was affected by adrenaline treatment. Water holding capacity (WHC) of fresh muscle, ifnal muscle pH and temperature registered at 24 h post mortem were not affected by injected hormones. Hardness and adhesiveness of LD muscle evaluated 3 d post mortem tended to increase as a result of adrenaline or cortisol injection. Results demonstrated that injected hormones were able to affect the post mortem muscle biochemistry and the pH/T curve independently of ifnal muscle pH.
Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.
Qiang, Pu; Jia, Luo; Linyuan, Shen; Xuewei, Li; Shunhua, Zhang; Li, Zhu
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in life science. The most widely studied protein modifications in biological science include protein phosphorylation, acylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, oxidation, methylation and so on. This review outlines current achievements in the study of protein modifications in muscle food using proteomic approaches. First we describe the general knowledge of protein modifications and then the development of proteomic approaches for the characterization of such modifications. Second, we describe the effects of protein modifications on muscle foods and devote our main attention to the application of proteomic approaches for the analysis of these modifications. We conclude that proteomics analysis is powerful for the study of protein modifications and analysis of meat quality characteristics in the process of food production.
Juan Manuel Vargas-Romero
Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of a mineral supplementation on meat quality of pigs for slaughter; for these two groups of finishing pigs they were used; a control group that did not receive mineral supplement and other that consumed a mineral supplement three days before slaughter. In the slaughterhouse, were collected samples of Longissimus dorsi, which were vacuum packed, frozen and sent to the laboratory for evaluation later; in these samples shear force, color and pH was determined. After statistical analysis found that the performance variables, shear force and pH were not different (p>0.1; Only the color was significantly different (p<0.1, so it is concluded that it is possible to improve the presentation of pork by administering mineral salts anti-stress animals three days before slaughter, without the carcass yield and pH are affected.
Lebret, B.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Foury, A.; Mormède, P.; Dransfield, E.; Dourmad, J.Y.
A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg
Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.
Behavioral and neural responses of 47 broilers to head-only single-bird electrical stunning were evaluated using cone-shaped restrainers in which the broilers were suspended by their feet. Meat quality assessment was performed on 2 groups of 25 broilers stunned using the head-only method or a conven
Li, Y K; Huangpu, Y F; Gao, J B; Yang, N; Fu, C Z; Wang, H B; Cheng, G; Zan, L S
Body measurement and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of productivity in cattle; they are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that LYRM1 is a novel gene related to obesity and may influence fat deposition. We screened for new polymorphisms in the bovine LYRM1 gene and analyzed their association with body measurement and meat quality traits in cattle. DNA samples were obtained from 572 Qinchuan cattle aged from 18 to 24 months. DNA sequencing was used to find the LYRM1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sequence analysis of LYRM1 revealed four novel SNPs in exon 3: G50A in coding region, C126A, A127T, and T128A in a 3'-untranslated region. G50A, A127T and T128A showed two genotypes: AG and GG, AA and AT, AT and TT, respectively; while C126A showed three genotypes: AA, AC and CC. Analysis showed that these four polymorphisms were significantly associated with body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. We suggest that the LYRM1 gene can be used for marker-assisted selection to improve body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population.
Savenije, B; Larnbooij, E; Gerritzen, MA; Venema, K; Korf, J
In practice, poultry have their feed withdrawn several hours before being collected and put on transport to the slaughter plant. With the exhaustion of their internal energy stores, the chickens may lack energy to cope with the conditions to which they are subjected. Meat quality is affected by the
Savenije, B.; Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Venema, K.; Korf, J.
In practice, poultry have their feed with drawn several hours before being collected and put on transport to the slaughter plant. With the exhaustion of their internal energy stores, the chickens may lack energy to cope with the conditions to which they are subjected. Meat quality is affected by the
Costa, A.I.A.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Cone, J.W.
The veterinary antibiotic tylosin was administered to broilers at sub-therapeutic and therapeutic levels to study its effect on the quality of poultry breast meat. No statistically significant differences were observed in moisture content, pH, drip loss, colour and extent of lipid oxidation between
Sonesson, A.K.; Greef, de K.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.
Meat quality, carcass composition and performance traits were measured in two selection lines selected for either low backfat thickness (BF) at a fixed live weight or high live weight (WEIGHT) at a fixed age. The performance traits were measured on 3966 to 3985, carcass composition trait on 278 and
San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T
The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture.
Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.
Ravn, L.S.; Andersen, N.K.; Rasmussen, M.A.
This study aims to explore the potential of evoked non-invasive surface electromyography (SEMG) analysis, in predicting meat quality traits in livestock. Evoked SEMG is a system that records, transdermally, electrical signals generated in muscle fibres upon external stimulation. These signals are...
Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...
Savenije, B; Larnbooij, E; Gerritzen, MA; Venema, K; Korf, J
In practice, poultry have their feed withdrawn several hours before being collected and put on transport to the slaughter plant. With the exhaustion of their internal energy stores, the chickens may lack energy to cope with the conditions to which they are subjected. Meat quality is affected by the
Costa, A.I.A.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Cone, J.W.
The veterinary antibiotic tylosin was administered to broilers at sub-therapeutic and therapeutic levels to study its effect on the quality of poultry breast meat. No statistically significant differences were observed in moisture content, pH, drip loss, colour and extent of lipid oxidation between
M Gagaoua; R I Richardson; B Picard; E M C Terlouw; D Micol; J-F Hocquette; A P Moloney; K Nuernberg; D Bauchart; A Boudjellal; N D Scollan
The present study compared eight breeds of cattle differing in gender (heifers, buls and steers) to determine associations between muscle characteristics and meat sensory qualities of theLongissimus thoracis muscle. Animal types differed in al the muscle characteristics and sensory qualities. Many correlations among muscle characteristics and among sensory qualities were consistent for most animal types. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activities alowed discrimination of muscles with respect to myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-I proportions for al animal types. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phos-phofructokinase (PFK) activities were positively correlated for most animal types. Overal liking was correlated with beef lfavour and abnormal lfavour in al animal types and with global tenderness for al animal types except for Charolais cross breed steers. For al animal types except for Angus×Friesian heifers, beef lfavour and abnormal lfavour were negatively correlated. Overal liking was not correlated with juiciness. PFK, ICDH and citrate synthase (CS) activities were strongly associated with tenderness, beef lfavour and overal liking when average values for al animal types were used. However, associations between muscle characteristics and sensory qualities within animal types were weak and inconsistent.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The processing ability of poultry meat is highly related to its ultimate pH, the latter being mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. The genetic determinism of glycogen and related meat quality traits has been established in the chicken but the molecular mechanisms involved in variations in these traits remain to be fully described. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays (20 K were used to compare muscle gene expression profiles of chickens from Fat (F and Lean (L lines that exhibited high and low muscle glycogen content, respectively, and of individuals exhibiting extremely high (G+ or low (G- muscle glycogen content originating from the F2 cross between the Fat and Lean lines. Real-time RT-PCR was subsequently performed to validate the differential expression of genes either selected from the microarray analysis or whose function in regulating glycogen metabolism was well known. Results Among the genes found to be expressed in chicken P. major muscle, 197 and 254 transcripts appeared to be differentially expressed on microarrays for the F vs. L and the G+ vs. G- comparisons, respectively. Some involved particularly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were selected for further validation studies by real-time RT-PCR. We confirmed that, as in mammals, the down-regulation of CEBPB and RGS2 coincides with a decrease in peripheral adiposity in the chicken, but these genes are also suggested to affect muscle glycogen turnover through their role in the cAMP-dependent signalling pathway. Several other genes were suggested to have roles in the regulation of glycogen storage in chicken muscle. PDK4 may act as a glycogen sensor in muscle, UGDH may compete for glycogen synthesis by using UDP-glucose for glucoronidation, and PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PHKD may impact on glycogen turnover in muscle, through AMP-activated signalling pathways. Conclusions This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular
Full Text Available The correlations between mineral contents in musculus longissimus dorsi and meat quality for five breeds of pigs were studied in this experiment. Two imported breeds (Duroc and Yorkshires and three local breeds (Huainan pig, Nanyang black pig, Queshan black pig from Henan province of China were chosen in this trial. Ten 90 kg finishing pigs were selected randomly to slaughter from each breed. Mineral contents of K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in musculus longissimus dorsi were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and their correlations with meat quality were also analyzed. The results showed : (1 Mn and protein contents had no significant difference among all the breeds (p>0.05, (2 K content in Duroc was higher than that in the other four breeds significantly (p<0.01, (3 Mineral contents of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in local breeds were higher than that in the imported breeds significantly (p<0.01, (4 Marble stripes and meat colour in local breeds were superior to the imported ones, (5 Intramuscular fat content of local breeds was higher than that of the imported ones (p<0.01, (6 There was a significant positive correlation between Zn and the other mineral contents in the muscle (p<0.01 or p<0.05, (7 Both Cu and Fe contents had a significant positive correlation with meat color (p<0.05, but negative correlation with drip loss (p<0.05, (8 There was a positive correlation between Zn and intramuscular fat content (p<0.01, but negative correlation between Zn and drip loss (p<0.01. In conclusion, Minerals in muscle had significant correlations with meat quality elements, but no significant correlations with meat protein and fat contents.
Hernández Treviño Israel
Full Text Available ResumoObjetivou-se com este trabalho enfatizar como os fatores pré-abateinfluenciam na qualidade da carne. Surgindo a preocupação com ascondições em que os animais são transportados e o manejo que recebematé o momento do abate, ocasionando prejuízos a toda a cadeiaprodutiva e a necessidade de obtenção de produtos seguros que nãoponha em risco a saúde humana, além de que sejam apreciados por suascaracterísticas organolépticas. Um bom manejo durante o processo detransporte, descanso na sala pré-abate e um adequado atordoamentoreflete na qualidade da carne. Com certeza reduzindo os prejuízosocasionados pelo manejo inadequado, por meio de práticas de bem-estaranimal podem-se melhorar os produtos ofertados ao consumidor.SummaryThe aim of this paper is to emphasize how the pre-slaughter factorsinfluencing the quality of meat products. Giving rise to the concern withthe conditions under which animals are transported and managementreceived until the time of sacrifice, causing damage to the entireproduction chain, resulting the need to obtain products that do notthreaten human health. In addition to being appreciated for theirorganoleptic characteristics, a good handling during the transportprocess, rest before slaughter and an appropriate method ofdesensitization influences the quality of the meat. It is certain thatreducing the damage caused by improper handling and through practiceof good animal welfares can improve the products offered to consumers.
Kim, H W; Yan, F F; Hu, J Y; Cheng, H W; Kim, Y H B
This study evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality of chicken breast during retail display. A total of 35 birds were randomly obtained from 3 feeding groups (control without probiotic supplement, 250 ppm Sporulin, and 500 ppm PoultryStar). The probiotic supplement had no influence on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain, as well as body weight at 29 and 44 d (P > 0.05). After slaughter, each side of the breast muscles (M. Pectoralis major) was assigned to either one d or 5 d of postmortem storage. Probiotic supplement had no influence on the rate of pH decline of chicken breast muscles during the initial 6 h postmortem (P > 0.05). No interactions between probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality were found (P > 0.05). Postmortem storage decreased drip loss from 25.30 to 18.05% (P Probiotics-fed chicken groups, particularly PoultryStar treatment, had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index than the control group (P probiotic treatments. Decreases in color and lipid stabilities of breast muscles were found during display (P probiotic supplement (P > 0.05). Our result suggests that probiotic supplement had no adverse impacts on proteolysis and oxidative changes during 5 d postmortem display storage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W
Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.
Fatma H. Ali
Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the effect of some growth enhancers as dietary onion & garlic (Allium sativum and vitamin E supplementation with water on the meat quality parameters of broiler chicken. A total of 150 chicks were divided into 3 groups, 50 birds per treatment. The first group was fed control diet, the second group fed control diet supplemented with onion 2% and garlic 2% and the third group fed on control diet with vitamin E mixed with water. Birds were slaughtered at the end of the trial to evaluate pH , moisture content, cooking loss, shear force, instrumental color and fatty acids composition of refrigerated (5±1ºC for 6 days and frozen (3 and 6 months samples. There was a significant decrease in the mean pH, shear force, a*- and b*- values and cooking loss in samples from chicken dietary supplemented with onion & garlic, and also in chicken (supplemented with vitamin E mixed with water compared with the control. The mean moisture contents of chicken samples were not significantly influenced by the used growth enhancers. There was a numeric decrease in total saturated fatty acids (TSF % and an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS % in chicken samples (supplemented with vitamin E mixed with water than control and which supplemented with onion & garlic. Palmitic was the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. It could be concluded that the supplementation of onion & garlic and vitamin E improved chicken meat quality during refrigerated and frozen storage.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun
The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no su...
JIANG Shou-qun; JIANG Zong-yong; ZHOU Gui-lian; LIN Ying-cai; ZHENG Chun-tian
To investigate the effects of a synthetic isoflavone (SI) on meat qualityand oxidative stability, 1500 43-d-old Lingnan yellow male broilers were randomly assigned to ifve dietary treatments: diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg SI kg-1, fedad libitum for a period of 3 wk. After refrigerated storage, a* value of the meat increased with dietary SI supplementation using 10 and 40 mg kg-1 level (P<0.05), L* value decreased (P<0.05), and 40 mg kg-1 increased the pH (P<0.05). Supplementation with SI, at all levels, increased water holding capacity (P<0.05) and decreased lactic acid content of meat (P<0.05). The concentration of malondialdehyde at 72 h decreased linearly (P=0.005) and quadratically (P=0.004) with increasing levels of SI. Dietary SI at 20 and 40 mg kg-1levels enhanced total superoxide dismutase activity in meat (P<0.05). Meat pH quadratically decreased as the storage time increased (P<0.05), with the highest value at 24 h (P<0.05). Lactic acid and malondialdehyde concentrations of meat increased over time, with value at 96 h being far higher than at earlier times (P<0.05). Supplemental SI linearly and quadratically increased the mRNA abundance ofglutathione peroxidase (GPX) (P=0.001 and P=0.002) andcatalase(CAT) (P=0.003 and P=0.006) in breast muscle. The results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with SI can improve meat quality during refrigerated storage by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing oxidative stability and, for male broilers from 43 to 63 d of age, the optimal level of SI was 40 mg kg-1.
Fu, C Z; Tian, W Q; Li, Y K; Wei, S J; Cheng, G; Wang, H B; Zan, L S
Body measurement and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of productivity and economy in cattle, which are influenced by genes and environmental factors. PRKAG2, which encodes the γ2 regulatory subunit of AMPK, is associated with key metabolic pathways in muscle. We detected bovine PRKAG2 gene polymorphisms and analyzed their associations with body measurement and meat quality traits of cattle. DNA samples were taken from 578 Qinchuan cattle aged 18-24 months. DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to detect PRKAG2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sequence analysis revealed three SNPs in exon 3 (g.95925G>A, g.95973G>C, and g.95992A>G) and one g.96058T>C mutation in intron 3. g.95973G>C, g.95992A>G, and g.96058T>C each showed 3 genotypes: GG, GC, and CC; AA, AG, and GG; and TT, TC, and CC, respectively. In contrast, g.95925G>A only showed 2 genotypes, GG and GA. Analysis showed that g.95925G>A had no effects on body measurement and meat quality traits, whereas the other 3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with some of the body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. It is inferred that the PRKAG2 gene can be used for marker-assisted selection to improve the body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population.
Polidori, Paolo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Vincenzetti, Silvia
The effects of slaughter age (8 vs 12 months) were investigated on meat and carcass quality obtained from Martina Franca donkey foals. Sixteen male foals were used, eight were slaughtered at 8 months of age with a mean (±s.e.) final body weight of 101±18kg and the remaining 8 foals slaughtered at 12 months of age with a mean final body weight of 122±13kg. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher (Pdonkeys slaughtered at 8 months of age (54.03N) compared to the same muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) collected in older animals (62.66N). Muscle glycogen content was higher (PDonkey foal meat showed an interesting content of essential amino acids and a notable percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both groups of animals, giving a high nutritional value to this alternative red meat.
Full Text Available Carcass and meat quality traits were studied in 36 Celta pigs (a breed native from NW of Spain reared for 16 months in an extensive regime and slaughtered at a live weight of around 170 kg. The effect of partially or totally replacing commercial compound feed with chestnuts in the finishing diet was also investigated. Celta heavy pigs were characterised by high killing out, subcutaneous fat thickness, and ham length values, and by low ham perimeter, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area values. Meat showed high myoglobin contents and a* values, and very high hardness. By increasing the proportion of chestnuts in the finishing diet the quantity of back fat increased and the pH of the meat decreased. However, neither these effects, nor any of those on the other traits studied were statistically significant. The absence of significant effects may be due to the fact that pigs fed with chestnuts were not subjected to feed restrictions.
Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Melucci, Lilia M; Villarreal, Edgardo L; Mezzadra, Carlos A; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Motter, Mariana M; Schor, Alejandro; Miquel, María C
Brangus steers (n=247) finished on pasture were used to evaluate the effects of post-mortem ageing and polymorphism CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 markers on meat tenderness and objective colour measurements (CIEL*a*b*) of m. Longissimus dorsi. Ageing meat for 7 days decreased shear force (SF) by 13.7% and improved a* (8.4%) and b* (10%) compared to ageing for 1 day. No difference between 7 and 14 days of ageing was found for SF, a* and b*. However, L* increased markedly with ageing. Fitting both markers simultaneously, CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L* and CAPN1 4751 with a* and b*. Fitting the markers individually, CAPN1 4751 affected all traits and CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L*. Post-mortem ageing and the use of markers represent two independent and alternative tools that could be used for improving quality of meat from Brangus cattle.
Fruet, Ana Paula Burin; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Rosado Júnior, Adriano Garcia; Souza, Alexandre Nunes Motta de; Tonetto, Cléber José; Nörnberg, José Laerte
In order to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of culled ewes finished in pasture or exclusivelywith grain, 41 culled Polwarth ewes, were assigned to six treatments: RY (ryegrass pasture), RYGO (ryegrass and whole grain oats), RYGM (ryegrass and whole grain maize), GM (whole grain maize), GO (whole grain oats), GS (whole grain sorghum). The finishing systemof the ewes influenced weight gain,wherein the GM and GS treatments increased daily weight gain. The GO treatment decreased the dressing percentage. Nonetheless, a*, h*, pH, cooking loss and tenderness were similar across dietary treatments. Using principal component analysis, the variables C18:2n6, h*, n6/n3, TBARS, total lipids, L* and b* were assigned as characteristics of meat from the feedlot animals, while the pasture finishing system produced meat with higher CLA and n-3 fatty acids but lower TBARS values indicating lipid stability.
Salmi, B; Trefan, L; Bloom-Hansen, J; Bidanel, J P; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Larzul, C
Technological meat quality is a significant economic factor in pork production, and numerous publications have shown that it is strongly influenced both by genetic status and by rearing and slaughter conditions. The quality of meat is often described by meat pH at different times postmortem, as well as by color and drip loss, whereas carcass quality is often characterized by lean percentage. A meta-analysis of findings relating to 3,530 pigs reported in 23 publications was carried out to assess the effects of the halothane gene, sex, breed, and slaughter weight of animals on 7 selected variables: pH at 45 min postmortem, ultimate pH, reflectance (L*-value), redness (a*-value), yellowness (b*-value), drip loss, and lean percentage. Two statistical methods were used in the meta-analysis: the method of effect size and the better known random effects model. The method of effect size was associated with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques for implementing Bayesian hierarchical models to avoid the problems of limited data and publication bias. The results of our meta-analysis showed that the halothane genotype had a significant effect on all analyzed pork quality variables. Between-study variance was evaluated with the Cochran (1954) Q-test of heterogeneity. Meta-regression was used to explain this variance, with covariates such as breed, sex, slaughter weight, and fasting duration being integrated into different regression models. The halothane gene effect was associated with the breed effect only for the following variables: L*-value, b*-value, and drip loss. Slaughter weight contributed significantly only to the explanation of differences in ultimate pH between homozygous genotypes. In response to inconsistencies reported in the literature regarding the difference between the genotypes NN and Nn, results of the meta-analysis showed that the difference between these 2 genotypes was significant for all the analyzed variables except the a*-value.
Nieto, G; Bañón, S; Garrido, M D
The effect of including thyme by-products from the distillation industry into the diet of pregnant ewes on the final quality of lamb meat was evaluated during meat storage in modified atmosphere. A total of 36 Segureña ewes were randomly assigned to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet (BD) as control (C), whereas the diet of the other two groups was modified by substituting 10% (T 1) and 20% (T 2) of the BD with pellets made from 50% barley and 50% distilled thyme leaves (DTL). Meat spoilage (total viable, psychrotroph (PSY), moulds and yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), colour (CIELab coordinates, metmyoglobin) and sensory characteristics of fresh lamb meat packed in modified atmosphere packaging (70% O2 : 30% CO2) were analysed after storage at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, the DTL-containing diet inhibited lipid and pigment oxidation in fresh lamb meat. Lower PSY counts and content of secondary oxidation product (TBARS) as a result of adding DTL to the ewe diet, whereas surface redness (a* values) was significantly higher on days 7 and 14. It can be concluded that thyme by-products from the distillation industry could be used as a source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial in the feed for ewes.
ZHANG Zeng-rong; ZHU Qing; LIU Yi-ping
The selection of meat quality has received considerable focus in chicken breeding. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of CAPN1 gene on meat quality traits in chicken populations. Primer pairs for 3'UTR in CAPN1 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. A mutation at position 9 950 nt (G/A, locus A) was found among individuals in each population. The allele and genotype frequencies significantly differed among eight lines with higher frequencies of allele A2 and genotype A1A2 (P＜0.01). The least square analysis showed that there was significant difference (P＜0.05) in muscle fiber density and some carcass traits among genotypes and that the breast muscle fiber density (BFD) of birds of A1A1 genotype was significantly higher (P＜0.05) than that of birds of A2A2 genotype. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene was the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or was linked with the major gene. These results were useful for studying the molecular mechanism that influences meat traits and were used as the base of molecular-assisted selection to meat quality traits. So, this site may be a potential marker affecting the muscle traits of chickens.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flourin the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 daysof maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1%cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamoncapable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared tocontrols (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality ofmeat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.Keywords: cinnamon leaf, meat quality, Pangsianodon hypopthalmus
Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A
Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0.001) and the numerically heaviest groups were CA×RX and RX×NZW (1970g, P<0.001) with to some extent better amino acids profile. In conclusion, RX growth performance was improved by crossing CA sire with RX dam and RX sire with NZW dam and to have dual purpose breed with better growth performance without hazard on carcass and meat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
www.elsevier.com/locate/meatsci Marinated meat products are consumed increasingly because they are convenient in meal preparing. In addition to sensory effects, marinating has been considered to increase product safety and shelf life quality. There are variations in meat marinating technologies around the world. In Finland, marinades are complex sauces which have a great effect on product appearance and taste. They are water-oil emulsions typically containing salt, sugar and acids (acetic,...
Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.
Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Renand, Gilles; Ballester, Maria; Saintilan, Romain; Rocha, Dominique
Studies to identify markers associated with beef tenderness have focused on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) but the interplay between the genes associated with WBSF has not been explored. We used the association weight matrix (AWM), a systems biology approach, to identify a set of interacting genes that are co-associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, and shared across the Charolaise, Limousine and Blonde d'Aquitaine beef cattle breeds. Genome-wide association studies were performed using ~500K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17 phenotypes measured on more than 1000 animals for each breed. First, this multi-trait approach was applied separately for each breed across 17 phenotypes and second, between- and across-breed comparisons at the AWM and functional levels were performed. Genetic heterogeneity was observed, and most of the variants that were associated with WBSF segregated within rather than across breeds. We identified 206 common candidate genes associated with WBSF across the three breeds. SNPs in these common genes explained between 28 and 30 % of the phenotypic variance for WBSF. A reduced number of common SNPs mapping to the 206 common genes were identified, suggesting that different mutations may target the same genes in a breed-specific manner. Therefore, it is likely that, depending on allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium patterns, a SNP that is identified for one breed may not be informative for another unrelated breed. Well-known candidate genes affecting beef tenderness were identified. In addition, some of the 206 common genes are located within previously reported quantitative trait loci for WBSF in several cattle breeds. Moreover, the multi-breed co-association analysis detected new candidate genes, regulators and metabolic pathways that are likely involved in the determination of meat tenderness and other meat quality traits in beef cattle. Our results suggest that systems biology approaches that explore
O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.
Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).
Anna M. Salejda
Full Text Available The objective of this study was the commodity and sensory evaluation of meat products from organic production and comparison with those from conventional production. The work also shows survey results relating to the consumption of organic meat products. Research material were processed meats (frankfurter and white sausages from organic and conventional production offered in retail sales by two manufacturers. Organic products under investigation contain less salt, which significantly influenced the results of the sensory evaluation – have been assessed lower than conventional products. The results of the survey have shown that respondents prefer buying organic meat products – smoked meats and sausages type, which they mostly buy in supermarkets. Respondents know the tenets of organic production and are able to pay more for eco-friendly meat products.
Huang, Xin B.; Hou, Di B.; Huang, Ping J.; Ma, Ye H.; Li, Xian; Zhang, Guang X.
Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has fingerprint features for many bio-molecules with frequency between infrared and microwave covering the vibrational models of a great number of materials. In this study, THz-TDS was used to detect the preserved and bad meat. And the absorption coefficient indices of bad meat and preserved meat were measured in the range of 0.2-1.0 THz. The result shows that there are differences of pork tissue in both time domain and absorption coefficient in the process of deterioration. Then differences between preserved and bad meat were also presented. In order to investigate the relationship between the terahertz characteristics and meat quality, the changes of water content and material in the samples were also discussed. This work supplies reference for the application of THz technology in meat quality detection.
Oksbjerg, N; Nissen, P M; Therkildsen, M; Møller, H S; Larsen, L B; Andersen, M; Young, J F
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurs naturally in pigs and leads to low birth weight of piglets due to undernutrition caused by placental insufficiency. For 2 main reasons, low birth weight causes economic loss. First, low birth weight pigs have a greater mortality and increasing the litter size causes more low birth weight piglets within litters. Second, surviving low birth weight piglets have reduced performance (i.e., ADG, feed conversion rate, and percentage meat). To develop dietary strategies for preventing IUGR, knowledge of the biological basis of IUGR is required. Muscle fiber number, formed during myogenesis, is correlated positively with performance traits and has been shown in several studies to be reduced in low birth weight pigs. Postnatal muscle hypertrophy is due to satellite cell number per fiber at birth and their rate of proliferation as well as protein deposition (i.e., protein synthesis and degradation). Previous studies and some recent ones indicate that low birth weight littermates in mice are born with fewer satellite cells and studies on pigs show that the rate of satellite cell proliferation may vary within litters. Proteomics studies show that protein synthesis and degradation is downregulated in IUGR pigs and low birth weight pigs also produce meat with less tenderness. Alternative maternal feeding strategies to prevent IUGR have been examined. Increasing maternal global nutrition had no beneficial effect on performance and muscle growth traits in several studies. Feeding excess maternal dietary protein also did not influence muscle growth traits whereas moderately decreased maternal dietary protein may decrease muscle fiber number and performance. On the other hand, addition of L-carnitine to the maternal gestation or lactation diet may increase birth and weaning weights or the muscle fiber number, respectively, in low birth weight pig offspring. Finally, promising data have been obtained on reproductive traits in pigs after
N. F. Neburchilova
Full Text Available Price setting is as complex process, which requires taking into considerationmany factors. In different periods, the systems of price setting existed in the meat sector of the agro-industrial complex, which took into account only the external factors: competition, value of goods and production costs. The system of price formation thatwas in existence in Russia up to now was based only on the costbased principle. Transition to formation of the free market prices practically has not led to changes in the methodological approaches in price setting and has not influenced their structure. The current price formation system in the meat sector of the agro-industrialcomplex does not correspond to the contemporary requirements of the economic science. Thus, it is an obstacle on the way of introduction of the objective economic laws in conditions of the market relations. It is possible to achieve production efficiency with such use of the existing resources when the differentiated production costs are proportional to the utility of these resources. The utility of products is determined by a complex of properties that reflect their value in use. The main qualitative parameters are consumer properties of products. The main internal factor influencing the priceparameters is the qualitative composition of raw material. In order to create parity in price setting for different groups of products, the unified method of price equivalence with regard to the qualitative parameters of the raw material constituent was developed. Quality characteristics of meat products are composed of the product structure, morphology and chemical composition, and, finally, coefficients of consumer properties calculated with consideration for all above-mentioned factors.
Full Text Available To compare growth, skeletal development, carcass traits and meat quality of different genotypes, 10 Casertana (CT, 10 Italian Large White (LW and 10 Duroc x (Landrace x Italian Large White (DU crosses, barrows of 90-day-old, were allotted to the same outdoor rearing and feeding conditions. Live weight was recorded and average daily gain (ADG was calculated. At slaughter (330-day-old dressing and lean percentages were determined; backfat thickness and loin eye depth were measured. Carcasses were dissected into commercial cuts. Water holding capacity, pH and colour (45 min and 24 h post-mortem were measured. Longissimus lumborum muscle samples were collected for cholesterol, α-tochopherol and intramuscular collagen (IMC analyses. CT compared to DU and LW had the lowest growth rate and skeletal development. CT showed higher backfat thickness, lower lean cut/fatty cut ratio and less lean meat (P<0.05. Loin eye depth differed among genotypes with LW > DU > CT (P<0.05. CT showed higher red colour of the meat than DU and LW (P<0.05. CT compared to LW had the highest hydroxylysylpiridinoline (HLP crosslink concentration and HLP/IMC ratio, and a lower IMC amount (P<0.05. CT pigs produced meat that could be tougher than that from the improved breed, but more acceptable from the technological point of view. At eleven months of age bone weight, length and diameter were clearly genetic type-related; differently, the bone maturity was similar among the genotypes studied.
主要介绍了天然肉制品的定义，通过举例介绍了天然肉制品的加工工艺，最后，还讨论了其在不添加人工添加剂的条件下可能会产生的一些质量安全问题，为以后的肉制品的加工研究提供理论基础。%he definition of natural and organic meat products was introduced in this paper. The technology processing of natural and organic meat products was introduced by some examples. At last, the quality and safety issues under no man - made additives were discussed, which could provide theoretical basis for the following meat production.
Larisa Alexejevna Ismagilova
Full Text Available We consider the topical issue of implementation of innovative technologies in the aircraft engine building industry. In this industry, products with high reliability requirements are developed and mass-produced. These products combine the latest achievements of science and technology. To make a decision on implementation of innovative technologies, a comprehensive assessment is carried out. It affects the efficiency of the innovations realization. In connection with this, the assessment of quality of innovative technologies is a key aspect in the selection of technological processes for their implementation. Problems concerning assessment of the quality of new technologies and processes of production are considered in the suggested method with respect to new positions. The developed method of assessing the quality of innovative technologies stands out for formed system of the qualimetric characteristics ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability of innovative technologies and processes. The feature of suggested system of assessment is that it is based on principles of matching and grouping of quality indicators of innovative technologies and the characteristics of technological processes. The indicators are assessed from the standpoint of feasibility, technologies competiveness and commercial demand of products. In this paper, we discuss the example of implementing the approach of assessing the quality of the innovative technology of high-tech products such as turbine aircraft engine.
Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J
1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age.
José Carmen Ramírez Ramírez
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to produce fish silage by lactic acid fermentation and evaluate its use in feeding of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. An oven-dried mixture of fish silage and soybean meal (1:1 w/w was used to prepare the diets with different levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30% and evaluate its effect on the performance and meat quality of 160 quails. The inclusion level did not affect the growth and feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield (70.3% and sensory quality of breast meat were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. However, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1n9C, linoleic (C18:2n6C, linolenic (C18:3n3, arachidonic (C20:4n6, cis eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3 and cis docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3 increased in quail breast meat with the inclusion of fish silage:soybean mixture in the diet (p<0.05. Fish silage and its use in quail diets could offer a good alternative for fish waste utilization as feedstuff component for the improvement of fatty acid composition in its breast meat.
Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extract and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii leaf flour in the diet in increasing quality of meat of catfish (Pangsianodon hypopthalmus. Catfish with a weight of 319.64 ± 35.99 g/nets reared in 9 nets with dimension 2x1x1,5 m3 at a density of 15 fish/nets for 60 days of maintenance. The fish were fed with leaves of cinnamon at a dose that was: 0% cinnamon leaf, 0.1% cinnamon leaf extract, and 1% cinnamon leaf flour. The fish were fed 2 times a day with the feeding rate of 3% of the average weight of the body. The results showed the treatment of leaf extract and flour, cinnamon capable of decreasing levels of body fat, fat meat by 10,31-12,27%, 37,26-50,23%, respectively, compared to controls (p<0,05, however, cinnamon leaf extract treatment is more effective in improving the quality of meat catfish that looks meat texture compact, white flesh color and a slightly sweet taste.
Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.
da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A
Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs.
Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R
Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.
The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122
M. Belen Linares
Full Text Available The use of alternative raw materials like crude glycerine in animal feed to reduce final costs could be of interest as the sector seeks to increase its competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine on back-fat thickness and the proximate composition of pork and to examine the effect on pork quality of using growing-finishing feeds with different percentages of crude glycerine added. For this purpose 60 crossbreed (Large White × Landrace barrows were subdivided into three groups according to the crude glycerine concentration administered in feed: C, control diet, no crude glycerine; and G2.5 and G5 with 2.5% and 5% added crude glycerine, respectively. This study evaluated proximate composition, pH, cooking losses, texture, colour coordinates, fatty acid profile, and sensorial analysis. No differences were found in any of the three groups studied (C, G2.5, G5 for measurements performed both before (with ultrasound equipment and after slaughter (millimetre ruler. The proximate composition and the physical-chemical parameters of longissimus dorsi were similar between groups. There were no differences detected (p>0.05 between the three groups as regards the CIELab coordinates, textural profile and sensory attributes. Therefore, 5% crude glycerine to replace corn could be used as an ingredient in pig feed without appreciably affecting the back-fat and meat quality characteristics.
Erick Escobar Dallantonia
Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG. Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals. Every 28 days, we evaluated by ultrasound the BFT between the 12nd 13rd ribs. There was no interaction between YG and aging for beef color, pH, cooking losses and shear force (p > 0.05. There was no effect of YG on sarcomere length (p = 0.11. However, there was interaction between YG and aging on water holding capacity (p < 0.01. The yield grades evaluated did not interfere with meat quality, but carcasses with 6.1 - 10 mm of backfat thickness showed highest water holding capacity. The aging of the longissimus muscle for up to 14 days improves beef tenderness.
Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Lee, Chia-Hsin; Ko, Wen-Ching
Fresh fish is typically brought to market refrigerated at approximately 4 °C, R-storage. A storage method has been devised that combines refrigeration with a high-voltage electrostatic field (100 kV/m; E-storage). It was developed to improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of foods. This study investigated changes in the freshness of tilapia meat under E-storage conditions. The total viable count of tilapia reached 10⁷ CFU/g on the 7th d of refrigeration in R-storage. By the 6th d, K-value had increased from 20% to 61.7% for E-storage and to 94.7% for R-storage. Volatile basic nitrogen had increased from 12.54 mg/100 g to about 24.34 and 25.03 mg/100 g for R- and E-storage (on the 7th and 10th d), respectively. The sensory assessment also indicated that E-storage yielded an improvement in quality over that of R-storage. Practical application of the study model has the potential to prolong the freshness of fish.
Filipe Antônio Dalla Costa
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS vs. air suspension (AS installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10. However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001 and yellower colour (higher b* value; p = 0.03, and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05, with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06. Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter.
A. P. Kone
Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry, strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients. Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.
Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group
In the past two decades, worldwide demands for meat and seafood products have increased dramatically due to the improved economical condition in many countries. To meet the demand, the producers have increased the production of meat and seafood products as well as applied new processing techniques t...
Hastings, Tricia A.
Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…
Hastings, Tricia A.
Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…
Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M
Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding
Dalla Costa, Filipe Antônio; Lopes, Letícia S.; Dalla Costa, Osmar Antônio
(higher b* value; p = 0.03), and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05), with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06). Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter. PMID:28106802
Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L
Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene
Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A
A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers.
Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M
The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (pdiet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (pgoats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale farming conditions in rural areas. Therefore, concentrate supplementation of goats of both breeds improves meat quality attributes.
Full Text Available Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS, eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L, redness in meat color (CIE a, yellowness in meat color (CIE b, filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA. A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2 was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07. The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05 SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of bio additive administration (a mixture of Lumbricus rubellus extract, Morinda citrifolia leaves extract and lactic acid bacteria, probiotic, and antibiotic to the performance and meat quality of broiler infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC. In this study, 140 Jumbo 747 unsexed one-day old chicks were distributed randomly into 20 units of cages, each filled with 7 broilers. Twenty cages were assigned into 5 treatment groups, each treatment in 4 equal replicates. The treatments were as follows: A= E. coli infection (positive control, B= E. coli infection + bio additive, C= E. coli infection + probiotic, D= E. coli infection + antibiotic, E= No E. coli infection (negative control. A commercial corn-soybean-based broiler diet was formulated as the basal diets. The experimental period was 35 d and at 21st d of age the broilers were infected with E. coli except the E treatment. The result showed that bio additive administration (B increased the final body weight (1,659.52 g and body weight gain (1,616.81 g and resulted in less FCR (1.87 among other treatments. The lowest mortality rate was recorded in B treatment (3.57% and D treatment (3.57%. Probiotic (C treatment and antibiotic (D treatment decreased (P<0.05 meat pH and tenderness compared to other treatments. Meanwhile bio additive administration did not affect the meat quality (pH, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, tenderness, and fat compared to positive and negative controls. The lowest meat cholesterol content was observed in B treatment (54.02 mg/100 g. It is concluded that bio additive administration on broiler infected with E. coli increased the broiler performance and decreased the meat cholesterol compared to other treatments.
Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.
Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.
Zhang, Y H; Dai, L S; Ma, T H; Wang, S Z; Guo, J; Li, F J; Zhang, S M; Sun, B X; Liu, D F; Gao, Y; Zhang, J B
This study was designed to investigate a single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 1 of the liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in 156 Junmu No. 1 white swine using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism. The association between the polymorphism and meat quality traits was also studied. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the polymorphism in intron 1 was due to a T→C mutation at position 1740 of L-FABP, yielding three genotypes (TT, TC, and CC). Association analysis revealed that the polymorphism had a significant effect on marbling (P 0.05). However, no significant conclusions concerning other traits could be drawn. We tentatively conclude that L-FABP is a candidate gene or a quantitative trait locus-linked gene associated with meat quality traits.
Xu, L; Zhang, L; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Ji, F; Qi, G H
This study was designed to determine the effect of electrical stunning variables (low currents and high frequencies) on meat quality, glycolytic potential, and blood parameters in broilers. A total of 54 broilers were stunned with 9 electrical stunning methods for 18 s using sinusoidal alternating currents combining 3 current levels (35 V, 47 mA; 50 V, 67 mA; and 65 V, 86 mA) with 3 frequencies (160, 400, and 1,000 Hz). Samples for meat quality were obtained from the pectoralis major (PM) and musculus iliofibularis (MI), and samples for glycogen metabolism were taken from the PM and tibialis anterior muscle at 45 min postmortem. The use of high frequency reduced the shear value in PM (400 and 1,000 Hz vs. 160 Hz; P 50 V, 67 mA).
Øverland, M; Borge, G I; Vogt, G; Schøyen, H F; Skrede, A
Bacterial meal (BPM) produced from bacteria grown on natural gas is a feed source containing approximately 70% CP and 10% lipids with predominantly C16:0 and C16:1 fatty acids. The effect of increasing dietary levels (0, 40, 80, or 120 g/kg) of BPM on fatty acid composition, the profile of volatiles by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sensory quality of frozen-stored broiler chicken thigh meat was examined. Increasing levels of BPM increased (linear, P Dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was a more sensitive method in detecting early lipid oxidation compared with TBA reactive substances and sensory quality analyses in broiler thigh meat.
Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel
This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun
The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat.
Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E
Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats.
Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young
This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632
Wang, R H; Liang, R R; Lin, H; Zhu, L X; Zhang, Y M; Mao, Y W; Dong, P C; Niu, L B; Zhang, M H; Luo, X
This study investigated the effects of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and carbohydrate metabolism. Broilers (200) were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving heat stress (HS; 36°C for one h), compared to a non-stressed control (C). At slaughter, each group was further divided into 2 groups for slaughter processing (L = laboratory; F = commercial factory). L group breasts were removed immediately after bleeding without carcass scalding or defeathering, and stored at 4°C. F group broilers were scalded (60°C, 45 s) after bleeding and defeathering. Then the breasts were removed and cooled in ice water until the core temperature was ≤4°C. Rates of Pectoralis core temperature and pH decline were changed by slaughter processing, but only HS affected ultimate pH in group L. HS muscles had higher L* values (P 0.05). Sarcoplasmic protein solubility was higher in F processed birds (P < 0.05). HS decreased the solubility of myofibrillar and total protein in the L-slaughtered birds. Thus, HS caused a higher frequency of accelerated muscle glycolysis than controls. Factory processing (chilling) could not completely eliminate the effects of accelerated glycolysis caused by pre-slaughter HS. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA regulations establish 12 hours as the maximum pre-slaughter fasting period for broilers; however, many processing plants have considered this time is not sufficient, and consequently return the birds to the farms, with consequent economic losses and welfare problems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible effects of longer pre-slaughter fasting times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting times longer than those established by MAPA on broiler welfare, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity. Forty 42-d-old broilers were submitted to different pre-slaughter fasting times: group I: 6 hours, group II 9h, group III 12h, and group IV 15h. Bird welfare was assessed before slaughter. After sacrifice, intestinal samples were collected to assess their morphology and morphometrics, and the Pectoralis major muscle was analyzed for pH and color. There was no influence (p>0.05 of treatments on breast muscle pH or color.There were no significant changes in intestinal morphometrics (p<0.05. Bird behavior was affected (p<0.05, suggesting that welfare was impaired as fasting time increased, but no differences in the analyzed parameters were detected between broilers fasted for 12 or 15 hours. It was concluded that the behavioral differences between birds fasted for 12 and 15 hours are not sufficient to assert that those fasted for 15 hours were in worse welfare conditions.
Su, R; Sun, W; Li, D; Wang, Q Z; Lv, X Y; Musa, H H; Chen, L; Zhang, Y F; Wu, W Z
The aim of the present study was to detect delta-like 1 ho-molog (DLK1) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in the longissimus dorsi of Hu sheep at different growth stages and study the association between these genes and meat quality. The diameter and density of muscle fibers and tenderness of the longissimus dorsi were measured. Growth stage, but not sex, significantly affected DLK1 and IGF-I expression. DLK1 and IGF-I expression in the sheep longissimus dorsi gradually increased with growth, but also decreased during some periods. These results suggest that different growth stages significantly affect DLK1 and IGF-I gene expression in sheep muscle tissue. The ex-pression of DLK1 and IGF-I genes were positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber diameter and muscle fiber shear stress, and negatively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber density. Muscle fiber diameter was positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber shear stress, and negatively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber density. In addition, DLK-1 expression was significantly (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I expression.
Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L
This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH). After 24h, muscles were removed and aged for 10 and 25d. TS significantly increased sarcomere length and reduced shear force and cooking loss in the m. semimembranosus. This trend was not observed in other muscles including the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. psoas major. Ageing period resulted in a marginal improvement in LL tenderness. There is clear evidence that TS improves tenderness in the hindquarter of alpacas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes.
Thirumurthi, Selvi; Ross, William A; Raju, Gottumukkala S
In order for screening colonoscopy to be an effective tool in reducing colon cancer incidence, exams must be performed in a high-quality manner. Quality metrics have been presented by gastroenterology societies and now include higher adenoma detection rate targets than in the past. In many cases, the quality of colonoscopy can often be improved with simple low-cost interventions such as improved procedure technique, implementing split-dose bowel prep, and monitoring individuals' performances. Emerging technology has expanded our field of view and image quality during colonoscopy. We will critically review several technological advances in the context of quality metrics and discuss if technology can really improve the quality of colonoscopy.
Evrim Dereli Fidan
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of regular visual contact by the stockperson wearing clothes of different colour on fear and stress reactions, some meat quality traits and performance parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to four different colour clothing groups (red, blue, green and gray, and two visual human contact groups (60 and 300 s durations were designed. From day 15, the chickens were exposed to regular visual contacts with the stockperson, who wore different colour clothings every day. Tonic immobility (TI test revealed that visual contact duration increase (300 s has a positive effect on fear in broilers. The heterophil lymphocyte (H/L ratio was the highest (0.89 in the green clothing group, but the lowest (0.45 in red clothing group (P<0.001. From meat quality traits in breast muscle (P<0.01 it was determined that clothing colour has statistically significant effects on lightness value. Final body weights were higher in blue coloured clothing group (2593.82 g than the green one (2348.42. The results demonstrate that regular visual human contact has no effect on parameters such as H/L ratio, some blood parameters, meat quality, TI duration and performance traits, while colour of clothes has a significant effect on H/L ratio, lightness colour value, and body weight in broiler chickens.
Zhao, Z D; Li, A N; Wei, S J; Wang, M M; Li, S J; Zan, L S
Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid influx, is involved in the genetic network for oleic acid synthesis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of FATP1 polymorphisms with live animal meat quality traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that FATP1 has a broad tissue distribution in Qinchuan cattle and is highly expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat. Using direct DNA sequencing of the FATP1 gene in 458 Qinchuan cattle, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.28265 G>C, g.28381 G>A, g.28470 T>C, and g.28672 G>A) were identified for genotyping within a 671-bp region, including exon 3, intron 3, exon 4, intron 4, and part of exon 5 of the FATP1 gene. Positive effects of genotypes CC (g.28470 T>C locus) and AA (g.28672 G>A locus) on meat quality traits were obtained by association analysis. These results indicate the associations of g.28470 T>C and g.28672 G>A with meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. Thus, the FATP1 gene may be used in marker-assisted selection of beef cattle in breeding programs.
Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.
Shibata, Masatoshi; Otake, Masayoshi; Tsuchiya, Seiko; Chikyu, Mikio; Horiuchi, Atsushi; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo
Somatic cell cloning is expected to be a valuable method for conserving genetic resources in pigs. In this study, we compared the reproductive and growth performance of Jin Hua cloned pigs with that of naturally bred Jin Hua pigs. In addition, we generated offspring from the cloned sows and examined the productivity and quality of meat in the progeny. The birth weights and growth rates of somatic cell-cloned pigs were similar to those of Jin Hua pigs. The cloned pigs reached puberty very early, and this is typical of the Jin Hua breed. Furthermore, reproductive performance, in terms of traits such as gestation period, litter size, and raising rate in the cloned pigs were similar to Jin Hua pigs. Although the offspring of the cloned (OC) pigs had lower birth weights than the Jin Hua breed, the daily weight gain of the OC pigs was significantly higher, especially at the finishing stage. The carcass quality of the OC pigs had similar characteristics to the Jin Hua breed, namely thick back fat and a small loin area. Furthermore, the meat qualities of the OC pigs were similar to those of Jin Hua pigs in terms of intramuscular fat content and tenderness. These results demonstrate that cloned pigs and their offspring were similar to the Jin Hua breed in most of the growth, reproductive, and meat productive performances. This strongly suggests that pigs cloned from somatic cell nuclei have the potential to be a valuable genetic resource for breeding.
Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G
The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.
Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M
The effect of ash concentration on amino acid (AA) composition, true AA digestibility, and protein efficiency ratio (PER; weight gain per unit of protein intake) of meat and bone meal (MBM) was evaluated. Commercially rendered MBM samples containing 16 to 44% ash were obtained from two sources. Additional samples of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 63% were obtained by chloroform floatation or lab screening of a beef crax sample. Protein quality of selected MBM samples was assessed by determining true AA digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and by a PER chick growth assay wherein chicks were fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the only source of dietary protein from 8 to 18 d of age. Increases in Ala, Pro, Gly, and Arg as a percentage of CP were observed in all MBM samples as ash percentage increased, with Pro and Gly accounting for most of the increase. In contrast, the levels (% of CP) of all essential AA, other than Arg, decreased as ash level increased. For example, Lys concentrations per unit of CP decreased from 5.7 to 4.0% as ash increased from 9 to 63%. There was little or no effect of ash content on AA digestibility of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 44%. The PER of MBM markedly decreased from 3.34 to 0.72 as ash increased from 16 to 44%, and most of the effects of ash on PER were not due to differences in dietary Ca and P levels. The results indicate that the reduction in protein quality of MBM as ash content increases is almost entirely due to a decrease in analyzed essential AA per unit of CP, not a decrease in digestibility of AA.
Horbańczuk Olaf K.
Full Text Available Over the last years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed in the world. Ratite meat is recognised as a dietetic product because of low level of fat, high share of PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and higher amounts of iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. The abundance of bioactive compounds, e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation processes. Moreover, pH over 6 creates favourable environment for fast microbial growth during storage conditions affecting its shelf life. However, availability of information on ratite meat shelf life among consumers and industry is still limited. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide current information about the effect of ratite meat packaging type, i.e. air packaging, vacuum packaging with skin pack, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, on its shelf life quality during storage, including technological and nutritional properties.
Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G
Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are
Massingue, Armando Abel; Torres Filho, Robledo de Almeida; Fontes, Paulo Rogerio; Ramos, Alcinéia de Souza; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Olalquiaga Perez, Juan Ramon; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes
This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0, 30% and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (P < 0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (P < 0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C* and lower h°) and darker (lower L*) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (P < 0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.
In red meats, consumers relate a bright- red colour to freshness, but discriminate .... bulls. This difference is attributed to the rate of proteolysis post- mortem in favour of ... affected by feeding strategy and ..... marketing based on commercial.
Pérez, M L; Escalona, H; Guerrero, I
Differences in the quality of meat obtained from four animal species (beef, horse, rabbit and chicken) treated with two concentrations of calcium chloride (75 or 150 mM) were evaluated by a sensory panel. Physicochemical variables analysed were water holding capacity, instrumental colour and pH. Sensory analysis was by recognition index (R-index) by untrained and trained panels. CaCl(2) led to an increase in enzymatic activity, although it was not significantly different in treated compared to untreated samples. Lightness was higher (paler) in treated meat for all species studied. R-index showed that treatment of raw beef with 75mM CaCl(2) had negligible effect on odour compared to fresh, untreated beef. More juicy meat resulted from marination. Treatments with 150 mM CaCl(2) caused a more tender meat. The best combinations of cooking method and CaCl(2) concentration to obtain the most acceptable meat varied from attribute to attribute. The best odour was obtained when beef was treated with 150 mM CaCl(2) and cooked in a convection oven, whereas juiciness was improved if beef was treated with 150 mM CaCl(2) and cooked in a microwave oven. The highest scores for tenderness were for 75 mM CaCl(2)-treated samples regardless of cooking method. Flavour profile showed that the most marked feature in marinated beef is the predominance of a bitter flavour and after taste, which probably masks other flavour attributes. It is concluded that, in accordance with other authors, marination has no adverse effects on beef odour and improves texture, producing more tender material. However, marination at the CaCl(2) levels tested caused a bitter after taste and flavour.
Onenç, A; Kaya, A
The effects of electrical and percussive captive bolt stunning both on initial and up to 14 days post mortem meat quality of Friesian young bulls were studied. The first group (NS; n=10) were slaughtered without stunning under Turkish slaughter procedure (these animals were slaughtered under conditions acceptable to the appropriate ethics committee) in a modern abattoir. In the second group (ES; n=10) animals were electrically stunned. In the third group (PS; n=10) animals were stunned with percussive captive bolt. Meat quality was assessed by examining muscle glycogen concentration, pH and WHC. Also cooking loss, texture parameters and consumer sensory properties were assessed at 24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days post mortem. Meat colour as L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗), h(∗) values were evaluated at 0, 48 h, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 days post mortem. Pre-slaughter handling affected muscle glycogen concentration (P<0.05). Animals in electrical and percussive captive bolt stunned groups had higher muscle glycogen concentrations compared to animals in the non-stunned group (P<0.05). Although pre-slaughter handling did not affect significantly pH(24 h) and WHC, differences were significant for cooking loss, colour coordinates and texture parameters at some storage times. For all sensory attributes (odour, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability) at all ageing periods (24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days) the percussive stunned (PS) group was significantly superior to the non-stunned (NS) group. The electrically-stunned (ES) group also tended to be superior to the NS group although not all differences were statistically significant. These results indicate that percussive captive bolt stunning of cattle improved meat quality compared with cattle electrically stunned using head only tongs and those non stunned under approved Turkish slaughter procedure.
Kinga NAGYNÉ PÉRCSI
Full Text Available The Hungarian company structure in the meat industry is very different from the structures in the major meat industrial EU countries. While in the latter ones the concentration and specialization have strengthened, in Hungary these processes did not happen or in just a limited way. Therefore the Hungarian companies face handicaps concerning economies of scale and specialization compared to the EU companies.
Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S
In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat